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Syllabus

Module 1
Evolution of CAD/CAM and CIM segments of generic CIM, computers and workstation, elements
of interactive graphics, input/ out put display, storage devices in CAD - an overview of CIM
software - 2D Graphics: line drawing algorithms, DDA line algorithm circle drawing,
bressnham`s circle drawing algorithm 2D translation, rotation, scaling clipping -3D
Graphics (basic only).
Design process CAD process: wireframe, surface, solid modeling; Engineering analysis; design
review & evaluation, automated drafting CAD hard ware, software, data presentation,
CAD software packages

Syllabus
Module 2
Numerical control: Need - advantages & disadvantages classifications Point to point, straight
cut & contouring positioning - incremental & absolute systems open loop & closed loop
systems DDA integrator & Interpolators resolution CNC & DNC.
Programmable logic controllers (PLC): need relays- logic ladder program timers - Simple
exercises only.
Devices in N.C. systems: Driving devices - feed back devices: encoders, moire fringes, digitizer,
resolver, inductosyn, tachometer.
Module 3
NC part programming: part programming fundamentals - manual programming NC coordinate systems and axes tape format sequence number, preparatory functions,
dimension words, speed word, feed world, tool world, miscellaneous functions programming
exercises.
Computer aided part programming: concept & need of CAP CNC languages APT language
structure: geometry commands, motion commands, postprocessor commands, compilation
control commands programming exercises programming with interactive graphics.

Syllabus
Module 4
Automated process planning: Process planning, general methodology of group technology, code
structures of variant & generative process planning methods, AI in process planning, process
planning software.
Module 5
Robotics: Industrial robots and their applications for transformational and handling activities,
configuration & motion, actuators, sensors and end effectors, feature like work envelop,
precision of movement, weight carrying capacity, robot programming languages.
Vision systems: introduction to intelligent robots.

Reference Books
Craig John

Introduction to Robotics

Groover M.P.

CAD/CAM, PHI.

Hearn & Baker

Computer graphics (in C version), Prentice Hall.

New man & Sproull

Principles of interactive Graphics, McGraw Hill.

Petruzella Frank.D.

Programmable logic controllers.

Yoram Koren

Numerical control of machine tools, McGraw-Hill

Credits


3-1-0 hours (per week)






3 hours lecture
1 hour tutorial
0 hours practical

Marks


Series

Out of 50

University

Out of 100

Series Marks distribution





60% - Series test


30% - Assignments





Class tests (at the end of each module)


Pop quiz (written)
Written assignments
Presentations

10% - Attendance


Inclusive of written assignments

Examination schedules (tentative)




I Series

II Series

Feb 27th - 29th

Mar 28th - 30th

University Exam

May - June

Module 1


Evolution of CAD/CAM and CIM segments of generic CIM

Computers and Workstation

Elements of interactive graphics in CAD




Input/ out put

Display

Storage devices

An overview of CIM software

2D Graphics


Line drawing algorithms

Circle drawing

DDA line algorithm


Bressnham`s circle drawing algorithm

2D translation

rotation, scaling

Clipping

3D Graphics (basics only)

Module 1


Design process


CAD process

Wireframe

Surface

Solid modeling

Engineering analysis

Design review & evaluation

Automated drafting

CAD hard ware, software, data presentation




CAD software packages

Reference:
1. Groover M.P.

CAD/CAM, PHI.

2. Groover M.P. / Zimmers E.W

CAD/CAM, PHI.

What is CAD/CAM?


Use of computers to enhance certain functions of design


and production
CAD Computer Aided Design / Computer Aided
Drafting
 Use of computer systems to assist in the creation,
modification, analysis, or optimization of a design
CAM Computer Aided Manufacturing
 Use of computer systems to plan, manage, and control
the operations of a manufacturing plant
 Interface with the plant's production resources
 Direct

or Indirect

Why CAD/CAM?

Why CAD/CAM?

Why CAD/CAM?

Why CAD/CAM?

Why CAD/CAM?

Why CAD/CAM?

Why CAD/CAM?
Product
Concept

Customers /
Market

Quality Control

Design
Engineering

Drafting

Order new
equipment / tooling

Process
Planning

Production

Production
scheduling

TYPICAL PRODUCT
CYCLE

Computer
Aided Design

Product
Concept

Customers
/ Market

Quality Control
Computer
Aided Quality
Control

Design
Engineering

Computer
Aided Drafting

Drafting

Order new
equipment / tooling

Process
Planning

Production

Production
scheduling

CNC, Robots,
Machines

Computer
Aided Process
Planning

Computerized
scheduling, Material
Requirement, Shop floor
control

List of Computer Aided Manufacturing


Activities
Computer-aided design (CAD)

Enterprise resource planning (ERP)

Computer-aided design and drafting (CADD)

Finite element analysis (FEA)

Computer-aided process planning (CAPP)

Manufacturing process management (MPM)

Computer-aided quality assurance (CAQ)

Manufacturing process planning (MPP)

Computer-aided reporting (CAR)

Material requirements planning (MRP)

Computer-aided requirements capture (CAR)

Manufacturing resource planning (MRP II)

Computer-aided rule definition (CARD)

Product data management (PDM)

Computer-aided rule execution (CARE)

Product lifecycle management (PLM)

Component information system (CIS)

Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)

Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)

Computer-aided industrial design (CAID)

Computer numerical controlled (CNC)

Computer-aided engineering (CAE)

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

Your role in CAD/CAM industry












Drafting
Tool design
Part design
Solid modelling
Surface modelling
Meshing
Analysis
Simulation
Mathematical Modelling (Research)

CAD/CAM Related Career Paths










Engineering
Animation
CAD/CAM software
development
CAD/CAM hardware
development
CAD/CAM software
maintenance and
troubleshooting
CAD/CAM consulting services
CAD/CAM instruction services
CAD/CAM marketing and sales











Simulation technology
Robotics
Digital art and advertising
Internet development and
consulting
Cutting tool designer
Rehabilitation technology
Medical imaging systems
Digital gaming and
amusement systems

Basic eligibility required





Read and write well


Basic knowledge of
 College

level algebra
 Trigonometry
 Manual drafting practices
 Windows OS
 2D & 3D CAD
 Manual shop practices
 Production processes
 Manual programming of CNC machines (recommended)
 CNC programming (recommended)

Product Cycle & CAD/CAM


Product
Concept

Customers /
Market

Quality Control

Design
Engineering

Drafting

Order new
equipment / tooling

Process
Planning

Production

Production
scheduling

TYPICAL PRODUCT
CYCLE

Computer
Aided Design

Product
Concept

Customers
/ Market

Quality Control
Computer
Aided Quality
Control

Design
Engineering

Computer
Aided Drafting

Drafting

Order new
equipment / tooling

Process
Planning

Production

Production
scheduling

CNC, Robots,
Machines

Computer
Aided Process
Planning

Computerized
scheduling, Material
Requirement, Shop floor
control

Automation & CAD/CAM




4 main categories of production systems


 Continuous

flow processes
 Mass production of discrete products
 Batch production
 Job shop production

Continuous Flow processes


 Continuous

Dedicated
production of one bulk
product
 Limited model
variations
 E.g.
Chemical plants
 Oil refineries
 Steel


Mass production of discrete products




Dedicated production
of large quantities of
one product
E.g.
 Engine

blocks
 Bearings

Batch Production


Medium Lot sizes of


same component
 One

time activity
 Periodic batch
production


E.g.
 Books
 Clothing
 Industrial

Machinery

Job Shop production






Low quantities
One of a kind
Specialized & Unique
product
Customized to
customer requirements
E.g.
 Prototypes
 Aircrafts
 Machine

Tools

Quantity v/s Variety

Automation Achievements for 4


types of production
Category
1. Continuous-flow
processes

Automation achievements
Flow process from beginning to end
Sensor technology available to measure important
process variables
Use of sophisticated control and optimization strategies
Fully computer-automated plants

Automation Achievements for 4


types of production
Category
2. Mass production
of discrete products

Automation achievements
Automated transfer machines
Dial indexing machines
Partially and fully automated assembly lines
Industrial robots for spot welding, parts handling,
machine loading, spray painting, etc.
Automated materials handling systems
Computer production monitoring

Automation Achievements for 4


types of production
Category
3. Batch production

Automation achievements
Numerical control (NC), direct numerical control (DNC),
computer numerical control (CNC)
Adaptive control machining
Robots for arc welding, parts handling, etc.
Computer-integrated manufacturing systems

4. Job shop production Numerical control, computer numerical control

What is CAD?


Use of computers to enhance certain functions of


design
CAD Computer Aided Design / Computer Aided
Drafting
 Use of computer systems to assist in the creation,
modification, analysis, or optimization of a
design
 Extended use of ICG

ICG


Modern Computers are


based on ICG
Interactive Computer
Graphics
ICG is
A

User oriented system


 Makes use of a
computer to
Create
 Transform
 Display Data Pictorially


Functioning of an ICG system

USER
COMMANDS

COMPUTER

CRT SCREEN

INPUTS

Typical ICG system


WORKSTATION

PLOTTER

CPU
DESIGNER

PRINTER

Synergistic effect of ICG




Designer
 Conceptualisation
 Speed

of Thinking

Computer
 Speed

of calculation
 Visual Display
 Storage of large data


Result:
 Greater

than the sum


of components

Reasons for implementing a CAD system







Increase productivity
of the designer
Improve the quality of
the design
Improve communication
Create a database for
manufacturing

Design Process
Recognition of
need
Definition of
problem
Synthesis
Analysis &
Optimisation
Evaluation
Presentation

As defined by
Shigley

1. Recognition of a need


Realisation that a
problem exists
Corrective action
needs to be taken
New product market
opportunity

2. Definition of the problem




Thorough specification
of item to be designed
 Physical

Characteristics
 Functional
Characteristics
 Cost
 Quality
 Operating
Performance

3. Synthesis & Analysis







Conceptualisation
Analysis
Improvement
Redesign
Process is repeated till optimized
within the constraints

4. Evaluation


Measuring the design


against the
specifications

5. Presentation


Documentation of
design
 Drawings
 Material

Specifications
 Assembly lists
 Etc.

Design Process

Computer
Aided Design

Recognition of
need
Definition of
problem
Synthesis

Geometric
Modelling

Analysis &
Optimisation

Engineering
Analysis

Evaluation

Design Review
& Evaluation

Presentation

Automated
Drafting

Application of Computers for Design




Geometric Modelling
 ICG

Engineering Analysis
 FEA
 CFD

Mathematical Modelling
 Simulation



Design Review & Evaluation


Automated Drafting

1. Geometric Modelling


Generating a computer compatible mathematical


description of the geometry of an object
Use of ICG
 Interactive

Computer Graphics

Three types of commands


 Points,

lines, circles
 Scaling, rotation, transformation
 Synthesis of above two


During geometric modelling computer converts


commands into a mathematical model

1. Geometric Modelling
Generating a computer compatible mathematical
description of the geometry of an object

Centre = (5,5)
Radius = 20

X2 + Y2 = R2

1. Geometric Modelling


Three types of
commands
lines, circles
 Scaling, rotation,
transformation
 Synthesis of above two

USER

 Points,

COMMANDS

COMPUTER

CRT SCREEN

INPUTS

a. Points, Lines, Circles

b. Scaling

c. Translation

d. Rotation

Types of representing an object




Wireframe
 2D
 2.5

 3D


Solid Model

2. Engineering Analysis


Analysis of Mass
 Solid

Object

Surface area
 Weight
 Volume
 Center of gravity
 Moment of inertia


 Plane

Surface (or a
cross section)
Perimeter
 Area
 Inertia properties


2. Engineering Analysis


FEM
 Stress-Strain

Calculations
 Heat Transfer
Calculations

2. Engineering Analysis


Computational Fluid
Dynamics

3. Design Review & Evaluation







Semiautomatic GD & T
Layering
Interference Checking
Graphical Kinematics

3. Design Review & Evaluation




Semiautomatic GD & T

3. Design Review & Evaluation




Layering

3. Design Review & Evaluation




Interference Checking

3. Design Review & Evaluation




Graphical Kinematics

4. Automated Drafting


Creation of hard copy


engineering drawings

5. Parts classification and coding




Grouping of similar part designs into classes by


means of a coding scheme

Creation of Manufacturing Database


Draftsmen

Process
Engineers

Design

Process Route

Process
Engineers

Process
Planning

Integrated CAD/CAM system




Direct link between product design and


manufacturing

Potential Benefits of CAD







Shorter Lead Times


Design Analysis
Fewer Design Errors
Greater accuracy in design
calculations
Standardisation of design,
drafting and documenting
procedures
Drawings more
understandable
Improved procedures for
engineering changes

Potential Benefits of CAD





Assignment to be submitted on Wed, 8th February


4 pages / 2 sheets

Hardware in CAD


A Stand-alone CAD
system


One or More
Workstations

Workstation
 Graphics

Terminal
 Operator Input Devices
 Plotters
 Other output devices
 CPU
 Secondary Storage

Typical Hardware Configuration in CAD


Secondary
Storage

CPU
Output plotters,
etc.

Graphics
Terminal

Input
Devices

Design Workstation


Five Functions
with CPU
 Generate Steady graphic
image for the user
 Provide digital
descriptions of the graphic
image
 Translate computer
commands to operating
functions
 Facilitate communication
between user and system

 Interface

All these five functions


are achieved using
 ICG


Interactive Computer
Graphics

ICG Workstation
A

graphics terminal
 Operator Input Device

ICG Workstation


ICG Workstation
A

graphics terminal
 Operator Input Device

Graphics Terminal






CRTs
Flatscreens
LCDs
LEDs
Touch screen
 Resistive
 Capacitive

Image Generation (CRT)




Electrons energise a
phosphor coated glass
screen
Electron beam can be
 Focussed
 Change

intensity
 Control point of
contact


Deflectors

Image Generation Techniques




Stroke writing
 Also

known as

Line drawing
 Random position
 Vector writing
 Directed beam


Raster scanning
 Also

known as

Digital TV
 Scan Graphics


Raster Scan


Viewing screen divided into


pixels
Matrix of pixels is called a
raster
 800x600
 1024x768

Each pixel can be made glow


with a different
 Brightness

& Color

Refresh Rate
 30-60

Hz

Graphics terminals for CAD




Different types of
screen based on
 Type

of phophor
coating
 Pixel Density
 B/W or Color
 Memory available for
image generation

Three types are


 Direct

Beam Refresh
 Direct-View Storage
Tube (DVST)
 Raster Scan (digital
TV)

1. Direct Beam Refresh




Uses Stroke-writing
technique
Phosphor screen can
maintain brightness
only for microseconds
Screen must be
refreshed many times
per second

Difficult to avoid
flicker on dense
screens
Selective erasure and
alteration of image
readily accomplished
Possible to provide
animation using refresh
tube

2. DVST (Direct View Storage Tube)





Also uses stroke-writing


Screen is able to retain the
image
 Uses





electron flood gun

Lowest-cost terminals
Lack of color-capability
Cannot use light-pen as
data entry
Animation not possible




Avoid the need to refresh


Resulting image is flickerfree
Lines may be readily
added without worrying
about refresh rate or
image density
Individual lines cannot be
selectively removed

3. Raster-scan terminals


Uses digital signals


instead of analog like
TV

Limited by cost of
memory
Memory depends on
 Intensity

and resolution

4 levels 2 bits
 8 levlels 3 bits
 Grayscale 6 bits
 Color 18 bits (RGB)


Comparison of Graphics Terminals


Directed-beam

DVST

Raster scan

refresh
Image generation

Stroke writing

Stroke writing

Raster scan

Picture quality

Excellent

Excellent

Moderate to good

Data content

Limited

High

High

Selective erase

Yes

No

Yes

Gray scale

Yes

No

Yes

Color capability

Moderate

No

Yes

No

Moderate

Animation capability Yes

Operator Input Devices

Cursor control devices


Digitizers
Alphanumeric & other keyboard terminals

Uses




 Creating

& positioning new items on screen


 Pointing at or identifying locations on the screen with
existing images
 Ideal graphic device should have both these functions

1. Cursor control devices










Thumbwheels
Direction keys on
keyboard
Joysticks
Tracker ball
Light pen
Electronic tablet

2. Digitizers

3. Keyboard terminals

Plotters & Output Devices







Pen plotters
Hard-copy units
Electrostatic plotters
Computer-output-microfilm (COM) units

1. Pen Plotters


Uses mechanical ink


pen
 Wet

ink
 Ball-point


Relative movement
between pen and
paper
Two types
 Drum

plotter
 Flat-bed plotters

a. Drum Plotters

b. Flat-bed printers

2. Hard Copy Units








Dry silver copiers


Replicates content of
CRT screen
Fast
Accuracy and quality
not as good as pen
plotter

3. Electro-static plotters


Consists of a series of
wire-styli mounted on
a bar
Uses charge sensitive
paper
Styli density
 200

per liner inch

Data must be in raster


format

4. Computer-output-to microfilm

Computer Graphics Software




Collection of programs
written
 Convenient

for a user
to operate the
computer graphics
system

Programs can
 Generate

images
 Manipulate images
 Interaction between
user and system

Computer Graphics Software




Specialized Functions
 Design

Analysis
programs
FEA
 CFD
Kinematic Analysis


 Manufacturing

Planning
Automated Process
Planning
 Numerical Control part
programming


Ground rules for designing graphics


software


By Newman & Spoull


 Simplicity


Easy to use

 Consistency


Operate predictably to user

 Completeness


No missing commands

 Robustness


Tolerant to minor misuses by operator

 Performance


Efficient. Within limits of hardware.

 Economy

Software configuration of a graphics


system


Activities
 Interact


with graphics terminal

Create / Alter images on screen

 Construct

a model

Using images on the screen


 Models are also called application models


 Save

the model in memory

Primary (RAM)
 Secondary (HDD / DVD / Flash Memory)


User performs above actions


 In

combination rather than sequentially

Modules of a graphic software




Module


A standardized, often
interchangeable component
of a system that is designed
for easy assembly or
flexible use

3 modules
 Graphics

Package
 Application Program
 Application Database

Functions of a Graphics Package








Generation of graphic elements


Transformations
Display control & Windowing functions
Segmenting functions
User input function

1. Generation of graphic elements




Graphic element
 Dot
 Line
 Circle,

etc.
 Also known as primitives


Special hardware components for some basic


elements
 Speeds

up generation of these elements

Primitive
 Sphere,

Cube or Cylinder
 Used to generate more complex models

2. Transformations


Applied to graphic elements to


 Modify

image on screen
 Reposition item in database


Transformations
 Scaling


Reduction / Enlargement

 Translation


Repositioning

 Rotation

3. Display Control & Windowing


functions


Provides user ability to


 View

image

From desired Angle


 At desired Magnification


 Hidden


Image is divided into





Line Removal

Visible lines
Invisible / Hidden lines

Hidden line removal process





Manual
Automatic

4. Segmenting Functions


Provide capability to
 Selectively

Replace
 Delete
 Modify


 portions


of the image

Segment
 Particular

portion of

image
 May be
Single Element
 Local Group of elements


5. User Input functions




Permit operator to
 Enter

Commands
 Data


 using


input devices

Input functions are written


specifically for the
particular compliment of
the input device
Should maximise benefit
of using ICG

Constructing the geometry






Use of Graphic elements


Defining graphic elements
Editing the geometry

1. Use of Graphic elements









Points
Polygons
Arcs & Circle
Conics
Curves
Surfaces

2. Defining the Graphic Elements




3. Editing the geometry




Editing capabilities
 Corrections

to model
 Adjustments to model


User must be able to


 Delete
 Move

Selecting a segment
of the model

 Copy
 Rotate
 Scale


Selective editing by
 Segmenting

function & Transformations

Common editing features of a CAD


system










Move / Translate
Duplicate / Copy (similar to Move function)
Rotate
Mirror
Delete
Remove from display / Hide
Trim
Create a cell / group
Scale

Mathematics of Transformations


2D Translation


Problem 2D Translation


Problem 2D Translation


2D Scaling


Problem 2D Scaling


Problem 2D Scaling


2D Rotation


Problem 2D Rotation


Problem 2D Rotation


Problem 2D Rotation

3D Translation


3D Scaling


3D Rotation


Concatenation


Multiple transformations can be combined as a


sequence of transformations
 Known

as concatenated transformations

E.g.
 Rotation

of element
 Magnifying the element

Types of representing an object




Wireframe
 2D
 2.5

 3D


Solid Model

Wireframe v/s Solid Modelling




Wireframe
 Adequate

for 2D

models
 Limitations
Edge defining lines are
visible in the image
 Invisible lines need to
be hidden
 Ambiguity as to which
surface is solid


Wireframe v/s Solid Modelling




Solid Modelling
 Models

are displayed
as solid objects
 Very little risk of
misinterpretation
 Realistic due to use of
Color
 Shading


 Limitations


Higher system
configurations required

Solid Modelling techniques




Constructive Solid
Geometry
or C-Rep
 Building block
approach

 CSG

Allows user to build


model out of
 primitives

Cubes
 Spheres
 Cylinders
 Pyramids


Boundary
representation
 B-rep

Requires user to draw


the outline of the
object
 Front,

side, top views


and interconnecting
relationships
 Transformations need
to be applied to refine
the model to shape

CSG / C-Rep / Building Block


Approach

Boundary representation


Consists of
 Topological

Shells
 Faces
 Edges
 Vertices


 Geometry

Surfaces
 Curves
 Points


features

Comparison


C-Rep / CSG
 Initial


formulation

Procedural advantage

 Difficult

to create complex

shapes
 Less storage space
required
 More computational effort
required
 Difficult to convert
between C-Rep &
Wireframe definition

B-Rep
 Initial

formulation requires
more detail
 Easier to create complex
shapes
 More storage space
required
 Less computational effort
required
 Boundary definition similar
to wire-frame definition

Vector Generation



Process of turning on pixels


Two VG Algorithm
 DDA

(Digital Differential Analysers) Algorithm


 Bresenhams Algorithm

DDA Algorithm



Based on dy, dx
Floating point arithmetic
 Hence

slower

More accurate

DDA Algorithm


DDA Algorithm


y = m x
 yk+1-

yk = mx
 If x = 1
 yk+1 = yk + m


x = y/m
 xk+1-

xk = y/m
 If y = 1
 xk+1 = xk + (1/m)

DDA Algorithm


Bresenhams Line Drawing Algorithm

Bresenhams Line Drawing Algorithm


1. Input the two line end-points and store the left end
point in (x0, y0)
2. Load (x0, y0) into the frame buffer, i.e plot the first
point
3. Calculate contants
 x,

y, 2y & 2y- 2x
 Obtain starting value for decision parameter p


p0 = 2y- x

Bresenhams Line Drawing Algorithm


4. At each xk along the line, starting at k = 0, perform
the following test
 If

pk < 0

Next point to plot is (xk+1, yk) &


 pk+1 = pk + 2y


 Else

Next point to plot is (xk+1, yk+1)


 pk+1 = pk + 2y - 2x


5. Repeat above step x times.

Bresenhams Line Drawing Algorithm




Example
 Digitize

the line with endpoints (20,10) & (30,18) with


slope 0.8

Bresenhams Line Drawing Algorithm




Digitize the line with endpoints (20,10) & (30,18)


with slope 0.8
 x

= 10

 Decision


y = 8

2y - 2x = -4

parameter

p0 = 2 y - x = 2*10 8 = 6

 Increments

for calculating successive decision


parameters are


2y = 16

2y - 2x = -4

Bresenhams Line Drawing Algorithm


 We

plot the initial point (x0, y0) = (20, 10) and


determine successive pixel positions along the line path
from the decision parameters

 Since


Next point is


p0 = 6 > 0
(xk+1, yk+1) = (21, 11)

Next decision parameter is




p1 = p0 + 2y - 2x = 6 4 = 2

Bresenhams Line Drawing Algorithm




po = 2 y - x = 2*8 10 = 6
 po

(xk+1, yk+1) = (22, 12)

< 0 hence next point is

(xk+1, yk)

= (23, 12)

p3 = p2 + 2 y = 2 + 16 = 14
 p3

> 0 hence next point is

p2 = p1 + 2 y - 2 x = 2 4 = 2
 p2

(xk+1, yk+1) = (21, 11)

p1 = p0 + 2 y - 2 x = 6 4 = 2
 p1

> 0 hence next point is

> 0 hence next point is

(xk+1, yk+1) = (24, 13)

p4 = p3 + 2 y - 2 x = 14 4 = 10
 p4

> 0 hence next point is

(xk+1, yk+1) = (25, 14)

Bresenhams Line Drawing Algorithm


k

pk

(xk+1, yk+1)

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

6
2
-2
14
10
6
2
-2
14
10

(21, 11)
(22, 12)
(23, 12)
(24, 13)
(25, 14)
(26, 15)
(27, 16)
(28, 16)
(29, 17)
(30, 18)

Bresenhams Line Drawing Algorithm

Bresenhams Circle Drawing Algorithm




fcircle(x,y) = x2 + y2 r2
< 0 then (x,y) inside the circle boundary
If fcircle(x,y)
= 0 then (x,y) on the circle boundary
> 0 then (x,y) outside the circle boundary
The above circle function tests are performed for the
mid-positions between pixels close to the circle path at
each sampling step

Bresenhams Circle Drawing Algorithm

Bresenhams Circle Drawing Algorithm










Decision parameter
pk = fcircle(xk+1, yk )
= (xk+1)2+(yk-)2 r2
po = f(1, r-)
= 1 + (r-)2 r2
= (5/4) r
If r is an integer then
 po

=1r

Bresenhams Circle Drawing Algorithm


1. Input radius r and
3. At each xk position starting
circle center (xc, yc) and at k = 0 perform the
obtain the first point on following test
the circumference of a
 If pk < 0
circle centered on the
 Next point on along the circle
is (xk+1, yk)
origin as
 (xo,

yo)=(0, r)

2. Initial decision
parameter
 po

= (5/4) - r

 If

pk+1= pk + 2xk+1 +1

pk > 0

Otherwise the next point along


the circle is (xk+1, yk-1)
 pk+1= pk + 2xk+1 +1-2yk+1


Bresenhams Circle Drawing Algorithm


 Where

&

2xk+1=2(xk+1)
2yk+1 = 2(yk 1)

4. Determine symmetry
points about the other 7
octants
5. Move each calculated
pixel position (x, y) onto
the circular path
centered on (xc, yc)
x = x + xc
y = y + yc

Bresenhams Circle Drawing Algorithm

Bresenhams Circle Drawing Algorithm




Problem
r

= 10
 (xc,yc) = (0,0)


Start with point (0, r)


for the first octant of
the circle

Bresenhams Circle Drawing Algorithm





p0 = 1 r = 1 10 = 9
Since, po<0
 Next


&

i.e. (x1,y0) = (1, 10)

next decision variable p1 is

 P1

point is (xk+1,yk)

= p0 + 2xk+1 + 1 = -9+2*(0+1) + 1 = -6

Since p1 < 0
 Next


&


point is (xk+1,yk)

(x2,y0) = (2, 10)

next decision variable p2 is


p2 = p1 + 2xk+1 + 1 = -6+2*(1+1) + 1 = -1

Bresenhams Circle Drawing Algorithm




Since, p2<0
 Next


&


point is (xk+1,yk)

i.e. (x3,y0) = (3, 10)

next decision variable p3 is


p3 = p2 + 2xk+1 + 1 = -1+2*(2+1) + 1 = 6

Since p3 > 0
 Next


&

point is (xk+1,yk+1)

(x4,y1) = (4, 9)

next decision variable p4 is

p4 = p3 + 2xk+1 + 1 2yk+1

= 6+2*(3+1) + 1 2*(10 1) = 3


Bresenhams Circle Drawing Algorithm

pk

(xk+1, yk+1)

2xk+1

2yk+1

-9

(1, 10)

20

-6

(2, 10)

20

-1

(3, 10)

20

(4, 9)

18

-3

(5, 9)

10

18

(6, 8)

12

16

(7, 7)

14

14

Bresenhams Circle Drawing Algorithm

CIM Systems


Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems
Also known as
 FMS


Flexible Manufacturing
Systems

 VMM


Variable Mission
Manufacturing Systems

 Computerized

Manufacturing System

All these refer to a


production system
 which

consists of

a group of NC
machines
 connected together by
an automated material
handling system


 and


operating under

computer control

CIMS


Incorporates many individual CAD/CAM


technologies & concepts
 CNC
 DNC
 Computer

Process Control
 Computer Integrated Production Management
 Automated inspection methods
 Industrial Robotics

General Guidelines for CIMS

Application Guidelines for CIMS

Special Manufacturing System





Least flexible
Limited number of
different parts (2 8)
Similar to high
production transfer line
Variety of processes is
limited
Specialised machine
tools

Manufacturing Cell




Most flexible
Lowest production
Different parts may be
40 800
Annual production 15
500

FMS

FMS




4 100 different parts


40 2000 parts per year
Human labour required to operate

CIMS





Machine tools & related equipment


Materials handling systems
Computer System
Human Labor

1. Machine Tools & Related


Equipment





Standard CNC machine tools


Special Purpose machine tools
Tooling for these machines
Inspection stations
 Inspection

probes used with machine tools

Selection of machines for CIMS










Part size
Part shape
 Round
- > Turning / Boring
 Cubical
- > Milling / Drilling
 Flat
- > Grinding
Part Variety
Product Life cycle
Definition of future parts
Operations other than machining
 Assembly
 Inspection

2. Material Handling System




Functions
 Move


workparts between machines

Primary Work Handling systems

 Orient

and locate workparts for processing at


machines


Secondary Work Handling systems

Primary Work Handling Systems





Used to move parts between machine tools in CIMS


Requirements
 Compatible

with Computer Control


 Provide random, independent movement of palletized
work parts
 Permit temporary storage or banking of workparts
 Allow access to machine tools for maintenance, tool
changing, ..
 Interface with secondary work handling systems

Secondary Work Handling Systems




Must present parts to the individual machine tools in the


CIMS
Generally consists of one transport mechanism for each
machine
Requirements
 Interface

with primary WHS


 Compatible with Computer control
 Permit temporary storage of workparts
 Provide parts orientation and location at each workstation
 Allow access to machine tools for maintence, tool changing,
etc.

3. Computer Control System




Digital computer is used to manage the operations


of a complex manufacturing system
Functions
 Machine

Control
 Direct Numeric Control
 Production Control
 Traffic Control
 Shuttle Control
 Work Handling systems monitoring
 Tool Control
 System performance monitoring & reporting

3. Computer Control System




CIMS data files


 Part

program file
 Routing file
 Part production file
 Pallet reference file
 Station tool file
 Tool-life file

System Reports
 Utilisation

reports
 Production reports
 Status reports
 Tool reports

4. Human Labour


Personnel requirements for a CIMS system


 System

Manager
 Electrical Technician
 Mechanical / Hydraulic technician
 Tool setter
 Fixture setup and lead man
 Load/Unload man
 Rover operator

Benefits of CIM






Increased machine utilisation


Reduced direct and indirect labour
Reduced manufacturing lead time
Lower in-process inventory
Scheduling flexibility