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Series.

In this lesson, we'll harness our

understanding of E to the X as a series

and extend this perspective to a wider

world of functions.

This will be done through the key tool of

chapter one that of the Taylor Series of

a function.

In our last lesson we began with the

definition of e to the x as something

like a long polynomial And from that, and

a little bit of help from Euler's

formula, we observed similar formuli or

expressions for the basic trigonometric

functions sin and cosine.

Expressions of this form, we are going to

call series and we will be working with

them throughout this course.

The question arises.

Are there other similar expressions for

different functions besides these basic

three?

The answer is an emphatic yes.

We're going to work under the assumption

that every reasonable function can be

expressed in the form of a series.

As a constant, plus some other constant

times x, plus a third constant times x

squared, etc, for some collection of

constants.

Now of course strictly speaking this is

not true, we need to be careful about

what we mean by every and reasonable.

For the moment, let's pretend that this

is true and see where it gets us.

We are first led to the question, how do

we figure out or compute these

coefficients?

The following definition is critical.

The Taylor Series of a function f.

And an input zero is the following

series.

F at zero plus the derivative at zero

times x plus one over two factorial times

the second derivative at zero times x

squared etc.

, that is the kth coefficient.

Is equal to the kth derivative of f,

evaluated at the input 0, and then

divided by k factorial.

This is a most important definition.

And for all intents and purposes, at this

point in the course Remarkably, this

series returns the value of f at x.

Let's see how this plays out in an

example that we already know.

Starting with our definition of the

function e to the x.

In order to compute this, we're going to

need to know the derivatives of e to the

x.

And we're going to have to evaluate them

at x equals zero.

But since we know that the derivative of

e to the x is e to the x, all of these

derivatives evaluate to one.

Therefore, when we substitute these

values into our formula for the Taylor

Series, we obtain the familiar series for

e to the x.

This definition, at least, works in this

one context.

Lets continue, lets look at another

function for which we know a series

expression that of sine of x.

We recall how the derivative of sine goes

that gives you cosine.

The derivative of cosine is minus sine.

The derivative of minus sin is minus

cosine and then the derivative of minus

cosine is sine.

Once again, evaluating all of these at an

input of 0 gives us alternating forms of

0 and nonzero terms.

With the nonzero terms having alternating

signs.

Therefore, we can substitute in these

derivatives.

Obtaining 0, 1, 0, negative 1, and

repeating in blocks of four.

When we write out the resulting Taylor

series, we see, once again, the familiar

form x minus x cubed over 3 factorial.

Plus x to the fifth over five factorial,

et cetera.

This is the expression for sin of x.

It seems clear that this ought to work in

other contexts as well, but let's just

check it.

For example, if we work with cosine of x.

Then well the derivatives of cosine

follow the same pattern as before.

Evaluating those to zero gives us the

same numbers as before.

Why do we not get the same series?

Well because when we evaluate these

derivatives.

The sequence of numbers is shifted.

The f at 0, that is, cosine of 0, is 1.

The derivative at 0 is 0.

Negative 1, 0, 1, and the pattern

continues.

When we simplify this expression, we see

that all of the odd degree terms have

zero coefficients leaving us, with only

the even degree terms in this series and

giving us our familiar expression for

cosine of x.

And so it seems clear that we aught to be

able to apply this method to other

functions as well.

Let us do so with another function that

is at least reasonably simple.

What would a very simple function be?

Well let's take a polynomial In this

case, x-cubed plus two x-squared minus x

plus five.

I know that we can differentiate this

with ease.

If we evaluate this function at zero, we

obtain the first term in the series,

namely five.

if we take the first derivative of this

function, what do we get?

Well, 3x squared plus 4x minus 1,

evaluating this at 0 gives us what?

Well, that gives us negative 1.

Therefore, the next term in the series

expansion is negative 1 times x.

Continuing, if we take the second

derivative of this function, we will

obtain 6x plus 4.

Evaluting this at 0, give us simply 4.

Therefore, the next term in the Taylor

series is 1 over 2 factorial times 4

times x squared.

The third derivative of this function is

very simple.

It is exactly six, independent of where

we evaluate it.

Thereore the next term in the Taylor

series is 1 over 3 factorial times 6

times X cubed.

What happens when we take higher and

higher derivatives?

Well the derivative of a constant is 0.

Thus, all of the higher derivatives

vanish and all further terms in the

Taylor series evaluate to 0 so we can

drop them out without consequence.

Rewriting, reusing a bit of

simplification gives us The Taylor

Series.

For this function as 5 minus X plus 2 X

squared plus X cubed.

let us take a look at our work.

Do we believe what we have done, well of

course.

This is exactly the same function that

we've started off with.

We've merely written the terms.

In ascending order of degree, this seems

like a trivial example but it is actually

very crucial.

You must remember that polynomials have

Polynomials have polynomial Taylor

series.

This is going to connect to some very

deep properties concerning polynomial

approximation.

Our strategy, therefore, for working with

functions is to think of Taylor expansion

not as a function itself but as something

like an operator.

As something that takes as its input a

function and returns as its output,

something that is in the form of a long

polynomial or better a series.

Why do we want to do this well, series

thought of as long polynomials are very

simple to work with, whereas some

functions can be obtuse, very difficult,

maybe even unknown in a specific form.

Taylor expansion helps us to convert such

objects.

into an easier to work with form.

Indeed, some functions really can't be

defined well except as a Taylor series.

Here's an example that I'll bet you've

never seen before, though it's a famous

function.

This is the Bessel Function J zero.

That is most easily defined in terms of

its Taylor series.

As the sum k goes from zero to infinity,

negative 1 to the k times x to the 2 k

over 2 to the 2 k times k factorial

quantity squared.

That's a bit of mouth full.

We could write that out and we would get

something that doesn't look too bad.

There are a lot of complexities in the

coefficients there.

How might we understand this function?

Well let's see, the general form of it is

reminiscent of the expression for cosine

that we have derived, in that it has

alternating signs and only even terms.

But notice that the denominator of the

coefficients is growing very rapidly.

Much more rapidly than k factorial or

even 2 k quantity factorial.

We might therefore anticipate that the

graph of this function looks something

like a cosine wave but with a decreasing

amplitude.

As a function of x.

Have you ever seen such a function

before?

Maybe you have, if you've ever taken a

chain or rope and rotated it about a

vertical axis.

If it winds up in equilibrium the shape

that you get is related to this Bessel

function.

If you drop a pebble in some water in a

round tank or an open pond the rippling

effect of the waves is going to be very

closely related to such a vessel

function.

These are not too unusual even in every

day occurrences.

In fact, for a chain or a rope that is

rotated in equilibrium, we can describe

the displacement away from the vertical

axis r as follows.

This r is proportional to the Bessel

function j zero.

Evaluated at 2 omega over the square root

of g times the square root of x.

Here omega is the angular frequency or

how fast you're spinning that rope.

g is a gravitation constant and x, most

importantly, is the distance not from the

top of the rope, but from the bottom of

the rope.

Now you don't need to remember this

formula.

And you don't need to know how it's

derived.

What we are going to look at, is what

happens when we substitute these values

into our Taylor series, for the Bessel

function.

One of the things that we can conclude

from this Taylor series is that if x is

reasonably small, if you're near the

bottom of the rope, small enough that we

can ignore some of the quadratic and

higher order terms, then what's left

over.

Looks like a linear expression in x.

R is proportional to 1 minus omega

squared over g times x.

That tells you something about the slope.

At the end of the rope, namely that this

free end is swinging with a slope that is

proportional not to omega, the angular

frequency, but to omega squared.

The faster you spin it, the more the

slope changes, and we can say exactly

what rate that change is it's quadratic.

You can try this at home with a piece of

heavy rope or chain.

This lesson is given us a new definition

that of Taylor series as well as a new

perspective.

The idea that expanding on a function to

a long polynomial or series is

advantageous.

Next time, we'll consider the question of

how one can effectively compute these

Taylor series.

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