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THE

LIBEIARY

OF
THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA
RIVERSIDE

\'Cttc

3'^'?453>

THE ACHEHNESE

TEUKU UMA. sLAlN

lO'''

IKllRlAkV 1899.

THE ACIIEIIXESE
HY

K^

Dr.

CVSNOUCK HURGRONJE
Adviser for Native

Al'fairs,

Netherlands India,

TRANSLATED
BY

the late A.

W.

S.

O'SULLIVAN

Assistant Colonial Seeretary, Straits Settlements,

WITH AN INDEX
BY

R.

WILKINSON

J.

Inspector of Schools, Federated Malay

VOL.

Lath

11.

J.

LIA'DI-:\,

II.

1^.

\ijofy.

1^

States,

K.

.1

Krill,

iiublihpr8

and printers, Leydcn.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

VOLUME
Chapter
(i)

The

Learning and Science; Pp.

I.

65.

practice of the three branches of

its

prehminary study

its

antagonists;

(4)

II.

Schools

10.

p.

and

Acheh

in

Mohammedan

The

(2)

life;

23.

p.

Introductory;

(i)

Hikayat Ruhe
p.

Literature; Pp. 66

II.

117.

(5)*

(5)

Fiction; p.

Religious works;

medan

era; p. 17

Chapter
(i)

p.

(3)

Chapter

p.

p.

p.

59.

(2)

The

80. (4) Original treatises;

p.

1.

p.

(9)

158.

p.

(7)

(8)

216.

p.

265.

(6)

Hikayats;

Introduction;

p.

269.

(2)

p.

p.

p. 183.

268.
Games

190. (2)

p.

Music;

(4)

IV. Religion; Pp. 269

267.

(5)

of chance;

Processions

and

268.

351.

Doctrine,

popular

beliefs,

worship of

The remaining four "Pillars of Islam" p. 303.


Domestic Law; p. 314. (5) Laws relating to trade and business;
319. (6) Government and the administration of Justice; p. 321. (7) The

saints, oaths; p.
(4)

20.

p.

pre-Mohammedan era; 165; Idem; MohamIdem books of instruction and edification

Ratebs;

popular feasts;

Art;

p. 66.

Tables relating to animals;

Various games of young and old;

208.

(i)

121. (6)

Acheh;

32. (6)

p.

forms of written literature;

Games and Pastimes; Pp. 190

III.

in

189.

Epic Hikayats;

78. (3)

p.

stories;

and

Branches of knowledge not

appertaining to the threefold learning of Islam;

Chapter

teaching and

heretical mysticism

Present level of learning

(3)

student

p.

i.

281. (3)

future of Islam; p. 338.

INDEX; Pp. 353 384-

CORRIGENDA.
Vol.

CORKUiKNDA.
Vol.

CHAPTER

I.

LEARNING AND SCIENCE.

The

I.

practice of the three branches of

teaching and
In Acheh, as in

all

its

preliminary study in Acheh.

countries where Islam prevails, there

but one kind of science or learning (Ach.

speaking,

Arabic Hlmu), embracing


accordance with the

Mohammad.
of enabling

has

It

man

all

will

that

man must

of Allah

revealed

as

cicuinc'c,

believe
to

properly The

is,

from the

and perform

in

Apostle

his latest

view the high and eminently practical purpose

in

to live so as tQ please

door of eternal salvation. Beside


as

Mohammedan

all

it,

God, and opening-

other

human

him the

for

science

is

regarded

of a lower order, and serving merely to the attainment of worldly

both those which are permitted and those which are forbidden

ends,

by the sacred Law.

Mohammad's time and

In

knowledge

of

for a little while after, this single

was very simple and of small compass. The

branch

historical

development of Islam, however, very soon produced dissent and brought

new

doctrines

into

being,

so that the encyclopaedia of

lore attained very respectable proportions,

Mohammedan

and the teachers were com-

pelled in spite of themselves to concentrate their powers on single subjects.

To

some

gain

we must examine the


These

here.

It

is

in

life

enough

Mckka, Vol.
II

II

to

recapitulate

some extent

pp. 200

214.

its

learning

composition.

the introduction to m\- description

in

Mecca of to-day

the

learning which are to

l)

chief features of the history of

have already sketched

of learned

Mohammedan

insight into the encylopaedia of

'),

so

those

practised

it

need not be repeated

branches of
in

Acheh.

Mohammedan

learning

^^^'

The beginning
medan
stress

of

learning for every properly educated Mohani-

ail

Quran (Ach.

the recitation of the

is

on

laid

is

understanding

the

bcnct Kitrnan). In this less

contents

of

book than on

the

Klcmcniary
(-(i^^in'.rfei-

t^''"")-

correctly intoning the Arabic sounds. This elementary instruction only

memory and

gives practice to the ear,

contained

recitation

organs of speech; the rules

for

pamphlets on the science of tajund and

the

in

impressed viva voce on their pupils by the teachers of the Quran are

worked out

What
recite

in

the

very

correctly

He

prayers.

fine detail.

pupil

attains

the
also

is

portions
able

Quran curriculum,

his

in

holy

of the

from the sacred Book according to the

and thus acquires

passing

in

difficult

do not speedily forget what they have learned,

further,

with the vowel sounds

by way

system of sounds,

some knowledge of phonetic

Those who pass through the Quran-school are


character

occasion extracts

the non-Arab learner gains

this,

an intimate acquaintance with a strange and

science.

able, so far as they

to

read the Arabic

but unless they extend their studies

does not enable them to read Malay, or even Achehnese

this

written in Arabic character.

There are thus even among the higher

who know
less

or

little

nothing of reading; and the art of writing

widely disseminated.

they found

it

much more
they

Personally

write.

writing;

many

classes very

but every one

persons
is

still

have often heard Achehnese declare that


of a burden than a pleasure to be able to

may seldom
who wants a

require

to

exercise

letter or other

their skill in

document written

betakes himself as a matter of course to his expert fellow-villager, and

even seems to think he has a claim on the

latter's

good-nature

for the

supply of the requisite stationery.

We

have already noticed the part played

struction in the education of the

the

latter,

like

those

Thus

who have

not been grounded

instruction

of a

foreigner,

gamut of sounds. Their


Sec Vol.

I,

p.

396

ct

seq.

in

all

elementary

The organs

the

purely

in-

of speech of
in

yVchehnese teachers

the art of recitation under the strict

diverge

nasal

').

this

experience great difficulty

of the Javanese,

reproducing Arabic sounds.

i)

Achehnese

by

to

vast

Results of

for his daily sinicnon"'""

rules of the art,

strict

of a voluntary act of devotion. Besides

required

writ

chant upon

eventually to

the capacity to

is

extent from the Arabic

pronunciation of the V/// they have

in

common

other

with

of an accented
these

national

since

many

but

Indonesians,

or au as

//

have of

pecuHarities
best

of the

pronunciation, for example,

the

pccuHarly Achehnese. Here, as

is

c'r ')

teachers

years

later

now

are

schooled

lesser pandits learn of these or of professional

who
Course

occasionally

When

of

the

make

begun

to

in

in Java,

disappear,

Mekka. The

Egyptian Quran

reciters,

a tour through Acheh.

has practised the Arabic character with the aid of

pupil

last of the 30 portions (Ach.//////)


throulsn'" ^ wooden tablet {loh), he is given the
of the Quran, written or printed separately, and recites this under the

guidance of the teacher [ureucng


called jnili

aiiia

from the

jiiih taba

curriculum

from

(j^^)

its initial

two

first

is

word, and that which precedes

it

syllables of

comes

taba

the juili

or gnre'c). This portion

puninbeii'ct

its initial

the juUl

after

word

ai/ia,

In the

{{SX*.'i)'

and

it

not

is

till

he has spelled out {hija) and chanted both of these to the satisfaction

Quran

of his teacher, that the pupil begins the recitation of the whole

from the
1

Other
strucUmi

Mohammedan

the

Those who are content

clc'"

filtihah,

Lord's Prayer^), to the end of the

14th Surah.

^'^^

almost

all

w^ith a

minimum

of further study, that

is

to

and most boys, next proceed to learn the absolute

girls

from a small catechism, which we

essentials of religious lore

shall

met

with later on, in Achehnese prose and verse, in our description of their
literature (nos

mouth

of

or

XCI

to

XCVII). They are also exercised either by w^ord

with manuscript to guide them, under the supervision of

parents or schoolmasters,

performance of the hxc daily

the

in

prayers (Ach. scumayang) prescribed for

The

all

ritual

Mohammedans.

majority acquire this indispensable knowledge simply by imitation

who employ documentary


aid are not as a rule content with the Achehnese works. They read
untler proper guidance Malay text-books such as those named MasailaJi
of what they see and hear others do. Those

and

Bidayali,

principles

which

treat

of religious

Moslim. The teacher (male

manner of the absolute

a simple

in

doctrine

and of the

or female) must

however explain

Achehnese, since a knowledge of Malay

is

Malay

work such

the rhyming guide to

as

>

1)

For example,

2)

The Achehnese

leiila

opening syllables of

call

this

"^^-J

the
first

kecluliu

first

of

first

religious obligations of the


it

all

in

comi)arativcl)' rare in

Acheh.

XCVII I

of the

(see n".

)&

aJ^-5

etc.

the thirty divisions of the f>urrin

chapter (^r^^).

n/cii/iuiii

from the

works cnuincratcd

Achclincsc

next

cliaptci)

make it easy to remember the words most


The part pLayed by Malay in Acheh in

recjuired.

I'll

learnmy;

first

simply to

An Achehnese who

country.
'

serves

Indispcnthe acquisition of reli<^ious


^ability of a
o
as that assumed by Javanese
the Sunda knowlcdj^c of

almost the same

is

the

in

desires

to

something
beyond
the
t>
y

learn

elements of doctrine and law finds Malay indispensable. Even the

few popular manuals


renderings

reliable

numerous

in

of

own tongue

his

authoritative

Malay, are entirely wanting

in

Thus those who, without


take pleasure

in

in

kital?

Malay

in

which

works,

are

'
lanj^uage 'Y
for

advanced study in
n>oi"c

Acheh.

fairly

Achehnese.

actually devoting themselves to study,

still

increasing their religious knowledge so far as time and

circumstances allow,

must do

Malay words, while

bristle with

Arabic

/^*^

Malay en passant

learn

as

they read. This they

order to be able to understand c\'en the simplest "kitab."

work derived

is

or compiled from Arabic sources; as

a rule only the introduction, the conclusion, and a few passing remarks
are the

There
the
of

work of the "author", the


a superabundance of

is

Qirat al-mnstaqlui,

Arab

written

mere

rest being

Malay

kitabs of this description.

Acheh by

in

translation.

non-Achchnese

origin from Gujerat, just about the period of

prosperity,

before

the

middle

the

of

17th

century,

Acheh's greatest
is

much in
now begun

still

vogue, though later Malay works on the law of Islam have


to supersede

One,
pantlit

it.

Achehnese, whose position demands that they should

Not a few

devote themselves to study, rest content with the perfunctory perusal


of

some such Malay

kitabs, as these suffice to enable

say as tenngku meunasah


called Icitbc or malcui
is

''),

or even as

')

name

is

connected

they are never known as

reserved for the doctor

with

the

to officiate,

may

be

or even alcui in times and places where there

a scarcity of religious teachers,

this

them

But though such

kali'-).

law

who can

iilaiiia,

for

enlighten others on matters

and religious doctrine with some show of

authority.

To

be able to lay claim to the

have

to

studied,

title

under competent

of doctor

guidance,

Arabic works on law and doctrine. To reach

employ a method
1)

Sec Vol.

I,

75.
102.

pp. 70

2) Vol.

I,

pp. 93

3) Vol.

1,

p.

71.

different

from

that

which

it

is

necessary at least

some tew

...

authoritative

this

end the Achehnese

has

since ancient times

Whai
iciiuircd of
i,].,,,,.^.

is

an

been followed by the Javanese and Sundanese,


appears more

certainly

with

fraught

but which

rational,

who adopt

that most of those

difficulties,

method which

the other hand so

on

is

lose courage

it

long before they attain their purpose.

Thus

DiiTerencc
^nc'iliods S-^

instruction in

vogue
and in

Java the preparatory subjects (Arabic grammar

in

dispensable
y^^.y

^i^^

theory are

in

j\^^

^>^l

being grounded

after

so in-

abeyance and often not practised

in

left

pupil

etc.)

till

a few elementary

in

in lava
.'\chch.

manuals

immediately introduced to the greater Arabic text-books.

is

These he reads sentence by sentence under the guidance of a teacher

who probably knows


if

makes no

he

he owes

it

from that of daily

as

untranslated

another

[niana or logat)

author's

as

life,

').

It

and leaving technical terms

only the similarity of these subjects one

is

to

The

memory

the

text

up

teacher follows

paraphrase

[lapal]

as

may

it

proficiency

to gross errors,

[niurad)

in

teacher's

and

')

translations

designed

'),

make

to

appear,

by

this

students attain

diligent

the

curious

affairs

method, as to be able to translate

teacher

long time

Much depends on
Where

They

are of course liable

past

in

grammar, they are

more uncorrupted form than

transmitted

seldom

for instance their teacher or their

was well grounded


in

is

the comparative age of their tradi-

of grammar.

on the text

end so

the

in

and even their vocalizing of the Arabic words

entirely accurate.

pass

assist the

word-for-word translation

his

from Arabic into Javanese simple text-books.

tions

a literal rendering of the

is

it

unvarying style of the writers that

the

read, the

is

meaning comprehensible.

Strange

much

rule.

explanatory

an

with

and

committing

in

the Arabic consonants,

the language employed of course

Javanese;

into

it

text, dealing with learned subjects

Arabic

pupil

in vocalizing

his pupil, so that

good memory alone. After each sentence

teacher translates

with

Arabic grammar as

mistakes

serious

to his

differs greatly

as little of

if it

likely to

had been

for

from the

memory

patience

of the Javanese students does

of one to that of his

successor.

The chief reason why


not become exhausted in
knowledge

the

this process,

augmented by each

is

lesson.

that they feel the

They

take

consciousness of having read the authoritative text [lapal]

and

i)

this

they would miss did they

Arab. JoaJ

tj^*-'^

'^*^

J^'yo.

like

sum

pleasure
in

of their
in

the

the original

the great majority limit them-

selves

to

lation

[logat

reading of Javanese

tlie

or

removes

)}iana)

\v(jiks.

all

Arabic words, and the explanation

The

subseciuent literal trans-

doubt as to the meaning of the

{i)iiirad)

makes the matter

digestible

and capable of being applied.

The
c

torty

other method of instruction which has during the last thirty or

Hadramite

11

gradually gained supremacy

years

influence,

and perseverance.

enough Arabic

more

is

takes

It

logical,

AT

Java under Mekkan and


1

but requires
years for

several

him

to enable

in

much

the

greater patience

for a

is

additional

made

follow

difficulty,

(Javanese)

is

them

in
in

is

given

have been

who do
tary
avail

own

^'

work
little

of which he cannot hope to enjoy

results

in

the

same system

that

the

language into which the translation

to

them, and that only the exposition

strange

This method, which

{murad)

to

of

method ia

long time to come.

The Sundanese
this

the

brains,

the

Indonesian to learn

to begin to read a simple learned

with some degree of discrimination. This preparation costs him no

racking of his

Gradual modification

vogue

own

their

Java

in

may

Acheh

as

tongue.
still

for a

be called new-fashioned, appears


long time past.

not really devote themselves to study

Malay books,

just

as

the Javanese, but with

It is

who employ

only those
the elemen-

the Sundanese under similar circumstances

themselves of Javanese works, or even of those written

Acheh begins by

tongue. But the student in

in their

struggling through a

mountain of grammatical matter.


First

comes the science of

inflexions,

sarak or teusenreh (Arab, (arf The

study of

which are employed manuals consisting chiefly of para- mar in^Aclu>h!


digms, especially that known as Midan (Arab. M'lzdn). These are folor ta(rlf),

for

lowed by a number of widely known works on Arabic grammar


which are generally studied

names are

in

the order given below.

[nahu),

The Achehnese

as follows, the Arabic equivalents being given in the note

Axvaine, Jeurnmiah, MatamimaJi,

Pmuakeh,

AlpiaJi,

')

Ebeunu AkL

It must be borne in mind that the Achehnese have the same difticulty to overcome as the Sundanese, since for them too the text-books
are translated into a foreign language, the Malay. Thus we can easily

how

the

majority of students

what we might

call

the

understand

in

Acheh

fail

to complete

preliminary studies (known to the Arabs as

Diftkultics of

^^^^ me'thod.

by the correct

"instiumcnt.s"),

or

tllilt

master the

The

branches of rehgious

princi[)al

popular

may

one

learninij.

on the numerous scholars who have got no

\ertlict

than the Alpiah,

further

of which

handlin<;-

wont

yet are

vaunt themselves on their

to

which passes as a proverb among

learning, finds expression in the verse

the

Achehnese: "Study of grammar leads only to bragging, study of

the

Law

lurks

in

produces saints"
the

idea

studied the nahu

other

the

among

hand a certain reverence

the ignorant, that he

comprehend the tongues of

able to

is

On

prevails

that

grammatical

the

Besides

').

there

lore,

are

has

beasts.

"instruments",

other

also

who

branches of learning subsidiary to the study of the law and of religious


doctrine,
is

but

Mohammedan

no

in

country and least of

all

in

Acheh

the acquirement of these considered an indispensable prelude to the

more advanced
of style and

subjects.

Such are

science (indispensable in the study

arithmetical

rhetoric,

example the various subdivisions

for

of the law of inheritance), astronomy, which assists in determining the

calendar and the qiblah, and so forth. These subjects are indeed taught
in

Acheh, but they occupy no certain place


adopted

rally

in

the curriculum gene-

on them depends very much on the

time spent

the

pleasure of the students and the extent of their teachers' knowledge.


Main

The main purpose

object

of study should be, properly speaking, the

Mohammed

ledge of Allah's law as revealed through


in

his

own example

or

teachers

{Ijuiif)

as

acquired

by the study of the Quran and

with

sacred

the

tradition

such direct derivation

degree of knowledge

beyond the student's


tative
to

works

their

in

In

subjects.

recognize

rules

EUnmcc

iinltii

law cannot be

conmientaries together

required which

reach.

He

is

For

from their original sources a


at present

regarded as quite

has to restrict himself to the authori-

the

these

studies

[viadJiah] to

full

rights

each

is

bound

Ic

to follow the law-

which he belongs, although he must

of the three other schools to their own-

interpretation of the law.

l)

the students

w Inch the materials are moulded and arranged according

books of the school


also

this

by the

as to the acts [siiniiah) of the Prophet.

of religious

is

its

certified

With

of the Moslim community.

however, the knowledge of

of to-day,

know-

Quran and

the lapse of time (with the

in

by analogy) confirmed and

help of Oiyas or reasoning


general consent

and

[Sunnali),

in the

bctiiokalt^ llciiiiuc p'lkah

Ic cclia.

Apph'iny,
conclusion

law (Arab.

of the

Ach.

fiqJi,

of this //Xv?//-literature.

list

Nawawi's Minhrij

works on the learning

Shafi'ite

these books are the

does not affect the subject-matter of study,


give

a Authoritative

that the chief objects of study

As

pikaJi).

the conclusion

\vc arrive at

facts

same

in

and the choice of any particular one of them

countries,

Shafi'ite

all

by the

country are the authoritative

that

in

Achch,

principle to

this

fully justified

(Ach.

atjalilnn

consider

it

superfluous to

confine myself to observing that

and various commentaries

MenJibt)

thereon such as the Fath al-Walihab (Ach. PeuthoivaJiab), the TuJifah^)

(Ach. Tupali) and Mahalli {Ma ha Ii) enjoy great popularity.

The

Usiiy {Lh'Til or

Taichld),

i.

"doctrine",

c.

next

is

importance

in

Study
'

the

to

PikaJi.

may even

former

the

The
on

Both branches of learning arc studied simultaneously;

of the

differences

Thus even

in

Shafi'ite

Acheh

country preference

have

is

by no means always

Shafi'ites for their authors.

same works are employed

the

exercise no influence

regard to the interpretation of the law.

in

given to such Usul-works as


In

circumstances so require.

if

madhabs

four schools or

they do

as

score,

this

precede the latter

of

"S"^^'

branch of study as

for this

other parts of the Archipelago, and especially those of Sanusi with

in

accompanying commentaries.

their

The

great Moslim father al-Ghazali (ob.

A. D.) describes the study

Pikali) as the indispensable bread of

of the

law

(Ach.

the

dogmatic teaching {Usuy) being the medicine which man-

kind, threatened with


to use as preventive

ta(azvzvnf,

man's

all

manner of heresy and

unbelief,

Mysticism,

of the be-

lievers,

life

constrained

is

and as cure. Lastly he considers mysticism (Arab.

Ach. teusawoh) the highest and most important element

spiritual education, since

it

serves so to digest the bread of

in
life

and the medicine, that a true knowledge of God and of the community

mankind with the Creator may spring therefrom.

of

Many works on
mystic

the

of view,

points

law
but

and on dogma contain here and there


expressly mystic orthodox works are also

studied in Acheh.

Yet
.

these

works

on

Achek As wc know,
the

i)

E.

Indian

mysticism
-

cannot
.

Archipelago

simultaneously

with

the

the later commentators decide the question.

its

way

(xccllcncc

in
*

into

introduction

The Tuhfah and the Nihayah are the authoritative works par
Where the two agree, departure from their common tenets is
differ,

popular

be

to

said
.

a sort of heretical mysticism found

Shafiites.

they

be

for

of

the

prohibited, where

The more
ni)i)ular

^f

kind

.^^.^ti^-js,,,,

10
Lslain,

and

minds,

in

of

spite

There

Arabia.

continues to

still

can

exercise

originating

intluences

no

be

doubt

supremacy over men's

great

indirectly

or

directly

from

numbers of written documents

was brought hither by the pioneers

that this mysticism

testify to

it

of Islam

from Hindustan. The most important works on mysticism

vogue

the Archipelago were penned by Indian

in

in

writers, or else are

derived from a body of mystics which flourished in Medina in the 17th

which was strongly subject to Indian influence. To

century and

this

whose disciples became the teachers


body belonged Ahmad QushashI,
of the devout in Javanese and Malayan Countries.
')

Many

Indian

of these

represent

mysticism

and also QushashI and

authors

which though regarded by cautious and sober

doctors of the law as not exempt from danger,


heresy. Behind this orthodox mysticism

from the

uishable

and

pantheism

vocal

first

is still

free

on a superficial view, but which by


its

contempt

for

sundry

Heretical
mysticism.

The
^^jj

heretical mysticism, of

j^^^^^^

^^

j^^

princes

narrow

soil,

occasionally

and

that

it

\Vc

i)

succeeded

in

this pantheistic

inducing

the

heresy back

in

in

common

man's community with

his

with the orthodox

Maker the essence

Many

of the representatives of this mysticism

once forsook the orthodox track and embraced the belief

sliall

"chains"

finds

to that end.

the present let


the

Antagonists.

its

of religion, and regards ritual, law and doctrine merely as

object

the means

almost at

Mohammedans.

limits.

This latter sort of mysticism has this


kind,

unequi-

and traditional

ritual

and nothing but the persecutions

were able to thrust

to,

its

disting-

which there are numerous distinct shades,

fruitful

theologians

resort

to

on

India,

orthodox

which

to

Heretical Mysticism and

The

2.

from actual

comes another, hardly

elements of Islam, has incurred the hatred of all orthodox

his disciples,

shortly
it

suffice

give further particulars in regard to


to

observe that the

'^sci/us/'/u/is'"

(i.

tliis

e.

remarkable personage. For

spiritual genealogical tables,

of mystic tradition) of the most celeliratcd mystics in the Archipelago up to

50 years ago generally have as their starting-point this Ahmad QushashI of Medina,
who in his turn counted many natives of India among his spiritual ancestors. The great
saint of Acheh, Shaich Abdurra'uf of Singkel, now called Teungku di Kuala from the fact
that he is buried near the mouth of the Acheh river, was a zealous pupil uf Ahmad ()ushashi-

about

means than those

that otlicr

inentioiied abo\'e also lead to the tiesireii

end, and that those

who

on

some extent above

earth

raised

to

teaching of these

the

also so conceive the

of creation

higher

the

the

the

archangels,

in

components of

chief

successors

righteous

Now

of

Mohammed and

as

with

man

God, so we see how among other things

inspired

great

four

unity,

so

in

four

the four

the four limbs


sorts of

this ever-recurring

demonstrates the unity of the whole of God's creation.

the task of mysticism to awaken in

is

the

books and the four

qualities of

It

it

by pointing

prayer,

ritual

with

four

describe

example, the doctrine that every

correspond

number

sight of.

which move harmoniously the four winds, the

of jurisprudence.
the

by
that

sundry comparisons, based on a play on

in

illustrate, for

four

four

orthodox schools

a manifestation of the Creator's being,

is

unity

elements,

lost

is

at

is

the form of a philo-

in

and these are the most popular

words or numbers. They

four

religious

and

community with God,

by some authors

set forth

is

others

mysterious formulas and

to

and law; the

between the creature and the Creator

This pantheism

part

ritual

(jod are already here

entirely different from the official sort,

is

Most of them

distinction

sophy;

community with

in

with the latter by arbitrary interpretations and

most connected
allegory.

live

he

that

may

man

the consciousness of this

God and

himself alike with

identify

with the

Universal.

The almost
ticism

the

is

universal influence formerly enjoyed

shown by the

of pantheistic explanations of orthodox

marginal

arguments

notes,

varying greatly

in detail,

To

etc.

this

this sort of

to be found

number of manuscripts

vast

Mohammedans, proclaiming

Indonesian

by

this

it

teaching with the aid

may be added

they arc entirely at one

in their
is

teaching of the law,

')

much

just as

the spiritual advisers of the chiefs.

teachers

have

by those occupied

in

that while

main purpose.

still,
.

represented

among

formulas, allegorical figures with

This scheme of universal philosophy was (and


diminishing degree)

mys-

though

in

the study and


,

as by the village philosophers ami

Now

it

is

obvious that these religious

never gone so far as to assume from the mystic unity

of Creature and Creator the nullity or superfluity of the Law. In their

l)

In

Java

for

me by orthodox
fathcrs
little

(teachers

instance,

many

of

these

teachers of religion,
liivc

themselves),

ashamed of having

thcni

in

but

their

"primhons" or nicmoranduin-hooks were given

who had
set

no

inherited them from their fathers or gramlstore by

possession.

them themselves, and were even

Spread of
paiilhciblic

n^y^ticism
^,[[1'''"^^']^''",^^..

bgo.

12

Opinion

majority

the

for

fruitless

was indispensable, although

fulfilment of this law

tlic

who

of those

are

name

in

of the universal unity

or to testify

prehends the Unity knows that "there


thereof;"

ofterer

far as to

many gods one who continues to offer up


that there is no God but Allah, since he

a servant of

for

and among the Malays and Achehnese

sembahyang

that truly

worship

or

to

mouths of

the

in

his

brand as

com-

no receiver of prayer and no

is

One cannot pray

the

philosophy

Javanese put such

or prayer,

for the five daily devotional exer-

men. Nay they sometimes go so

of ordinary

complete con-

this

sembahyang

a universal

is

which does away with the necessity


cises

ritual obser-

in general.

Others however go much further and assert that


sciousness

practice

believers, since

they have not grasped the deep mystic significance of the


vances and of the law

in

teachers

also,

The

itself.

their greatest saints,

who proclaimed

such views have been universally revered since early times.

From

Mysticism
the i6''i'^^and
17'i'ceniu-

Niemann,

^^"-

^V

the chronicles of Acheh, portions of which have been puljlished

Acheh

ij^

we

')

somewhat of the

learn

religio-philosophical

sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

in the

We

life

see there that

lies.

the religious pandits

held mastery in the country were not Acheh-

who

Egyptians who came to Acheh from Mekka,

nese, but cither Syrians or

or else natives of India, such as Ranlrl

1) Blocinlczing tiit

chronicles

of the

Hasanji
Dr.

in

Malcische gcschriftcn^ 2nd edition, pp.

Muhammad

b.

questions

younger

or a

of the

day

Vol

2e series,
to

in

Acheh
regard

teaching of Shanisuddui

by Niemann

to

II,

the

for

relative

p.

44

second

'r.

Hasan

b.

b.

Muhammcd

llamid

man known as Nuruddin b. .Mi. b.


of his. The latter name is mentioned

mysticism;

45

and 49

time

the

of Sumatra (Pasei),

in

52).

The man

of

whom

1588 and settled the disputed

Raniri of Van der Tuuk resisted the


who according to the chronicles edited

1630, and wrote the most celebrated of his works shortly before and

died in

the reign of (^ucen Snpialddiii

two very

the

JailanI

also notice

actually identical with the

RaniiT,

Indo-Chtita^

to

Niemann speaks came

during

is

'T.

We

van der Tuuk's essay on the Malay mss. of the Royal Asiatic Society (sec Essays

relating

mystic

Muhammad

cannot discover whether the

2) I

Kaniri

from Gujerat.

-)

improbable, but

the

Shah (1641

chronicler

75).

This would render the identity of

may have made an

error in the date.

The

and the names Muhammad


Jailani and Nuruddin may quite well have belonged to one and the same person; nay, in
a Hatavian ms. (sec Van den berg's Veisla^ p. i, no. 3 and 9, no. 49c-.) Nuruddin ar Kanirl
omission of the

is

actually

also

(see 5 below)

name

.Mi in the chronicle

called

Muhammad

is

in itself

JailanI. In

at

dilliculty,

the margin of an edition of the Taj-ul-nuilk

Mekka in A. II.
wal-aidh. The author

which appeared

no

131

1,

is

printed a treatise bearing the

of this treatise is called Nuruddin bin"


Bad' chalq as-saiuawat
All Hasanji, and in the Arabic introduction it is told of him that he came to Acheh in
November 1637, and received from Sultan Iskandar Thani the command to write this book
in March
1638. The dates given, however, in the Malay translation which immediately
title

foHows the

;\rabic introduction, are quite different from the above!

13

what the Achchncsc of that day specially desired of

that

was

teachers

their foreign

enlightenment on questions of mysticism, as to which

much contention prevailed.


The best known representatives

more

of a

or less pantheistic mysticism

were a certain Shaikh Shamsuddin of Sumatra (= Pase), who seems


to

have enjoyed much consideration

Alam

(1607

Pansuri.

36)

'),

and who died

at the court of the great

in

1630,

and

his forerunner

Ham/.ah

^)

books which embodied

teaching burnt.

his

escaped the flames,

'')

Many

and the princes and

of these works, howchiefs of

Even

not always so obedient to the orthodox persecutors.

day Hamzah's writings are


and

countries,

in

spiritual food of

God

is

to be

met with both

Malay

in

Arab mysticism, he who strives after commuway [tarlqah) leading to the

a salik or walker on the

popular expression

mystics,

salik-learning

Acheh and

in

many.

Although these words are

highest.

Acheh were

to the present

spite of the disapproval of the pandits they form the

In the language of the

nion with

[elciimc'e

Acheh

in

to

sale)

also used

such

by most

of the orthodox

has specially applied the term

mystic systems

as

are

held

in

abhorrence by the orthodox teachers of the law.

About 30
celebrity

or

in

40 years ago one Teungku Teureubue

the

*)

acquired a great

Pidie district as a teacher of such clcuvicc sale

and women crowded

in

hundreds to

Men

listen to his teaching. P^ven his

opponents gave him the credit of having been extremely well versed
Arabic grammar, a thing we rarely hear of other native mystics.

in

Yet the

which

opposition

representatives of the

Keumangan

Bentara

an

p^n^nrj

Meukuta

The orthodox opponents of this Indo-Mohammedan theosophy in a


Malay dress won their wish under the successor of Meukuta Alam, who
at their instigation put the disciples of Mamzah to death, and had the
ever,

Miainsu.idin

official

his

peculiar

doctrines

among

the

orthodoxy was so great that they instigated

(chief of the

league

1)

Sec the Achehnese chronicles edited by Niemann,

2)

As

of the

p.

'fi

six

line

uleebalangs)

to

7.

52. That llamzah Iiclongs to


two sec Dr. Van der Tuuk's essay pp. 51
period may be gathered from the fact that Shamsuddin wrote commentaries on

to these

carlieY

excited

some of his works.


3) Hence I was able

to obtain

mentioned by Van der Tuuk.


4) So called after the p;ampong
Sa'it, abl)reviated

into

It.

from an Achehnese a copy of

in

I'idio

where he taught;

liis

tlio

real

^j^-ji^L-X

j-*~

name was Muhamaf

Persecution

14

The teacher and many of his faithful disciples


set a seal to their belief by their death. [Notvvithstandintj this, T.
Teureubue found a successor in his disciple Teungku Gade, also known
as Teungku di Geudong or (from the name of the gampong where he
lives) Teungku Teupin Raya. In the centre of this gampong is the tomb
of Teungku Teureubue, surrounded by a thick and lofty wall. The
extirpate

the

village

under the control of the teacher and

is

heretics.

mainly peopled with

is

his disciples.]
liabii)
11

No

Sen-

a can.

such violent end overtook the Habib

He

years ago.

West Coast to
he was known

name from

derived his

Seunagan, who died some

')

the scene of his labours on the

the South of Meulaboh. l^efore he had attained celebrity


as

Teungku PeunadcV,

gampong

after the

in Pidiii

where

he was born.

The teaching

Pansuri,

heretical

He

is

said

it

have had

to

have been

his

own

Habib

truly the

is

and

Pidie

conception

reported

is

-)

He

is

still

Seunagan one Teungku

di

also

supposed

his face in the daily ritual prayers),

faith,

''There

viz.

body of the Prophet."

regarded as

nine wives

of the qiblah (the direction

is

no God but Allah,

'')

some portions of the West Coast, such

Meulaboh, are
[In

He

man might have

upheld by the Zahirites.

special

and a dissenting confession of


this

his interpretation of the

no special degree mystical,

in

impurity, and that a

which the worshipper must turn

in

only from

have held that one might handle the Quran even when

of ritual

at once, opinions anciently

to

me

to

greatly at variance with the official teaching.

state

made regarding

but the statements

for instance to
in

known

is

have disseminated the teaching of Hamzah

to

Quran and the law show


although

mystic

furnished by his opponents, and therefore necessarily very

information
one-sided.

of this

districts

where

Krueng

(ob. 1902)

\.\\q.

as

Susoh and

eleuinec sale flourishes.

may be

considered as

the spiritual successor of Habib Seunagan.]


Tcuiit;ku

(li

After

this

we must now

digression

turn back for a

moment

to an

earlier period, not with the view of giving a complete history of Acheh-

theology,

nese

1)

but

The word Habib

to

is

recall

here

used

attention

in

a sense

to a

unusual

remarkable Malay,

in

Achclnicsc (sec vol

friend (of God); Habib Seunagan was not a sayyid.


2) Sec Die Zahirilen by Dr. I. Goldzihcr, Leipzig 1884; on p. 54 of
this view as to the touching of the Quran.

namely

3j

La

whom
p.

155)"

in that oi

ilTilta

illTi

''llah^

Ilahib

riyoi'

salt

Iniiian

tiabi.

tliis

work we

find

IS

?3

i6

wc have already mentioned

several times,

the latter portion of his

durini;

and whose activity exhibited

')

Achehnese territory. This


was Abdiirrauf (Ach. AbdoraoJi) of Singkel, known in Acheh as Teungku
itself

Kuala,

di

since

Acheh

Anjong-,

is

the whole country after

in

mouth of the

situated near the Kuala or

river.

Van

In

collected

den

Ik^rg's

by the

late II.

(jk.Aak5.j)

Catalogue

of

-)

the

Von de Wall we

"A work on

<>.

jJ.a:s.Lxs^^JI

unity

in

tomb, the most sacred

his

of Teuns^ku

that

life

find

Malay MSS.

at

mentioned

8n4i):

the confession of

(p.

prayer, and the

faith,

These words very imperfectly indicate the contents of

chase.

which

have also found a copy

Royal Library

the

The book

')

of which

is

the

which dikr, the

at Berlin,

*)

Leiden

in

and have acquired

^)

Uindat

this

and another

by

a third

pur-

consists of 7 chapters (called faidahs), the chief

description

aim

of a certain special kind of mysticism, of

of the confession of faith at appointed times,

recital

forms a conspicuous part.


is

of Allrdi."

al-niulitdjln, of
in

Hatavia

Still

more remarkable than

all this,

however,

the chatimah or conclusion which follows these seven faidahs. In this

the

author,

the

reader and

with a

the

silsilaJi

genealogical

Abdurra'uf just referred


gives
(or

tree,

the

as
to

noble

origin

to

as a scholar, together

life

pronounce

natives

confirm the

makes himself known

to,

short notice of his

it

salasilah) or spiritual

and high worth of

his

many
etc. He

teaching. According to this final chapter, Abdurra'uf studied for

years at

1)

V'ol

Medina,

p.

Mekka, Jiddah, Mokha, Zebid, Betal-faqlh

390 and note on

2) Published al

p.

10 above.

Batavia 1877.

N 1930.
Numbered Schumann V, 6.
not to have read further than the first page.
5) Van den Berg appears
6) Among the Malay MSS. which I collected in Acheh, is an abstract made by the
author himself of his ^Umdat al-mtthtTijln under the name Kifayat al-muhtajtn^ and also a
short refutation of certain heretical dogmas prevalent in these parts in regard to what man
sees and experiences in the hour of death. To support his teaching the writer appeals to
3)

4)

a work of Molla Ibrahim (successor of

Ahmad

QushashI)

at

Medina; of

this

work

possess

Malay translation by an unknown hand.


Another famous work of this same Abdurra'uf is his Malay translation of Baidhawi's
commentary on the Quran, published in .'\. II. 1302 at Constantinople in two handsomely
printed volumes. On the title pag.e Sultan Abdulhamld is called "the king of all Mohammedans!" From this work we perceive among other things, that the learning of our saint was
a

not

infallible;

his

translation

for

instance

of chap. 33 verse 20 of the (Juran

is

correct.
II

far

from

i8

mentions no

whom

pandits

masters at whose feet he

15

27 distinguished

sat,

he knew, and 15 celebrated mystics with

whom

he came

contact.

in

Above

Ahmnd
lushashi.

than

less

Ahmad

way

the

in

others he esteems and praises the mystic teacher Shaikh

all

He

calls

tells

how

OushashI at Medina.
of God,

obtained from his


himself.

Thus

and

him

his spiritual

after

death

his

guide and teacher

he

(Abdurra'uf)

successor Molla Ibrahim permission to found a school

Abdurra'uf taught

after 1661

in

Acheh, and won so many

adherents that after he died his tomb was regarded as the holiest place
in all the land,

eclipsed

We

it

till

after

that of the sayyid called

1782.

noticed above (footnote to p. 10) that the mysticism of

Qushashi was disseminated

number

the

who

Indian Archipelago by a great


generally obtained the necessary

salasilaJis or spiritual genealogical trees of this tarlqah

of mystics.

school

E.

Ahmad

on the occasion of their pilgrimage to Mekka. In Java we

fmd innumerable

name

special

in

of khalifahs (substitutes),

permission

or

Teungku Anjong somewhat

Sumatra some even give

In

of Qushashite

')

and

it

is

only

their

tariqah the

of late years that this

usually called, has begun to be regarded as an old-

SatariaJi,

as

fashioned

and much-corrupted form of mysticism and to make place

it

for the tarlqahs

is

now most popular

in

Mekka, such

as the Naqshibendite

and Qadirite.
have Called

Satariah.

place

first

selves,
all

its

that

-)

this school of

adherents

Indonesian
this

alone

manner of impurities

OushashI corrupt

is

in

enough

for

two reasons. In the

have been so long

to

left

them-

to account for the creeping in of

the tradition. But besides

this,

both Javanese

and Malays have made use of the universal popularity enjoyed by the

name

Satariah as a hall-mark with which to authenticate various kinds

of village

philosophy to a large extent of pagan origin.

We

find for

instance certain formulas and tapa-rules which in spite of unmistakcablc


indications

i)

Ahmad

school

2)

in

Hindu influence may be

the

called

peculiarly

Indonesian,

()ushashl himself calls his tarlqah the Shattarite (after the vell-known mystic

founded by as-Shattarl) and points out

represent

most

of

Qadirite

tarlqah.

In

the

E.

that

some of

his

spiritual

ancestors

Indian Archipelago also, Satariah

is

the

also

name

use to designate this old-fashioned mysticism.

In Arabia the Shattarite mysticism seems long to have fallen out of fashion; in

and Medina the very


but

as

that

which

far as
it

name

am aware

it

is

forgotten.

In British India

it

still

jirevails

Mekka

here and there,

does not enjoy anywhere a popularity which even approaches

has attained in lnd(jncsia.

19

rcconimciulcd

use as Safaridli often aloiiy with salasilah-^

for

in

which

names of Abdurra'uf and Ahmad QushiishT appear.

the

The work
albeit

of Abdurra'uf

has

attitude

his

is,

however,

in

accord

witli orthtxlox th:)Ctrine,

many

excited the jealous or envious sneers of

a pandit.

might cause surprise that the name of Abdurra'uf should appear

It

the salasilahs of Qushashl's teaching not alone in Sumatra but also

in

to a great extent in Java, since as a matter of fact both Javanese

Sundanese imported
the

of kindred

permission

race

by steamers

Mekka, Acheh formed

Arabia,

fellow-countrymen or
he had

after

we must remember

form a school,

to

ships were replaced


to

leaving

before

received

that before sailing

means of conveyance

as a

and

from Arabia. But apart from

having initiated

of Abdurra'uf's

possibility

those

this tarlqah directly

for visitants

a great halting-place for almost all the pil-

grims from the Eastern Archipelago. The Achehnese used to speak of

some pride

their country with

Holy Land". Many

as "the gate of the

remained there a considerable time on their way to and


even settled
of their

the

in

lives.

')

still

longer

visit,

their

journey through,

have imbibed the instruction of

Malay teacher.

the

sometimes described

In the extant copies of his writings Abdurra'uf

is

and sometimes

but

"of Singkel,"

as

some

while

traders or teachers for the remainder

country as

Thus many Javanese may on

or in the course of a

fro,

fact

that

his

words "who
found

it

is

is

"of Pansur,"

almost always followed

of the tribe of

Hamzah

Pansuri"

^).

is

it

a remarkable

the salasilahs

in
I

heretical.
at

spirit

have nowhere indeed

of his writings shows that he must have regarded

One might have supposed


least

can give of

this

phenomenon

Lam

Paloh,

who

died

not

many

years

since.

Ho was

lies

in

may have

As may well be supposed, such sojourn was the reverse of favouraljlc


European rulers. An example of this

feeling of the Javanese etc. towards their

was Teungku

as

that under these circumstances he

the extraordinary popularity of the name of Hamzah, which

times

it

from openly claiming relationship with

have refrained

Hamzah. The only explanation

1)

by the

stated that Abdurra'uf expressly opposed the teaching of Hamzah,

but the

would

name

to
in

tlic

our

p;ooil

own

a Jav.ancsc of

Yogya, who married and had a family in Acheh, and without mucii claim to learning c.imc
to be regarded as a saint by a certain coterie. This presumptuous pretender to sanctity
borrowed his name from the gampong (within the "linic") where he had his aliodc.
2)

The expression

is

^.y^X:

'Si*.^

(lav.

^-^ftj'

^i

(j^^^

induced the disciples of Abdurra'uf to avail themselves of

the'^other ta-

riqahs in

Acheh.

own

order the better to propagate their

in

Abdurra'uf has undoubtedly had a great influence on the

Sleight disse-

^'^^
Qj-jiy
^

Achehnese, though

^^^'^

externals

certain

(such
\

spiritual

true that of such mystic systems

is

it

method

this

orthodox mysticism.

of dikrs at fixed times,


the repetition
f

as

and the honour paid to their teachers) are the property of the lower
But

classes.

of

Shattarite

falling

great

tarlqah

The other
away from

between.
a

works are now

his

success

in

tarlqahs,

school

of

which

in

Acheh, and adherents

in

mysticism
later

and

few

are

times caused

is

blame

to

Achehnese adherents of the

for

far

so great

more of

the Satariah, cannot boast one whit the

Acheh. Perhaps the war

doubt the

without

or

read

little

but

this,

Naqshibandiyyah or

Qadiriyyah are of no account as compared with those of West Java


or of Deli

On

and Langkat.

tomb of Abdurra'uf continues to attract crowds


of devout visitors, and it is made the object of all kinds of vows which
are fulfilled by pious offerings to the saint. This tomb has become the
the other hand the

Achehnese pay
Legend

res'

durr'^ff

Some

^'

of

which shows how

legend

characteristic

of a

subject

regard the

little

to chronology.

them make out Abdurra'uf

to

have been the introducer

^^ Islam into Acheh, although this religion was prevalent in the country
at least

two centuries before

Hamzah

of

his time.

Others make him a contemporary

Pansuri and represent him as the latter's antagonist, as

became a holy teacher

to be.

The

story goes that

blished a house of ill-fame at the capital of

Acheh

black to be laid at the door of heretics. Abdurra'uf

with the
the

path

women, one
of vice,

he

From

the

3.

Hamzah had
for

no vice

first

estais

too

made appointments

after another; but in place of treading with

them

paid them the recompense they looked

and then proceeded to convert them

it

for,

to the true faith.

Present level of learning in Acheh.

above remarks

it

may have been

gathered that

for

than three centuries the three chief branches of learning of Islam

more{Fiqli,

U(ul and Tafaiuwuf, Ach. Pikah, Usuy and Teiisaivoh) and as a means
or

instrument

to attain them, the

Arabic grammar and

its

accessories

21

have been practised

day

as

ficiency

in

especial

zeal

this

gather

Whether
period

of which

The

native country, others

their

in

Settlements or at Mekka.

in tlie Straits

Acheh during

learning advanced or declined in

tained.

we have some knowledge cannot be

fact that

studied with

is

also that of the greatest practical

is

knowledge

undergo a wider course of study

the present

at

a moderate degree of pro-

and the branch that

Law, which
their

many

just as

who have reached

learning,

triple

the

is

Some

utility.

Acheh. There are

in

earher times,

in

the historical

definitely ascer-

Learning in
^^^^^

^^^^

-^^

such an extraordinary number of Malay writings modem times,

on the teaching of Islam appeared

in

Acheh during

the i6th and

i/ih

centuries was merely the result of the political condition of the country,
as that period embraces the zenith of the prosperity of the port-kings.

Among

authors

the

mystics,

heretical

or

works or among the most celebrated

of these

orthodox,

we do not

single

find

Achchnese

name, but only those of foreign teachers. Learned Mohammedans have


at all times sought countries

addition to honour and respect.

advantages

in

champions,

who

significance

little

where their attainments commanded

fought their learned


in

regard

battles

The

')

the

in

solid

activity of these
capital,

had but

the scholarly or religious development

to

of the people of Acheh.

may

It

well be supposed that there were formerly as well as at the Value


r

present time some teachers of Achehnese race

enlightenment to their countrymen

in

who gave
1

survive

were

they

their

authors

^)

and to

the necessary

Malay or Achehnese writings

The fame of such works of the third rank, however,


to

^1

this

is

not wont long

must be added the

always compiled to meet the requirements of a definite

period and of a definite public. Pamphlets like those of

Teungku Tiro

Teungku Kuta Karang, and books and treatises such


Cheh Marahaban (to be more closely described in Chap.
or

be so

much

There

i)

is

Even up

chiefly

2)

as

one treatise

in

The

will

not

Malay apparently written by an Achehnese

to the present time teachers

in

as those of
II)

spoken of half a century hence.

from Mekka, to make a

disposed chiefs

fact that

and exponents of mysticism occasionally come,

profit of their learning or their sanctity

among

religiously

various parts of the country.

writings of

Teungku Tiro (Chch Saman) and

of

Chch Marahaban, both of whom

were (before the war) among the most highly esteemed teachers in the country, furnish us
with a good gauge wherewith to measure the highwater-mark of learning in Acheh. Like
those of all their predecessors among their own countrymen, their productions have not the
smallest significance or value outside the narrow limits of their

own

land.

of the
learned writyf
^^^^
-Achehnese.

named Malcin Itam

or

Takch Abduhvahab

principal

rules of the law

which

fully

Zain

is

bin

arc collected the

in

century old. Another Achchnese named jNIohammad

from whose hand there appeared

Jalaluddfn,

on a subordinate part of the

essay

insignificant

wliicli

in

'),

regard to marriage, and the original of

Malay an

in

ritual,

and one of

-)

the innumerable editions of Sanusi's small manual of dogma,

law of marriage,

appears

^)

Mohammedan

also to have been the author of a Malay treatise on the

which enjoyed the honour of being lithographed

^)

in

Constantinople in A. H. 1304 under the name Bab an-nikah (Chapter


on marriage). I do not know in what connection this writer stands with
Jalrduddin (= Teungku di Lam Gut, see p. 28 below) who in A. H.

1826

(A. D.

1242

LXXXVl).

It

consigned

27)

wrote the Tambiho rapilin (see Chap.

probably due to chance that

is

oblivion

to

like

those

marked by any redeeming

specially

works have not been

his

many

of so

appendix two pages

colour, with the exception of an

They

others.

not

are

and are also devoid of

traits

N.

II,

local

length attached

in

to ]\Iohammad Zains Bab an-nikah, containing precepts designed to

the requirements of Achehnese

The most
teukeiiUt)

resorting

life.

of these precepts concerns the taqlld (Ach.

characteristic
e.

i.

The

The Study

has
declined

Study
not
in

who

girl

hale

to give legal sanction

is

meudeiiJiab.

teaching of Islam, of what

of the

of the Hanafite

a minor and without

is

object of the author

Achehnese custom of the

to the peculiar

imam

to the authority of the

school in respect to the marriage of a


father or grandfather.

suit

is

'')

generally described

Acheh.
i)

find

no

Royal Library, Schumann V,

N"^ 1752 and 1774).


2) Sec \'an den Berg's Vcrslag^
3) See
4)

uf

it:

Van den

as to

5) See

347

p.

seq.

et

...Jixjs

roiJl^

.-K>t3C/

ujUi'o

O-a.*-

lA^ifij

J^

O'

(j-;.-<xJ>

7,

this

6,

in

the three copies with

A^

q'-3

o.i--.

KaJ^j

c:^-JCj^.x!

A-^J.J

in
,j'

ci^j'

v-^:^.';

^_^7-S.a

J<i

o^-r."

-r^^^^

am

45.

book, though

Kij.X.Zi'

library,

36.

9^

The passage

Jk_s

which

and Malay MSS. of the Leiden

feel certain tliat

having been written by an Achehnese, that

its

Vol

p.

Vcrslag^ pp. 8

Berg's

cannot recall the source of

name

clear indication of the author's

acquainted (Berlin

beyond

is

have heard or read

all

question runs as follows:

^.a\

^^$>\a Jo iAxUj

\Ji;Aa?

(read:yi)
fSiJKXf'

doubt.

l>J

vJ.ib

(iVx

q5

JSJi

'

^::j\.'i

*Jlft*vL

^3Wfi*/o

,.j

^.^J.

iA.s

[j^

\^

()'->

^L-;i <iy->^

iib Jb ^.

^,.jI

I'wS.Jli'

^A.i*ij.i

c>-J.'

23

"Mohammedan

as

somewhat

received
years.

such

If

has

law"',

of

is

do not want

chiefs

value

little

tlii)UL;h

as

too

kalis

has

it

30

i)ast

as a qualification for offices

that

-),

due partly to

is

and partly to the

offices hereditary,

sacred law, and to the reluctance of


chiefs'

Achch,

in

and teungku incunasah

')

the adat which makes these


tlie

dcclinctl

of a check durinLj the disturbances of the

learning

such as those of kali

that

not

fact

energetic upholders of the

true pandits to strengthen the

all

hands by pronouncing their crooked dealings

straight.

Such branches of study as commentaries on the Quran {Tafslr, Ach.


Teupense)

sacred

the

or

tradition

[Had'itJi,

formed the piece de resistance of

earliest times of Islam

was from them that the people derived

it

the law has

now become more or


been made independent

of learning

are

of law, have

teachers

Ach. HadiJi) which

how^cver

occasionally give

*^^

learning, as

knowledge of the

their

^^.

rules

ornamental, since the study of

less

of them. Such ornamental branches

esteemed even

highly

all

in the

Ornamental

instruction

in

Acheh. Proficient

them, but no one thinks of

in

studying these until he has mastered the essentials of Pikali and Usny.

4.

The student
an

of

subject

attractive

indeed been

Mohammedans
for

Archipelago would furnish

student

life,

monograph. The pesantrens of Java have

described in a

in the

number

of essays, but in these nothing

is

found but a superficial view of the question, which has never

be

to

life

Schools and Student Life.

been closely examined.

and wide-spread error

capital

Mohammedan
priests

things

'').

as

This

naibs,

be

See vol

etc.

I,

as

lebes

at

countries

"priests"
etc.

2)

into

this

that

is

the

schools

of the

they are schools of

but also because, even

if

we admit

"clergy" as applied to the penguins,

or

in Java,

p. 93.

to

not only because there are no such

"priests",

traininif-schools

Van den Berg falls


op Java en Madocra

ment

these

absolutely untrue

is

modins,

rcrarded

i)

in

Mohammedan

erroneous term

the

3)

religion

regard

in

the pesantrens cannot in any sense

for

See Vol.

the

1,

holders of these

pp. 70

error in his essay

ct

offices.

Most

seq.

Dc MohammeJaansche

gcislclijkhchi

(Batavia 1882) p. 22 ct seq., and therefore expresses his astonishthe fact that the pesantrens in West Java arc attended by women "although they

cannot of course become candidates

for

any

priestly otllice."

No

real

priests,

24
penguins and naibs (but not

of the
is

attended a pesantren

true,

entirely neglected such instruction.


is

per cent

such

fill

for

of the
offices,

What

''priestly" otTice

santri

or

students

Kyaliis

pcngu

and

us.

indeed

also

in

striking,

however,

may

it

be said of ninety

they w(Hild be unwilling to

that

and that they rather as a

so

Java

in

it

many who have

in pesantrens never think

view those who occupy

class

them with contempt and sometimes even with

As

tlesa-clerg)') have,

more

is still

majority of students

the fact that the great

of competing

so-callcil

tlie

time, but there are

for a

hatred.

Sumatra and elsewhere

relations

are

pro-

verbially strained between the gurus or "kyahi" (as they are called in

the

non-official

Java)

i.

their

subordinates,

e.

teaching pandits, and the penguins and

or

including

those

officials

other

in

countries

whose

duties correspond to those of pengulu in Java.

Those who administer the Moslim law of inheritance and marriage,

who

control the great

kyahis

these

hairsplitting,

teachers

and

mosques and conclude marriage contracts, regard


belonging to them as a vexatious, quarrelsome,

all

arrogant and

even fanatical sort of people

and pandits, on their

part, accuse the

while these

penguins of ignorance,

worldlincss, venality and sometimes even of evil living.

As we have already observed, by far the greater number of the


students who frequent the pesantrens or pondoks in Java, the snraus in
mid-Sumatra, or the rangkangs in Acheh, is composed of embryo teachers
or pandits, who disdain rather than desire office, or of those whose
parents set a value on a specially thorough course of religious instruction.
institutions could only properly be

Such

hood"

if

we might apply

the

name

termed "schools

of priest to

all

for the priest-

persons

who had

passed through a course of theological training.


The

students.

In

AcHch

young men

as well as in Java- there are to be found

whose parents consider

it

learning;

practise

sacred

impulse

towards learning,

sin

befitting that

lads
to

some of

innate love of and

which would

on the part of their parents; some few who are

even than
in

hope to

the students

their children should

who study from an


contradict

penguins, naibs, tcungkns of nicnnasalis or kalis,

rule

among

of devout families; sons of the wealthy and distinguished

in Java,

since devolution of oflice

the former country; and

final!)'

attain through their learning a

salvation in the next.

be esteemed a
later

though fewer

on to be
in

Acheh

by inheritance forms the

those of slender means,

competence

in

this

who

world and

25

the contempt

However deep

Mammon,

to

which the

in

nialeiiis

yet they are not themselves without regard

of this

things

securing a

fair

f(^r

share of the latter for themselves.

Well-to-do people very often prefer to give their daughters


.,

on

in

,1

Java and Acheh.

alike occasionally invoke their

All

and such requests

At

accompanied by the

offer

know how numerous

these

are in Native social

and

their

attendance

indispensable,

gifts

in

marriage,
,

who

literati,

Advantages
of

religious

learning,

account viewed with marked disfavour by the chiefs both

this

their prayers in times of distress,

is

the good

world, and are not slow to seize the opportunity of

With a suthcient provision tor their maintenance, to these


are

may

uhiiiKis

;iiul

the occupiers of the so-called ''priestly ofticcs," sold as these are

hold

of

gifts.

knowledge or

for help are

religious feasts

all

life

always

and we

their presence

by

often actually purchased

is

of money. There are thus numerous opportunities

for profit for

the ulama or malem, quite apart from the instruction they give, which

though not actually

who have

those

and esteem

"paid

for"

recompensed by

substantially

still

is

To

the requisite means.

must be added the honour

this

accorded to these teachers by the people, who

liberally

only fear the 'priesthood" (wrongly so called) on account of its influence


in

matters affecting property and domestic


the

as

Just

life.

used to say that a prophet

Israelites

is

without honour None


,

in

own

his

country, so the Achehnese assert with equal emphasis that

no man ever becomes an alem, to say nothing of an ulama,

gampong. To be esteemed

as such in the place of his birth, he

have acquired

outside

chiefly

by the prejudice

whom we
him

for

also be

learning

his

man;

natural to

have seen as a child

limits.

its

at

added the

is

to be explained

we must have

own gampong, surrounded by

the

one

his

lost sight of

development. To

this

that those who remain from childhood

fact

must

to recognize greatness in

play,

some time during the period of

This

own

in his

in

playmates of their youth,

must
their

find

harder as a rule to apply themselves to serious work than those


are sent to pursue their studies

The same

notion

among

strangers.

universally prevalent in Java.

is

it

who

Even

relatives of a famous kyahi are sent elsewhere, preferably to

the nearest

some

place

not too close to their parents' home, in order that the love of amusement

may

not

their

intercourse

already

interfere

partially

with

may

the

instruction

be restricted

attained

the

same

t(j

they
such

object.

are
as

to receive

and that

are pursuing or have

Hence the expression

"to

acquire
learning in
ji^gi,.

^^^1,

^^"^pong.

26
be

the poiulok or pcsantrcn" always carries with

in

of being a stranger
"to

directly

from

meaning

this

to that of "to be

happens that most of the learned

it

it

in

Java the notion

the word ineiidagang'^), which originally

be a stranger, to travel from place to place", has passed

signifies

Thus

Acheh

In

').

the greater

of their student

part

life

in

in

engaged

in study."

Great Acheh have spent

Pidie,

vice versa the

while

studiously inclined in Pidie and on the East Coast amass their capital

Acheh

of knowledge in Great

word

In the territory of Pidie in the wider sense of the

Achcbncsc
r^epute''

^).

before
in

coming of the Dutch

the

to

some measure centres of learned

nese

name

itself

and from Acheh used

Acheh, certain places which were

life,

where many

from the Arab,

for "student",

there were,

''),

i/iiirld)

Achch-

iiiuribs (the

both from the country

to prosecute their studies.

Such were Langga,

Langgo, Srhveu'c, Siinpang, le Leiibem (= Ayer Labu). Tiro, which has


these

in

latter

teungkus of that place


the

widespread celebrity from the two

who took

a prominent part in the war against

days acquired

Dutch, was from ancient times

there

than

for

great

the

and who lived there


of so

many

living

number

famed

of learned

Tiro was as

^).

less

it

for the teaching

men whom

were sanctified by

it

given

produced

the presence

ulamas and the holy tombs of their predecessors.

None dared to carry arms in this gampong even in time of war; and
hukom or religious law was stronger here than elsewhere, while its
enemy the adat was weaker. Growing up amid such surroundings, many
young men feel themselves led as it were by destiny to the study of

the

the sacred law.

1) In

studies

Bantijn this principle

(the

recitation

of

is

the

pursued so

Quran)

to a

far

that

boys are even sent

pondok outside

their

own

for their

village

elementary

Init

in

other

Acheh this is exceptional.


2) Ureu'eng dagaiig always means "stranger" and is usually applied to foreign retail traders
and especially to Klings; ineudagattg has now no other meaning than that of "to study"
and nreiie/ig memiagang means "a student."
Tciiiigktt <// Acheh or
3) Thus there is a teacher at lii Lcubeue (Ayer Labu) called
parts of Java as well as in

Tciingkii

take

Achch^ since he

pursued his studies

names from the gampung

their

may have travelled elsewhere to seek


4) The Achehnese give the name
belonged

to

hinterland,

Acheh)
5)

all

Vol

the

kingdom of

that

in

for a

long time in Acheh. Others generally

which they reside or were born, even though they

instruction.

of Pidie to

name,

i.

e.

llie

almost

whole of the
tlie

and include under the name 77///// (the Kast,


that we call the North and East Coast.
p.

178.

territory

wliicli

formerly

whole of the North Coast with


as

its

reckoned from the capital of

2/

Samaii

Chcli

leader

as

Tiro

death

his

till

succeeded him

man who

has since died), was

younger son of Muhamat Amin

Mat Amin with about

Acheh

Proper,

were situated
the

XXVI

neighbourhood of the capital and

the

in

troops.]

in the sagi of

whose proper name was Nya' Him

Lam Nyong,

di

even more followers than

before him, and drew them by hundreds

to hear his teaching.

Mukims) with

the super-

the war, the principal centres of teaching

before

for Ibrahim), attracted

Migr

his father's place.

Mukims.

Teungku
father

fill

a hundred of his followers perished in 1896

Aneu' Galong by the Dutch

at the surprise of

In

indeed

well-known Teungku Mat Amin, the son of Cheh Saman.

vision of the

[This

latter

now panglima under

is

Such was

his eldest son (a learned

too young to

still

Tiro par

his relative, the

man. The

Muhamat Amin's death

for at

right-hand

his

di

di Tiro.

Teungku Muhamat Amin, and

1886,

in

Cheh Saman, was

energetic

of an old family of pandits

sometimes known as Teungku Chi'

also

excellence,

The foremost member

"-).

was within the memory of man the Teungku

in that place

Acheh

the holy war until his death, was the son of a simple

in

from

leube

of late years was conspicuous in Great

wlio

'),

He had

guru

Egypt) to

himself studied at

who owed

name

his

of

his sojourn in that country,

his father

(short

and grand-

Lam Nyong, eager


Lam Ba'et (in the VI

to

Teungku Meuse (from

and

at

Lam

Bhu' under

Malay named Abduggamad. Very many Achehnese ulamas and almost


all the teachers of the North and East Coasts owe their schooling wholly
a

or in part to him.

death of a certain

After the

Lam

Bhu', and

Muhamat Amin, known as Teungku


Malay Abuggamad, who had wedded

of his successor the

by one
Cheh Mara-

the former's sister, a period of energy in learning was followed


of inactivity.

haban

'').

This was

all

changed by

His father was an unlearned

the appearance of

man from

on the West Coast. Marahaban studied


other

places)

(guide

and

i)

See Vol

2)

Hence

followers as
3)

Vol

4) See

and

later

on

at

pp. 179

Teungku Kuta

Karaiii;

^)

to his fellow-

would never speak of Clich Saman


him I, cube Saman.

Tiro, hut contemptuously styled

II,

as haji-shaikh

Mekka and Medina)

pp. loi, 187.

my Mekka

(in

who settled later


Simpang among

182.

the jealous

Teungku

Pidiii

Mekka, where he acted

protector of pilgrims to

I,

in

Tiro,

pp. 28 et

see},

and 303

ct

se(i.

lo

his

28

countrymen. lie returned from Arabia with

down

again

and put

suasion

Ade

learning at

his

and of the

')

the

course

In

of time

disposal

arose

there

Lam

from the gampong of

became not only

writer

prolific

title

to per-

Teuku Kali Malikon

Alukims.

At the same

of the

above-named

-).

pupil

clever

Malay iVbduggamad, who received the

of

XXVI

learned kali of the

less

time he became a teacher and a

intention of settlint;

tlie

Acheh he yielded

but at the capital of

Pidie,

in

of Teungkii di Lain Gut

name was

Gut. His proper

Jalaluddln.

XXVI

a popular teacher but also kali of the

"')

He

Mukims.

His son, a shrewd but comparatively unlearned man, inherited his father's
title

and dignity, but gladly transferred the duties of

son-in-law,

Teungku
in

Marahaban

the

Lam

di

name, but

is

spoken

just

of.

his office to his

The grandson

Gut, and his surviving representative,

is

of the old

similarly kali

consulted by none and never poses as a teacher.

At Krucng Kale

there

father in that capacity.

was a renowned teacher who succeeded

At Chbt Pay a such students

their proficiency in reciting the

Quran

his

as desired to bring

to a higher level than could

be

attained in the village schools, assembled under the guidance of Teungku

man

Deuruih, a

The

of South Indian origin.

unsettled condition of the country during the past 26 years has

completely disorganized religious teaching. In

of course

such instruction

from

gampong;

that

being a teacher

XXVI)

is

acquired

given by an old Teungku

like

him,

Uscn,

IV Mukims

whose

father

Teungku Tanbh

Abe'e

The

who

students,

are for the

....

they pursue their studies, must

Even where
1)

\'ol

2)

He

is

their

teacher

numbers are not

Mekka

Teungku

"*),

celebrated for his learning

kali of the

the place where

in

course be given a

by hundreds

called

XXII Mukims.

told

at

ot

name

is

most part strangers


^

Semibfig

same was the case

Haji Muda, who studied

alias

and independence, held the position of


riaces of
abode of the
students.

Lam

takes his

of the VII (sagi of the

Lam Nyong. The

learning at

Seulimeum (XXII Mukims)

In

well.

who

Tanbh Mira/i, who besides

Teungku

also kali of the


his

Teungku Krueng Kale

with
as

still

is

it

home
,

...

to live in.

would be

difficult

pp. 96 et seq.
further referred to in the next chapter.

3) The preposition
gampong where they

di in such appellations,
reside or were born,

is

which distinguished persons borrow from the


sometimes employed and sometimes omitted;

but the vernacular has given to this prefixing of di a honorific signification, Teungku di Tiro,
for instance,

sounds more respectful than Teungku Tiro.

4) See Vol.

I,

p.

100. [Both father

and son arc now dead].

29

house them

to

serves as

chapel

the

in

all

the

lor

whose wives do not

live

village

rule, then,

form of a dwelling-house, but with

in the

built

is

of three

rangkangs, after the fashion of the

as

elevations

of different

floors

passage into small

central

the

As

in Java.

on the same level throughout, and

floor

males

all

from lodging under the same

resulting

known

buildings

place

in

a dormitory for

as

also regarded as detrimental to their studies.

is

pondoks or huts

rangkang

care;

and

the people of the gampong, on the application of the teacher,

simple

erect

students'

which, as ue know,

buildinL,^

gampong. The intercourse with the

the

in

young men of the gampong


roof with them,

iiwioiasali,

is

Rantjkangs.

divided on either side of


of which

each

chambers,

less

has only one

it

serves as a

dwelling-place for from one to three vuiribs.

Occasionally some devout


into
is

luaqf (Ach. ivakeiieh)

then

transferred

who maintains

kokolot)

enlightens the
Similarly

that

for

not

is

the

made

teacher and fitted up as

of the

of a rangkang.

hut

of a

and

order

teiingku

the students

The students

guree.

or

experienced

less

Acheh

in

and prefect
all

pondok

Java every

In

The house

the benefit of the students.

enclosure

manner

possible in the

far as

the

to

person converts a disused dwelling-house

for

pesantren has

enforces

rules

its

lurah (Sund.

Assistant

and

of cleanliness,

of his fellow-disciples in their studies-

rangkang

who lodge

sufiiciently clear for

in

is

at

once assistant master

the rangkang.

He

explains

them by the teaching of the

are often occupied for years in mastering the sub-

sidiary branches of learning, especially grammar, and here the teungku

rangkang

is

able

to

help

them

in

knowledge, by guiding their footsteps

attaining
in

the

necessary

the study of Malay

nsny books such as the Masailah, Bidayah and

(^irat

practical

pikali

al-mustaqlm

and

').

This establishment of heads of pondoks or rangkangs and the excellent

custom among native students of continually learning from one another


alone save the system from inefficiency, for the teachers take no pains
to

improve the method of instruction, and many of them are miserably

poor pedagogues

The ulamas

are

in

every form of learning.

wont

to impart instruction to the students in

the two following ways. Either the latter go one

with

i)

Sec

by one

al)ove.

of

to the teacher

copy of the work they arc studying, whereupon he

p.

one of Method

^",^''"^\i''^i"y

recites a

the teachers.

30
chapter,

adding

the

read

disciples

in

sit

makes the pupil

and repeat or write out the commentary; or

text

commentary

explanations, and then

requisite

tlic

round

circle

like

who

the master,

else the

both text and

recites

lecturing his class, allowing each, either

professor

during or after the lesson, to ask any questions he wishes.


In Java the

Sorogan and
bandungan.

Acheh

j,^

/,^,^^^^^,^^^,^_

of these two systems

first

former method

the

and the second

called sorogan

is

is

usually

followed by the

reading of one of the Malay manuals mentioned above under the supervision of the gampong teacher or of the teungku rangkang, the bandungan

method alone being used

for

Achehnese have no

names

of the
students.

for these

methods of instruction

conimon with the Javanese pondoks an uncleanliness which


indeed the former surpass the latter in this respect.

where the laws of

that in such religious colonies,

much more

strictly

man who

limits

this respect

himself to

there

is

the

Nor do

complete

the

since

ritual purification are

however shows that a


of the law in

the laws of purification extend to clothing.

bath

is

seldom obligatory, especially where

no intercourse with women)

is

of

little

seldom washed or changed and the rooms

live

rarely

if

to

service, as the clothes

which the students

in

ever cleaned out.

Such advantage over ordinary gampong


regard

One might suppose

minimum requirements

are

in

in

proverbial

washing of the body (often limited to certain parts

ritual

only,

is

can remain extremely dirty without being accused of neglect

of his religious duties.

The mere

').

ohserved than elsewhere, we should find an unusually

of personal cleanliness. Experience

high degree

The

books.

system of teaching, the Achehnese rangkangs have

Besides the

Uncleanliness

special

study of the Arabic

the

through their

cleanliness

folk as the uniribs

stricter

may

possess

observance of religious

law,

they lose through their bachelorhood, since they have to manage

their

own

cooking, washing etc.

In Java there are to be found in

many

pesantrens written directions

regulating the sweeping out of the huts, the keeping of watch at night,

the

filling

who omit

l)

of the
their

water-reservoirs

turn

of service or enter

The bandungan method

master speaks and

etc.,

is

we hearken."

and

fines are levied

pondok

on those

or chapel with dirty

thus described; 'Teur.ghu kheun^ geiitanyo'e sima'


5//;/fl'

is

the Arabic tU.**, and

is

also used in

Javanese in the sense of "hearkening" to teaching by word of mouth, or


the guru of his pupils' reading or recitation.

to

"the

Malay and

the hearing

by

31

money

the

feet,

beiiii;"

still

than

the

unclean

less

little

where the universal

common

paid into the

these rules often are, the\-

chest

Ill-kept thoui^h

').

render the pondoks and their occupants

rangkangs and their muribs

and habit of

dislike of water

in

Acheh,

have reached an

dirt

unusually high degree.

bndug (mangy or leprous)

In Java gitdig or

of the students, and the ^satifri gudig''

Thus

type.

skin-diseases

not surprising that

is

is

a very

Acheh

in

common

epithet

even to some extent a popular


also /cude

it

is

'-),

though they are not confined to

t!ie

and suchlike

students huts, are

yet regarded as a sort of hall-mark of the murib.

The

general development of the muribs in

1-

,-

-.1the
m

from then" sojourn

,1

Acheh
.^

derives less benefit

r .t

to another. The
from their wanderings
from one pesantren
^

familiar

latter

Influence of
led by
^^^^ students

t'lc life

ra>igka)igs than that ot the santris in Ja\'a

become

"

*'"^'''

^f'
neral dcvel-

with their fellow-countrymen of other tribes, as Javanese with opment.

Sundanese and ^Madurese, and their studies draw them from the country
towns such as Madiun and Surabaya. They also improve

into the large

knowledge of agriculture through planting padi and

their

coffee to help

Acheh geographical knowledge is confined to


narrow limits; as the student only moves about within his own country,
intercourse with kindred tribes is not promoted by the meudagang nor
does he act as a pioneer of development in any way. He returns home
with very little more knowledge of the world than he possessed when
their maintenance. In

in

he went on

his travels; all

an ever-increasing contempt for

is

adat of his country (which conflicts with Islam

the

that later

so

he learns

as a dweller in the

on,

many

in

respects)

gampong, he looks down on

his

fellow-countrymen with a somewhat Pharasaical arrogance.


It

is

needless

rangkangs

observe

to

Acheh

in

are

still

that the morals of the inhabitants of the


less

above suspicion than those of the

pesantren-students in Java.

Those who have devoted themselves

to study

and

all

who have

some reason

or

other

a claim to the title of teungku

'),

for
J

are regarded icungkus.

by the

mass of the people not only as having a wider knowledge of

religion

than themselves, but also as

i)

This

common

having to some extent, control

fund, called the dinvit ticgara^ serves to defray the expense of entcrtaininj;

guests, the purchase of lamp-oil, provisions etc.


2)

The

remedy

kuiic

for

this

huta

is

disease

Sec

\'ol.

1,

characteristic of the urcu'ciii^ nifudngans:

the juice extracted from the leaves of the ricinus {innvaih)

the skin.
3)

specially

p.

70

et

scq.

Popular

is

as a

rubbed into

est-

iniation of the

32

over the treasury of God's mercy. Their prayers are beHeved to


a

or

blessing

and to have the power of causing sickness or

curse,

They know

recovery.

ensuring

force

for

sufhciently devout to

is

spoken words. Even when some ignorant leube

their

to

of Allah

appointed

formulas

the

sundry purposes, and their manner of living


lend

command

is

so honest as to decline the request of a mother that he should pronounce


a

formula of prayer over her sick child,

he

that

petition

who has some knowledge


regularity,

cannot refuse her simple

lie

blow upon

will. '*at least

even the breath of one

it";

of book-lore and

his ritual duties with

fulfils

credited with healing power by. the ignorant people.

is

Branches of knowledge not appertaining

5.

to the

threefold learning of Islam.

The
sacred

cleiime'c

branches

chiefly

seen,

with

Tensazvoh)

preliminary
as

Tcupeuse

have also made a passing acquaintance with an

owing

the

to

heresy

proper, namely the eleiime'e sale'

').

it

involves,

lies

These numerous

eleiune'es,

[ilmii,

ngelmii),

like

are

eleuine'e

outside learning

There are besides a number of other

"sciences" which cannot be regarded as forming a part of

and Javanese

the threefold

is

the

and the supplementary ones such

etc.),

We

we have already

and

Usuy

[Pikah,

[Naliii

and Hadih.
which,

par excellence, as

learning

their
if

"///i?

learning".

namesakes among the Malays

viewed according to our mode of

thought, simply superstitious methods of attaining sundry ends, whether


permissible

or

forbidden.

knowledge of these

is

considered indis-

pensable alike for the fulfilment of individual wishes and the successful
carrying on of

kinds of callings and occupations. For the forger of

all

weapons or the goldsmith, the warrior or the


that mysterious hocus-pocus, the eleuuiec which
to his calling,

which
dispose

foe

he

See

thought

by

at least as

instruction

is

regarded as appertaining

important as the

and

knowledge of

practice.

skill in his

trade

So too he that

will

of his merchandize, conquer the heart of one he loves, render

innocuous,

whatever

i)

is

acquires

architect, a

p.

else

is

13 above.

sow dissent between


suggested

to

wedded

him by passion or

pair,

or

desire,

compass
must not

neglect the

should he be ignorant of these, he seeks the aid

clt'iiDicrs;

of such as are well versed in them.

From

the

manner

difference in the

Some

them

of

of view

point

are

of the

religious

teacher,

which these various

in

as

classified

(Arab.

sihc

there

a great

is

Views

siJir)

i.

e.

witchcraft, the

s^^"^

^^

elcumciis.

existence and activity of which

though
as

such

practise

its

much
as

to use

even permissible methods of clcunicc

the

injury

or

although
nation

forbidden as the work of the evil one.

is

siJic

means

godless

recognized by the teaching of Islam,

is

(such

help

the

of fellow-believers,

of the

Devil

of the

by

sihc

cleuuiee

Hatred

arts.

for

just

employ

to

djens),

strict

condem-

not,

however,

an enemy and the love of

(generally that of the forbidden kind) are the

The formulas

of prayer and the methods


of sovereign

as

force

class.

recommended
such

are

women

commonest motives which

induce them to resort to cleuniecs of the prohibited

kitabs

is

Achehncse, any more than the Javanese or the Arabs,

the

from practising such

Arab

as

teaching does

religious

It

for evil ends,

or of infidel

be for the attainment of lawful objects. The

it

withhold

destruction

as

as

in the

orthodox

might also well be

classified

under the head of witchcraft, but they are regarded by the

Believers

as

confine
seal

this

ordained

of the Creator.

Nor do the Achehnese teachers

view to such mystic arts as are marked with the Arabic

they also

employ purely Achehnese material

readily

smacks of Hindu

influence, so long as tliey

fail

or such as

to detect in

it

pagan

origin.

An

important source of information

which we now speak, as practised

work

in

pandit

Shaikh

1893 (A. H.

pp,

may

not

description,

131

Abbas

i.

1). It

be

but

was written

II

Chapter

(^= Ibrahim, 1838

found

furnishes

in

Acheh,

is

1309) and at

1891 (A. H.

Malay by the Achehnese

in

Teungku Kuta Karang

c.

183 et seq., Vol.

Manso Shah

Sultan
that

regard to the mystic arts of

at the present time in

called Taj-ul-mulk, printed at Cairo in

Mekka
Vol.

in

II

1870).

It

etc.)

(as

whom

to

see

at the instance of

contains

little

or nothing

other Arabic or Malay books of the same


useful survey of the

modes of

calculating

lucky times and seasons, of prognostications and of Native medical art

and the methods of reckoning time which are

may
As

call

the

in

in

what we

from

noticing

vogue

the literate circles of Acheh.


writer

is

an

iilaina,

he

of course

abstains

"branches of science" which give clear tokens of pagan origin.


II

of

''^'8'*'".^^*^^-

elcuuiccs are recrarded.


o
cners with

re^"^^

34

The science
of invulnera^^^
bihty.

'

esteem

upon

witness

Java,

in

based are

the

(i)

and

-)

most important factor

the theory that a knowledge of the

(2)

knowledge of the

(the niaripat beusbc, as

it

is

various

into

elements of iron are of course present

All

creation

is

a kind of evolution of

God from

returning again
earth then

the

into

Now

[I'asd)

other metals

j.|^^,

and

The whole

this evolution

tnjoli),

eventually

exposed to the attack of iron or

is

still

stronger element

makes the man keubay or invulnerable.

Mercury

Treatment
with mercury.

All.

the ,eleume'c of iron has the power of producing on

temporary formation of iron or some

is

Unity through the medium of man. In the

any part of the human body that


lead,

as

elements are united and capable of changing places with

all

one another.

that

himself,

is

man, since man

in

place along seven lines or grades [uieurcutabat

takes

form

resisting

weapons. The argument

most complete revelation of God, and God

the

called) to

endowing man with the power of

in

when wrought

metal

follows.
is

')

two notions causes

of these

innermost nature of iron

this

high

itself.

The combination
a

in

or manuals extant

and names of any substance gives complete control

attributes

over the substance


science

elcnmcc kcubay,

This used also to be held

numerous primbons

the

as

The principles on which this group of cleumee is


somewhat pantheistic scheme of philosophy to which

we have alluded above

The

soldiers,

known

that

is

subject.

this

essence,

Achchncsc, but especially

elcunic'c for all

of invulnerability.

science

the

and

pantrlimas
s.
r

chiefs,

e.

i.

important class of

vcrv

regarded as exercising a mysterious influence over

is

hence one of the most popular methods of attaining

is
the introduction of mercury in a particular manner
human body [pcutainbn^ rasa). This treatment can only be
when resorted to under the guidance of a skilled guree. So

invulnerability
into

the

successful

every Achehnese chief has,


(jf

invulnerability, one special instructor

rasa

ra'sa kiitbay or
Preparation
for the course
of treatment,

(JrtlinariU' the
/

in addition to

(^omg
1)

penance by

ot

p.

is

prepared

...
religious

for

by

....
seclusion)

at least

seven days kaluct


,

in

,,.

a separate dwelling near

198.

lo ct scq.

The guru

of

Tcuku No' was

man from

Nya' Hanta (panjjlima of the

XXVI

Panglima Meuscugit Kaya

Teungku (lam,

Teungku

many advisers on the subject


known as ureucng pciitambng

salch.

treatment
,

See Vol.

2) P.
3)

/-

'')

di

is

Mul<ims)

is

said to

I.apang wIkj enjoys groat celebrity.

Hatcc

lliii'

in

Samalanga; that of Tcuku

Teungku di Pagar Ruyuiing;


come from Daya. There is also a

called

that of

certain

35

some sacred tomb. These days the


Httle

only at sundown

rice

rubbing

mercury, generally on the arms, which

witli

quantity of mercury has,


the

patient spends in fasting, eating a

stay his hunger. After this begins the

to

in

body. For the

patient's

further subjected to

lasts until a sufficient

by

the opinion of the guree, been absorbed

pantang

seven days

first

treatment he

of his

is

of various kinds; he must refrain from sexual

and the use of sour foods, and of ^^/V^yrt^/z/o^^'- (plantain-buds)

intercourse,

on nuirong (kelor-leaves) and labu (pumpkin).

Not only during the treatment but


patient

must

repeat

prayers

certain

invulnerability

for

duas

times. ]\Iany teachers hold that such


if

also in his subsequent

the

life,

appointed

at

or prayers are only efficacious

they are made to follow on the obligatory seumayangs ; some even

require of their disciples an extra

seumayang

ones to supplement those which they


previous part of their

lives.

to their method, while

at

By

in

addition to the

may have

means an odour of

this

is

given

left

open

sanctity

same time they have a way

the

daily

neglected during the

account for any disappointment of their disciples' hopes, without

to

prejudice to their

remain long

own

reputation.

on be reached by the

own

their

should they later

an enemy, they must blame

steel or bullet of

massage the teacher also repeats various prayers. To


ir

himself

methods

a matter of fact very few chiefs

neglect and not their teacher.

During the
perfect

As

faithful to this religious discipline; thus,

11-

in

his

for years as

calling

has

he

11
study the

to

1-

proper traditional

apprentice to another guree, and also to seclude

himself for a long period amid the loneliness of the mountains. In this
seclusion

the

some have even imagined

met Malem Uiwa,

that they have

immortal patron of invulnerability, with

whom we

shall

further acquainted in our chapter on literature (N. XIII)

many

In

considered

of the

condition

of success

that

[In

Uie year

should

pupil

the

it

is

not see his

of from one to three years after the completion

of the treatment or the course of instruction


l)

').

systems employed to compass invulnerability,

teacher for a period

in the

become

1898, and again on a smaller scale in

Gayo country who bore

the

name

seclusion {tapa) caused a considerable

of

indeed

in the

is

even asserted

1899, an adventurer from Tclong

Teungku Tapa owing

commotion

it

to his alleged

long mystic

dependencies on the Kast Coast, and

to

some extent also in those on the North Coast. He gave himself out to be Malum Diwa himself,
and promised his followers invulnerability and victory over the "unbelievers" The appearance
of the Dutch troops speedily put an end to the success which this impostor at first enjoyed among
the people. He was killed in 1900 in a skirmish with the Dutch troops near Piadah (I'asc)].

The patron
of invulnerab,uty.

36
that a transgression of this

of the heedless disciple

pantang regulation would

who disregarded

the

night

following the

complain

of a

heavy

In

quicksilver

has

not yet

feeling
fully

first

in

result in the

death

it.

day of the treatment, the patients


the

neck,

the

being that the

idea

dispersed and collects beneath the back

when

head

the

of

the

patient assumes a recum-

bent attitude.

The remedy

for this intolerable feeling


is

the repetition of a rajah

or exorcising formula

by

the instructor.

To

some notion of

give

the energy with which the

mercury

rubbed

is

in,

may mention

the popular

report

Teuku

that

Ne'

of Meura'sa absorbed

(about

katis

lbs.)

13

quicksilver into his

through the skin

The
whicli en-

sures invul-

of

body
of

however

quicksilver"

is,

not the only

method em-

ployed

nerability.

lo

').

"introduction

Objects the
wcarin{j of

we

produce

to

in-

vulnerability.

There are

certain objects

which have

only to be worn on the

body

to

render

it

proof

against wounds.
I'cugawc.

KUKU NK OK MEUKA

One
jects

These have the outward appearance of certain


insects,

some
to

caterpillars,

still

class

of such ob-

known

Vi?>pengaive.

SA.

lizards etc.,

but are

in

is

living creatures, such as

fact

composed of

harder metal, which a knife cannot scratch.

They

be met with by some lucky chance on the roadside or


l)

Massage with mercury appears

among

the Malays of the

to

in

iron or

are only

the forest.

be also regarded as a specific to secure invulnerability

Padang highlands.

37

Peugawes having the form of an


coloured

variety

of such a charm,
of as

much

as

of caterpillar)
if

hundred

five

(=

sort of

ajimat

jitnat,

means of

is

and

like

other peugaives, renders

peiigaive prepared in this

manner has the

of baronabeuet (from baJir an-nubmuwali

= the

worn on a band round the

waist.

gifts).

It

is

up an ajeumat

gum-

supposed to be gradually transformed into iron by

certain formulas,

wound-proof.

copper or some

rolling

nialb (sediment of

layer of e

in

were once

objects

iron,

pengawe can be made by

"amulet")

lacquer). This too

these

mentioned above, into

of elements

other metal.

dollars.

become metamorphosed, through the

actually living creatures, but have

conversion

can easily secure a price

it,

prevailing superstition,

the

long-haired, ash-

(a

very highly prized. The possessor

are

constrained to part with

two to

According to

sangkadu

iilat

its

wearer

special

name

(mystic) sea of prophetical

the object found combines with the hardness of iron the form of

If

a fruit or some

other eatable

thing,

it

is

also called peugazue, but

is

only of service as a charm [peunaiva] against poisons, from the action


of which

protects

it

Another peculiar

its

wearer.

charm against wounds

sort of

chain). Certain wild pigs called buy

solitary

in

their

the rante buy (pig's

tunggay from the

are said to have a

habits,

is

hook of

iron wire passing

which attaches

but

to

itself

change of form which converts


is

supposed

is

be formed from an earthworm which the animal takes up with

food,

it

his

himself of such a

moment

to

his

nose, and there undergoes the

into a charm.

eating he lays aside this hook, and

rante

they are

fact that

through their noses which renders them invulnerable. This


to

The

happy

When
the

is

make himself master

the buy tunggay

man who

can avail

of the rante.

According to the devout, however, the efiiciency of most peugaices


conditional

is

on the wearers leading a religious

charms merely cause

are
will

irritation instead of protecting his

the lead forming which changes of

Bullets
called

peungeuli'eh.

be wise to keep

it

on other occasions, as

common

I )

Pctie r

Whoever

finds

its

otherwise the

body.

own accord

one of these

into iron,

infallible

charms

about him when he engages in cojubat, but not


it

will

saying, addressed for

for a feast:

life;

then bring him

example

to

evil

fortune.

one who arrives just too

"what, have you a peungeulieh about you?"

na tanguy peungeulieh

.-

Hence the

').

late

reungeuliiih.

38

Another chanii

Other charms
IdiSabilitv'

"eye"

^"'^

^^'^^^

specific

tlie

enemy's bullets

saboh mata) worn about the body

{li

a cocoanut

is

Another kcubay-

').

a piece of rattan some sections of which are turned the wrong

is

way.

IMalem

as

is

it

turning aside

for

so fortunate as to find such an azvc siingsang,

Diwa was

such length that he was able to fasten

called, of

it

under

his

shoulders round breast and back. Nowadays such freaks of nature are

only to be found of the length of a couple of sections.

pro"duce'in-

^Iso held to be signs or causes of invulnerability.

vulnerability. ^-^^^

known

white freckles
certain

after

It

and
is

is

said to

Malem Diwa
glum lu)ifa)ig or

supposed to be infectious

had seven glunis of the favourite shape known as

^).

Such marks are considered by the Achehnese

bujigbiig.

upon the skin

Iciiki)

of the genitals and to

region

the

in

disease, are

for instance are

as glum, which remain as scars

fingers

cause violent irritation.

Such

This disease, (called glum or

disease.

between the

begin

by

spots on the skin, generally caused

peculiar

Certain

Spots on the

to

enhance the

personal beauty of both sexes.

sort of

ring-worm called kurab beusoe or iron kurab, which manifests


rust-coloured and intensely itching spots on the body,

itself in large

supposed to confer invulnerability, especially


the waist. This disease
the

itself,

recourse

kurab

patient

to

du\i

is

beusbc

it

begins to declare

whether he

his friends

prayer"),

("iron

forms a girdle around

When

also very infectious.

asked by

is

if it

as

it

is

is

lias

been having

supposed that the

can be brought about by the mysterious craft connected

beusbc

with iron.
The

Where

science

so

much depends on

the efficacy of weapons as in Acheh,

it

of weapons.
is

not surprising that the

weapons from bad

is

l-lcunic'c

which teaches how to distinguish good

regarded as of high importance. This art has been

to a great extent (though with certain modifications)

The vXchehnese regard

Malays.

the Malays of

adopted from the

Trengganu and the Bugis

as the great authorities (jn the subject.

The
our

forger

of

weapons has

Tcuku Nc' had such

2) Oil

of kayu-putih

vinegar are
leiiki.
is

eleumee, which according to

luiropean notions would contribute exceedingly

of their wares, though the

1)

his special

This

employed
last

remedy

or
as
is

Achehnese think

a cocoanut about

him tm

roots

or

the

remedies.

of

Some

ku'cit

strike

his

(]uite

to the value

journey to Keumala.

/(i/is^knciii'/i

the

little

the contrary. ICqually

rash

pounded

line

and mixed with

with a twig of the shrub called

of course an example of superstition with regard to names, as

based on the resemblance of the name of the plant to that of the disease.

it

39
strange but very simple are the expedients resorted to by a purchaser
to

the

test

measures
of

{=

rtiiiichdng,

sikin

For

or glkuang.

instance, he

on the blade successive sections each equal to the breadth

off

own

his

or

value of a

thumb-nail,

unfortunate),

repeating

cliilaka,

series

of words

such as: paUli

mcutnah (= lucky) inubahgia

(or chencliala)

raja, bicliara, kaya, sara, niati; or sa chhichala, keiidua ranjuna,

tiia,

keulhec keutinggalan, keupeu'ct kapanasan etc. up to

The word

lo.

that coincides with the last thumb-breadth,

is

supposed to

give the value of the weapon.

For

ordinary

the

sikins,

following

test

is

fighting

weapons of the Achehnese, the

employed. The

also

rib of a

cocoanut leaf

inso sections each equal in length to the breadth of the sikin,

divided

is

and these

are successively laid on the blade thus:

Should they when

above

as in the

gadeng

laid

figure,

upon the blade form a complete row of squares


called a

is

it

or tusks) and the

weapon

is

gajah

inb/ig (female elephant without

esteemed bad. Should there be two

pieces too few to complete the last square, thus

then

it is

thought

be superlatively good, as representing the rare phenomenon of an

to

elephant
thus

only one tusk.

with

Q~,

then

it

is

Should there however be one too few,

called an elephant with

two

tusks,

and the weapon

considered moderately good at best.

is

There

another

is

Those who

The
the

who

practise

possessors

cause

of,

variety

of eleumee,

power of seeing what

the

possessors

rich

this craft are

of this

gift

is

called

which confer on their

hidden from ordinary mortals.


"seers"

')

{iirenlhig keumaloii).

are questioned in order to throw light on

or the best cure for a disease, the fortunes of a relative

has gone on a journey, the thief or receiver of stolen goods and

so forth.

The
rice

questioner usually ofters to the nrencng kciunalon a dish of husked

on

which are also placed two eggs and a

The methods employed by the "seers" or


Some draw their wisdom from a handbook
the

lines

produced by pouring

strip of white cotton.

clairvoyantes vary greatly.


of mystic lore, others from

a little oil over the eggs presented to

them, others again from studying the palms of their own hands.

i)

Compare

the oraiti;

iii'dlint'in

of IJatavia etc.

Seers,

40

'^'^

^*^'femak
"seers".

sometimes also happens

It

Invisible

as

(just

invokes the help of an invisible being

which

incense,

j,f

she

{iirt'iii-ng

adara). After the burning

waves her hands,

over which she

or

inhales

Java) that the chiirvoyante

in

Then she appears

spirit enters into her.

muttering the while, the familiar

to lose her senses; trembling and with changed voice she utters some
incoherent sentences, which she afterwards interprets on coming to

herself again.

The

The mina,

tioni;

ab a beer.

regarded

.^

endowed with

as

male or

"seer"

utterances.

of the

by the Achehnese,

a well-known talking bird, called tiong

female,

this

of second sight, but a

gift

indispensable

is

for

the

interpretation

human
of

its

Such clairvoyantes are supposed to understand the speech


and translate into oracular and equivocal Achehnese the

bird,

incomprehensible chatter of the mina.


cases of theft the ureiieng kciiuialoii usually declares whether the

In
thief

or

great

is

small

of stature,

whether he has straight or wavy hair


least the consolation of

For

of complexion, and

dark

so that the questioner has at

'),

knowing that the

and that he may recover

lost,

or

light

stolen article

is

not hopelessly

by anxious search.

it

persons the results of the clairvoyance consist as a rule

sick

in

a recipe in which the leaves of plants take the foremost place, or else
it

divined that drums {gciiiidra)ig) or tambourines should be played

is

for the benefit of the sick child

plc7nggi) should

Lucky

be given

to

it

wear

on

palm of the hand {kalbn

the

peoples'

the

fortunes.

in

the examination of the lines

iirat jaroe)

methotl

further

From

HSi-r-iisrran).

this

as

of predicting

shape and position of the spiral twists of the

Java

(the ija

^).

Another kind of divination consists

niarkb.

many-hued garment

or that a

means of
the future

hair,

telling
is

from

called fuisa (in

deduced the quality of the animal

is

in

the case of cattle, goats, sheep and horses, and their future destiny in

human

the case of

another are
is

a token

The

sjiirals

its

ofllccrs

found

of the

See

\'ol.

certain peculiar

<jf

the

in

sjjiral

called piisa rimu'cng

capital

pp. 390 et

very fme lines of the skin are also called

liatavia, wlu) arc


;

scii.

imiih harassed by thefts, also frc'nucntly have

the writer has even himself

of Java

their duly.
2)

symmetrical piisas placed opposite one

possessor will be torn by a tiger.

recourse to such orang mcluithi


]><ilicc

Two

lucky signs.

that

The kampong-foik

1)

beings.

did

not

disdain

thus

known
to

a case in which certain

facilitate

the fulfilment of

4'

On

piisa.

women, an

The

lose his wives

in

walking; on

by death; on

is

of nerves

[idto,

chiefly to be found in
'

the Jav. krdnt)

in

Malay
handbooks,
'

'

(^)iuvcring of
".*^"*=^=

I'^^y*

siognomy.

from the shape of

disposition

his

face

and the build of

body.

his

The
is

worked with the help of books. Sometimes

pJiay

is

also

the Quran that

is

used, sometimes a fortune-teller's manual, prefer-

cleuuic'c

ably that ascribed to the Alide Ja'far Qadiq (Ach. Ja'pa Sade')

Where

Quran

the

book

the

to

first letter

question,

his

for

certain formulas

of the

every

Sade'

but

employed

is

Phay

really

is

Achehnese

in

in the

it

is

may

be expected or what should

e. g.

"There are obstacles to your


etc.

The

kitab Ja'pa

same manner.
[fal)

meaning "presage", "omen",

restricted to prognostications in

kinds of soothsaying

other

ablution, opens

page supplies the answer

be a happy one",

will

Arabic word

an

').

alphabet has corresponding to

letter of the

which show what

"The marriage

by ceremonial

line of this 7th

/fli

be done under various circumstances,


journey'',

-).

Omens proper

books and some

are described

by another

Arabic word, alamat. These are of the same character as the omens of

Javanese superstition

sounds seldom heard under ordinary circum-

stances, animals, especially birds


fact all

manner of more

of

secret

this

property of

separate eleume'e.

and

insects,

which are rarely seen,

uncommon phenomena. The knowledge


nature is however practically the common

grown-up people, and does not form the subject of a


It

may

rather

be

classified

("traditions of female ancestors"), as to which

more

friend,

We

is

As

of an

shall

the

Jiadili

tnaja

ha\e something

inmate of the house, a relation or a

announced by the unwonted nasal cry

have seen (Vol.

the natives are


2)

among
we

to say in our chapter on literature.

The approaching death

1)

in

or less

language of

all

known by

to the application

phay

any page and then turns over seven pages

at hap- hazard at

more. The

The

used, the enquirer into the hidden things of the

is

future, after preparing himself for his task

it

that

pcnrasat (Arab, firasah), which determines a man's

elcH))ic'c

nature and

it

quivering

of the

parts of the body,


^

as also the

will

grow weary

early death for the husband, and so on.

signifiancc

certain

that their possessor will not be slain

that he will never

foot,

male genital organ, that he

the
of

mean

these

haiul

tlio

unavenged; on the

the

p.

{kbbb) of a jatnpo

(a

198) that in 15atavia even the nicmorandum-hooks used by

name

of

of these in

Japar
Aehch

Sii/e'

or

Tip.

see footnote on p. 298, \'ol.

I.

Omcns.

42
sort

which no one ever

st2-u'a

by

night-bird) or the sound emitted

of

a kind of cricket

called

')

by the strong and continuous screaming

sees, or

{chcumcuchcb) of a kite [kleu'cng).

nocturnal

adulterers)

(which

visit

in

who

a relative

titilantahit

gampongs,

to the

close

generally means one of thieves or

On

foretold b>' the nasal kct-kct of the sarenc' bird.

is

hand the voice of the

other

jungle

Achch

is

little

the

bird which haunts the

a sign of the long-deferred return of

on a journey.

is

The advent of other guests is announced by the flying into the house
of a large brown butterfly, the hangbang jamcc (guest butterfly) or by
out of doors making a plopping noise as

water thrown

falls

it

on the

ground.

The cock
and

said

is

to

crow

in a peculiar

way when

manner when the sun has attained

in a diflerent

For these reminders the Achehnese

grateful

is

approaches him and gives vent to a peculiar


the

that

but

shrill

at hand,

is

midday

when

cry,

it

is

altitude.

the cock

believed

hears the dead screaming in their graves as they suffer

bird

castigation

makes the

listener reflect

in store for him,

and he angrily

the hands of the angels. This

at

spite of himself

in

rain

its

on the punishments

chases his mentor away.

The

iiowling

of

many dogs

^)

betokens, as

in

Java, an approaching

epidemic.

Where one
or

cat

again,

he

as

or unlucky

Another

Inierprcta-

dreams.

Allah to

sets

snake

is

in

doomed
he who on

is

special object in view,

may

the

home

to failure in his enterprise; equally vialang^)


his

way catches

sight of another's nakedness.

made by

dreams, though these cannot be entirely depended on,

in

the Devil often suggests false dreams to the mind. In

as

and meets a

just as well return

class of alainat consists in the revelations

special

men

some

out with

an unusual place, he

of dreams

interi)retation

Arab

science

forms the subject of a special branch of

literature.

famous work on

Sirln,

\Vc are reminded of the "death-watch" of English superstition, and the Irish banshee^

i)

thougli in the case of the latter the warning sound

not

by an Arab named Ibn

this subject (talfir)

tt

2)

night

living creature

There
is

is

is

believed to be caused by a spirit and-

Translalor^.

somewhat

similar

superstition

in

Ireland

where the howling of a dog

believed to foretell the death of someone in the neighbourhood. (^Trnnslator).

3) 8ec also Vol.

p.

296.

at

43
pretty

also

is

known

i^cncrally

in

the Indian Archipelago; there are

numerous handbooks based directly or

Thus

Acheh we

in

tabi or interpretation of dreams,

men

as to the

indirectly on this work.

some knowledge of the

find persons possessed of

meaning

who

are able to enlighten their country-

of their visions.

portion of this science has

been added to the popular wisdom of the Achehnese, and having been

augmented
embodied

still

more by native methods of

Achehnese tabi teaches that he who

This popular
a dream (be

but

beard

it

to the

loss awaits

bathes or eases himself in the dream.

who

long

him who
life

children

him who

for

and the death of a brother or more distant

To

a molar.

see one's house on

fire

shaven or

his parents or

white or lacking a front tooth,

seen clad in

is

is

destined for him

is

dreamt of as dying; early death of himself or

is

seen naked in

dreamer with unusually long hair or

have good luck. Serious

will

is

the dreamer himself or another) must expect ill-fortune,

who appears

he

that

become

interpretation, has

the liadih viaja or traditions of female ancestors.

in

him who

relative for

foretells wealth;

loses

walking under an

umbrella or riding on a horse or elephant are omens of fame or worldly

The Achehnese

greatness.

has seen

how^ever loth to

himself riding thus in a dream,

mocking questions

with

is

as

omen

him, or whether the

to

lest

tell

his friends

when he

they should pester him

what dignity he thinks

is

in

store for

of speedy exaltation might not perhaps only

mean that the dreamer would shortly

find himself sitting as a thatcher

astride the ridge-pole of a roof.

The man

woman who dreams of a great fire or a snake, will soon


the pregnant woman who sees herself dressed in feminine

or

get married

finery

become the mother

will

putting a cap on her head

off
rice,

conflict

without
is

an

with a
injury

omen

Some dreams

of a

girl,

while

she

who dreams

spirit of the

to

himself.

of

bear a boy.
it

come

but has

come

of being on board ship, has without knowing

He who dreams
into

will

kind

The

known

as sane

'),

eating of rice, especially glutinous

of success.
are ascribed to a praja,

a kind of tutelary spirit,

by which seems

whose chief task

is

to

appear

in

to be understood

some

visible

form

and warn the occupants of a house or ship of evil threatening their dwellingplace. The phenomena which foretell a marriage are also called praja.

i)

Vol.

p. 409.

lladih maja.

44
Thcrc

Pantang
"'

^'''

another branch

is

of popular

maja described above, namely the

much

lore

also the case with the painali of the

in

is

many

oi pantang or taboo. There are indeed

name

rules

the education of children

but

consequences of disobedience

the Jiadih

prohibitory

Sundanese) employed

these the representation of the awful

in

merely a rod

is

to

comprised under

rules or restrictions

the generic
(as

akin

in

pickle, so that they

be described as imitations of the true pantang, employed for edu-

may

cational purposes.

Men must

never eat an egg taken from a fowl that has been killed

should they neglect this prohibition and afterwards be struck by a bullet,


to extract

efforts

all

If a child lies
it

on

lie

its

on

would be

it

back

its

face with

in

in

vain. This

the court-yard,

feet raised, its

its

a true pantang rule.

is

its

mother

father will die


will

die.

should

This

mere

is

imitation, utilized to train children.

\Vc have already noticed


nected with pregnancy

We

shall

To

now add some

in

passing sundry pantang regulations con-

agriculture

'),

fishery

^),

among the best known.


given away gives rise to sores

rice

from the cooking-pot [kanct] after marriage

causes the face to turn black. Throwing raw rice

hand causes the teeth

the

from

sitting

in

who has

who shakes

the

from

dust

Cocoanut trees should be planted only

may

which a hole has been

be as

many

mouth with

stomach

clothes

his

at night

as the stars.

cleft accidentally

the

top or bottom should be avoided, as he

run

kill

into the

to decay; while a swollen

a diebre tree (Jav. juar) growing in his

sky, so that the fruit


in

'')

results

wind or sleeping under the open sky. Want or

the

poverty threaten him


evening, or

etc.

^)

others which are

wish to regain something one has

on the elbows. Eating

certain diseases

^),

great risk of losing his

the iguana, lest (jne

life

become

in

who

by sword

and under a

clear

green cocoanut

some other part than


water

will

One should

not

drinks

or bullet.

sluggish and

the

in

compound.

awkward.

its

A woman who

eats twin plantains [pisang meukeumbeii'e) runs the risk of having twins.

winnowing

In

rice

the

mother should never turn the point of the

winnowing basket {jeuec) towards the sleeping-room, {jurcc)

lest

one

of her children be compelled to go on distant journeys.


Taniangs of

To pantangs

of speech, words which

may

not be used under certain

speech.

Vol.

p.

3) Vol.

pp. 280

l)

5)

372.

Vol.

p.

4) Vol.

pp. 416

2)

81.

259.

.\chchnese cliildrcn are very fond of chewing raw

17.

rice.

45

we have already

circumstances,

and

our description of fisheries

in

however others besides those mentioned.

There are

epidemics.

alludetl

Should one wish to enquire as to the extent of a


he must not ask "how much" [paduui) but "how
obtained"

by

used

number

"How

').

man

few" and

called

out

"how many"

not

to

of his fellows. Fighting

fight

friend's rice-harvest,

little

{padit) have

you

also the expression

is

enquiring of his panglima the

in

men have

also other pantangs of speech

which they employ for fear of spoiling their luck by boasting of their

To speak

prowess, their numbers or their successes.

make

health or vigour of her child will

On

hand,

other

the

if

mother of the

to a

her anxious and even angry-).

one of the family

seriously

is

of as being "dainty or pleasant of flesh" {inangat

he

ill,

is

spoken

Old fashioned

asb'c).

people never mention the names of their ancestors or of former Achehnese royalties and other deceased worthies without
meuribc'c-ribce

tulah,

setting

of the

sun

pantangs. In the evening or

darat

i.

e.

saying ampdn,

"Forgiveness, a thousand times

(may the mention of your name bring on me) no curse

forgiveness

The

be

aiiipdn,

first

or

(land-fish),

if

the words "let no one

gives

also

certain

to

rise

name be used

the real

dream of

it

definite

meat must be described

at night

it

to-night" {be

I"

speech-

as eungkot

must be preceded by
liimpb'e

malam);

for to

dream of meat means misfortune. For the same reason no mention must

made

be

the evening of the drawing of teeth or of shaving; these

in

and chuko) are replaced by the general expression bbih ("to


do away with"). Cutting of nails may be spoken of, but must not be
verbs

done

[bot

poverty would be the

at night, as

who have

All

result.

to traverse the forests in the exercise of their calling,

such as deer-hunters or searchers for camphor and honey, must

in

order

to ensure success pay due regard to pantangs of speech as well as to

tangkays or magic formulas.

various

be indispensable

make
a

to

tiger

close

is

words na bachut

among

the expression
3)

camphor

all

it

is

said to

remarks they

by he must not be spoken of by

his

also,
tc'

especially

"a mere

The Malays

the

^).

harvest has been very abundant, begins with

it

is

considered unlucky to praise a child without adding

bless it" {Translator).

also fear to

tlie

tritle".

the Irish peasantry

"God

if

When

proper name

but must be called dato' (grandfather or ancestor)

The answer

2) So

the seekers of

other things

to preface

one another by the way with the word kapha (camphor).

{rimui'Hg),

1)

for

Among

name

the tiger

when

in

liis

vicinity. {Trunslalor).

46

great part of the remaining Jiadih niaja has been ah-eady described

our discussion of Achehnese manners and customs; upon hadili maja

in

indeed

is

based the observance of most of those adats which have no

(IMohammedan) reHgious significance or


is

beheved to be attended with

The

Incantations

origin,

evil results in this life.

and when spoken

and dn'as (prayers)

any regard

his

for

as charms), taiigkays (incantations),

AH

these

success

in

would

such

in

lore.

Those who wish

protect! ves or preparatives.

as

employed, even though medicines be applied as well.

is

have already noticed the malignant lore of poisons

and of the fungi

')

The remarks,

in

incidental

is

and

some

medical science in Acheh,

native

{clenuie'c

tuba)

particular.

partly

respecting the treatment of

pelago,

for

who

every sickness

their wares at a profit to a peularch, while for

a tangkay

made

one who has

own well-being or that of those belonging to him,

love have recourse to a peugascJi or love-charm, those

sell

We

serve

No

of course very highly prized.

is

can dispense with the aid of the experts

art.

which when written

lorc of ajcHUiats (amulcts), rajahs (formulas

as amulets

serve

Meaical

but the neglect of which

partly direct
diseases,

as indeed

all

-),

which we have

have clearly shown that


over the Indian Archi-

based to a great extent on superstition. In point of fact the

simple application of a natural medicament without any "hocus-pocus",

even of the most ordinary and well-known indispositions,

case

in

else.

This very quackery

is

the only portion of medical science which the

Achehnese would dignify with the name of


eyes mere

his

and numbers of diseases are treated with "hocus-pocus"

rare exception,

and nothing

is

practical

knowledge, some

cli'iimcc.

degree

All the rest

of which

is

in

everyone

acquires as he advances in years.

Such

practical experience

whose task

it

particular

in

always

is

is

more

especially the property of

to prepare the drugs,

whose advice

is

and

it

is

the old

women,

women

by those who seek


own homesteads. Such experts are
"medicine people" a name applied to both
constantly called for

meilical aid outside the limits of their

known
sexes,
I'"<)rcit;n

meuubat or

;;/ /z/^^:/

or "medicine mother".

Their lore has not remained free from foreign influences. In the

in-

ucncc.

as urcueng

though one hears more often of the

^p

jj^^.

I)

(^iiiig^i^tjj

Vol.

p.

414.

stalls

[urcueng })ieukat aivcuvli) there are to be found a number

2) Vol.

pp. 408 ct scq.

47
of products

native

Arabian and even of Chinese


to completeness,

common

of

occurrence

by the

purely

in

instructions

native

simples of Indian and


Without making the smallest claim

origin.

note below some of the recipes used

Acheh.

of each ingredient and the


case

many more

but

Acheli,

to

amount of the dose

of the

prescriptions

indispositions

in

should be added that the proportion

It

ubat

uia

are determined in each

In

").

Java

in

manner,

like

no indications as to quantity, or

contain

only very vague ones.

The remedy

prescribed for

inflammation of the eyes

all

of the juice squeezed from the buds of the wild


Conjunctivitis

common.
on

It

three

{niata

tuiibJi

by dropping

treated

is

evenings

successive

lit.

first

fig.

"germination of the eye")

is

very

sundown

into the diseased eye about

the juice obtained by rubbing a certain

viscous sort of grass called naleucng awo. This

on the

injection

is

is

repeated seven times

evening, five on the second and three on the third. There

another method of treating this disease which suggests the symbolical

is

heart-cleansing
shell

hajis

symbol of the white "bud"

(a

turmeric

Nur near Mekka

Jebel

at

on the patient's head, and on

laid

is

of the

The

{kiinyct).

with a sharp

it

is

eyeball)

cocoanut-

placed a grain of rice

with

little

piece of

grain of rice and the kunyet are then cut through


"If

knife.

the

in

-).

be Allah's will" the ulcer

it

in

the eye will

then shortly break up and disappear.

Small-pox patients

are

water
as,

to

left

if

dua,

sa,

{ic

the patient

When

in

which

finely

This bathing

ferment.

called the

is

going to

die,

lime [sreng],

[i'e

asaui)

is

rubbed with
juice of the

cummin [jam

mixed with turmeric


Where

Bur^^'s

or jeura piiteh) and kunyet, and boiled

in

measure

Java;

cf.

A.

by rubbing the

or lime-juice.

is

prescribed,

this

To

done

is

down

which are supposed

patient with bcuda (bedak)

counteract the evil effects of this

C. Vorderman's Kritischc

in

precisely

besc/toicwi/it^cfi

the

same way

over Dr. C. L.

as by

the

Vii/i

ilcr

"Materia Indica (Batavia 1886), p. 24.


my Mckka, Vol. II pp. 321 22.

2) See

3)

hope of recovery,

composed of water mixed with the

to cause the ulcers are killed

i)

is

he generally does so before that time.

to a paste. After this has dried, the mites {knnienn)

dukuns

second and third

first,

the small-pox ulcers have appeared, the patient

"sour water"

succes-

pounded leaves of peureuya laot

After the third water there

IJie'e).

is

by being bathed on three

are "cooled"

^)

days with water

sive

We

have already (Vol.

regard to small-pox.

pp. 416

17)

dcscril)ed the purely superstitious practices in

('onjuuctiv-

48
disease on the eyes a

abo

of the moisture derived from the slug called

little

injected into them.

is

The small-pox

may

patient

eat roasted food, but the roasting

not be done in his house; meat and eggs he


All purgatives are called julab.

As such

may

must

not touch.

among

are employed,

other

and a kind of castor-oil [ininyen

things, the pips of the pcunycu]ia-{\-\\\\.

naivaih) of native manufacture.

Ordinary diarrhoea
an

or

Dysentcrj" '^"^
'^

Dysentery

pounded

first

unripe pisang klat

molasses

is

with opium, or with a

')

with some

rice-water

else

heated with the skin on.


said

is

choleraic

by the

seizures

is

The

natives

sufferer

that

is

also cooled

common

skin were

or leg, as

moving upwards. This

the prime cause of the complaint, and

it

is

first

been

by constant bathing.

preliminary

arm

to drink,

pounded bctelnut

or extract of

pomegranate which has

a violent pain in the

body under the

hard

of pounded

astringent taste) and

powdered turmeric

little

gambir,

{pinang), or the expressed juice of a

It

compound

an

and kindred ailments, the patient

[ta^cun, imitaJi-cJiirct)

given sugarcane juice mixed with a

or

with

kind of plantain

').

cholera

In

fine.

{bioh) is treated
(a

bUngge-{x\x\\.s,

buftalo-hide and roasted rice, both of which

of roasted

extract

ingredients are

with sour semi-ripe

{chiret) is treated

symptom of
though some
regarded as

is

sought to counteract

it

by

cupping or making an incision over the spot where the foreign body
is

Fever.

supposed to be

The

feverish

felt.

symptoms known

with the expressed juice of


talon

- pisang

raja),

Malay

pciinaiua, called in

water
ncjt

In

in

or

is

clinch-Xo.'A.vc.?,,

with

the

together with those o{ pisang

bitter

gummy

sap of the bo" raja

lidah buaya (crocodile's tongue) or simply with

which seeds of the

bathe, but

as sijn'c-seii'm'Di (cold-heat) are treated

sculascli {selasih) are

soaked.

The

patient must

occasionally bespued with water from another's mouth.

dcumain (continuous or remittent

fever)

nothing but tangkays or

incantations are employed.


SampoiiK.

It

is

believed that the young suffer three times in their

indisposition

called

when they come

sajnpbng;

first

at

1)

The

children have a song which runs: Aydh^


1

p.

415.

>'<U"i "vo/i

nice

from an

cJint),

of age {sampbng pcutcungahan) and finally

have completed their growth {sampong rayeu or saket

2) Sec Vol.

life

puberty {sampbng

again

when they

nenrayeu

pisang klat uhat

bioh.

49

The symptoms

sickness of the end of growth).


loss

nails.

of appetite

one which must be allowed to take

Where

children

natural course.

its

from such a complaint, nature

suffer

laying on the forehead either


in

are said to be feverish-

and pecuHar ridges crossing the middle of the


This indisposition is, hke the saket dro'c or nianya '), regarded as

ness,

(which resemble betel-leaves

f/f/////d7-leaves

appearance) or a chewed-up compost of cheuko

Another method resorted

turmeric.

childish maladies

onions and

[kenchtir),

demon

to in order to expel the

of

vapour of burning bones,

[rabon) with the

and horn.

leaves, onions

If a child suffers

on

smoking

is

by

assisted

is

from hiccough, a small fragment of

sirih-leaf

is

laid

forehead.

its

For headache

or cold in the

head various kinds of strongly flavoured

rujak [cheunichah) are eaten.

The

of the

store
this

old-fashioned housewife has always at hand a bag containing a

newly-born

are

'-)

infants

appertaining to domestic doctoring. In

simples

different

ubat

baliicni

{e'

also

Domestic

preserved

carefully

nieujadi

or

jadi),

Jiiiila

the

excreta

first

of

regarded as a potent

ingredient in remedies for convulsions etc.

Human

urine

also believed to

is

have healing powers-^); that of boys

still

uncircumcised

fall

from a tree or the roof of a house,

administered to those

is

morning immediately

remedy
It

after

rising

who have

ic)

[iile'e

sustained a heavy

while water

etc.,
is

made

considered

in

the

sovereign

for jaundice [bauibang knneng).

believed

is

that

the

bites

of sundry poisonous creatures can be

cured by rubbing the part affected with some precious stone credited
with

powers,

healing

snake-bite

especially

prescribed,

is

that

addition

in

known
to

as ake

(Arab.

incantations,

'^aqlq).

For

cauterizing with

red-hot iron or the application to the spot of half a split tamarind-seed.


It is said

that the bite of the snake

known

as

iilcu'c

mate iku can only

be cured by laying on the wound the brains of a snake of the same


description.

Small fresh superficial wounds or cuts are treated by applying to them

by way of wadding the white web of


i)

See Vol.

p.

3) It

a certain sort of spider called chaic.

386.

2) In Java such a bag,

which

is

in

special requisition after confinements,

is

called ponj'cn

kanyut kundang (Sund.).

(Jav.) or

is

II

Urine,

used

in

Java also, especially

in cases of

persons struck hy

lightning,'.

Poisonous

50

common and

Skin-diseases are very

Eruptions
of the skin,
ulcers etc.

q^jq,^
r

and the
rubbing

irritation

many

different kinds.

it

A reddish
..

wood

ashes of

the

in

of

kind of swelling
^ resembling, in appearance
causes, the bite of the mosquito, are treated by

loi and

called

and the slaver of

dapu)

{abl'c

sirih

{i'c

babaJi mirah).

We
and

have already noticed kude (the skin-disease of the students)

and

treatment,

its

which no attempt

made

is

because the marks

or

ensure invulnerability,

to

enhance personal beauty

take

mar

For kurab

^).

the leaves of the bush called

varieties of

to cure, the disease being actually fostered

to

{taivaiJi)

and kurab (ringworm), some

glujii

')

ie

is

it

leaves are thought

made

used a paste

of

gUnggang

(cassia alata), mixed with alum

glmggang

leaves

and white onions.

who

sick

person

care

that his

plucks

shadow does not

remedy

the efficiency of the

Pimples and

pustules

to express their size,

(cotton-tree

chutniiet,

chumuct lada

e. g.

for his

own

use must

as this

would

his case.

in

called

are

^)

upon the bush,

fall

(like

other words being added

peppercorns) or

ch. gapeiieh

Such excrescences are treated with a compost of

seeds).

buds of the //-tree mixed with onions. Larger pimples and boils on
various

of

parts

the

body

are

called

raho;

the

bar ah occurs most

generally on the thighs, and the bircng under the arm-pits.


fidence

is

however

healing drugs. This

in the application of

bantot,

and consists

which a rajah has been

The

various

sorts

method of suppression

ment.

which according to the Achehnese has

of puree,

Hardly a family

treated

jen

(a

with

lichen,

in

in

Acheh escapes

sores

infectious.

called

which

laid

skin.

special variety

i)

See

p.

An

extract of these leaves

it

fruits,

vitriol

is

is

and janggot

on the ulcers after they have

first

Grown-up people, who usually catch


difficult to

shake

it

oft".

is

known

as kayab-apuy ("fire-kayab") from

2) See p. 38 above.

above.

it

which emit blood and pus, are also very

kayab,

3)

31

of treat-

this infectious disease,

corrosive mixture of blangan

usnea barbata),

ailment from children, find

The

difficult

the nose, mouth, feet and anus. In children

been opened by rubbing the


this

called

recited.

nothing to do with venereal disease, are regarded as

appears especially

is

on the part affected some lime over

pressing

in

More con-

checking such pustules at the start than

placetl in

recommended

as a cure for

impotence.

51
its

resemblence to a burn.

The treatment

rubbiny with cocoanut- or

is

garu-oil.

Budo

or

leprosy

is

the

called

also

"evil disease",

penny akit jhent.

Lepers are avoided as much as possible

in

Acheh, but they are not always

gampongs

as

is

collected together in separate

The
or

done on the N. and E. coasts

rascnfong, a sore on the nose believed to be caused

[seuke] is

bite

regarded as incurable and deadly.

The proper Achehnese name

for biri-biri

(commonly known

beri) is difficult to ascertain, since this disease, at all


it

now^ assumes, appears to have been formerly

it

is

thus

as bcri-

events in the form

unknown

in

the country;

sometimes with one and sometimes with another familiar

identified

Achehnese complaint that happens


is

by the

egg of a small insect which haunts the flowers of the pandan

the

usually designated

to bear

by the name

some resemblance

to

It

it.

which has been only

biri-biri,

comparatively lately introduced into Acheh.

Some

name

assert that the proper

is

barneh or

cJiarn'eJi,

and prescribe

rubbing the body of the patient wuth the leaves of the barueh-tree

chopped

fine

and mixed with vinegar, or a draught composed of

')

tiie

sap of these leaves mingled with water.

Others say that badotn,


severe

stage

of that

opponents of
the

baso
is

this

patient

a light form of dropsy,

are

disease,

with

on the other hand, allege that

view,

does

identical

really

and

not sufier at

all

from

baso, the
biri-biri.

in

more

The

badom and

difficulty in breathing, as

the case in biri-biri.


of the calves, accompanied

Elephantiasis
called

nntot,

and has been indigenous

Recovery from

this

complaint

under which are included

burot,

in

despaired

is

both

which cause enlargement of the scrotum.

by difficulty
Acheh since
of,

hernia

as

is

and

in

walking,

is

ancient times.

also the case with


all

other

diseases

popular proverb, illustrating

human endeavours after greatness, says that there are two classes of
men who unlike the majority of their fellow-creatures, are ever striving
to become less than they are, namely those who sufier from nntot and
from

bnrot"^)] the allusion

swellings caused

l)

This view

are to be

is

met with

by these

diseases.

perhaps simply due


in native physic.

in the treatment of the disease

2)

of course being to their eftbrts to reduce the

Nyang keumeung keuchut

to

We

known

the similarity of the

names; many

have already noticed an example of

like

as leiiki with a twig of the bush of the

diia droe

ureueng: siuntot ngon

si buret.

instances

this in

.Xcheh,

same name.

Heii-bcri.

52

Burot

by the application of a paste made of white onions and

treated

is

the leav'CS of various trees, especially the rcndeu'cb (Mai. dadap^erythrina);


or else the scrotum

is

rubbed with the juice obtained by pounding up the

The

buds of the mane-tree, mixed with lime.


bathe

to

early

the

in

morning and

patients are also directed

produce retching by inserting

to

the finger in the mouth, in order that "what has sunk


.\frection.s

Pains

of

"'' ^'

in

the joints

are

treated

in

hoofs are obtained in an unbroken state

from these the marrow

a buffalo or ox;

may

again"!

rise

One
from some one who is
peculiar manner.

or

killing

tuleiieng) is extracted

{iita

two
and

rubbed on the part affected, or mixed with water and given to the
patient to drink.

Swellings
as follows:

up

in

caused by a

some hot ashes

blow and broken limbs are dealt with

or

fall

or salt or a

under heavy pressure. Another method

up

similarly folded

in

Pain in swallowing
treated

smooth heated brick are

by giving the

is

the laying on of compresses

a cloth [barot).
is

called

kawc Ihan [kawe

For gonorrhea
soap,

preferably

[saket

Another remedy
already

noticed

solution of

as

which the

a specific against
shells

and hollow teeth

is

vegetable sap [geutah), that of the

and the leaves of the

leaf,

is

maw

of a

for their

is

some

mixed with

back from Arabia

the fecundity of

is

fish.

to drink water

hajis bring

^).

we have

women

'-),

or a

mixed with alum and camphor.

placed a mixture of three kinds of


the keupula or sawo-tree,

^.y^'^^-tree,

naivaiJi or castor-oil plant. P^or

ache a sort of medicinal cigar

These cigars have

a fish-hook), and

pine-apple juice mixed with yeast, which

powdered white sea

diseased

In

Toothache.

is

the cure

sabon)

kind

the

patient water to drink in which has lain for

time a fish-hook which has been found in the


Gonorrhea.

rolled

and continuously rubbed [teiCuem) on the injured part

cloth

toothache or face-

smoked, the rukd siawan (Mai.

seriaivan).

covering leaves paper or pieces of plantain-

and within a mixture of various finely-pounded

of the grupheucng agant (Mai. langgtindi

= vitex

leaves, such as those

trifolia),

griipheueng inbng,

naivdih (ricinus), riJian (resembling selasih), glinggang, peundang, adat again,

adat inong, ineura', keusab rayeu


a

little

of the resin called vu\

such as ganti and


i)

vieiisui,

The Achehnesc seldom use

Mckka,

for the

2) Vol.

p.

kensab chut and pladang ; some opium,

some

some camphor and

tree-cotton.

There must.

soap, but hajis sometimes bring back soap with them fror

washing of their own bodies


70.

saffron [komkonia), a few foreign drugs

after death.

53

be added a portion

also

of the

44 herbs which we

shall

presently

describe.

Siazuan

is

a complaint which

or turning grey

out

of the

weakening of the eyesight.


sensation

in

A
as

supposed to
the

remedy

result in the early falling

Siawan.

decay of the teeth and

are toothache, a disagreeable

The medicinal

cigar just described

for this complaint.

moderate use of various narcotics

for

rapid

symptoms

Its

the nose, and headache.

also used as a

is

is

hair,

example the smoking of ganja

prescribed for sundry purposes,

is

(hashish) to excite the appetite,

and the eating of opium to render the body thickset or to prolong


sexual enjoyment.

The

bitter extract of beuin-\c3.vQs taken

to dispel a chill

on an empty stomach, serves

and shivery feeling often experienced on

Various other

rising in the

morning.

The Achehnese very


but

in

or at

case of illness these beverages are

all

events the latter

medical science

A
is

rarely drink tea or coffee

is

is

')

on ordinary occasions,

employed

place of water,

in

boiled before use, a custom which European

certain to regard with approval.

soup composed of various vegetables mixed together {gule ramp'on)

the favourite fare of convalescents.

Tears of the sea-cow or duyong

by name

The methods

common

[ie

mata duyon) are generally known

as a sovereign cure, but no one has ever beheld them.

of treatment are for the most part identical with those

Malays and Javanese.

to the

large

I'll
which they

number
are

remedies are applied

of external

supposed to act by ejection

bespuing of a wound with water to cleanse

same word
spittle or

special

is

applied

to

the

beslavering

"charmed" water. This

meaning of

this

word

is

it

/-

to

the

spot on
1

from the mouth.


is

called preut,

he

and the

of a sick person with

sirih

but the more

last is also called seunibo,

the bespuing of patients with chewed-up

medicaments, whether blessed by an incantation or not. Blowing [proih]


on the head or some other part of the patient's body as a
recitation of a rajah,

and of massage

{urot), for

which, as

^)

finale to the

we have

seen,

use of both of these beverages in Acheh is restricted for the most part to the
who have settled in Gampong Jawa and their Achehnese neighbours or to hajis
who have grown accustomed to their use during their sojourn in Arabia.
2) Compare Sir William Maxwell's description of a Malay cure N". 22 p. 23 of Notes and
i)

Tlie

foreigners

Queries issued with N". 14 of the Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society
for

Dec. 1884. (Singapore 1885). (Translator).

Method of
treatment.

T-1
1

54

some have received a


birth

divine gift from the very time of their

special

are universally practised.

'),

There remain to be described two recipes the application of which


must be regarded as peculiarly Achehnese.

The

Peundang.

the extract of the peundang-root, called gadiing China

is

first

by the Malays. This


nothing but

imported by Klings and other traders and has

is

name

its

-)

in

common

with the native Achehnese peundatig,

the leaves of which are used in the siawan-cigar described above.

The

root

very cheap, but

is

at the most one or

turn

each

in

is

expensive, as there are

mukim who understand how

by employing those incantations which are indispensable


This draught

remedies have

is

peiindang-cwxQ..

who
to

light

it

of other

influence

^)

its

efficacy.

which other

in cases of loss of strength

matter to decide on having recourse to the

The Achehnese

has once undergone

the

to

or continued illness.

toil

however no

is

sorts of complaints

all

and especially

failed to cure,

through excessive
It

prescribed for

to

approved manner, and especially

a potent draught in the

into

it

preparation

its

two persons

indeed,

are,

firmly

loses for the rest of his

The

medicines.

convinced that he

life

his susceptibility

cure also requires a certain

amount of patience.
Dieting.

It

must be commenced by

isolation for seven days,

moving out of one room; and during


to

numerous pantang-rules. He should

other dry

cocoanut,

and must be careful

food,

meat,

if

possible without

this period the patient is subjected


eat, if possible

to abstain

only dry rice and

from the

flesh of the

and the juice of the aren and sugarcane.

vegetables

His drinking water must be entirely replaced by the decoction of the

peundang-root.

The draught

insipid to the taste for the

is

wards grows more and more


of

all

other

liquids

mentioned only

lasts

for
for

the
the

bitter.
first

first

It

first

few days, but

after-

must be drunk to the exclusion

40 days, but the

strict

dietary just

week. The Achehnese derive their

knowledge of the healing properties of the peundang from Nias;

it is

sup-

posed to have been discovered by the leprous princess banished thither,

from

whom

the whole population of the island

1)

Vol.

2)

The botanical name is Sini/ax China. ( Translator^.


In Van Langcn's Dictionary it is stated to be a specific

3)

I,

said to be derived

*).

374.

p.

4) See Vol.

is

p.

20.

against syphilis; this

is

an error.

55

Next come the "44 herbs or medicaments" {azveii'eh petiet ploh peuct) to
which we have already more than once made passing reference '). We
are

aware of the peculiar significance of the number 44 in Acheh


\
is not always strictly adhered to in practice (as for instance

This number

the case of the days of purification after childbirth, and also of the

in

number

of these

herbs), yet

still

everyone speaks of the 44 days and

the 44 herbs.
In the shops of the druggists [ureiieng meukat aweu'eh) in the Acheh-

nese markets,

to be found a rich variety of dried seeds, tubers, roots

is

and leaves and even

articles of mineral origin,

which are to some small

extent indigenous, but for the most part imported from India or Arabia.

Small quantities of each of these simples to the number of 44 are taken


at hap-hazard, mixed together and pounded to a powder. This powder
of itself regarded as an excellent curative, but

is

employed

The

most generally

is

it

as an indispensable ingredient of various recipes.

tradition

which determines what ingredients should go to make

up the 44, is in the keeping of the drug-sellers and of the physicians


male and female [uren'eng meuubat or nia ubat). On this subject there
not complete unanimity of opinion, but the difTerence

is

trifling details;

as a rule those

who prepare

the

powder

employ a greater number of ingredients than the

is

only as to

for

themselves

traditional 44.

On

the other hand the drug-sellers keep in a separate jar a supply of the

powder

for

required

but there
are

such

is

as

wish

to

purchase

ready-made

it

any given prescription can be had

for

substituted

whom

the most expensive ingredients.

for

have consulted

peiiet.

the

quantity

a general idea that in the mixture thus sold dust and ashes

The

below contains the names of 56 simples which according

ploh

very low price,

at a

Of some

are borrowed

list

appended

to the authorities

find a place in the recipe of the aiveu'eh peuct

can only give the native names, certain of which

from other countries

in classifying the

the advantage of the assistance of Dr. P.

rest

have had

van Romburgh and Dr. A. G.

Vorderman.
I.

name

This general

Aweu'eh.

simples

is

for

herbs drugs and

also specially applied to the

coriander

seed,

also

called

kcHtu))iha

(Mai. ketumbar).
I)

Vol.

p.

382 and

p.

53 above.

2) Vol.

pp. 264, 388,

42930.

56
2.

Killit manl'li.

Cinnamon.

3.

Jar a

Foeniculum panmorium

')

maneli.

4.

Jara

5.

Jara kusani.

6.

Jam

itatn.

Caraway

seed.

Cummin.

piitcJi.

Licoricc-root.

))iancJi.

7.

yi>(7?

8.

Bungbng

9.

Siinti 1I alia.

Ginger.

10.

Z,<7^/^? piitcli.

White pepper.

1.

Jinniijii.

2.

Champli

^).

Seeds of the Nigclla Sativa.

Cloves.

laxvang.

Seeds of Carum Copticum.


piita or

Chabe jawa (Chavica densa)

<5/rt.

Scaphium Wallachii

13.

Tiivibang inang/co

14.

Bungbng lazvang Kleng.

^).

^).

S. ct E.

(?)

Seeds and seed-pods of the Japanese

stel-

lated anise (Illicium Anisatum).


15.

IIale lib a.

Fenugreek-seed.

16.

Sibciiranto.

Fruits of Sindora Sumatrana.

17.

Kacliang parang^).

Canavalia

DC.

gladiata

and white

(red

seeds).
18.

/>(>/!

19.

(9//

Leaves of Baeckea frutescens L.

rt/'o;/.

20. Langkuciicli
2

Jav. Majakani; gall-nuts from British India.

mayakani.

////a

Root-stock of Alpinia galanga.

China.

Fruits of Helicteres isora.

//^<?.

i?(>/t

22.

Z^t*//

23.

Hinggu.

Asa

24.

Peundang.

Mai.

Root-stock of Cyperus tuberosus.

keiimic.

foetida.

26.

Galagaro.

A
A

27.

KulH law ang.

Cinnamomum

25. J/t).

1)

The forms
II.

yc/-(Z

and

y'/'/a

(cf.

the

above

(see

p.

rhizome

of

54).

kind of resin imported by the Klings.


sort of aloes-wood.

phoratum

2) Mr.

(jadung China

Smilax China

or cinnam.

cam-

Singapore descriljes

this as

culilawan

(a

bark).

Jav. jintiin) are also in use.

N. Ridley, the Director of the I5otanic (hardens

at

anise (Pimpinella anisuin). {Translator^.


3) Ridley calls this Piper sarmentosum.

4)

A specimen which

received later

classified chatt^kok of native

5)

specimen received

as kachaii:' lurn'kok.

It

is

Truiislator').

according to Mr. Vorderman the as yet inexactly

physic in Java.

later

is

according to Dr. Vorderman the plant

has not yet been exactly classified.

known

at l?atavia

57
28.

II let

Bark of ClcL^hornia cyniosa

s rap at.

29.

Keuncunikain.

Incense resin.

30.

Bo JI keudeuke.

Jav.

sisawi or keusazvi.

31. Ahl'h

32.

Meunta

Maja kling

Alyrobalani chcbulac.

Mustard-seed.

The Achehnese say

batcc.

').

that this

is

found on

rocks over which water has been runnini^.

The name

signifies

"stone-scum".

33. Puch<)\

Jav.Puchuk=roots of Aplotaxis auriculata'-).

34. ^(V/ rase lit 0111.

According to

Air.

Vorderman probably

bud of the rose of


35.

Peuja

tuleiicng.

36.

Peuja

bit.

Borax

'^y.

Senna

inaki.

Senna-leaves.

38. ^c*// nieusui.

Massooi-bark

39.

Borax.

ganti.

-5^/<!

in crystal.

Jav.

which

the

ganti,

Chinese

Sassafras goesianum.

highly aromatic
the

origin,

not

is

mother-plant

known.

yet

root

It

is

found compounded with inensni

and Ach.
40.

Janggot

jen.

Alim

43.

CliamchiiruiJi.

44.

Bnngbng

45.

Kapha Baroih.

Camphor.

4.0.

Kapulaga.

47.

j^'t'/^

Cardamum.
Nutmeg.

48.

Komkoma.
Tbwaya.

50.
5

Bnngbng

to

this

pitch.
acaciae).

Lepidium Sativum.

Poppy-seed.

apiiin.

Blossom of a kind of wild mangosteen.

bariieh.

to

the use to which

put, see

As

Saffron.

As

i)

often
in Jav.

katnbu'e.

/^/rt:.

j5z;V/z

Jav.

of

recipes.

Cachou (Extractum

42. Kacliu.

of

Usnea barbata.

lichen,

Arab, mumia

41. Riuninya or rnniia.

49.

Jericho.

Mr.

Ridley

supplies

me

Baisrca acuminata, a Ceylon plant. Srapat

above

p.

its

5 1.

with the following note: "Cleghornia cyniosa


is

is

applied to a number of climbing Apnrvdmii-i.-.

but specially in the Straits to Parameria polyneura". (^Translator').


2) Ridley describes this as

leaves are

"roots of cost. Saussaurea Lappa". (^Translator).

58

Malay Ch^kur,Jav.Kenchur,Sund.Chikur^).

52. Cheiiko.
53.

Kulet salasari.

54.

Mngle.

= bark of the Alyxia stellata.


=
Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.
Jav. Bengle
Sund. Jaringao, Jav. Dringo = Acorus

Jav. Pulasari

55. Jeiireunge'c.

calamus.
56. Ayieii

Seeds of Parkia speciosa.

keudaivong.

Herewith we can take our leave of the eleumees of the Achehnese.


The
sciences

We
hear

it

of hikayats or stories and sometimes

heroes

of the

read

often

asserted in praise of ordinary mortals in

Acheh

that they have


bldiJi).

That

number has not been fixed by the Achehnese themselves

may

successfully practised "the fourteen sciences" [elewne'e peu'ct


this

easily be surmised

of these

from the variety to be found

in the

recapitulations

own system of
made up of different

branches of knowledge. Every author has his

One

enumeration.

regards

the

sciences

14

branches of the one science par

excellence,

as

that of religion

and these

branches can equally well be divided into a greater or smaller

number

of heads than the supposed fourteen. Another includes in the fourteen

we have

various eleumees such as those

and

Mohammedan

In Arabic works on the

required

kind the number cited

this

for in this case too the actual


taste.

This

number

may have
Acheh,

in

general public.
for himself

forms which

given

first

Now

what

The term

There

is

no hard

law, the scientific attainments

candidate for the post of qddlii or judge are often des-

of a

cribed as the mastery of 15 sciences.

work of

just described.

or traditional division.

fast rule

not improbable that

may have been

rise to

some

14 instead of 15,

number depends very much on

individual

the adoption of 14 as the traditional

the learned circles and later on

in

in

among

the

however, each individual takes the liberty of deciding

ileiunecs are included in the peuct bldih (fourteen).

tenseureh
in

It is

^)

peu'et

blaih,

which really means the fourteen

a tense of an Arabic verb serve to

mark

all

distinctions

of number, gender and person has gained a certain popularity outside

the circle of literate men.

meaning of which

is

It

only

may

known

well be that these teuseurehs (the true


to those initiated in Arabic

were conceived of as separate branches of learning.

1)

Described by Ridley as Kaempferia Galanga. (^Trans/a tor).

2)

Trom

the Arab, tafrlf

"inflexion".

grammar)

59
6.

We
so

have omitted "Art" from the

we

as

far

are

any great extent


In

Art.

at

of this chapter, as

it

appears,

Acheh.

in

lowland

the

title

present aware, never to have been cultivated to

districts,

and

especially

in

Mcura'sa,

there

were

Stone-cutters,

formerly stone-cutters of repute, whose chief work was the ornamentation of tombstones [nisam, batee jeiirat), in which they displayed con-

siderable

skill.

We

have already explained

')

the nature of this decorative

work; and the difference between the nisams of men and women.
This art

now

is

practically defunct. Certain

handsome stone monuments

''-^:

TOMHSTONES OK MEN AND WOMEN.

of royal
is

personages arc to be found

in

or near the chief town, but

it

doubtful whether these are of native Achehnese workmanship.

This doubt

is

still

cimen of architecture,
1) Vol.

pp.

2) Not, as
(this again

it

more
viz.

justifiable in regard to a quite

the

little

unique spc-

building called the Gunbngan'^) which

43031.
is

wrongly called hy the Fluropeans resident

should be "Kuta I'uchut").

in

Kula

K.ija,

"Kcjtta I'lichiit"

Aixhitccturc.

6o

6i

62

63
stands behind the Dalam, and of which numerous representations have

been already pubhshed. The origin and purpose of


except

remain unexplained

by a legend, something

hanging gardens of Nebuchadnezzar's

Acheh,

native

had

land,

wife.

It

still

that of the

like

said that a prince of

is

who was homesick

to gratify his highland consort

of her

ains

this building

this artificial hill erected

mount-

for the

and a pleasure

The place where the building stands is in


fact at the present time known to the Achehnese as Tainaii ("pleasureground"), whence we may perhaps conclude that it was formerly surrounded by some sort of garden. In the latter days preceding the
occupation of Acheh by the Dutch, the building appears to have
occasionally served as a place of recreation for the members of the

ground

laid

out around

it.

royal household, especially the

women, who used

to

sit

on the topmost

terrace to enjoy the view.

The

ruins of the low vaulted gate at the

through which
of the

same

we have

masonry that

observable

is

the

The

little

of silk-weaving

taste

Achehnese

their

in

size,

displayed

is

the

walls.

much

continues to flourish as

many

in

patterns

of the

sawa) and materials

[ija

The names given

colour, pattern etc.

their

appearance, as
tujoh

the

lumpat,

pattern

Lam

ija

hinggi

ija

sihienc

was

first

Gugob,

combined, as

ija

awan

("clouds"),

different

When

gate {Piuio

figures

and lueues

worked

niirali,

introduced

ija

once

at

plang,

or

is

silk

pinggang)

recall to connoisseurs

plang

ija

partly

riisa,

sileu'c

their

plang

from the place where

designed, as for instance

best
;

for the centre-piece of a

another bungbtig tabu

("strewn

guns had to be fired


Kayo) and three near the back gate

in the

{Pi/iio

garment

flowers"),

which the gold thread (kasab)

a salvo of seven

and

and partly from both


Lam Bhu
Mukim Peuct, ija Lam Gugob bungong pcnet.

pattern

in

[ija

in

These names are partly borrowed from

lutong meukasab ;

hinggi

as ever,

for trousers [luenc or silneiic).

Langkareiicng,

The commonest

i)

to the ijas

wood

character of the

of various colours or shot with gold thread, for loin-cloths

and kerchiefs

are, as

of wood, and the only difiference between the houses

all

and small consists

art

the royal tombs.

in

buildings of the

and the carving on the beams and

used,

no

seen,

')),

former times none but royalties might enter, give evidence

in

style of

With the above exceptions


of great

back of the Dalam [Pinto Khob

is

called

the

interwoven with

Dalam, four were


A'/ioli).

is

while

let off at

the great

\Veavin>

64
the

of the borders, are denoted

silk

meugantung, glima siseun

granate"), gluna

as glivia ("pome-

by such names

WOMAN WEAVING

troih,

glima bungbng

peitet,

A CLOTH.

rciikueng Icuc' ("neck of the tekukur or dove"), taloe

ie

("water-border",

from a resemblance to dropping water).

Almost every woman knows how

woof

to weave, but the setting

the task of expert dames, not

is

are to be found in each

more than one

gampong. Most of the

silk

or

up of the

whom

two of

employed

is

taken

from Achehnese silk-worms and spun by Achehnesc women, but foreign


(Chinese)

weavers

silk

also

is

themselves.

such as indigo leaves

used.

The

native

silk

They used formerly


(fin

tard)n), the

is

to

also

coloured

by the

employ indigenous dyes,

sap of various kinds of wood, such

as seupcucng, kudrang, roots of keuniudt'c (Mai. bengkiidii), also turmeric,

ashes,

mud, lime-juice and alum. These ingredients have now been

some extent driven out


imported from
in

the

first

I'Vankfurt

place

of the

field

by the cheap

and Ludwigshafcn

to

aniline dye-stufts

even these however are

mixed with lime-juice and alum.

65

The

displayed in the work of Achehnese goldsmiths and silver-

art

does not attain a high

smiths

The workmanship

level.

of the hilts of

weapons made of buffalo-horn, wood and the precious metals


without

Formerly there were


which the

displayed great

noted
of

to

pots, pans, plates,

by women. Though

factured

women, but
by

durable.

The

On

the

Achehnese
fabrics, in

their

foreign

for

etc.

implements were most primitive, they

is

still

being gradually driven out of the

which though somewhat dearer are more

art displayed in this native pottery possesses

but

little

which much

developed,

taste

by a number

carried on

whole we gain the impression that the


is

is

except

no great merit.

artistic

in the

sense of the

manufacture of

displayed both in colouring and

with strangers, and

the

importation of some
the political

which

has

degree of

degeneration
exercised

the

namely that of Islam,


development of the

II

is

of those

desire

other peoples in show and splendour,


art,

may

of high rank to rival

have led to the temporary

which supervened. The foreign

but

little

inter-

but this quickly disappeared with

most lasting

artistic sense.

silk

in pattern.

During the period of the prosperity of the port-kings, constant


course

in

household use were manu-

group of gampongs called Ateue', formerly

products are

goods,

not

is

manufacture

for its pottery, the

market

lamps
their

In the

skill.

is

now rapidly deteriorating.


be found in Acheh flourishing potteries,

merit, but this craft

artistic

influence

favourable

to

on

Cold-

an.

^''^*=''^'"'^'^'-

the

the

civilization

Achehnese,

awakening or

CHAPTER

II.

LITERATURE.

Form

of written Literature.

Under the head of Achehnese Hteiature we comprehend

Written and
literature,

Introductory. Stories.

I.

been composed
edification

written,
is

in their

own language

of the people of Acheh.

since the hard

not preserved

and

by means

all

Two

heroic

with historical
in

written

and

for the pleasure, instruction

say purposely composed and not

fast distinction

between what

and what

is

of letters cannot be consistently applied to

the productions of Achehnese writers whether past or present.


this clear let us take

that has

To make

one or two examples.

poems {Malem Dagang and Pochut Muhainat) dealing


facts and legends of the past of Acheh, have been known

form as

Another, which

in

back as the memory of the people extends.

far

form and character quite corresponds with the two

mentioned above, and which celebrates the heroic deeds of the Achehnese in

who
its

their

war with the Dutch, was composed gradually by a man

could neither read nor write, and was

entirety at

include the
In

the

introduced.

my own

first

literary

works

the

it

would be captious

under the head of

Achehnese,

pantons

in

in

criticism to

literature.

are

frequently
as

those

and other similar occasions, which are only

trans-

by word of mouth

significance

those

of

last

reduced to writing

There are however many other pantons, such

recited at the ratcbs

mitted

Yet

instance.

two and not the

first

relation

to

and yet these have often a much higher

the intellectual side of Achehnese

which are interwoven

in

stories.

Equally absurd would

life
it

than
be to

reckon the latter only as forming a part of the literature while excluding
the former.

67

Nor indeed can


against

it

be said that an Achehnese work

change by the written than by the

Every copyist claims an author's


the

as

does

reciter

is

better protected

form of transmission.

oral

privilege to modify the original, just

transmission by word of mouth. Should he

in

Authors and
'^"P^'^''"

own

to embellish the original according to his

taste

and

fail

he would

ideas,

be looked on by the Achehnese as lacking both intelligence and literary


talent.

any case there can be no objection

In

to our devoting a portion of

chapter to those products of the Achehnese intellect which

this

lie

on

or just outside the borders of literature.

The Achehnese
{miseue,
in a

very rich

is

from the Arab.

more

Many

of these are also to be found

characteristics. Descriptions of important events or conditions

which constantly recur


metre,

niitJial).

and

Achehnese

in

are generally contained in

life,

form are known to everybody. For instance, one

this

in

need only repeat the prelude "/ go on foot", to

at

once remind an Acheh-

nese of the verses placed in the mouth of heroes departing for the

and he

to

The
verses
kings'',

whom

of

teachers''.

The
all

no

'),

at

liouse

(symbolic

can see the ivorld twice"

once suggests to the Achehnese a number of

mosque with two


wishes

to

ligJits"

be the

ruling

Such examples might

riddles

man

of the

of untenable situations such as

descriptive
"'a

the steps

which we should describe by the comparison ^two cocks

situation

one foiul-yard''

in

"

At my departure I have spat upon

leave-taking of the Penates)

fight,

On my back [= borne by others) sliall


fetch me (= my corpse) from the enemy's

repeat the stanza

will

I return; none shall dare


land.

Proverbs, etc.

modified form in Malay, while others display purely

or less

Achehnese

proverbs and other sententious sayings

in

[hi'em)

of the

(i.

e.

'^a

country ivith two

two doctors of the law, each

authority)

'^a

gampong

ivith

tico

easily be multiplied ten-fold.

Achehnese are some of them

identical in

Kiddles.

respects, all of thfem in character, with those of the Malays, Javanese

and Sundanese.

The works employed by

the

Achehnese

branches of learning, are, as we saw

Malay

Arabic

popularized

see,

i)

,or

'^

Twee

haiieii

Brentford", which

the

last

some of these are however,

by being transposed

in een hok'".
is

in

for the pursuit of their various

The

very close to

into

as

chapter, written in

we

shall presently

Achehnese rhyming

En<^lish equivalent of this expression

tlie

Achehnese. (TinnslatorJ.

is

verse.

"two kings

in

Scientific

and

learned
works.

68

The only works


reckoned among

may be

which

of,

(elementary) text-books for students, arc a small

the

handbook on the

to the study of Malay, a

rhyming guide

we know

vernacular that

the

in

principles

first

of faith and religious law written in prose, a few treatises on the twenty

God, only one of which

characteristics of

is

written in prose, and

some

others on ritual prayers.

The two named above

Achehnese
^^'^^^-

are the only

have been able to discover.

It

alone which

in

name

give the

mouth

of

perpetuated

is

may

Achehnese prose works that we

thus almost be said that

Achehnese

We

writings.

it

of "unwritten prose" to the stories transmitted

which have so wide a circulation

those

(like

poetry

is

might however

by word

Java under

in

name of dongeng), which are used in Acheh to put children to


sleep when they are too old for cradle-songs, to shorten the evenings
the

grown-up people, and to dispel boredom

for

There

Stories.

known

no

is

name

specific

Acheh

as Jiaba (Arab, chabar), but the

same name

is

are indeed

given to the stories

their traditions respecting the

history of Acheh, and in general to

past

They

for these tales.

bygone days, or

of old folk about their

all

An

any event.

tidings of

Achehnese chief who has the reputation of being wise and prudent,

old

sure

is

in

at social gatherings.

have

to

in

his

wallet

store of Jiaba jameiin

')

{Jiaba of

the

olden times), which he displays on occasion to his respectful listeners.

Although such serious narratives arc called by the same name as the
tales

and saws employed to please children, the two ideas remain

strictly

separate in the minds of the Achehnese.

The

Iladih maja.

kind

first

country,

relates

grandmothers,

comprehend

or

call

hadih

^)

maja

rather of female ancestors.

sorts of traditions preserved

all

women, and which form an appendage


Customs

superstition.
religion,

but

the

at birth, marriage,

of which

neglect

is

misfortune, the pantang rules observed

woman
are

to

the

in

based

her

1)

Malay clurttra

From

z'dinaii

maja,

(lliiilu.

the Arab, luulith

is

talcs

Under

in so

or

of the
far

akin

traditions

of

heading they

this

by

old people, especially

the

popular custom and

death

etc.,

generally

not prescribed by

believed

by the fisherman

pregnancy, and by the hunter

on hadih

2)

to

history

past

combines instruction with amusement, and

what the Achehnese

to

which

of haba,

in the

to

result in

at sea,

forest,

by the

all

these

which thus comprises the lore regarding

(Traitslator).

tradition.

69

what the Sundanese


and

which control the daily

also the adafs

may

Haba

also be classified as hadik maja.

and

Jiadih niaja.

mouth

ment of

their

the

first

volume

')

The

uncertain form than the haba jauicun

less

reciters of these prose narrations, passed as they

to mouth, have of course greater freedom in the treat-

subject than

the

Achehnese book, yet

of an

copyists

by

certain elements of the haba remain unaffected

this license,

endeavours to adhere to the exact words

reciter

in

The

kind corresponding to the dongengs of the Sundanese

of the

and Javanese has a somewhat

are from

ila-ila,

of each individual.

life

and stereotyped speeches described

blessings, orations

of this work,

pamali, chadti or biiyut and the Javanese

call

and each

which the story

in

has been repeated to him.

These Achehnese

They

transcribing.

and

fables

life

than do the rhyming verses

almost the whole of the written literature

much

are often of

Some

Jiabas are

written in verse.

much more

ear a language

present to the

akin to the colloquial of daily

worth the trouble of

well

are

stories

is

composed, and

in

closely

which

their contents

interest.

simply modified reproductions

in prose of

romances

have had reduced to writing, among others, a very

long Achehnese dongeng consisting of numerous disconnected parts, the


principal

and Malay

literature.

after reading

popularizes
villagers,

some Malay romance

its

contents

and that

it

is

hitherto

unknown in
among

his

Jiaba

his

own country,
own fellow-

thence disseminated over a wider area.

Achehnese one

also

meets with much indigenous

other peoples of Indonesian race. Besides peculiar differences in

manner of transmission of these

of the

Achehnese

happens that an Achehnese,

form of

the

in

in

which entices the enquirer to comparisons with kindred matters

folklore,

the

be met with elsewhere

frequently

also

It

In the habas of the

among

may

elements of which

Eastern

among them

in

Archipelago, there
the

main

subjects,

tales

among

still

and

this

is

the various peoples

more
is

striking

agreement

noticeable even where

there can have been hardly any possibility of borrowing, in later times
at

least.

How much

peoples, obtained
to,

each to

See also

suit their

p.

common

material have

all

these different

from India, and subsequently worked up and added

ongm
i)

of this

43 above.

own

taste

How much

of

it

is

of purely domestic

Character
^^^^ fables'

^^

^^^^^

70

For the present

Elsewhere

The

The Achchnesc

stories

work, however,

this rather rare

their character.

we

find all these tales

and many others

kanclii ("crafty mouse-deer") in the

The Hikayat

kanclii,

Just

native

hibits

popular

Indonesian

in

as

fable

which even on the most

character

(,(,j.j..^jj^

work

as the written

no one, as

that

am

as

far

am

superficial acquaintance ex-

aware,

myself best acquainted with the

my

Sundanese dress;

known

generally

the tales told of


certain

in

down

to Si

Such

for

as

Si

Kabayan

him he appears

it

has caused

me some

has hitherto given any

Native Eulenspiegel

his character.

but

in

He

in

his

there pretty

is

some places and

in

as Si Buta-Tuli (the Blind

localities sayings

some of

and Deaf),

and doings which are elsewhere put

Kabayan's account, are here narrated under another name.

example

Grashuis;

dongengs from Preanger, Banten

collection of 70

and South Chirebon give a picture of

J.

is

remarkable type,

attention to this

while

nothing

unmistakeable traces of relationship with the German Eulenspiegel,

surprise

is

crafty Mouse-deer

the

the Arabo-Turkish Juha or Chojah Nagr ad-dIn

sr Kabayan.

form of haba.

called,

is

than haba in rhyming verse.

less

as

Eulenspiege

plando'

will shortly

')

from a native manuscript. Besides

relating to the plando

more or

some idea of

about the "crafty ]Mouse-deer"

be presented to the reader, epitomized

The

which

propose to publish a few of these Achehnese haba; here

rest content with giving the reader

must

"crafty

limit ourselves to collecting the data

eventually assist us to solve these problems.

will

must

\vc

story

this

^)

the dongeng of Aki Bolong published

is

is

current

under the name of

by Mr. G.

Si

Kabayan

amongst the majority of the Sundanese.


Kabayan's tomb
Banten,

pointed

is

out at

manner of
as

more

to the

while

many

best

in

of the

view of the varied accounts of the


tales

of

of those of Eulenspiegel

Kabayan
others

are at least as

owe

their interest

rough specimens of popular pleasantry which they contain,


are,

Eulenspiegel,

1)

Some

death.

his

the

in

under mango-trees. This plurality of graves need not

usually

be considered an impossibility,

pretty

Pandeglang and other places

Mouse-deer

according to European ideas, unfit for translation. Like

who
is

as

coachman greases the whole of his master's carriage

pilandttk in Malay. For an English version of the Malayan talcs about

this little creature see Skeat's

to the pH/antiuk are

somewhat

2) Socndancesch Lecsbock.

"Fables and Folk-tales." The qualities attributed by Indonesians


similar to those with which we endow the fox. (Translator).

(Sundanese reader), Leiden 1874, pp. 58

et scq.

71

Kabayan

place of the axle,

in

words of

of the

astonishing

educators and

his

He

From

constant disinclination to settle


to

fulfil

laughter

all

down

to his

any

to

their advice in

who have not

his

all

name, and shows a

fixed occupation or calling

duties as husband or father, he

his

day by day from

colours

and constantly alarming

these straits, however, he always manages

and though he never has a cent

escape,

or

advisers

method of putting

his

himself, too, often gets into great difficulties through his

endless misconceptions.
to

them by

or injuring

execution.

always taking the wrong meaning out

is

comes out with

and moves

pranks,

suffered personal

flying

to side-shaking

damage from

his rogueries

and cunning stupidity.

Having once

for all

humour and irony

the central point around which

those imported from foreign countries.

wont

^s

to ascribe to a great hero

by some of
type

in

It is just in this

is

way

of

Kabayan

from one another

nothing but a foolish dullard,

is

by the utmost cunning. Both

characterized

in

that legend

The encyclopaedia

tales dift'ering entirely

some of these the hero

in

while in others he

are at variance with the Eulenspiegel character.


villagers

popular

deeds which were really performed

his less celebrated colleagues.

now even comprises some

stories

all

he undoubtedly plays a part occasionally

which originally belonged to a different cycle or even

stories

in

become

revolve,

Among

of these

the Sundanese

not only are these tales constantly repeated both by old and

young, but their whole speech flows over with allusions and quotations

from

these

"Kabayan"

dongengs.
is

(silly

is

not surprising,

apply,

therefore,

kampongs

often heard even in the

The same remarks


Bodo

It

though

in

less

youngman) of the Javanese and

Menangkabau Malays;
spiegel"

whom

or Pd"

Pandc.

also (to return to our

to

Up

to

the

present

the

name

the

Jaka

of Batavia.

degree,

to

Si Pandic

among

the

^)

a few of the habas relating to him, but these few harmonize to a

degree with these of the Sundanese, while

'^''

Si Gasicn-ineuscukin siMeuscukin,

have been able to collect but

jaka Bodo,
"'

Achehnese) of the "Eulen-

they variously name Si Meuseukin,


^)

that

in

^'^

^'^"

''"

marked

form and dress they ex-

many genuine Achehnese characteristics.


Thu^ for instance the Haba Si Meuscitkin nyang kcu})iiiio)i

hibit

{^\

Meuseukin siMeuscukin
as a diviner.

1)

The Arabic-Malay miskin = "poor":

of "pitiable") but in Achehnese


2) This

name must

it

is

used

gasilhi
to

not be understood in

Achehnese pronunciation of

the

the Malay kasihan ("poor" in the sense

signify
its

"unfortunate," "beggar."

ordinary sense of "blacksmith," but as the

Menangkabau pandic

"silly."

72
as a diviner)

mentioned, which
Si

is

Si

Meuseuwedd-

tale,

g^jst-jng

in

viz.

troubles

versions of this haba which differ widely

details.

though only moderately so

Sundanese Kabayan

are

caused

third

by pcutcuy.

hand

results

-)

if

tale;

The Achehnese

know

of three

one of these Kabayan's internal

in

by apem-dough,

a dis-

is

measured by the standard

In the Sundanese

stories.

unsavoury

of this

duplicates

another by dage

in

')

and

in the

Meuseukin's colic on the other

Si

from the eating of nangka

kind of jack-fruit,

(a

bolt

panaih

Achehnese).

in

Pande.

other Sundanese in two parts,

Si Meuseukin meukaiven (Si Meuseukin's wedding)

The haba

In the Jiaba

Pa'

among

current

Kabayan nujiini
The Achehnese have many

of the

Haba

just

and Si Kabayan nariiJikeun samangka.

from one another


kin's

dongeng of Aki Bolong

identical in form with the

is

Pa Pande

number of

there are strung together a

stories

the counterparts of which form separate narratives among the Sundanese.


In the

Achehnese version Pa' Pande

(^^ Si

Meuseukin) after receiving

an exhortation to diligence which he duly misunderstands, goes forth


catch

to

blind

deut-^s\s.\

7iyaina ("Si

Kabayan and

for a blind

paray.

When
kind

his

called

ku'e

home
\

first

Sundanese dongeng Si Kabayati jeung

mother in-law") he

sent to seek a teungkii,

order comes

the

in the

Pa'

^)

with a hoop-net

fishes

Pande through misconception of

with a ram, and then with a bird of the

Kabayan boga ewe anyar and Si Kabayan dek kawin


married life" and "Si K. goes to get him a wife").
Pa'

Pande

steals into a sack in

hold goods and food

grandmother
and

in Si

Sundanese Si

similar mistakes form the motif in the

which

similarly the

his wife

had stowed her house-

Sundanese Eulenspiegel deceives

K. ngala daiin kachang

his grandfather in Si

("Si K's early

K. ngala onjuk

("Si

("Si

his

K. plucking bean leaves")

K. gathering aren-fibres").

Other points of resemblance are not wanting, but are

less

obvious than

the above.

Besides the

Sundanese Kabayan-tales,

v/e

Meuseukin and Pa' Pande with the Malay

Dage
when

1)
oil

is

eaten as an adjunct to

partially

with the rice as a

1,

p.

It

also

compare the

Si

Pak Belalang and

consists in fruits of a certain kind which secretp

decayed; after being kept

sufficient

time they arc cooked and eaten

relish.

2) Peutetiy (Anagyris L.
3) See vol.

rice.

may

stories of

71.

Mai.

pi'tei) is a

bean with an ofTensive odour, also used as

a relish.

73
Lebai

Malang

by A. F. von Dcwall

(published

"Bunga rampai"

in

IV. Batavia 1894).

vol.

We

must however always remember that the name

Meuseukin has

Si

not acquired so specialized a meaning as that of Si Kabayan. This

last

always used by the Sundanese to designate their Eulenspiegel. In

is

Achehnese, however,

the

Si

Meuseukin or the "Poor Devil" may be

the hero of other tales as well as the Eulenspiegel ones.

somewhat

In the

Haba Raja

prolix

prmce

make

presently
finally

("Story of the bayan-

')

many

Story of the
bayan-princc

of his adventures are of a similar sort

Bangsawan and Banta Amat, with whom we

of Indra

those

plays a part which again reminds us to some

ISIeuseukm

Si

extent of Si Kabayan, but


to

Bayeu'cn

further acquaintance as heroes of fiction.

becoming the monarch of a great kingdom places

shall

Si Meuseukin's
this tale entirely

outside the sphere of Eulenspiegel stories.

The same

Si Meuseukin in which the hero

wronged and cheated by

being

continually

is

Haba

true of another

is

Meuseukin
wronged,

Si

elder brother, but

his

eventually becomes the happy possessor of two princesses and a king-

dom. This story


the

for

latter,

instance.

in the guise of a

To conclude

shows features which

also

Meuseukin serves a princess

brief review

of the

Haba
who hid

more, the

metitangkob ("story of one

which closed together"). This

is

Achehnese
_

some time

for

ureu'eng lob

and cradled

in

cucumber. ]\Iany varieties of

we

haba's,

lam batu

")

shall
7

>

The cloven
stone,

bhiih batee

herself in a cleft of a stone, a stone

the

marvellous history of two boys,

an intrigue with a snake

Amat and Muhamat, whose mother had


the jungle

Indra Bangsawan; like

shepherd.

our

mention but one

Si

recall

her house

her

lover's

soul,

this tale arc current in the

in

enclosed in a

Gayo and Alas

countries.

Most of the

literary productions of the

about to describe, are

We

in writing,

Achehnese which we are now

and almost

must therefore pause a moment

all

are

to consider the

The Achehnese have properly speaking only one


sanja\

i)

Bayan

identify
2)

and consists of verses

^)

it

We

is

the

talking

with their tiong

should

Ijird
i.

e.

,-,.,
each of which

which so often appears

in

composed

in verse.

Achehnese prosody.
metre. This

contains eight

is

called
I.

tect, or

Malay hikayats; the Achehnese

the mina.

expect to find here batee^ which occurs two words further on, but in this

one instance the Malay pronunciation is followed.


derived from the Arabic saf^ which means rhyming prose.
3) The same word as the Malay saja\

Achehnese
metrical sy^^^^^

74

two middle

rather four pairs of feet, as the

pairs in each verse

rhyme

with one another in their final syllables; the concluding syllable of each

rhymes with that of the

verse also

poem

long

the poet has

next,

being understood that

it

rhyme

licence to vary the

full

in a

as often as he

pleases,

verse

poems

Achehnese

Quran.

which

called ayat,

is

continuously,

so

separate

verses

the

that

name

the Arabic

is

for a verse of the

generally, though not always, written

are

verse

over two lines; to

distributed

often

is

from one another marks are employed similar to

those to be seen in copies of the Sacred Book.

The

form of the Achehnese verse

simplest

foot contains two syllables, as:

ban

gall

gajah

ban

sie

tulo

that

is

which each

in

')

judo

jitueng

![

dinab

||

mata

||

or:

mate

adat

ku pa-

ban bah

|j

There
metre

no such thing

is

of each

syllable

last

contrast

Achehnese

in

So

foot.

Malay,

the

to

^'

Ion

as quantity.
is

The

||

essence of the

always

laid

on the

the Achehnese verses are in direct

far

"diminuendo", the

is

part of the foot. Mutatis mutandis,

first

the Malay metre trochaic, and the

call

pake

ji-

we

Achehnese iambic.

Verses Containing one or more feet of more than two syllables are

Feet and
^^

[]

which the movement

in

strong accent falling on the

might

salah

the incidence of the accent, which

in

lies

hana

least

at

syllables.

may

v/-

hana

common

as

Thus

if

those

as

dig6b

na

geutanyoe

di
|

second of each pair of


adat

umu

na

mula

dudoe

CiW\

nanggr6e

and

last

4th.

For example
[

syllable

ree na

The

paroh

Ion

St'^

making the

the

diju-

|j

dua

commonly

raja

j|

occurs

in

the

thus in

feet,

||

bhaih

ba'

nyang tujoh

'j

keudeh
]

feet are of three syllables.

modification

favourite

consists of

i)

saboh

||

'J

the 2ih^ 4th

absence,

its

always be replaced by ^-^- In:

fourth foot has three syllables. This most

the

Ion

which each foot contains only two

in

- be taken as denoting the accent and ^

rhyme

accentuated

the 6th

of

pasu

less

of the

leukat

di

first

ram-

bat

feel arc

separated hy

tlic

mark

,
|

the middle of the verse

part,

and not

rhyme with the

foot,

in

which

is

[j

na

last syllable of the

pasu

saka

douldcd

||

(as ordinarily)

after

the

||

rhyming

syllables.

75
or:

kawan

jipoh

jikheun

gata
|

meung

j!

The common form

han

jikcu-

of a with cue or eu, e with

rhyming with

or

t',

we may

with

ng and sometimes even

n with

b,

no definitely accepted

rule

and
is

;;/

le

|]

and sixth

it

Of

cii.

final

There

/.

notice the

Puctic
license.

the

also regarded

and the

such kinds of license

for

ii,

rhyming with one another and with

as

'

fifth

foot.

the numerous instances of poetic license

denoted by

bah

consonants at the end of the rhyming syllables

final

as

\\

na dirambat and Jian vieiing saboh, as the rhyme would

feet to run thus

rhyming

boh

these examples would be for the

in

then coincide with the end of the

Among

sa

is

is

guttura^

however

a question

of individual taste.

The word janggay


a slovenly

verse

(discordant)

is

used to indicate the harshness of

or one in which there

poem which answers

is

too

to the canons of taste

is

much

poetic license.

called

kevnbng ("hitting

the mark").

When

at

loss

for

rhymes poets sometimes

suitable

resort to the

expedient of addressing the reader at the end of a verse with words

which rhyme
putrb'e

in pairs, as

princess

(oh

wake

ivahe

!)

teelan,

adb'e

(oh

wahe rakan,

comrade

(oh

younger brother or

sister

!)

!)

rvaJie

wahe

raja, tvahe se'edara etc.

All the

poems

of the Achehnese, that

is

to say almost

productions, are declaimed in singsong style

{beu'ct

all

their literary

Malay

bacha).

Both the pantons and the component parts of ratebs have various
different

methods of intonation, called sometimes by onomatapaeic names,

such as meuhahala meiihehele and sometimes after the place of their


origin

(as

jazvoe

bar at - "the intonation of the Malays of the West

Coast"), sometimes from their character (as rancJia'

For the hikayats which form the principal part


of intonation

sorts

are

(Achehnese or Court
are

further

(slow
in

time).

order to

divided

The

into

Thus

pungiiclio

in

(Pidir style).

styles

lagee

hikayat employs each of these

The

The

lagee jareu'eng

is

in

turn,

preferred for

syllables are given a prolonged enunciation,

now and

then with the help of a nasal

the "slow time" the double foot piicho

meugingisa.

Both

of a

vowels being lengthened

"^."

two

Acheh or Dalam

bagaih (quick time) and lagee jareueiig

the monotony.

solemn or tragic episodes.


the

and the lagee Pidie

"animated").

of the literature,

specially employed, the lagc'e

style)

reciter

relieve

nieugisa

becomes

styles of

76
Various kinds
'''^rlintons.

Three kinds of poems are composed in the Achehnese metre.


First come the pantons. These have this in common with Malay
pantons,

they generally treat of love,

that

two parts (with the Achehnese


has

or no meaning, or

little

what

tlic

rhymes

at all events

is

and that each consists of

of one verse each) of which the

unconnected

poet really wishes to express, and

in

first

sense with

only serves to furnish

memory. Adepts have only to hear the first line of


panton to at once grasp the meaning of the whole.

to aid the

any favourite

We

have already given some examples of non-erotic pantons in the


formal dialogues connected with marriage ceremonies. The love pantons
both the old ones which everyone knows, and new

numberless,

are

will

here suffice

Ba'

meureuya

didalam paya

||

pucho' meugisa

|1

Panton menkarang.

crown

twists

are already gone,

Pantoti

i.

vieiikaraug,

ba'

mata uroe

||

ka ba' reujang tawoe

||

do you

e.

e.

remember)

still

two eyes,

come quickly back again."


pantons, is the name given

of

series

my

panton form, whether between lovers, or

dialogues in

example

round with the sun.

"Do you still see (i.


"Come then, if you

at a

single

')

Meung na ta'eu mataku dua adat ka tabung"A sago palm in the swamp.
"Its

which the young keep continually adding.

ones to

to

(as for instance

wedding) between hosts and guests.

good many pantons are committed

versified tales

mouth of one
separate

to writing, especially in the

and other works where they are quoted or placed


of the

characters.

The

in

the

majority, however, both of the

pantons and the panton vicnkarang just described, are trans-

mitted orally alone.

Pantons are employed

on solemn occasions,
used

in

in

in

love

making,

in

the traditional dialogues

sadati-games and cradle-songs.

dances such as are performed

in

Pidie

They

are also

by women and boys

to

the accompaniment of music.

We may

remark

in

passing

that

there

are

pantons

in

Achehnese

which imitate to some extent the form of those of the Malays. These
arc

however exceptional, and

are

not

to

be regarded as genuinely

Achehnese.
The

rat6bs.

Sanjii

is

also

used as the

vehicle for the most important portions

Nasib and
kisah.
i)

\Vc give here only ihc divisions between each pair of

feet.

and

[nasib

the recitations in the plays called

kisaJi) of

but

not

might rather say,

and nasibs and


which

the

least,

that

all

kisalis

composed

is

composed

are

Jiikayats

to,

sanja

in

which

signification of "story",

has retained

it

apply the term Jiikayat not only to

Hikayats.

called liikayat. This word,

is

derived from the Arabic, entirely loses in Achehnese

is

we

or

metre, except the pantons

in this

above referred

account

games and pastimes.

of these will be given later, in the chapter on


Last,

An

rati'b.

its

original

Malay. The Achehnese

in

tales of fiction

and

religious legends,

but also to works of moral instruction and even simple lesson-books,

provided that the matter

expressed

is

verse, as

in

in fact the case

is

with the great majority of Achehnese literary productions.

Another of the recognized

characteristics of a hikayat

which are sometimes appended other general views or

is

own,

in

God" but which

-aj^.:?^),

in

signify

Achehnese

new

ama
I

one word

subject or a

by the poets
to the

all

is

as

new

fresh

Malay karangan^),

baadii

diidb'c

literature

have grown to

beiihan alah

quite lost sight

is

\\

Our remarks on
incomplete

Achehnese

of.
is

introduced

is

equivalent

kurangan'

i.e.

which

latter

literary composition.
||

la en

karangan

The

usual form

Ion chalitra

||

||

without

the

pronunciation

the Achehnese
itself to

in

form of Achehnese literary works would be

some mention

imitating one of those

is:

= "Now

essay.

of the

of

the

nalam.

This word

is

Arabic nazvi, meaning poetry.

Achehnese however understand thereby writings composed

used to

fact

word

Achehnese the meaning of a writing or

The

and the

on to another subject". But kiwangan has also preserved

pass

l)

things!

subdivision of the main theme

nyan

niba

"O wonderful

meaningless introductory phrase.

entirely

syllables are usually divided thus ajayeb so

that sobeuJian

reflections of the

reached. This transition

is

by the words ajayeb sobeuhan Alah

introduced

more than an

no

be

till

the Arabic (&UI q>-:s;V~

be to

Praise

finally the actual subject

invariably

almost

which

should

it

with certain formulas in praise of Allah and his Apostle, to

commence
author's

that

is

employed by the Arabs.

in a

the

The
metre

say imitating, because

language, possessing no settled quantities, does not lend

the absolute application of an Arabic metre.

example of the change of a or ^ into may be seen in the word kupahi


denote a head man of a gampGng appointed by the Dutch government. The good-natured
similar

patroness of lovers

is

sometimes called

Ni Kubayan

(Mai. K'Ubayan).

Nalam.

7^

The

in

am

below, wliich

metre described
accent

which

with

nalauis

is

acquainted

are

composed

all

in

the

known as rajaz, the emphasis of the

Achehnese taking the place of the length of the

syllable in

Thus we have

for instance

Arabic.

Each verse

consists of 3 or 2 pairs of iambics.

ngbn

trimeter:

the

Arab

bcseumilah

ladum Acheh

Ion Jiarcuto'e

pup/ton

iilon

nalam jawoc

ladum

||

||

and the dimeter:


karangan

liyb'c

Habib Hadat

composed

All works

jeucb-jeucb bilat

that vieucheuJiu
\

||

many

deal with religious subjects, and

in nalani

have the character of text-books rather than works of edification.

So much of the form of Achehnese written


proceed to describe

We

classify

shall

various

subjects, placing the few

which

hikayats

the

works according to the nature of

nalams and the


of similar

treat

subjects.

Where

granted that

it

is

even where we have

For

and

supply

shall

The form

of hikayat

so.

consecutively with

Malay

known

as
its

need not long occupy our

ruJic

contents and purpose, between the

his secrets

object

and

his follies, to

of ridicule.

district takes

up

his

Should

abode

it

is

to publish

speak

his acts or omissions,

some

local

wag

evil of

happen that a

in a certain place,

and there meets with any noteworthy adventures or excites

by

in-

The Hikayat Ruhe.

life,

make him an
some other

stranger from

or disgust

Roman

sources.

and the hikayat proper. The proper meaning of ruhe

abroad a man's private


or

this title

then go on to describe those derived directly or

attention. It stands, in respect of

man

not

taken

with those works which are of purely Achehnese

2.

omitted to do

we have numbered

directly from Indian, Arabic or

liaba

may

is

may be

the Achehnese works referred to.

all

shall deal first

origin

for brevity's sake

facility of reference,

numerals

We

a hikayat, and the reader

work

a
it

their

works among

rarer prose

still

expressly stated to be composed in nalam or in prose,


for

now

shall

substance, so far as our limited space permits.

its

the

we

literature;

ridicule

will often celebrate

79
doings

his

verse [sanja) with the requisite flavour of exaggeration,

in

and the name of

The name
of which
like

given to such a composition.

is

however

is

move

to

is

ruJic

also

John Gilpin's Ride. Such

of mouth than

appHed

to

humorous poems, the object

the hstener to laughter without any evil intent,


tales are

more often transmitted by word

writing.

in

One of the best known liikayat riilie is the Hikayat guda (I), "the
poem of the horse." This consists of some 30 verses only, and describes
in humorous style how some friends slaughtered and divided among
them an

Thus of the

and one of the


excited

what each of them did with the part that

old horse, and

to his share.

tail

by her

laughter

fell

a cheiuiiara or native chignon was made,

became a princely sword, while an

ribs

Hikayat
^

fruitless

endeavours to boil

old

woman

soft the portion

she had acquired.

Of

nature

a like

is

what appear

containing

who was

constant

animals).

It

consists

and

bulls

the Hikayat leiimb

their

"the

poem

of the bull,"

Hikayat

be the disconnected reminiscences of one

to

of the glanggang (arena for fights of

frequenter
of a

(II),

series

of laughable anecdotes about famous

owners and celebrated juaras.

')

These could however

have only been properly appreciated by the coevals of the author, whose

name

is

unknown.

Another very short story


describes
(or

Malay)

crack-brained

the
-)

is

the Hikayat ureu'eng Jaiva

dream

of a

(III)

which

male favourite of a Javanese

The hidden meaning seems to be that the latter


neglect his favourite, who expresses his resentment of

teungku.

had begun to

the wrong done him.

The Hikayat Podi ^) Aviat (IV) is much more prolix. The hero, a
student in the gampong of Klibeuet, has a dream which predicts him
success in whatever he
to pursue his studies

may

and enjoys the teaching of one Malem Jawa. But

Fate has higher things

i)

Jiiara^

in

Malay

as

undertake. Thereupon he goes on a journey

well

in store for

as

him.

The daughter

of the king of

Achehnese means the trainer of fighting cocks or other


The word is also used in Riau and

animals, the master of the ceremonies in the glanggang.

Johor to signify a procuress. Wilkinson, Mal.-Eng. Diet.

p.

235. (Translator).

The Achehnese sometimes follow the Arabs in applying the name "Jawa" to the Malays
as well as the Javanese. This name is especially used in a contemptuous sense; for instance
an Achehnese abusing a Padang man will call him '^Jawa paUW'' = "miserable Malay!"
Arab, s'uii which also means
3) Po means "lord" or "master;" di is an abbreviation of the
2)

"gentleman" or

"sir."

Hikayat reu'

awa.

8o

Gayos dreams of him, and the story ends by Po Amat's winning

the

her hand and becoming the ruler of the Gay6s.


Hikayat P6
Jamboe.

Pb Jambbe

(V)

hero of a liikayat riihe which has not been

the

is

reduced to writing and which

The

poems of the Achehnese,

heroic

indisputably

stand

matter,

of their literature.

we

It

higher in

by the

are especially struck

only.

form and subject-

original both in
all

respects than any other part

the two most ancient of these hikayats that

in

is

me by name

to

Epic Hikayats.

3.

known

is

poets'

calm objectivity, their command

of their subject, their keen sense of both the tragic and comic elements
in

the

touches

in

which they sketch,

of Achehnese

and the occasional masterly

fellow-countrymen,

of their

lives

briefly but accurately,

genuine pictures

life.

Achehnese epic poetry has without doubt taken time

The
must have been preceded by
which we

level at

place

the

in

by works of

We

heroic

others whose loss

of the

give

them

we

to reach the

are acquainted

deplore, since their

Achehnese themselves has been taken

resume of the contents of those which

in their chronological

The Hikayat Malem Dagang

Malem

poems with which we

a lower standard imported from abroad.

survive, taking

Dagang.

it.

estimation

now

shall

find

(VI).

still

sequence.

This epic celebrates an episode

from among the great achievements of the Achehnese under their most

famous

ruler

fiseukanda (Iskandar)

Muda

(1607

3^)'

called

after his

death Meukuta Alam, against the ruling Power in the Malay Peninsula
or

it

might rather be said to furnish

in

rhyme and metre

');

a specimen

of an Achehnese tradition (now degenerated into unrecognizable forms)

of that golden epoch.


Historic basis
of the heroic

It

is

j-cally

indeed
are

impossible

to

determine with certainty what the facts

which are presented to us

in

so fantastic a form, so widely

does the story diverge from reliable historical

i)

The Portuguese;
Power as

describe this

facts.

the Achehnese, however, in their confusion of historical facts, wrongly


the

iJulch.

8i

We

Escukanda Muda conquered, among other Httoral


and Pahang (1618), thus gaining for Acheh
an authority over the Malay Peninsula which was only balanced by

know

Malay

known

also

It

is

to

drive

settled at

Malacca a century

that the prince in question

^)

made

earlier.

several attempts

out these rivals of his power from Malacca. For instance, he

1628 with

attacked that port in


sidered

who had

Portuguese,

of the

that

that

')

States, Johor (1613)

relatively

the

to

a fleet of gigantic proportions, con-

development of Acheh. All

however unsuccessful, though he succeeded

in

his efforts

were

harassing the Portuguese

to a considerable extent.

That the Achehnese

should

legend

Meukuta Alam's attack upon Malacca

as

Dutchman

^)

name

latter

India. This

in

it

sounds more

and allude to him not only as ruler of

Malacca, but also occasionally by

which

Curious

they should definitely describe the chief enemy of the

strange that

Achehnese

phases of

various

need cause us no surprise. But

dimensions,

fabulous

the

collect

into a single naval expedition of

refers to

may

Goa

way

of variety as the "ruler of Guha",

the chief settlement of the Portuguese

possibly be explained

by the

on the

fact that later

Portuguese disappeared entirely from the field of vision of the


nese,

the

while

Dutch came

to be to

Achehthem the representatives of all

danger that threatened them from Europeans. But


,,

11

be an endless task to continue explammg


,

Imagination runs
pression

throughout the whole,

riot

his characters

it
1

would manifestly
!

but the method of ex-

life

of the

first

tokens of enmity on the part of Si

son

Volume

of his Oiid en

Nicnw

Oosi-Indien.

2) See Veth's Atchin^ p. 74.

The Achehnese

3)
to

describe

name

all

are not as a matter of fact, like the Javanese for example, accustomed

Europeans

as

"Dutchmen"

{^Ulaiidit).

They give Europeans

the

general

of haphe ("unbeltevers"), and for closer definition use the names of their nationalities

(Inggreh,

Peutugeh,

Pranseh

etc.).

The Dutch

are

honoured with

the

of "labu-

epithet

planters" {Ulanda pula labti) because, say they, in every country of the Archipelago where
the

Dutch have established themselves, they have first asked the native
of ground for the cultivation of labu (pumpkins) and subsequently
ground over which this quick-growing plant had sprcid.

piece
the

II

poem.

Contents of
the epic.

of the raja of Malacca, against his benefactor Plscukanda

F. Valentijn, pp. 7 and 8 of the "Beschrijvingc van Sumatra," which appeared in the

1)

5th

'^^^

from the

his story, are all derived

'

character of

Achehnese people.

The poem begins with the


Ujut,

Tuiely

Achehnese

and the scenes which he has lavishly

embroidered on the framework of

everyday

the details of this legend,

thoroughly Achehnese; the thoughts which the poet puts

mouths of

the

in

is

all

ruler for a small


laid claim to all

82

Muda, the powerful

ruler of

We

Acheh.

gather, partly from the direct

statements of the author, partly from hints and suggestions which occur
the

in

his

course of the

younger brother Raja Raden

of their journey.

bibeiich

'-)

though we are not told the motive

),

Eseukanda had received them with honour and assigned

Krueng Raya

them Ladong and

to

gone to Acheh with

that this prince had

story,

as

freehold

territory

Mohammedan

and that too although they were not of the

),

The poet (or at least some


expressly calls them Dutchmen, yet

[zuakeu'eh,

of the transcribers of his writings),

faith.

them

represents

as worshippers of

the Sun, according, forsooth, to the teaching of the prophet Moses!').

Between Raja Raden and

Mohammedan

brotherly feeling, that the former embraced the

and gave up

his

soon grew up such a

his royal host there

religion,

daughter of the ruler of Pahang to the king

wife, a

of Acheh, taking one of the latter's consorts in exchange.

Not

so favourable

This stubborn

was the impression that

kafir

met

Ujut conceived of Acheh.

the kindness he had received with black

all

and suggested to

ingratitude,

Si

converted brother that

his

it

was time to

return to Malacca, where boundless riches stood at their disposal,

good and

to leave for

all

and

the poverty-stricken country where they had

Raden seeks

to convince

him of the inadvisability

of such a step. His elder brother

mocks him

for

settled.

In vain Raja

to give his nobly-born wife


"as

away

exchange

in

for

being such a fool as

an Achehnese

woman

ugly as an iguana", and reveals to him his scheme for despoiling

before

departure

their

the territory given

them

to

hold

in

fee,

and

afterwards waging war on a large scale against Acheh.

The

He

part

first

programme was soon

of this

attacks and plunders a

them on hooks

thrust

number

of

carried out

by

Si Ujut.

Achehnese fishermen and hangs

through their faces; thereafter he sets

sail

for

his father's country.

Raja

Raden remains

loyal

to

his

kingly

protector,

warns him of

Ujut's further designs and declares himself ready to fight with


the death against his infidel brother.

Ujut by himself invading the

Si

1)

He

also advises

latter's territory

The modem Achehnese point out Kaja Radon's tomb


Gunongan near the Dalani.

in

him

him

to

to anticipate

without giving him

the neighbourhood of the

peculiar structure called the


2) Sec Vol.
3) In

other

I,

pp. 121 et seq.

Achehnese works wc

find

Europeans

Jews, followers of Moses and Sun- worshippers.

as well as other "kafirs" descrilied as

83

time to take the

dimensions

from

drifting

there

the

quietly

to see

first

already

The magic

into

coast

framework of a ship, comes


Kuala Acheh and remains lying

the

to

the Sultan himself, hearing of this marvel, hastens

until

own

eyes.

addresses the

tree

was destined by
ship,

opposite

with his

it

Daring their deHberations a tree of fabulous

step.

fashioned

Si

king,

(the tree)

but that the will of Allah had sent him, a prince of jens of the

true faith, to be used against the unbeliever.


this

him how he

telling

Ujut to serve as the foundation of a gigantic war-

tree,

to

receives the

named

sail

name

the

of

Chakra Donya (Sphere of the

respectively Akidatoy

Khoyran Kasiran

may

',^i

('^xiS'

on board

Evil) are placed

ringing

ship

then built from

is

head of the war-fleet against

at

Umu

(^^a^\

Si

world).

Ujut, and

Three

bells,

aA^-c Confirmation of Things)

Much Good) and Tula' Mara (Dispeller of


their clappers move of themselves and their

be heard three days

sail

away

').

Presently the preparations for the expedition are complete.

The king

has a tender parting with his Pahang consort, the former wife of Raja

Raden. She gives him sundry advice, warning him especially not to
land anywhere in the territory of Si Ujut, as
in the exercise of

The expedition

many

help to enlarge their equipment.

Donya along

the

North and

geographical knowledge.
the panglima of which

inhabitants are skilled

is

distinguished of generals.

The

art.

the dependencies of Acheh, to call for

sails to

first

its

kinds of witchcraft and black

The poet

carries us,

on board the Chakra

East Coasts of Acheh, and displays his


first

place touched at

handed down

Thence the

to

fleet

is

Pidie (vulg. Pedir),

fame as the bravest and most


shapes

its

course for Meureudu,

whjch the poet depicts as a sparsely-populated and almost desert land.

The want of familiarity with the great of the land withheld the
people of Meureudu from fulfilling their duty of waiting on the Sultan.
The latter awaited their coming for some days in vain; meantime the
men of Meureudu betook themselves for counsel to a teacher from
Medina who lived among them, called in this narrative Ja Pakeh or Ja
Madinah ^). The latter went to plead the cause of these simple folk.
1)
is

The

great bell which

now hangs from

a tree near the Ciovcrnors huusc ;U Kula Raja

believed by the Achehnese to be one of those of the Chakra Donya.


2)

ya

properly means grandfather or great-grandfather, and Pakcli

a teacher of the law.


origin or residence

is

The designation
universal in

of famous persons

Acheh.

l)y

the

is

name

the .\rabic

yi/i////

of the place of their

84
produce of the country as a token of fealty;

bearing offerings of the

but the king, through anger at the dekay, took no notice of his presence.

The

moved

pandit,

own

his

people of Meureudu were lacking

since he had set no chief over

nized

declared

mistake,

his

induced

Pakeh,

Ja

him frankly

to anger in his turn, told

fault that the

them

that

it

was

good manners,

them. The king recog-

to instruct

a feudal freehold {ivakeueh) and

Meureudu

without

not

in

accompany him

to

difficulty,

in

his

voyage to Malacca.
According to the popular conception of the Achehnese, a learned
teungku

supposed to be especially distinguished by his knowledge of

is

sundry Heumecs or

and

friends

may
this

crafts

Thus the

destruction on his foes.

bring

to

which enable him to ensure the safety of

he

for

war

clearly influenced

by

makes the king of Acheh, from the time of

his

depend on such a one. Our poet

often
idea,

issue of a

his

is

departure from Meureudu, take the advice of Ja Pakeh on

matters

all

of importance.

Thus
forces

who

for instance in regard to the question as to


in

the

field;

this

honour

is

to lead the

is

at first offered to the

Panglima of

Pidie mentioned above, but as the latter prefers to hold a subordinate


post, the king requests

him

to

name

and he nominates Malem Dagang,

who

is

also rich

Just as in

and

influential.

modern Acheh

termediaries, so here too

the

man to be chief panglima,


man
of approved courage,
young

a suitable

')

we

all

negociations are carried on through in-

method adopted

find the like

on which Malem Dagang

conditions

in discussing

to assume the

is

command.

Ja Pakeh represents his interests with fatherly care, and Meukuta Alam
promises him as recompense a handsome share of the revenues of his

dominions.

The way

in

which Malem Dagang

enlists

so necessary for his task, of the influential

office

i)

which he has been called upon to

Malem means one who

practise

of religion;

is

signifies

offers
fill,

of his

foreigner,

with

title

the

of malem^

letibe

etc.,

and

his

Achehnese

knowledge and

in particular a Kling, or

man might

even though he followed national customs entirely

creed of Islam; for instance

dignified in an

talc

we sometimes

with the

title

find

of /cube!

family,

and on their refusing

native of Southern India. In Acheh, however, especially in earlier times, a


the

own

them, one by one,

common herd by

distinguished from the

dagang ordinarily

his side the cooperation,

members

He

forms another genuine Achehnese picture.


the

on

at

gain

variance

even the manager of a cock-fight

85

reminds them

in

many words

so

that

is

it

by

their request

and not of

own will that he assumes the command over them.


As the expedition proceeds along the North and East Coasts of
Sumatra, the poet gives us many details about these parts, putting the
his

information he conveys in the mouth of Ja Pakeh in the form of answers


Sultan. Old traditions and

and the king takes the opportunity of introducing

conversations,

some necessary reforms


Finally the

attains

fleet

government of the country.

in the

full

its

and puts out to open

vessels,

inquisitive

on the then existing state of things form the subject of

observations
their

by the

questions asked

the

to

strength,

sea.

No

some tens of thousands of

sooner have they

lost sight of

the coast than the Sultan loses heart and has to be gradually restored
to confidence

by the wise man of Medina, who

by reference

to

the

and

poem
far

The

his hitika or table of

the king

some

represented, not without

is

is

able to reassure

him

lucky days. In various parts of


irony, as vacillating

from heroic.
principality of the

first

Malay Peninsula

at

which the

fleet

touches

Aseuhan (Asahan), the residence of the pagan Raja Muda.

is

The
his

consort of

departure

owing

Meukuta Alam, Putroe Phang, had warned him before


wide berth to that place, as

to give a

to the heathenish witchcraft practised

by

its

it

was dangerous

people. This advice,

however, did not prevent the invaders from attacking, conquering and
despoiling

queen,

Aseuhan

the capital was found deserted save for the

who was brought on board

ated, not through the large

as a captive.

She was however

their

abandonment of the sun-worship

the laws of Moses

dare

to

join

and

his subjects,

by them under

a very chivalrous part.


to

Phang (Pahang) the king of which country

He

prays for their triumph over Si Ujut, but does

them openly,

reduced to submission by

Si

since

Ujut,

he had some time before been

who had

lately paid

him another

making war on Acheh.


From Pahang the fleet moves to Johor Lama (Jho Lama)
place Si Ujut has also just paid a visit, but whence he has

visit to

Johor

announce

Bali.

is

former son-in-law (Meukuta Alam

overjoyed at meeting his new and his

not

practised

In the negociations connected with this conversion

Malem Dagang plays


They next proceed
and Raja Raden).

liber-

ransom offered by her husband, but owing

to the conversion to Islam of the king of the country

and

young

his intention of

Here some of the Achehnese

to wh.ich
retired to

invaders establish themselves

86

who

without opposition under the direction of their Sultan,

builds forti-

an attack by land and sea.

fications of strength sufficient to withstand

Meanwhile the naval commander with the larger portion of the


keeps watch

The enemy
of 50000

sail

them wait

lets

arrives

on the

full

end a

year, but in the

upon the scene. Malem Dagang, acting on Ja Pakeh's

after

threatens to

only

is

falls

furiously

message

from

receiving

reproachful

if

he refuses to comply with

Raja Raden he razes the

as not to furnish the

enemy

stand, remains

board the Chakra

induced to go on

leave him

with

conferring

when informed how matters

of Acheh,

on shore and

inactive

Donya

hostile fleet

infidels.

The Sultan

the

fleet

has threatened an attack on Acheh.

choice of a favourable moment, chooses his time and

skilful

so

who

at sea for the foe

Ja

Pakeh,

who

his advice. After

fortifications to the

ground

with a safe place of refuge, and joins

fleet.

Meantime Malem Dagang has already

slain

tens of thousands,

his

and when the king comes on board he omits not to upbraid him
his inactivity with bitter irony, asking

him how many

for

foes he has slain

yonder on land.
Si
(see

Ujut himself has not yet joined the


p.

81

devotion
the

She

to

above)
his

not from

five

him that

if

^).

he

lingering in

is

Guha

want of courage, but from exaggerated

consorts, the chief of

')

king of that place


tells

fleet;

whom

This favourite wife

now

he does not play the man,

it

is

the daughter of

upbraids his sloth.

may come

to pass

that his fleet will soon be defeated and his five beloved ones torn from
his arms,

and that he

will then, like his

brother Raden, be obliged to

content himself with a hag as ugly as an iguana.

There words

strike

home. Ujut

flies

into a passion

and speaks with

contempt of the warlike preparations of the Achehnese. At the same


time he admits that he
the conjuncture [kutika)

Meantime, before
i)

Si

is
is

loth to be compelled to fight just then, as

favourable to the Achehnese.

Ujut takes

command

of his

fleet,

Malem Dagang

This number seems to have been purposely chosen as being in excess of the

maximum

of four wives allowed by the creed of Islam, in order the better to emphasize that fact that

Ujut was an unbeliever.


2) Here we have another trait characteristic of the Achehnese poet, who magines that the
husband follows the wife in other countries as in Acheh. 'I'he fact that the same "kafir"
was ruler both of Malacca and of Guha he finds it easiest to explain by supposing that
the prince of Malacca was the son-in-law of the king of Guha.

87
has been busy slaying the infidels; after the arrival of the hostile leader,

he renews the battle with redoubled energy.

Malem Dagang and

the brave Panglima of Pidie with the other fore-

most heroes on the Achehnese side bind themselves by an oath of


fidelity and make their last dispositions in view of their falling

mutual

The Panglima

battle.

in

Pidie in particular prepares for such a result,

clothing himself entirely in white before he enters the fray. This deceives

who

Ujut,

thinks

he sees

that

He

king of the Achehnese.

the

attack

him the famous guru

in

Pakeh) of

(Ja

accordingly singles out for his fiercest

devoted panglima who dies a martyr [shahid) to the cause

the

of religion.

This however was the only great advantage gained by Ujut,

by

ships were sunk

we come

unscathed. Finally
fleet,
self.

his

tens of thousands while the

Achehnese

fleet

for his

remained

remnant of Ujut's

to the flight of the small

not including, however, the ship which contained the prince him-

Malem Dagang is so fortunate as to capture his enemy alive, and


own brother Raja Raden finds delight in loading the miscreant with

chains.

The

now

fleet

wishes

have

to

to

sails

look

Guha
at

Here the

').

country,

the

Dagang, who reminds him of the

Pahang

princess.

(the father of Si

of the

coast

to

Thence they

hills

in

is

restrained

perils predicted

by

fled

with

all

the interior. Here too

Acheh

by Malem

his consort,

to Malacca, the king of

sail

Ujut and Raja Raden) has


the

inquisitive king of

but

the

which place

the inhabitants

Meukuta Alam

is

withheld from landing for the same reason as at Guha.


Finally

they touch once more at Aseuhan to acquaint

te

king,

one of the Faithful, with the joyous tidings of their victory.


occasion

all

imaginable

eftbrts

are

made

On

now
this

to convert Si Ujut from his

"sun-worship according to the teaching of Moses", but

in

vain.

He

is

then bound to the prow of the ship below water and thus accompanies

them on
This
arts

their return

"Dutch

voyage to Acheh.

infidel"

was, however, richly provided with mysterious

and witchcraft.

Although immersed

in

the sea for

more than seven days and covered

with ell-long moss and seaweed, he yet lived

i)

The poet appears

Pahang

to

Acheh.

to

have

imagined

that

Guha

lay

and

in

Acheh not only

on the way back from Johor or

88

saws and various implements of torture, but even

proved powerless

harm him.

to

Nor could he be

way

only

to

time came, he informed his enemies that the

this

him was

kill

had himself resolved no longer to

he

until

slain

When

resist his fate.

Achchnese of

the

for

of the villain

life

who

remains

still

day the type of the wickedness of

to

and especially the kaphe Ulanda or "Dutch

The Hikayat

and mouth.

to pour molten lead into his nose

This was done and so ended the

Pochut

fire

infidel"

"kafirs",

').

Pbcliut Miihaniat (VII).-

Muhamat

This epic of Prince

difi"ers

in

many

we

respects from that

have just described, and a comparison between them

is

favourable to

the later work.

We

Date of its
pro uc ion.

venture to
^^^-j

^jj^|^qj.

Pochut Muhamat the

call

Qf

(^j^|-g

composition of

^\^q

later

work, although the

Malem Dagang

are

unknown,

and the entirely legendary character of the traditions with which

having been composed a considerable time after the

deals, points to its

great

naval expedition

likely

that

Alam's general should


after the

Meukuta Alam. At the same time

of

celebration

the

in

verse

of the

heroic deeds of

it

un-

is

Meukuta

not have taken place for more than a century

way

death of that prince, when his dynasty had already given

and Pochut Muhamat 's warlike ventures are dated

to other rulers;

it

just

a century after the death of Meukuta Alam.

The poet of the "Pochut Muhamat"


epic as Teungku Lam Rukam. This

man

distinguished

amount of
the

shows him

in the

XXV

all

wrong

information
in

iS'li

With him we
course

i)

to

reflected

widespread

thus

through

on
an

historic ground,

imaginative

tradition,

I,

p.

71.

us,

derived

his

poem about

far

the

I,

though the

medium wholly

pp. 183 etc.)

facts are of
in

keeping

Teungku Kuta Karang

alludes

exhorting his countrymen to bear in mind the wici<ed deeds

of Si Ujut, and never to trust the Dutch.


2) Sec Vol.

in

century.

are

In his pamphlet desciibeil above (Vol.

this

tells

from actual eyewitnesses. Thus we cannot be

assuming that the Teungku composed

middle of the

have been a

Mukims. Though not himself

present at the achievements he celebrates, he has, he


his

to

knowledge and devotion, and to have resided

Lam Rukam

of

title

from the general mass of the people by a certain

-)

religious

gampong

reveals himself at the end of his

89
with

national characteristics of Acheh. Marvellous explanations of

tlic

simple occurrences, true historical facts


or

these

miracles,

and

least

of

are

in

any poet,

Lam Rukam,

an Achehnese poet. With Teungku

in

all

the guise of fictitious visions

in

which we cannot blame

licences

however, human feelings always maintain their place, and history never
disappears behind

the

doubt the truth of the main


high

facts,

same time

From

in so

to

the

we gather

')

continuous series of dynastic

meagre and dry, and

The

w^ars.

in

was followed by a

1699,

facts there stated, as well as

sundry data as to the order of succession of the kings of Acheh,

by me

Kuta Raja, require correction

at

of

that the abolition of the line of

which came to an end

female sovereigns

lected

its

history

so confused a manner.

work of Veth

the

poem, apart from

contribution

Acheh, which the native chroniclers handle


at the

inclines the reader to

so that the

forms a valuable

merit,

literary

Nothing

of legend.

veil

in

col-

view of what we learn

from the poem Pochut Muhamat and also from a Malay history of the
kings of Acheh, which

The competitors
1

8th

brought back from that country.

for the

throne of Acheh

in the first

quarter of the

century, after the female succession had been abolished, were for

the most part sayyids,

though probably born

i.

in

e.

persons of high and sacred Arabic descent

Acheh, and thus imbued with the

-),

peculiarities

The most remarkable of these sayyids was Jamalulby the Achehnese Poteu (Lord) Jeumaloy. He reigned from

of the Achehnese.

alam, called

1703

26,

and

after the latter date continued to contest the throne with

his successors of

Of

from

1726

35

was the founder of the


of Sultan

title

origin.

we need only mention here Mahraja Lela Meulayu, who

these last

reigned

Arabic and non-Arabic

occasionally to

of

under the name of Alaedin

to

the

present day, although compelled

the throne in favour of his

have seen, tradition assigns a Bugis origin to


Alaedin
reign

1)

2)

the

Ahmat

S/iah, like others

by Jeumaloy and

Shah, and

which continues to hold by inheritance the

line

Acheh up

vacate

Ahmat

his

this

Arab

rivals.

As we

Mahraja Lela.

was constantly harassed during

adherents.

When

his

Alimat died, Jeumaloy

Atchin pp. 82 85.


As to the high estimation and superstitious dread which the Achehnese cnleilain
Sayyids,

see

Vol.

I,

pp. 155

than diminished during the

last

ct

seq.;

history

shows

century, a fact which

the political institutions of the country.

is

for

that this fear has rather increased

readily explained by the decay of

90
hastened to the capital to take advantage of the disorder which usually

and successor of Ahmat Shah


but

poem he

our epic

in

whilst

his

name

Shah.

He

reigned

after

accession

quarter

came

early years after he

known under

is

the

more frequently alluded

is

his

for

The eldest son


name of Pbteu Ue,

reigning chief in Acheh.

on the death of the

follows

to as

was Alaedin Juhan

to the throne

century (1735

of a

to the throne

Raja Muda,

had a hard

but

60),

fight to

in

the

wage with

Jeumaloy, who no more than two days after the death of Poteu Ue's

Gampong Jawa and

father established himself in

Acheh Proper and

in

could reckon, both in

on the support of certain considerable

Pidie,

chiefs.

We

might rather say that he ought to have maintained the contest,

our

for

epic

clearly

shows that he

to

failed

do

so,

and sooner than

undergo much trouble and expense, was content to watch Jeumaloy


enthroned and
from

his palace gates. It

king

(Pochut

Klcng,

end to

activity put an

"A country

Contents of
^P'*^'

twain

!"

')

It

ruled

was

Lam Rukam's
The

first

was the youngest of the three brothers of the

Sandang and

Pochut

how

shall

it

stand?

by monarchs

words that Pochut Muhamat gave expression

and these words form the introduction to Teungku

heroic poem.

part recounts a

dream of Pochut Muhamat.

able for clearness of meaning and


of earlier models. Suffice
fall

Pochut Muhamat) whose

untenable position.

this

unhappy land,

in these

his indignation;

to

king over his adherents not half a march

playing the

is

It is

not remark-

apparently introduced

in imitation

to say that this

it

dream predicted the down-

made of the prevailing disorder.


days Pochut Muhamat held counsel with the

of Acheh, unless an end should be

For the space of three

and

princes, his elder brothers,

finally

announced

his fixed intention of

withdrawing to Batu Bara, a province on the East Coast of Sumatra,

whose inhabitants were the greatest enemies or the most intractable


subjects
his

of Jeumaloy,

brothers

and there making preparations

either themselves set their

him, the youngest, to do

The

eldest

the

l)

idea,

liana digbb

war, unless

hands to the work or enabled

by supplying him with the necessary

so,

funds.

of the three, Pochut Kleng, went to inform the king of

this resolve in the


at

for

and

name
replied

of

all.

that

na di gcuiaiiyoc

But the indolent monarch was alarmec^


the

young

saboh tianggrh'c

lad

must be admonished

dua raja.

to

91

keep

else

quiet,

who

he,

no

liad

fear

of such a frovvard boy, would

bring him to reason by force.

was of no

His prohibition

The scheme

effect.

Muhamat

of Pochut

remained unaltered, and the other two brothers declared themselves


ready to lend the financial cooperation necessary to
king

now prepares
among whom were

to

French and Dutch)

to his

commands were
of his

him
calls

young

meets him

subterfuge

a a

it

it

on

foot.

The

{sipahis,

to be found, according to the poet, both English,

brother's house, to

show him

that his

the gate of the Dalam, and addresses

at

high-handed a manner that the king

dying

behest of his

set

bodyguard

his

not to be disobeyed. But Pochut Muhamat, at the head

followers,

in so

go with the soldiers of

retires in alarm.

Muhamat

on the king's part to shelter himself behind a


to

father,

refrain

from fighting against Jeumaloy

the descendant of the Prophet, and rather to ally himself with him by

marriage.

"What you follow by remaining inactive," says


father's command, but the faithless advice of certain
you and

to

in their hearts

dying

he, "is not our


chiefs

who

are traitors

adhere to Jeumaloy."

XXII

Shortly afterwards there came to the capital the Panglima of the

Mukims, Keuchi' Muda

Sa'ti

'),

man renowned

for his bravery, to ask

the king for a concession in the mountain district of Seuiawaih for the

When

of sulphur.

collection

he heard

how

matters stood, he ridiculed

the king for his inability to bring a boy to reason.

upon gave him

full

power

The Sultan

to use his best endeavours to prevent civil

war; but the Panglima soon found that he had spoken too
could

there-

do naught against Pochut Muhamat. Ashamed of

fearing the king's anger, he fled back to his

own

loftily

and

his failure

and

territory.

Although the young hero had not as yet given any proof of
prowess

in action, his

Acheh proper

in

siderable

sum

the

for

l)

of

number of

The
a

It

impetus

determined attitude created so deep an impression

that

following

collected

none of the
of from

was

in

this

to his

chiefs

opposed him, and he soon

two to three hundred men and

money, and proceeded overland

a con-

to Pidie to enlarge

his adherents.

description of this journey

time

his

is

most graphic. The

little

Kuala Batee and Pochut Muhamat does

all

army

rests

he can to

panglima who had previously made war on Jeumaloy and given the chief

dethronement.

92

Both here and

convert this small port to a mart of importance.

at all

the

other halting-places on his route, the prince receives the chiefs of

the

surrounding country and urges the adoption of measures

make

tend to

will

the

rice

He

people from falling into poverty through sloth and ignorance.

money and

distributes

and by

robes of honour to

demeanour succeeds

his kindly

which

')

culture more productive and to save the

that

all

come

also

to wait on him,

adding hundreds to the

easily in

ranks of his followers.

Padang Teuji

In

the

lating

necessary for regu-

is

Mukims and winning over the people to


Reubee, where he pays all due homage to the saint

of the VII

affairs

cause, and at

his

that

he remains as long as

(Tiji)

buried there, he does the same in respect of the

lies

So with other

places,

persuasion and

the

till

Pochut Muhamat, thanks to


of costly

distribution

gifts,

his

Mukims.

powers of

able to reckon on

is

almost every part of the old kingdom of Pidie.

There remains but one uleebalang of the province, the most powerful

them

of

whom

all,

he knows he

will

have great trouble

whom

forsake the cause of Jeumaloy, to

he

is

inducing to

in

attached by innumerable

bonds of friendship and obligation.


This

Pangulee Beunaroe or Meunaroe

who now

said forefather of the chiefs

is

it

the

is

Keumangan. This

tara

title

in

is

Pidie

poem

the

in

with that of Pangulee Beunaroe, and his territory

IX Mukims.
The chiefs of
Pochut Muhamat

the predecessor and

under the

rule

fact given

^),

is

him

in

of Ben-

alluded to as the

who have ranged themselves on

are ready to join with

title

alternatively

the

of

side

making war on Pangulee

Beunaroe, though they are not blind to the danger of the undertaking.

Pochut Muhamat

is

write

the

He

i)

day

do

letter

2) This

treasurer

of the

As

is

as

powerful as he

is

to

first

courageous,

a matter of fact the people of Pidie at the present

the rivers for their wet rice cultivation, instead of

word
or

is

the

bearer of the

98,

126

in

the

Achehncse

depending on the rain

form of the Malay p'enghuhi

chief of the royal storehouses.

7),

title

and

its

as they

in

Acheh,

it

lapse of time called Bcndara

Teungku Pakch

b'e'nJahari^

Whatever may have been

soon

lost its

meaning chief

the original function

proper significance (compare Vol.

I,

bearer became an uleebalang, whose descendants and successors

uleebalangs" which was more or less


with

who

chief,

Acheh.

in

were

however advised by a discreet uleebalang

especially advises irrigation.

utilize

pp.

to

of Pidie at

its

Keumangan,

at variance

head.

chiefs of the federation of the

"VI

with the federation of the "XII ulciibalangs",

93

by the hand

and

to

The

prince follows this advice after

missive

send the

of Pangul^e Beunaroe

is

of one I'uan

some demur;
his

in

hood. P6 Mat undertakes the mission, and

pleasant task for P6 Mat,

whiling

mission,

who
away

the

West Coast

master,

of

been engaged on behalf of Jeumaloy,

his

clothes

in

the

Acheh

').

his

name by
The poet

himself of this opportunity to enlighten us as to the

avails

had shaken
on

day or two ago from

waging war against the refractory Rawa's,

and

political

thus no

him thither? The Pangulee

led

which the Malays of the West Coast are known


skillfully

is

time with a long conversation on

Acheh ? What has

replies that he has

in

It

mentioning the true object

at first avoids

indifferent subjects. His host has just returned a

Beunaroe

immediate neighbour-

instructed to declare war

is

Pangulee should he answer unbecomingly.

against the

the

indeed the attitude

clearly hostile, since he has neglected to wait

upon the king's brother though encamped

of his

for

Meugat Po Mat.

social status of the

West Coast

at this period.

Achehnese yoke and had dared

off the

demanding the annual

tribute, a

handsome

The

chiefs

to send to Jeumaloy,

gilded

box

full

of old

and worn-out equipments. They were severely punished and

reduced to obedience by Pangulee Beunaroe.

envoy comes

Finally the

to the point,

Pangulee and

all

around him as ignorant of the art

which was no doubt as well

supposition

Achehnese

chiefs

days as

those

in

now

it

receive

"I

it.

o.^

is.

he

represents
reading, a

justified in regard to

could of course easily surmise the nature of the


to

fact that

The poet throughout

has with him a letter from the prince.


the

and reveals the

many

But Pangulee Beunaroe


letter,

and refused even

look", he said, "for no orders from that direction;

serve another prince".

P6 Mat then announces

IX Mukims

Pidie except the

Beunaroe. Here again


rieht track;

the

that

Tuan

Sri

it

is

will

war

is

inevitable, a

in

which

all

espouse the cause of the prince against

a prudent chief who leads matters into the

Reubee advises Beunaroe

contents of the letter

war

in

the

first

place,

at all events to ascertain

and to summon an ulama

for this purpose.

Accordingly he sends to fetch the learned Teungku Rambayan, who


with

his

hundreds of devoted disciples

highlands.

i)

See Vol.

The poet

I,

p.

19.

lives at a

remote place

in

the

depicts for us, in a few graphic verses, an Acheh-

94
nese religious seminary.

and apologize
days

later the

by no means

is

which

letter,

is

prince,

He

it

Three

his pious labours.

in

by a number

number

of abstruse

the

connection of which with the

clear.

In interpreting the contents of

fact

couched

somewhat

in

lofty

and

suppresses "the bitter" and retails only

expedient to conceal the truth

advises

the

and to excuse

his

misfortune.

welcome the

in

man

"the sweet", since he thinks

prevent

him

to the uleebalang, attended

precepts,

indistinct

reproachful tone, the wise

to

respectfully approach the teacher

He commences by propounding

hand

prince's

the

disturb

to

Teungku comes

and somewhat
in

coming

for

of his disciples.

matter

The messengers

him on the ground that he had but

in

order

ulcebalang simply to go and

prolonged delay

just returned

waiting on

in

from a journey.

The Pangulee Beunaroe follows this advice; he summons a large


escort from among his own subjects, and sets out on his journey to
the prince's camp. The poet's talent for word-painting appears once
more

in

small,

description

the

of this journey with

and the consequent grumbling

followers.

The two
prince

in

The meeting with Prince Muhamat


principals

discloses

is

and

difficulties great

ranks of the Pangulee's


also graphically described.

exchange none but pleasant words, but when the

the object of his journey, and claims the cooperation

of the uleebalang, the latter declares that


things he narrates

how once when he

Payong" covered with wounds and


loy's wife as

its

the

it

impossible.

is

Among

other

returned from "the war of Glumpang

blood-guilt, he

though he had been her own

was nursed by Jeuma-

child, while

Jeumaloy, as though

he were his father, took the load of blood guiltiness upon himself.

And

now to disown all this and so much more, nay, it was beyond his power
Long did the chief of the IX Mukims hold out against the reasoning
of Pochut Muhamat, who sought to convince him that he would act
more wisely to join his side or at least remain neutral. At last however
he yielded to the argument which generally prevails
of Achchnese with

robes

of honour

one another;

given

it

followers, that caused the latter to

Once won
ditional

he

over,

support

to

his

was the

will

waver

A common

form

(jf

the

negociations

presents of gold and

to the Pangulee

in his allegiance to

and

his

Jeumaloy.

do nothing by halves, but promises uncon-

new

ally; the concert

and the uleebalang taking the "bullet oath"

i)

rich

by Pochut Muhamat

in all

oath of fulclity in

Achch

')

is

sealed

by the prince

of allegiance.

especially between

warriors,

is

for

95

Pochut Muhamat has

travel

to

first

further

by the next new moon, when he

return

an army

We

but

East,

arranges to

new

to fnid his

is

ready to follow him.

all

need not here dwell on the prince's journey to Pas^

other

ally with

East Coast. Suffice

along the

places

to say that

it

fresh allies

and occasion to deliver useful admonitions

cultivation,

which

ill-ordered

manner.

in

was carried on

this region

and

(Pasei)

gave him

it

regard to rice

in

and

a very slovenly

in

Returning to Peukan Tuha, Muhamat awaits Beunaroe. The uleebalang


prepares for his departure by the payment of hitherto unfulfilled vows
for his deliverance

from the dangers of warfare, and by the transaction

of other business both secular and religious. Finally he charges his aged

mother

with the care of his interests during his absence.

')

Here follows a masterly description of the uleebalang's leave-taking


of his aged parent. She adjures him not to go. "In Acheh," she says,

"war

decided by fortifications and firearms. You,

is

acquainted with the manner of fighting here

Should you become involved


your

at

is

to forget

young

forget

mine

me your mother

hand

at

to close

my

his

also?

eyes

He

still

kisses

that

all

prince. Is

it

possess

well of

you

tears.

If

die there will be

no

!"

Amid

lame pretext that although Jeumaloy

father,

cut and thrust.

the kindness of Jeumaloy for the sake of a handful of gold?

all

Beunaroe cannot restrain


the

son, are better

by

a war here in Pidie,

in

service, but follow not the

And do you
child of

my

in Pidic,

he puts forward

his sobs

shall

always be to him as a

Pochut Muhamat has now become to him even as a brother.


mother's knees, and encourages himself by saying with

his

apparent contempt that none but a fool distresses himself about the
counsels of
In

women.

and around the house

sorrow

recall

the

all

mourning

are in tears

for the dead.

As

the prevailing sounds of


the uleebalang descends

the steps of his house, a cocoanut tree in the enclosure

those

been
the

who

to

everlasting

of

drink

together

The

women

from a vessel of water

in

and

which a bullet has

turn while they invoke the curse, that he

The

strikes

who

breaks

subjects or allies of a chief also bind them-

him by drinking water into which he has plunged his


Amboinese rebel Captain Jonker and his followers
Oiui en Niciiw Oost-Indic^ Vol. IV p. 319.

allegiance

to

similar oath of the

described by Valentijn,
I)

to

niay be destroyed by that bullet.

sikin or rciituhong.
is

oath

the

dipped, or to hold the bullet in

bond

selves

take

falls

part played by this


in the social life of

woman

in the epic affords a further

Acheh already alhulcd

t<j

example of

above (Vol

I,

p.

tiic

371).

importance

96
the

breaking the ridge-pole and some of the beams.

roof,

omen this!
The army, which

now

has

swelled

gloomy

seldom seen

proportions

to

in

Acheh, at length begins to move. Here we


Achehnese warlike expedition. Neither chiefs nor subjects make any
learn the character of an

provision for a suitable commissariat, so that the passage of the troops


is

a perfect plague to the inhabitants of the districts they traverse.

sugarcane gardens which they pass on the


of the last

section

last

cane,

way

The

are plundered to the

and the stragglers of

this

hungry and

thirsty troop quarrel violently over the refuse.

a considerable trading centre, they are unable to

At Krueng Raya,

temptation of looting

the

resist

Kling traders,

of the

')

the cloth-stuffs in the storehouses

all

and even depriving them of the clothes they

them only their nether garments.


With loud lamentations these Klings repair to
their complaints in the Dalam. The Raja Muda
wear, leaving

Why,

solation.

their

the

asks

king,

jabbering complaints,

good time

safety in

the capital and

make

them scant con-

gives

do these people come here now with

instead

of getting

their

merchandise into

They might have known that the troops were on


when they arrived.

the march, and what they had to expect


of the

Before the arrival

forces

hostile

at the capital,

Jeumaloy

is

prepared for great events by a dream, in which he sees his palace and

around

all

He makes all ready to


Gampong Jawa, Peunayong

devastated by flood and tempest.

it

sustain a siege, especially his fortifications in

and Meura'sa, and assigns to each of

his four sons a fixed share in the

task of defence.

Muhamat makes

Prince

the necessary

vows

taking the favour and support of Allah and

Dalam.

the

in

"It

is

and pray

for

otherwise

who would

young prince
It

his

I)

to secure for his under-

visits

better," says the latter,

"for

me

your success than myself to take part

raises

protect

the

no objection

royal

brother the king

his

residence ?"

to remain here

in the hostilities;

The hot blooded

to this proposal.

was no empty warning that Pangulee Beunaroe had received from

mother. At the outset the cannon and musketry

In

vol.

byword

for their

in

(p.

169)

Acheh;

wrongs.

we saw how

they

arc

the

contempt of the

lives

cxlremely timorous and have no

fire

from Jeumaloy's

and property of Klings is


kawom to take vengeance

97
torts

caused fearful ravages

formed

for

army

the

Muhamat, which was


most part of Pidie men. Even the prince's courage

the

moment

threatened for a

in

of Prince

and

to forsake him,

was

it

new

his

who

ally

roused him to action. Beunaroe bound the fold of his garment to that

Muhamat, and constrained him, thus coupled with himself

of

to join in

leading the attack.

Gradually

Jeumaloy's

Gampong Jawa

succumbed,

forts

be taken. This

to

means of subsistence began

the

and

"son" the

disloyal

his

distance

of one another.

faithless

conduct,

was the irony of

remained

of the blockade, Jeumaloy

Pangulee Beunaroe come within speaking

The king reproaches

and though

tone

his

is

his recreant ally for his

kind and fatherly, so keen

words that every one of them passed

his

only

those shut up therein. In one

fail

monotony

of the combats which relieve the

there

stronghold was blockaded, and

last

to

and

through the soul of the uleebalang. At the end of

his

like a

sword

speech the sayyid

takes aim wath his musket, not at the renegade, but at a glumpang-tree
in

the

He

distance.

by the

of the wind

force

The hero

senseless.

falls

bystanders that he

which drops, but

strikes a branch,

lives.

still

shadow

its

till

There

is

falls

borne along

is

on the Pangulees body.

hardly a sign to show the astonished

His friends press round, curious to

whether he has received a wound, or been seized with sudden

The poet answers

who

Nay, he was smitten by the vengeance of Allah,

brook that any man should play the

will not

know
illness.

traitor to a descen-

dant of the Prophet.

Pochut Muhamat gives orders


to

his

ow^n

in all

country of his unhappy

both of speech and motion.

He

haste for the conveyance

ally,

who

still

gives the escort

lives,

but

is

any

rate

he proceeded

with the

high rank and

however

by the

it

sacred

descent

they had sustained,

excites in his readers.

At

Gampong

to spare Jeumaloy, for the latter's

withheld

was very doubtful whether

losses

moment

of his friend, yet did not

blockade, and the fate of

Jawa was soon decided. He wished

bereft

camphor and other

things to be used at the burial. Beunaroe breathes his last at the

when he reaches his home.


The prince was deeply grieved at the loss
yield to that gloomy feeling which the poet

home

him from taking


his wild

fighting

would pay any heed

his

life.

As

men enraged

to such a pro-

hibition,

he gladly complied with Jeumaloy's request that he might be

allowed

to

II

leave

the

Dalam with

his

women and

in

female disguise,
7

98

whereupon the besiegers would be admitted. This was done, and then
began the plundering of the Dalam, which Jeumaloy's followers had
thought impregnable, and

The

valuables.

their

why

chief part of the loot

they stood aloof, replied that

it

all

was gold and opium. The

during the sack some looked on

poet declares that

asked

which they had accordingly brought

in

inactive,

and when

was forbidden to plunder

the goods of fellow-believers as though they were infidels.

Jeumaloy

Lam

fled successively to

Barueh,

Gampong Meulayu, Krueng

Raba and Krueng Kala, and after that was pursued no further; but
chiefs who connived at his escape had to pay dearly

some Achehnese
ravaged with

had

order

Ue', thanks to the energy

became almost

received

been

as

in

the

great

much

the

for

author,
his

hand and

his

sentence

by

versification,

skill

I'ntil

the

a complete translation would

Achehnese rhyme and metre are

a proverb

and saying would

lose its

merits of the author would, however, be

hope, be apparent from

my

short analysis,

in

word-painting,

shows himself to be

man

of

an unusually high order.

itself

and

of fine

Even

to enable

grasp of his subject, his arrangement of his

his

add that he

lends

married a

Acheh.

in

in

to

of.

the

greater master of form than any other

The

facility

"sanja"'

form

with which an Achehnese


is

apt to lead to slovenly

most Achehnese hikayats we

composition

coming

is

Achehnese poet we know

\)

later

unostentatious and objective treatment of the matter in

literary gifts of

We may

When

complete translation, since they consist to a

however,

will

materials,

the

many

The
a

in

thought and speech

pieces

Acheh.

the graphic pictures which he draws of the details of

extent in

This

beauties.

its

rendering.

brought out better

that

all

Pochut Muhamat

').

reproduce, and

to

difficult

life,

revived,

Gampong Lham Bhu'


poem is entirely inadequate

respect,

this

in

were

youngest

his

short resume of this heroic

short

force

despite master of

and trade

restored

fully

and courage of

reward half the port dues, and a year

his

the reader to appreciate


fall

own

in his

lady of royal lineage at

Our

for instance,

to the very last house.

fire

Thus Poteu
brother,

The IMukims Bueng,

adhesion to his cause.

for their

of

Gampong, and was included

the
in

Dutch
the

find side

by

side with

passages which give evidence of the sloth-

to

Acheh,

Banda Acheh.

this

was an extensive and flourishing

99
fulness or weariness of the poet. In the

Pochut Muhamat, which contains

only about 2500 verses, such intermixture

We

and trenchant throughout.

poem

heroic

is

gem

is

and the style

rare,

do not go too

far

is

curt

saying that this

in

of Achehnese, nay of Oriental literature. More-

over, as the reader will have observed,

has a peculiar historic value

it

and furnishes us with a graphic picture of the past of Acheh.


Copies of this epic are very
search,

have only succeeded

rare.

in

Nothwithstanding

my

incessant

obtaining the loan of two ill-written

and incomplete specimens.


the

In

sequence

thus sometimes interrupted, and there are certain peculiarities

is

which defy

As

attempts at explanation.

all

a rule, indeed, good and complete copies of Achehnese writings

met

to be

rarely

are

which may be constituted from these two copies the

text

with.

Many know

and when they come to

heart,

and

imagination

rhyming the

in

skill

the most popular hikayats

them

recite

up from

fill

deficiencies of their

by

own
memory or
their

of the written copies. There are however other special reasons for the

specimens of the Pochut Muhamat.

rarity of written

Even

Muhamat

present

the

at

whose good

taste

is

to one of

translated into

day there are

sufficient to

to be found in

make them

any of the numerous Malay

Achehnese

Acheh persons

prefer a recitation of Pochut


stories that

verse, tales of fabulous princes

have been

who performed

kinds of impossibilities to gain possession of the chosen one of their

all

soul.

And

yet the epic

is

seldom

recited.

who gives the poem its name may be, he


wages war against a sayyid, who had formerly been the lawful and
recognized sovereign of Acheh, and who had also been bereft of the
crown by that prince's father. Jeumaloy, whose tomb is still to be seen
Heroic though the prince

not

far

a saint

from the principal mosque of Acheh,

by the Achehnese. Poteu

Ue', for

is

universally revered as

whose sake

his

younger brother

drove out the sayyid, and that too with the help of subjects turned

from their allegiance,

No wonder

is

the founder of the present

Achehnese dynasty.

then that the scions of the royal house of Acheh

no mention of the Hikayat Pochut Muhamat and regard


bidden thing

for

anyone of

This feeling, originating

their family to order or listen to


in

shame and

superstition,

even outside the circle of the royal family.


recite

the

epic,

there are

many

wIkj think

Among
it

will
it

brook

as a for-

its

recitation.

makes

itself felt

those

who

dare to

their dut\' to offer their

lOO

excuses to the saints and the "kings

now

by burning incense

in bliss"

or giving a kanduri.

Hikayat
prang Gompeuni.

Hikayat prang Gompeuni (VIII).


outline of
In Vol I of this work we have already given a brief
latest

Achehnese heroic poems,

of

attitude

political

prevalent

among

which pervades
The

of the

the

this

poet,

common

poem

referring

or

people

more

we might

this

the

to

especially

rather say the feeling

the lowlands of Achch, and

in

throughout.

Dokarim (i. e. Abdulkarim) of Glumpang Dua

poet.

in the

XXV

VI Mukims
is

of the

the composer of

this

hikayat.

Writer we

may

not

him, for he

call

can neither read not write.

He went

on, as he tells

us for five years gradually

composing

poem

this

in

celebration of the heroic

deeds of the Achehnese


in
tiie

their

conflict

against

Dutch, adding fresh

matter from time to time


as

he gained

enlighten-

ment from eye-witnesses.


The popularity which he
quickly
led

him

won and which


poem

to recite the

constantly
of the

for

the

sake

handsome presents

he received for doing

saved

it

although
DoKARlM, TMK ATTIIOR OK

TIU-:

"I'KaNG GoMl'KUN'l

being

license

to

for

the

lost,

time

was preserved
^

in

his

This does not prevent

it

from being

so,

him from giving

memory

alone.

himself, at each recitation,

modify add or omit as he thinks

fit

or from filling up the

lOI

gaps from

We

his really subtle poetic vein,

Achehnese heroic poem


most of

like

whenever

memory

his

of the

olden

and situations as expressed

knowledge, owing to

somewhat greater than

is

that

classic descrip-

of his country, puts his powers to the test

more recent

great events of
as

Just

his training

so

pen makes

in

is

poesy

verse the

to the

canons of

does our bard by means of incessant recitation. The events of

goes on,

it

though a

at last

till

of

dictation

irregularities

written

for the

by celebrating

conform more and more

it

keeps on adding, as occasion

the

one who

of others;

years.

which he sings have not yet reached their

at

and

poet reads his work again and again, and by the

literate

free use of his

by the people

in verse

endowed, besides, with a good memory and enthusiasm

So

him.

brought into the world. Some one man, who

but whose

time,

environment,

is

countrymen knows by heart the

his fellow

tions of certain events

art,

fails

can here witness for ourselves one of the methods by which an

and overbold

By

means sundry

this

The

with

copyist,

make

gives himself license to

all

come

imagination

flights of

the

poem.

amateur writes out the epic

literate

might overlook them, are

listener

hikayat.

some

composer.

its

development, so he

final

fresh episodes to his

arises,

not

to

faults

and

to light, which,

be endured

in

concurrence of the poet,

full

the necessary corrections, and subsequent

copyists or reciters take the like liberty.

The Hikayat Prang Gompeuni has only


of development,

until

for

had

it

copy extant

there was not a single

may be
which the poem
yet

it

left

its

it

at present couched,

is

down from

ways

in

hikayat testify to the character of

in

earned

practice

this

title

either

sadati-performances and

hammedan

sayings

in

the poet's

lips,

by the pen.

regard to the language in

that the "latest

hand" has not

which the form and contents of

this

Those who are well

dis-

its

author.

other

his

learning

of teungku, but he has


or

by

specially

devout

Dokarim was formerly

a director of

such pastimes condemned

by the Mo-

and master of ceremonies

religion,

which presupposes a
traditional

by

observances.

of religious

phase

only one single Achehnese

posed towards him honour him with the name


not

this last

it.

other

also

on

to be perpetuated

noticed here and there,

mark upon

There are

taken

in writing;

chief had caused a few fragments of

Thus

just entered

at

high degree of oratorical skill

marriage

festivities,

and knowledge of

prose and verse, and of pantons and ceremonial

I02
formulas.

these

In

was of course

he

particulars

the habit of con-

in

forming to the tastes and requirements of his public.

Dokarim's great object was to win the approval of


they might set a high value (and that too

that

his hearers, so

in the material sense

of the word) upon his recitations.

Now

his public consisted

members

not of the

chiefly,

of the guerilla

bands which fought against the Gompeuni, nor yet of persons specially

common

trained up in religious ideas, but of the

may

even though the former


ciliation.

Thus

as fanatical spirits,

moment

not be for the

gampongs;

folk of the

and they, as we know, comprise reconcilable as well

ripe for recon-

has been Dokarim's endeavour to express, in verses

it

mean between
Accordingly we meet with
which has become a matter

pleasant to the ear, the impressions and feelings of the

two extremes of Achehnese

these

society.

him, as elsewhere, that hatred of the infidel

of custom, but no deep-seated and unyielding fanaticism. Indeed

convinced that a gentle transition

poem

induce him to recast his

The

he

fact that

Achehnese and a contemporary

as an

he sings, of course raises the historical

has been printed at Singapore under the

does not prevent some of his

entirely

facts,

domain of legendary

As might be expected,
own country, were more
the

i)

length

poet's

Since

the

government, so
in

the

service

in

Acheh". This

Nor

in
is

Acheh belong

VI Mukims,

the author's

specially

concerned,

are

detail than

any

or

less

any lack

there

innocence.

and with more closeness of


place

is

treated at
others.

To

due the respect he

also

it was printed, the circumstances hinted at


Teuku Uma has surrendered and become a leader under the Dutch
we may shortly expect to hear Dokarim celebrate the exploits of that chief

was written, but before

above

reality.

of his /ormer foes. [Dokarim did actually, since the

work, sing of the deeds of Teuku


orders

tradition.
all

events in which the

being a resident of that

have become a

of "Prang

seen as they are through Achehnese

of intentional romance, introduced in

greater

title

connection with the origin of the war

the

to

relia-

assuming a wrong perspective. Indeed some of his

from

statements in

').

immeasurably above the nonsensical Malay poem which

bility of his epic

spectacles,

feel

Gompeuni

into a glorification of the

tells his tale

of which

events

of the

might under certain circumstances

Sc])tcmbcr

1897

Uma

because

he

operations after L'ma's second defection.

in

his

new

had acted

Had he

capacity.
as

guide

He was
to

lived longer he

first

publication of this

put to death by Uma's

Dutch troops in their


would without doubt have

the

immortalized in verse the great changes which have come about since Teuku L
desertion and death].

ina's

second

I03

Tcuku Uma, who had

great influence there, and also the

displays

for

fact that

he exhibits more sympathy for Teungku Kutakarang than for

his

Teungku Tiro

rival

To

').

same cause

the

to be attributed his

is

constant abuse of the chiefs of Meura'sa (who were as a matter of fact

enemies of the uleebalang of the VI Alukims)


with the Gompeuni; and

ciliation

by

nor a fanatic

mary

nature.

We

an

explain

now proceed

shall

Acheh

of

raja

dream which had

evil

Kuta Karang was able

speedy recon-

to give a brief

sum-

poem.

of the contents of the

Once upon a time the

for their

though he was neither combative

this

called

it -)

all

None

him.

visited

to interpret

in

ulamas to

his

save

Teungku

he declared that an appalling

misfortune was hanging over Acheh, to wit a war with the Dutch.
In

connection the poet takes occasion to extol the meritorious

this

nature

holy war, but reminds his hearers at the same time that

of a

can only be waged with success when coupled with true conversion

it

and superabundant good works. In

who have

Dutch,

way

this

alone, he says, can the

had to incur a debt of thirty millions to

already

maintain the war, be driven from the country, and

we

shall

Hereupon the author plunges


the

still

if

this

be not done

be made subject to their insupportable yoke.

living

in viedias res

Panglima Tibang

and narrates a legend of

which had already gained much

^),

popularity in a different form.

man

This

is

Hindu by

who

birth,

in the

from

over with a troupe of conjurors

days of

native

his

his

youth came

country to Acheh.

His quickness and ingenuity attracted the attention of a chief on the

Eeast Coast, and he remained

in

Acheh,

at first in the service of that

chief and later on in the suite of the Sultan.

much from

so

conviction as to

been called Panglima Tibang,


conversion took place.

make

He enjoyed

Gampong

of Tibang, where his

the confidence of Sultans Ibrahim

and Mahmut and was even made shahbandar of the

The Achehnese
As

i)

Muhamat";
for

the

the

siege

of

is

182

et

seq.

intentionally simulated

dream being nearly

Gampong Jawa

(p.

capital.

him pro-Dutch sympathies

quite wrongly ascribe to

to this rivalry see Vol. I, p.

2) This- introduction

Islam, not

path easier. Since then he has

his

after the

He embraced

identical

and

with

is

an imitation of that of the "Pochut


by which Jcumaloy was prepared

that

96 above). The summoning of the ulamas gives the


is well aware

poet an opportunity to sing the praises of Teungku Kuta Karang, although he


that the latter at that time neither
[3)

He

was nor could have been present

died in 1895, after the above was written.]

at

the capital.

Contents
P<^e'".

...f

104

even before the commencement of the war. This notion finds support
the

in

that the

fact

Panghma was

member

of Achehnese embassies

Riouw and Singapore.

to

From

Tibang showed himself

the two

Raja as he had previously been to

attribute the

Our

Panghma
Dutch

Acheh. He has

partisanship as to incur the hatred

as a false renegade;

now

in

and

this hatred

circulation

which

of the country to this Hindu.

fall

poet's story runs as follows. Panglima

name

the Sultan's

in

new

last rajas of

motif of sundry stories

the

furnished

in his

Achehnese

of the majority of the

der Heijden,

as ready to render faithful service to the

been ever since so loyal

has

Van

the time of his surrender to General

44000

for

Tibang purchased a ship

convey him

dollars, to

to the ports of

the dependencies to collect tribute for his master. Whilst on her voyage

the vessel

taken

into the

fell

He

prisoner.

hands of the Dutch, and Panglima Tibang was

recovered

his

handsome money present

to

with the

and a

cliab sikttreueng

')

boot,

however and received a

freedom
return

in

for

parchment sealed

which he gave to the Dutch

flag,

as

tokens of possession of the kingdom of Acheh.

Armed

with these

false

Acheh had become

that

Power

when

interfered

theirs

the

the

tokens,

Dutch declared

by purchase; thus

Gompeuni came

to

it

to the

Powers

was that no other

occupy Acheh by force

of arms.

At

this

time the Achehnese were warned of the approaching end of

the world

by a

zvasi'ct

(Arab, wafiyyat ^= dLdm.on\\.\on) of the Prophet^),

brought by certain hajis from Mecca.

During the month Asan-Usen

^)

of this year of calamity, four of the

Gompeuni's ships came with a demand


thereon

in

latter's advice,

keep concealed

being hoisted

1)

See Vol.

2)

IVafiyyat

my
zeal;

translation
it

is

population
also N.

I,

1,

was

*),

p.

in

namely

to accept the

Dutch

from the up-country people the significance of

XXIX

but
its

rejected.

name given

De

Indischc

to the

Gids

well-known

for July

"last

admonition of the Prophet" (see

1884). This was intended to excite religious

distributed from time to time (with an altered date each time)

of the

flag

130.

the

is

Council was held

Dalam, the chief speakers being Teuku Kali and an

the

aged woman. The


to

for submission.

among

the native

countries of the E. Indian Archipelago and other distant countries. See

below.

3) See Vol.

1,

p.

194.

4) See Vol.

I,

p.

145.

I05

Preparations for war were iKnv made; Teukii Kali's followers occupied

"The Habib"

Meugat.

')

was absent on a voyage

to Constantinople,

whither he had gone to seek for help, and the want of his cooperation

was greatly

come

felt.

Finally they asked for an armistice of three years to

to a determination as regards the

demands

of the

Gompeuni; the

pretext alleged for this request

was the necessity


Panglima

ing

for consult-

Polem of the

XXII Mukims who was known


to be

ear

most dilatory

sunmions of the

the

to

Court.

giving

in

-)

The Gompeuni would not


hear of any delay, and thus
the strife began. Foremost in
the

of
(i.

field

was the brave Imeum

Lueng Bata;*'') Teuku Che'


e. Teuku Lam Nga, the first

husband of the daughter of


the uleebalang of the

afterwards

kims,

VI Mu-

married

to

Teuku Uma) and Teuku Lam


Reueng also receive honourable mention.

The Sultan soon


the

Dalam,

first

fled

to

Lueng

Bata and afterwards to

Teungoh

(XXII

from

Lam

Mukims),

where he surrendered the reins


of power with tears to Pang-

hma

Polem.

*)

TEUKU RADJA ITAM,

ULfcRliAI.ANG OK

THE

VI

MUKIMS SINCE 1896,


The poet does not fail to
comment on the "treacherous" action of the people of Meura'sa and
certain of their kindred who only made a show of taking part in the

i)

See Vol.

I,

pp. 158 et seq.

Vol

I,

pp.

3) See Vol

I,

p.

2) See

4) This last

is

1345173.

pure poclic

fiction

in

imitation of earlier models.

io6
warlike preparations, and surrendered to the

Gompeuni without

striking

a blow.

A
not

passionate
in

vain,

appeal

and the

for
kafirs

help to the saint Teungku Anjong

were compelled

completing their task. The enemy's


that
i)

before this
See Vol

I,

first

fight the

pp. 156, 235 etc.

failure

to

return

')

was

home without

was further due

to the fact

people had truly repented of their sins

107

and turned

Allah

to

when

on,

later

their

religious zeal abated, the

fortune of war also turned against them.

The

Dutch left lying off Acheh barred all access to


Gompeuni
The
meanwhile enlisted the aid of luiglish, French

ships which the

the port.

and Portuguese

and, thus reinforced, resumed the attack after

vessels,

The Imeum

lo months.

Lueng Bata and Teungku Lam Nga fought

of

once more with heroic valour. The Sultan

fled

a second time, on this

occasion to Pagaraye, where he died.

After the conquest of the


fortune.
his

Dalam

Meantime Habib Abdurrahman returned

')

to the Straits from

journey to the West.

The poet now surveys

a period of nearly nine

which the combatants remained almost

inactive,

months duration, during


and

at the

end of which

Mukim Lueng Bata (whose brave imeum was sick at the time) and
Mukim Lhong (= Lam Ara) were overcome by the Gompeuni.

the

the

Soon

VI Mukims

the

after

shared the same

The people
return

to

waged with varying

the war was

profits

of the

the

to

vain to hold

When

gampongs who had taken

parts

occupied

from the

arising

(the author's country)

and the IV Mukims

fate.

sale

them back by

to flight

by the Gompeuni,

of provisions.

began by degrees

by the

attracted

Teuku Lam Nga

tried in

force.

"the Habib" set foot once more on Achehnese

he assumed

soil,

a considerable share in the conduct of the war. Establishing himself at

Mon

undertook several expeditions from that place, and among

Tasie', he

them one

to

Achehnese

later

Krueng Raba. This however

led to nothing, for (as the

on pretended to have observed) the Habib's investment

of the Gompeuni's stronghold was not seriously meant. In like

they

now

Dutch

in

ascribe

the

to

treachery of the

flabib

the

manner

success of the

Teuku Lam Nga near Peukan Bada

defeating and slaying

short time afterwards.

The

efforts of the

with bribes proved

Mukims he stood

i)

'Ihc

diflferent

countrymen

as

Gompeuni

all in

history

win over the

Imeum

of

Lueng Bata

enemy's onslaught upon the

firm in the defence along with

Teuku Paya

XXVI

the father

Dutch expeditions against Acheh have not impressed the poet and

his

separate episodes in the contest; nay he sometimes speaks of the "one-eyed

general" as having been in chief


the

to

vain. In the

of the

such period has for

war
its

is

command

before the time he was appointed. Not unnaturally

divided into periods to suit an Achehnese standpoint, and every

central point of interest one or

more Achehnese

leaders.

io8

Teuku Asan, whom we shall have to notice presently. But when the
XXVI Mukims had been conquered, and the "one-eyed general" shortly

of

made victorious progress even through the XXII Mukims, to


amazement of the hitherto braggart inhabitants of the upper country
Imeum of Lueng Bata thrust his sword into its sheath and withdrew

afterwards
the
the

from public

life.

Now dawns

period

the

General strengthened

Teuku Nya' Muhamat, used


of the

years of repose, during which the

of three

his

all

who had

He was

so far successful

from their villages came pouring back

fled

'),

advance the prosperity

efforts to

and of Ulee Lheue (Olehleh).

capital

that the people

The "Raja Muda"

positions he had won.

the

in

a continuous stream to the capital and fraternised with the kafirs. Life

was a round of

trade flourished, and the leaders of the party

festivities,

of resistance were bereft of their following.


All things conspired to bring

The people

much

to endure,

at

sooner did

an

sought leave of

us,

tells

had nevertheless

Muda compelled them

to

work hard

himself.

one-eyed

King depart, than

That brave warrior Teuku Asan,

end.

youth,
to

the

to the one-eyed King.

VI Mukims, the poet

since the Raja

-)

Gompeuni and

for the

No

of the

homage

his father in Pidie,

still

all

in

this

repose was

the pride of his

whither the latter had

fled,

go and do battle with the Gompeuni. The desired consent was given,

with

father's

blessing

on

his

pious

purpose.

Teuka Asan quickly

gathered some panglimas and a small force, and fixed his head-quarters
in

the neighbourhood of

Lam

The gampong-folk were


himself
their

throw

1)

in

Hada, the place of his birth.

at

first

disposed

to

resist

his

establishing

that place, as they viewed with distaste the disturbance of

peace,

but

Teuku Asan and

his

followers soon taught

them

to

off their equivocal attitude.

Under

this

title

is

known

that

most energetic and reliable chief of Ulee Lheue, who

with a loyal and upright heart lent his assistance to the establishment of the "Gompeuni"
in

Acheh, and whose example gradually encouraged other Achehnese chiefs

to

tender their

submission.

The ulecbalang uf this province (see Vol I p. 126) had lied; his territory had thus
once more become attached as of old to that of Teuku Ne', and fallen under the
supremacy of the Teuku Nya' Muhamat just mentioned above. The inhabitants thus felt the
burden of a double yoke, since they found themselves now subject to the commands of a
2)

for a time

master

who

to all

intents

and purposes was a foreigner.

I09

The kupalas

(headmen) soon saw that they had acted rashly

')

in

The latter
movements of the

permitting themselves to enjoy the favour of the Gompeuni.

them

of

required
guerilla

reliable

but

bands,

information

as

the

to

whenever they furnished

it

they were severely

punished by Teuku Asan, and the Gompeuni gave them

help.

an alarming example was set by the execution of the arch-

Finally

kupala

traitor

Punteuet,

and

remaining headmen embraced,

the

all

either openly or in secret, the cause of

Thereupon the Raja

Muda

to defend themselves against

was

little

on

called

Teuku Asan.

his subjects to purchase firearms

Teuku Asan,

so that for

them too peace

an end.

at

The headman of the Chinese succeeded by a money present in


inducing Teuku Asan to refrain from attacking the coolies of his
nationality, the more so as they waged no war, but earned their livelihood by labour. At the same time this headman facilitated the visits
which the Teuku occasionally made to Kuta Raja for scouting purposes.

He

used to disguise himself on such occasions as a seller of firewood

his

price

was so high that no one would ever buy from him, and so

as

he passed from place to place with his load he was able to gather

all

the information he required.

The principal panglimas v/ho took up arms under the leadership of


Teuku Asan were Nya' Bintang, Teuku Usen of Pagaraye, his brother
Teuku Ali, and Teuku Usen of Lueng Bata, brother of the imeum of
Mukim.

that

We

are told of their feats of arms

convoys of provisions. Even

IV Mukims)

the

this

at

the people of the

usually attacks upon

period (an example

is

quoted

in

gampongs used often to misinform


movements of the Gompeuni,

the leaders of the guerilla bands as to the

so as to rid themselves of the presence of both.

Uma

Later on a new leader, Teuku

(Umar), came up from the West

Dutch out of the IV Mukims. The people joined him the


more readily as they were weary of the burdens laid upon them by
the Raja Muda. The poet, who himself received many gifts from Teuku

to drive the

Uma's generous hand,


till

This

Achehnese
place
oirices

name (most
to

of the

describe

keuchi's

exploits of this hero

Daya.

his return to

i)

some length the

details at

likely

the

i^urposely

corrupted

heads of gampongs

who took

to

flight

from the Malay kapala)

established

and refused

to

by

the

return.

is

used by the

Dutch government

The candidates

were not of course always the most desirable people possible.

for

in

such

The death

of

Teuku

Asan

peculiar circumstances that the


that Allah in his
self as a

Ulee

at

under such

occurred

IJicue

Achehnese onlookers gathered therefrom

wisdom had determined

to take this warrior to him-

martyr [shahld). There was indeed an unusual want of caution

Teuku Asan on

displayed by

when without any previous

this occasion,

he marched into the territory of Meura'sa

organisation
a

lO

the head of

at

way he

few followers. In the gampongs he passed on his

enjoined

all

who had

he

would spare them, as he had come, not to punish the men of

Meura'sa

noticed

presence to keep

his

for their defection,

it

a secret, promising that

but to fight with the Dutch.

besought his followers to abstain from plunder on

really

the

fatal

by the

fired

soldiers

Teuku Asan was rescued by

The

epic

Teuku

shot to the followers of

now approaches

who occupied
his

the

earnestly

this occasion.

wounded

After a brief engagement he was badly


attribute

He

most Achehnese

Ne', though

it

was

mosque of Ulee Lheue.

way home.

comrades, but died on the

the period of the "concentration" and the

who first came to Lam


men from Pidie. This
holy war. All who came from the

appearance on the scene of Teungku Tiro,


Panaih,

his

following being

ulama gave a great impetus


Gompeuni's

territory

composed
to the

chiefly of

join his standard had

to

ceremony of re-conversion

to the true faith.

first

go through the

to

spy from Lho' Nga who

was taken prisoner by the Teungku's people was put to death without
mercy.

The uleebalangs who were on good terms with

the Gompeuni,

exhibited respect for the Teungku, not unmixed with fear.

now

Thus Teuku

Aneu' Paya (uleebalang of the IV Mukims, who has a wife

in

gampong

act as

of Meureuduati

guide to the Dutch


folk, secretly

within

troops

the

"linie")

when chosen

to

the

on an expedition against Teungku Tiro's

informed the ulama of the plans of the Gompeuni.

The kupalas were now more alarmed than ever and held aloof as
much as possible from the Gompeuni. Now that the ulama had charge
of the holy cause, not only the free lances, but

people as well,

took part with

zeal

in

many

of the

the resistance.

common

Teungku Tiro

applied a portion of the contributions which flowed into his coffers to


the giving of solemn feasts, which added to the

to

Teuku

Uma

give

trouble

also returned
to the

number of his adherents.

once more from the West Coast and began

Gompeuni

at

Peukan Bada. During

he had a ceremonious meeting with Teungku Tiro

in

the

this period

IV Mukims,

1 1

where a great

house was built

fortified

with a lodging on his future

himself ready to conform

an

in all

ironical

an

onset

Dutch

of the

Uma

Teuku

things to the Teungku's will


his

declared
').

journey to Seubun. Here the poet

of a kanduri or religious feast organized

description

by the ulama on a grand

the uhima, to provide him

visits to that district.

Teungku Tiro now continued


gives

for

which was unfortunately disturbed by

scale,

The assembled

troops.

even with the bullets whistling about their

found

guests

it

hard,

themselves away

ears, to tear

from the dainty feast of buftalo-meat just done to a turn, with

all

the

accompanying good cheer.

From Seubun
Indrapuri
for

the

forts

in

ulama directed

the

his

steps

to

Aneu Galong and

every place along his route he gave the chiefs instructions

raising

to

of sabil-contributions,

which the ulama had erected

in

support the garrisons of the

every direction.

He

also took the

opportunity on this tour to settle questions of religious law

etc.

in his

capacity as the interpreter of the sacred code.

Lam

Arriving at

and

mortification

certain

went through seven days of seclusion

Panaih he

and received sundry "converts", comprising

[tapd]

Chinamen and convicts and

who

officers,

Teungku

also

two European non-commissioned

Tiro's

people

the Teungku's influence

waxed

assisted

the

manufacture of

greater,

and though the

in

gunpowder.

Day by day

uleebalangs appear to have watched his progress with jealous eyes, they
neither

dared nor indeed

son Nya'
of the

Amin

forces.

(in full

were able to oppose him. Teungku Tiro's

Nya' Mat or Ma' Amin), was placed

in

The ulama then returned from Lam Panaih

command
to

Aneu'

Galong.

Here the poet introduces a passage regarding Teungku Kuta Karang,


telling

how he was

beneath the
digression

rails

the

first

of the

to

conceive the idea of placing bombs

Gompeuni's military

seems to be to give the admirers of

some compensation

for

the

The object of this


Teungku Kuta Karang

line.

superabundant praise he pours upon

his

great rival.

Teungku Tiro now returned from the XXII Mukims

to the lowland

Uma and Teungku Tiro were very well aware that this was merely one
empty promises which Achehnese chiefs make with a view of keeping out of one
another's way. Teuku Uma never undertook any matter of importance cither at the command
or by the counsel of Teungku Tiro.
i)

Both Teuku

of those

12

At the tomb

districts.

conflict

Teungku

of

Teuku Uma, who had again spent

now

arrived

at

unexpectedly tendered

of his journey to

This

fostering.

To

amazement

the

The poet

pursues

our bard,

At Kuta Raja he succeeded

was no more nor

he

he never did deliver. Subsequently the

him with a man-of-war

than a

^)

Gompeuni

later,

but which

at his request supplied

convey him home.

to

At Lam Beusoe one

less

from a Chinese trader an

in obtaining

advance of 12000 dollars against pepper to be delivered

of the

and slew them

panglimas

his

fell

his

upon

who escaped to the shore.


who expressed

except two

all

Teuku and

boats landed the

ships

had withdrawn,

but as soon as he

sailors

all,

received

gives a graphic picture

stratagem to lure on the Gompeuni to their destruction.

the

of

who

Ulee Lheue and Kuta Raja.

submission,

followers,

West
knew of

his followers

submission to the Gompeuni,

his

powerful leader with open arms.

this

other

in

a considerable time on the

Leupueng, but none of

scheme which he was now

the

a severe

')

numbers of smaller engagements.

places there were

Coast,

Kuala (Abdora'oh

di

took place with the troops of the Gompeuni, and

These two fugitives betook themselves to Teuku Uma,

great indignation at the conduct of his followers, and threatened to put


all

of them to death.
The measures taken by

Gompeuni

the

to

avenge

this

treacherous

such as for instance the bombardment of Lho' Glumpang, were of

act,

no

Teuku

for

effect,

Uma

was not a uleebalang, and had no

or property that might be injured.

Subsequently Teuku

Uma

territory

^)

passed some time at Rigaih and became

master of Krucnu: Sabc without strikine a blow.

See Vol.

i)

I,

156

p.

etc.

2) This statement of the matter

there
his

would have

He was

stepfather.

and intended
with

l)cen

to

is

no reason

incorrect

anxious for his

own

overcome the objections of

Uma

had Teuku

for his concealing

it

interests to get
his

people

cherished any such intention

from his followers, and even from

to

on terms with the government,

such a step by confronting them

made him change his mind, and as he found


produced on the people by his surrender was even more unfavourable

the /(7/V accompli. Various circumstances

impression

that

the

than

he had anticipated, the cunning adventurer devised the plan of representing his sub-

sequent treachery as the carrying out of a previously concerted scheme.


3) In

describing

the

position

of T.

Uma

the poet applies to

(freeman) which the Achehnese, following the Javanese, employ

an

ofTicc.

heard

[It

in tlie

is

also used in this sense in

the Straits settlements,

expression "mata-mala pakci priman"

him the epithet "priman"

in

the sense of one without

where

it

is

most generally

a policeman in plain c\o\.\\>z'~,(Tianslaloi)^

113

Now

follows

Hok Canton

the

')

by the

vitiated

is

the

story,

told

at

great

length,

(Ach. Kontom) by T.

of the cutting out of

Uma. Here

too the narrative

anxiety to represent the whole

poet's

outcome of a well concerted plan of T. Uma's

affair as

the

for the discomfiture of

the kafirs.

The expeditions

Gompeuni

against Lho' Glumpang and Rigaih


They could not succeed either in overtaking and
punishing Teuku Uma, nor in liberating the imprisoned "Nyonya." The
chief Pochut Mamat with a number of women were indeed brought as
captives to Kuta Raja, but the Tuan Beusa (Governor) himself had to

were also

of the

fruitless.

admit upon enquiry that these people were wholly


for

free

from

all

blame

what had occurred.

The poet

describes the expeditions of T.

(Jma with the imprisoned

nyonya, and the great concourse of people brought together by curiosity


to behold for the first time in their lives an

The Tuan Beusa was covered with shame,


on the possible criticisms of the English.
with the

place

mission

took counsel

no better terms

for

the

relative of

negotiate

to

when he

especially

He

Panglima Meuseugit Raya, a

The Panglima undertook


could obtain

European woman.

release

first

Teuku Uma.

with the

of the

reflected

in the

latter,

but

than a

captive

ransom of $ 40,000. Recourse was then had to Teuku Ba'et (uleebalang


of the VII Mukims of the XXII). His negotiations with T. Uma are
described

in

demanded

i)

jocose

vein;

they result

in

the

reduction of the

sum

to f 25,000.

The Ilok Canton was a British-owned steamer belonging to Chinese traders in Pen.ing,
to Acheh under Dutch colours. Her Captain was a Dane named Hansen, and his

trading
wife

was with him on board

at the

time of the attack.

as the vessel lay in the roads of Rigas (Rigaih) on the

by Teuku

During the

Uma and
fight

his followers,

who had been

W.

On

the 14th June 1886 at 9 A.M.


Coast of Acheh, she was attacked

received on board as guests by the captain.

which ensued the chief mate and chief engineer were

killed,

and the captain

wounded; Mrs Hansen also received a slight wound. After plundering the vessel
the Achehnese returned to shore taking with them as captives the Captain and his wife,
the second engineer (an Englishman named John Fay) and six native seamen. A brig called
the "Eagle" was in the roads at the time. Her Captain (Roura) was on shore awaiting
Teuku Uma's return from the steamer. Finding that he did not return, he boarded the Hok
Canton and took her to Olehleh. Negociations ensued between the English and Dutch
governments, the captives being meantime held to ransom by Teuku Uma, who demanded
50,000 for their release. They were well treated, but in the absence of proper medical
aid the Captain died of his wounds and Mrs Hansen (the nyonya" of the present story)
and the engineer Fay suffered much from sickness. A ransom of 62,500 guilders was
eventually paid and they were liberated in tlic beginning of September 1886. (^Translator).

seriously

II

114

Uma

The ransom was paid and the nyonya released. T.


a further proof
the money with a generous hand,

of the tact with

kept

he

which
faithful

to

Ba'et,

who

people

his

Teuku

cause.

his

conducted

the

received

500

negociations,

Uma's

Teuku

and

dollars,

distributed

friends

and followers

ceived

presents proportioned

re-

all

to their rank.

The bard

humorous

gives a

description of the sending of


a

of 500 dollars of

present

ransom-money

the

Tiro;

we mark

tical

spirit

to

Teungku

herein the

worldly

the

of

Achehnese, who with


reverence

for

the

cri-

all

great

his

ex-

pounder of the law sees bethe robe of the ulama

neath

a heart as

little free

from the

love of gold as his own.

the messengers of

brought
a

this

sum

When

Teuku
of

Uma

money

as

"worthless gift" from their

chief to the ulama, the latter

asked

first

for

full

expla-

nation as to the source from


PAN'GI.IMA

MKUSKUCIT RAYA.

whence the money was derived.

Adat-chiefs, as he knew, are not always overscrupulous as to the

they use to win gold, and no good ulama could touch such a
he

not

assured

that

it

had been acquired

in

means

gift

were

manner sanctioned by

religious law

The Teungku was

told that the

money was

and was enlightened as to the manner of

man

its

smiled, for there was indeed no fault to

Teuku

Uma

might look on him as a

Not long

after

this

forth

spoil

Teuku

Uma came

won from
Then

acquisition.
fintl,

the kafirs

the pio.us

and said that hence-

father.

by

invitation to share in a

115

by Teungku

kanduri given

but

both,

of

lips

admonish

dealings with

he promised that

Uma

earnestly

and

true religion

Teuku

In reply

infidels.

while

prohibition,

found

the

opportunity

this

by the

to hold fast

with rigour any of his followers

punish

to

Teungku took

the

friend

his

Flattering speeches flowed from the

Tiro.

to

have no

to

authorised the ulama

who should

transgress that

his

part he should never be

against

Gompcuni were now


XXVI Mukims and other

for

false to his creed.

Teungku

active

Tiro's

by progresses through the

varied for a time

country,

of the

parts

enterprises

for

both chiefs and people

the

the purpose of instructing and admonishing

').

The masterly tone which he assumed drew upon him

the hatred of

the uleebalangs through whose territories he passed, but they could do

nothing to check the influence acquired by the powerful ulama.

During
poisoned
of the

From

^).

of comparative

period

this

he

poison,

moment

the

ceased

not

repose the great Teungku was

that he began to feel the fatal working

admonish

to

his followers

with

earnestness of a dying man, and he especially adjured his son

the

all

Mat Amin

be guided by the wise counsel of the ulamas. But when his father

to

Mat Amin and

died,

caring

his

guerilla

neither for the laws of

bands followed

God

their

devices,

nor man. Thus the great crowd of

who had gathered round Teungku Tiro soon

followers

own

dispersed and

vanished from the scene.

A
the

of operations in the "holy war" was

new centre
IX Mukims;

Kuta Karang, whose

attacks
that

In vain the

i)
visits

beneath the
fired

rails

upon by

his

in

Teungku

army. At

his

of the Dutch line,

his followers.

These

were generally made on a Friday, since pious deeds done on

day have a

Barueh

laid

were attacked and

trains

now formed

the great

formed the kernel of

disciples

command hand-grenades were


and the

movement was

the leader of the

(i.

e.

Gompeuni sought

Lam

The period
to" the

special value in the eyes of Allah.

Jameej

referred

to

was

fell

in

to

overcome him; the captain of

Lam

an attack on Kuta Kandang, and the

that during

which the chiefs friendly

to the

Dutch paid

"court" at Keumala, under the pretext of inducing the pretender to the

title

come to terms with the Government. Their true intention was to wring money
Government for themselves and their crownless Sultan. Teungku Tiro who after

of Sultan to

from the

some

hesitation gave his approval to these visits, was of course obliged to relax his .ictivity

while they lasted.


2) See Vol.

I,

pp.

18485.

ii6

Gompeuni

were compelled to desist from such enter-

fight

above engagement the followers of Ma' Amin and of

the

In

prises.

this

after

Habib Samalanga found themselves

Teungku Kuta Karang.

those of

The

in

Teungku Kuta Karang, the poet

policy of

from

tells us, differed

of the other ulamas in this respect, that he permitted his people

that
to

fighting shoulder to shoulder with

was

this

sabil-contributions, to obtain

the

increase

to

His object

"linie" or pale.

have intercourse with those within the

news of the

Gompeuni's movements and

to give

courageous warriors an opportunity

the

Dutch

troops.

The Habib

who had gone

within

of ambuscading
all

seclusion

the

"linie"

from the Arab,

[kaliict,

cliakvai). It

of Samalanga punished

seven

with
is

days

penitential

said that the bodies of

commands became

any that had the temerity to disregard the Habibs


swollen with disease.

Teungku

After

death Habib Samalanga obtained

Tiro's

Sultan a letter with the royal seal


to

the

all

and

uleebalangs,

*).

He made

sought to rouse them to

pretended to adhere to his cause, but

own wordly

their

At

the

To make

the

to

in reality

thought of nothing but

poem

(1891) the

Gompeuni

is

busy

in

stopping

discomfort of the people within the

great

'^linie".

system of exclusion effective they constitute a new corps

this

of soldiery,

known
action. They

interests.

close of the

imports,

all

from the

this authorization

the

inasuse

These guardians of the

-).

very

are

frontier

They show much courage when they meet


Gampong folk; these they arrest with much unnecessary

arrogant and self-important.


a few stray

commotion and

hustle

over the boundary

with kicks and blows. But

when they see a band of fighting men they slink away.


As the Dutch are now (1891) going to work, says the poet, they
will never be masters of Acheh. The one-eyed General was right
The above brief abstract should suffice to show the spirit of the poet,
that
to

of

1) Vol.

to

standing

is

far

Teungku Lam Rukam


I,

p.

all

next

their infidelity.

3) See p.

work

in

addition

inferior in point of artistic merit to the


''),

and also to that of the anonymous

182.

2) Marichaussce.

known

of his public. Although his

spirit

being incomplete

its

epic

say the

to

is

It

is

also

Mohammedans;
to

sometimes called hadiisi or


it

occurs

the Christians (Nagrani)

The word

88 above.

in

inajiisi.

This

last

word

is

well

the kilabs and indicates a class of unbelievers

and the Jews (Vahudi) but worse than either


Magi or Persian fire-worshippers.

really signifies the

in

117

author of

Malem Dagang,

has from

it

its

actuality just as

on our interest as either of these. At the same time

example of the preservation of epic

able

mediary of writing.

forms a remark-

it

literature without the inter-

my own experience that two


by the author himself on two separate

can testify from

poem

recitations of this

much claim

delivered

occasions, differed from one another as

little

any two written copies

as

of any /Vchehnese book.

The Hikayat Raja


T^^

r
IX jMukims.

the

1.

ascertain

Sulbyniian (IX)

the

name from
guardian Manso Shah. The
Teuku Nanta

for

while

his

the

can

waged by the young prince of

that

to his death (1857) against his uncle

and

This

is

short

The poet

refused

irom

to

vacate

the

throne

di

The poem
is

waged

in

Dutch,

the

is

to a

woman

is

one

of Peunaga.

1893 and 1894 by the chiefs

against

the party of resistance,


led

by the holy

an imitation of the older epics, without any attempt at

characteristically

faith

ally,

favour,

Meuke'.

It

ends with the death of Teungku

Achehnese

the side of the Government, depicts


to

his

in

Hikayat

Trumon, married

the

to

accuracy or completeness.
It

VI Mukims,

and insignificant heroic poem. The author

a native of

friendly

Suloyman.

(X).

whose chief stronghold was Runeng and who were

Teungku

what

the capital.

celebrates the conflict

of Meulaboh,

but

prince established himself in the

Hikayat Teungku di Meuke

Teungku Malem,

uleebalang of that territory was his chief

who
Dalam at

guardian

settled in the

IT

strife

coming of age

his

the production of a poet from Hikayat Raja

have never seen a copy,

celebrates

it

is

and

his

followers

as

that the poet,

Teungku Meuke'
the

di

Meuke'.

though belonging to
as a holy

representatives

martyr

of religion.

It

matters not on what side an Achehnese finds himself, he always regards


the enemies of the unbelievers as upholders of the right cause.

4.

We
they

have dealt
are purely

first

Original treatises.

with the heroic poems of the Achehnese, because

Achehnese both

short treatises which

we

are

in

form, subject and origin.

now about

to

The few

mention might properly be

Meuke'.

ii8

regarded as coming under the head of Hterature of rehgion or edification.

Their genuine Achehnese character however, distinguishes them from


other Achehnese works of the same sort, most of which are based on

Malay

For

or Arabic originals.

wc

this reason

them

assign

a separate

place.

Teungku
"lessons"

Teutigku

Tit'os

on the holy war" (XI) are

"lessons

small pamphlets. Only two have

come

my

into

hands,

in

the form of

filling

not more

than a quire of paper; but there were undoubtedly more besides. These

enjoy a special popularity.

however,

two,

They

deal

through with

all

one and the same subject, and consist of strong exhortations to

and property to the holy cause, which

fice life

moment throw

all

it

sacri-

should for the

said,

is

other considerations into the shade in Acheh. These

exhortations are enforced with the requisite texts of holy writ showing
the

prang

part in

Admonition
aggar

s.

be a bounden duty and promising to

sabi to

an incomparable reward

it

all

who

take

in the hereafter.

Tadkivat ar-vakidiH (XII).

^^

have already

')

noticed the pamphlet disseminated

Kuta Karang, the greatest


"admonition to laggards".

rival

of

should

It

Teungku
be

rather

by Teungku

Tiro, under the title of

called

a collection of

pamphlets repeatedly revised and added to by the author. This compilation

and

more comprehensive than the two

is

also remarkable

is

for

certain

treatises of

peculiar

ideas

Teungku Tiro

which

it

advances.

For instance the author would have the Friday service performed

Achehnese and

He

not, as

is

now everywhere

suggests fitting out a

fleet

sea as was being done with so


chiefs,

much

off their half-heartedness,


all

questions'' as the writer calls them, so that they

that

stands

in

indeed

morals are
aside for a
all,

his

their

to

working

paltry matters, "louse-

may

assail

the "elephant"

way. The rebuilding of mosques and reforming of

most desirable things, but even these must stand

moment, while everyone devotes

money

by

success on land. All alike, sultan,

one consent and overlooking

with

together

done, in Arabic.

of war-ships to harass the "kafirs"

ulamas and people must throw

in

his zeal, his

time and above

the carrying on of the war. All contributions must

be gathered into a single treasury, under the control of some able and
trusty leader, as for instance

i)

\'ol.

I.

p.

86

et

seq.

Teungku Kuta Karang

himself. Let no one

119
inveigh against occasional acts of rapine on the part of the fighters in

much

the holy cause, since

and so hard a task

to so pious

Nasihat

who dedicate themselves

forgiven to those

is

muprang

iiren'eng

The author

(XIII).

Nasihat

of this hikayat, which extends to

self tells us that

some 2000

verses, him-

he has borrowed most of his materials from a treatise

by the Palembang pandit Abdussamad, who gained a high repucentury ago by his theological works '). By his Malay
translations Abdussamad gave a wide circulation to the works of the
written

about a

tation

master

revered

of mysticism,

al-Ghazali;

sphere of practical

the

in

mysticism he took lessons at Medina from the mystic teacher

as-Samman (born

in

again hereafter (ch.

A.D.

1720),

He

Ill, 3).

whom we

{nasihat al-))insliinin), which supports

Mohammad

and traditions of

have occasion to mention

shall

also wrote

Mohammad

an "Admonition to Muslims"

by numerous

texts from the

Quran

the meritorious character of the holy war

against unbelievers.
It

was

this last treatise

"Admonition

by Nya' Ahmat

Paleue.

and the Achehnese

all

is

Achehnese

Abdosalam of

a fanatical exhortation of

do battle with

in particular to

all

Ahmat

all

believers

unbelievers and

this ranks higher

other religious obligations, and the future recompense for the

waging of the holy war

is

greater

than

good deed, even although the purpose


the infidel

The

bin Jalalodin bin

Dutch. According to Nya'

the

particular

in

than

It

for the

war", composed in August 1894

in the

Mahmut

Uri bin

alias

gampong Chot

the

which served as a model

engaged

to those

is

that

assigned

of

him who

{nici)

to

any other

fights against

not free from the taint of worldly motives.

writer severely censures the inactive section of the people and

the

uleebalangs

lack

of energy

extirpated

they bethink them not, he says, that through their

the

Mohammedan

religion

runs the

from Acheh, as has already been done

Singapore, Penang

danger of being

at Batavia,

Padang,

etc.

There are without doubt other

treatises of similar

tendency

in existence,

but owing to their authors being of less celebrity they are not so generally

known
l)

or so widely circulated.

See L.

W.

C.

Van den

Berg's Verslag van ecne vcrzamding Maleische enz.handschrlfun

The work employed by our Achehnese

(Batavia

1877),

Van den

Berg's Catalogue as N". 51.

bladz.

2,

8.

10.

poet appears in

"'*-""*^"B

120

many

In
I

manuscripts of which

have met with exhortations

for
fill

They were

waging the war, prayers

These were inserted

to

end of works of the most

who

the fanatic effusions of the copyists,

belong to the "leubc" class

for the best of reasons, generally

Hikayat

like.

at the

having copies made,

in

in verse to zeal in

up the blank pages, and appeared

diverse character.

ranto.

succeeded

Dutch, and the

downfall of the

the

').

Hikayat rantb (XIV).


This

essay

also

is

considerably less

Leube

Isa (i= Jesus)

which he

called

is

to his

own

of his

life

most characteristically Achehnese, but

who

lived in Pidie, first in

Teungku Bambi, and

"confession" (as

we may

later at Klibeuet.

aptly term

These lonesome

of a

districts

whose desolation

by a small gampong, are known


"the 12 ranto's" of the

West

is

According

he passed a portion

it)

the colonies of the pepper planters on the

in

is

The author is one


gampong Bambi, after

warlike nature than the last two.

West

Coast.

only broken at intervals

as rantb, particularly in the phrase

number has no

Coast, though this round

statistical value.

The

writer testifies that no

Achehnese who leaves

his birth-place to

seek his fortune from pepper planting out there, returns unharmed

body and
life

Fevers undermine the health, and

soul.

wanting.

are

Morals

in

the

all

in

the comforts of

are at the lowest ebb, for the

ratitb

Achehnese neither may nor can transport wife or

child thither. Gambling,

opium-smoking and paederasty are the chief relaxations of a society

composed exclusively of males.

many supply

smoking,

in the rantos.

When means

the deficiency

The Teungku

women and

lacking for opium-

by plundering

Quarrels speedily result in bloodshed.

to the families they have left behind. Religion

the

are

is

solitary travellers

Few

give a thought

wholly forgotten.

manner the melancholy

describes in an affecting

lot of

children whose husbands and fathers often sojourn in

the rant6s for years at a time without sending tidings to those at home.

At

the

annual

slaughter

religious feasts, while the

which precedes the fasting month and the


husbands of others "bring meat home"

deserted ones stand by pale with shame


villager gives

them

Vol.

I,

p.

71.

2) Vol.

I,

p.

243.

i)

^),

the

perchance some pitying fellow-

a small portion of his

own

share!

121

This passage

them

recall

calculated

is

however, the author does

Many women,

admonished.

to

touch the feelings of the liuaiUs and

duties as fathers of families.

their

to

not

wish

to

On

he says, embitter the

by demanding more than they can bestow

lives of their

strife,

We now
the

we

tales

who

come

now about
in

manner of whose

Malayan

encounter

in the rantos.

romance. The materials from whence

drawn are known

to describe are

to

in spite of the obstacles

by dreams and omens


seemingly

step

set in their path.

wander through the world,

to

monsters,

invincible

unsolvable

enigmas and unapproachable princesses; but they also meet with


disposed dewas, sages or beasts

an

without

part

which the hero

Character

all fiction,

Princes or princesses, the very

literature.

which they are predestined,

every

at

their

Fiction.

which the envy of men and the cunning of demons


driven

if

birth transcends the ordinary course of nature, attain

to the splendour to

Heroes,

husbands

blame

to

go forth to seek happiness

to the literature of

are

versed

are

5.

go un-

the matter of clothing

in

and personal adornments. Thus they have themselves


spouses, weary of domestic

the other hand,

his female readers

let

who

enable them to

fulfil

Each romance contains sundry

effort.

after a brief period of bliss

is

well-

their heroic

love-stories, in

separated from the objects

of his passion, but at the final catastroph beholds his princesses (from

one to four

in

number) and generally

their parents as well, all happily

united round him while the enemies of his happiness either undergo the

punishment they deserve or are spared by

The

combats are decided

inevitable

by

ship of the heroes than

less

and

call

into

glittering

and the secret

from a magic

lore

spirits or giants of the

whenever they require them,

being,

palaces

by the prowess or general-

their invulnerability,

charms obtained by them from hermits,

They

clemency.

his

flourishing

and

wilds.

towns

box; in like manner by smiting

on the ground or on some part of their own bodies or by the utterance


of a magic

word they bring

to light armies of jens

and men, who

fight

on their behalf with supernatural weapons.

of
large
^ majority
J'
J

of the
^1

them

same

origin as
1

are

expressly

Achehnesc romances show unmistakeable traces


those of the Malays; indeed a great number of

imitated

from

TIT

Malay models,

'T-

io decicle

in

any

Connection
between
Adiehncse
!i<i Malay
,-^.(1^^,^

122

given

whether an Achehnese work has been borrowed from a

case

Malay one or

derived

is

from the same source as the

require an acquaintance with the whole range of

We may

and present.

past

of South India which

both

as the birth-

both tongues that portion

in

whence

also the source

is

would

latter

literature

any case certainly regard

great majority of romances

of the

place

in

Malay

are derived the popular

mysticism and the popular religious legends of the

Mohammedan

peoples

of the E. Indian Archipelago.

The appearance

Their Indian

the

skies,

of the

dewas,

and other denizens of the

raksasas

pagan fashion. At the same time their character


fied

there

that

Moslim or the
testify to the

somewhat

the forest and the sea are often portrayed in

air,

no

is

difficulty

jens,

infidel

their

all

as a rule so

them among

classifying

in

while

is

modi-

either the

and omissions

acts

alike

power and wisdom of Allah. Not only are the names of

Indian gods and

presented

heroes

an

in

altered form, but the poets

have also given themselves liberty to add new characters to those they
found

and to place personalities from Persian and Arabian myth and

legend on the same stage with those of Indian origin.


perhaps,

that

be,

admixture took place to a con-

degeneration and

this

may

It

siderable extent in South Indian popular romances, but this could only

be decided by a thorough study of the

even to

fix

latter.

At present we

are unable

the portion of South-India where the threads meet which

unite that country with the mental

In addition to Indian

of the Indonesians.

names the Achehnese romances contain

disting-

ones, which appertain to the mythic or historic heroes

uished

Persian

of the

Shahname

however expect

life

(such as
to

Qubad, Jamshid, Bahramshah).

We

must not

reproduced here one single particular of the

find

actual traditions respecting these princes of Iran.

The

fact of the intro-

duction of Islam into Hindustan has caused the language, literature and
of Persia to be

traditions

country.

It

known

strange

these
It

all

civilized persons in the

was of course impossible that the lower

should be equally affected by


the

to

this influence, but

names from Persian myth and

names popular

was some of these

tales

found their

not the traditional history or finer classical

In

these

tradition

as

classes of the people

they made their

history

impossible

to

way

own

and attached to

which were most likely already

last that

former

in existence.

to the East Indies,

and

works of the Persian nation.

detect a nucleus of history or

tales

it

as in

the romance of Amir Hamzah which came hither from

is

123

by way of

Persia

of the

analysis

exact

what we have

Here too

India.

of Achehnese

relation

may

just said

misled by the sight of well

data are required for a

fuller

with

fiction

its

iiKjre

sources;

simply serve to prevent anyone from being

known

Persian names, into speaking of the

"influence of Persia on the Achehnese".

Certain works which have been

known

Acheh

memory
of men way probably have been borrowed directly from the common
South Indian source, without the intervention of Malay. At present we
may safely say that it is Malay literature alone that supplies the
Achehnese market with
been expected;
countries

fresh material. This

within the

indeed what might have

is

mental intercourse of Acheh with more distant

was bound to decrease when the trade

flourishing,

The

the

in

once so

relations,

were reduced to a minimum.

who

better educated of the Achehnese,

are not scholars in the

new or not
known in Acheh. Such as suit their taste are disseminated as
until some poet or rhymster thinks it worth while to make of

strict sense,

read Malay hikayats which are either entirely

formerly

haba

')

them an Achehnese hikayat. And


the

modern Achehnese become,

so lacking in refinement of taste have

as for the

most part to

own

in these flavourless impossibilities than in their

find

more pleasure

historical epics.

Tales of foreign origin are however, not only dressed

Achehnese

of the

sanja, but so modified and

added

in

the attire

to as to suit the

comprehension of their Achehnese readers. Wherever the opportunity


has occurred, the compilers have given to social and political relations

an Achehnese colouring.

To comprehend the
-,.,,
the Achehnese, we

significance of these

ot

romances
,.

must remember one thing

in

the mental

,.,.
which is

life

too often

forgotten in discussing Native literature. Although the readers and hearers


are

not

all

blind

to

the fact that composers and editors occasionally

modify their materials a

little

to suit their

own

taste,

still

they are

in

the main firmly convinced of the truth of the stories told them. Nothing
short

of absolute

conflict

with the teachings of religion makes them

doubt the genuineness of a poet's representations; and


these

heroes flying and striding through

their miraculous palaces

and magic armies, are

persons of an actual past.

i)

See pp. 88

above.

air,

in

any

case, all

sky, sea and forest, with


for the

Belief in the
reality of the

Achehnese actual

stories.

124

Our separation of heroic poems from romances would thus have no


raison

All that they could see in

it

would be a

between hikayats which chronicle past events

in

Acheh, and

d'etre

distinction

those which

their

in

verse the history of the people of other lands or of

in

tell

eyes.

the skies, the country of the jens and the


The scene

like.

Several even of those romances which are most closely akin to Malay

works or resemble them

we

Similarly

the

find

in

respects,

Javanese

number of the personages

The hikayat

all

materials as a well-known

to

translating

their

laid in

Acheh.

own country

of the Indian mythology.

Malem Diwa

of

have the scene

for instance,

Malay

tale

which

composed of the same

is
is

also current

among

Bataks, This does not prevent the Achehnese from representing

the

their

hero as being born, growing up and performing most of his exploits in

Acheh, or from imagining that he

still

highlands of the North and East Coasts.

who

wandering about

exists,

They

are convinced that

has practised the science of invulnerability with success

the privilege of a meeting

with this invincible

out in more than one locality the traces of


as they

immortal

').

Malem Diwa's

in

the

anyone

may

enjoy

They

point

activity, just

show on the West Coast the former haunts of Banta Beuransah,

and see

in

the romances of

Timu

of the history of

Eseukanda Ali and Nun

name they

("the East", the

Parisi a

fragment

give to the North

and East Coasts of Acheh).

Did
Achehnese
method ofar^^^^^

rangement of
the

hikayats.

we wish to conform to Achehnese ideas, we should have to


above Malem Dagang
Malem Diwa a place
o
^
o o in the chronologically
^

arranged

list

of Achehnese

narrative

lies

outside Acheh, the

accurate

definitions

heroic

fly

Achehnese are

of place and time.

which they occasionally adhere,

and

poems. So long as the scene of a

carry us back to an

is

entirely indifferent to

The only chronological

rule to

that stories in which the heroes soar

ante-Mohammedan

period, for ever since

the appearance of the Seal of the Prophets the art of flying has been

denied to

human

beings

^).

we have placed under


and thus bear the name of

All the works which

composed

in

sanja

we have already

hikayat, like the fourteen

described. Their contents furnish us with no basis for

arrangement; but apart from


i)

the head of 'fiction' are

this

their

comparatively small number

See p. 36 above.

2) This

rule

Mohammedan

however is in conflict with the contents of some stories dealing with the
and that too even where they are composed in Achehnese.

period,

125

renders
the

easy to pass them

it

place

first

hikayats

those

to

review.

in

We

own

Malem Diiva (XV).


Malem Diwa was the son of Raja Tampo',
the gampong of Piadah on the krueng (river) of
mother was

His

Pasei.

as

Malem Diman, but


7th

changed

year,

was

pandit,

Tampo' and
prince had

the

Pase,

when

for

at

called

first

he was sent to school

to Diwa. Dalikha

bride,

who ruled in
commonly known

a prince

'),

in

his

the daughter of this

the marriages both of Raja

of the pandit had long remained unblessed with issue, the

made

they should

when

name

his

whom

laid

is

country.

Sahbawa. He was

Putroe

the teacher to

destined

his

content with giving

the principal scene of which

the Achehnese within the limits of their

by

rest

vow

that

boy came

children were vouchsafed to

be united

possible

if

if

her

to

father's

them both,

wedlock with one another. But

in

Dalikha greeted him as

house,

"younger brother". This was considered as rendering marriage impos-

and Dalikha, who

sible,

in after

continued to watch over

Malem

Panjang,

as a faithful elder sister.

As soon

years married a certain

Malem Diwa

as the hero has completed his schooling he begins his wanderings,

are destined to bring


sion,

Putroe Bungsu

him
in

into contact with three princesses in succes-

the firmament, Putroe Aloih in Nata

and Putroe Meiireundam Diwi

in

seemed

The

to

him

princess

dreamed
after,

in the

that

while

Natal)

bathing he

to his quest of the first;

came

it

across a princess's hair.

of the skyey realm, the youngest daughter of Raja Din,

at the

same time that she was encircled by

Malem Diwa, changed

the

for

moment

water where Putroe Bungsu with her

were bathing.

(=

Lho' Sinibong on the river of Jambo Aye.

was a dream which gave the impetus

It

which

He

stole her

to fly back with her

a snake.

into a fish,

sisters

and

swam about

their attendants

upper garment and thus she

companions to her

Not long

lost the

power

father's aerial kingdom'-).

Hero

and heroine are brought together by the agency of Ni Keubayan, a


well-known figure

in

Malay

tales,

and soon the lovers are joined

in

wedlock.

They

Piadah.

to

i)

2)

Malem Jawa, the abode of Malem Diwa's mother,


Here a son named Ahmat is born to them. As this

s.ettle in

The Achehnese form


As to such "(lying

Instiliiiit for

of Zuleikha^ the

garments'"

1866, note to p. 257.

see

uame

G.

K.

close
child

of Potiphars wife.

Niemann

in

BijJragcn van hct k'oninklijk

Maldm Diwa.

126

grows up he develops vicious tendencies. He

and by

this act causes a rupture

One day
which

whilst at play

his father

Ahmat

strikes his

grandmother

between her and her daughter-in-law.

brings to light his mother's upper garment,

had carefully hidden. Putroc Bungsu takes

from him,

it

strife, flies away with her child to the airy realms.


Malem Diwa, who spent nearly all his time in the cock-fighting arenas,
was not at home when this took place, but a little later he saw his

and, weary of domestic

wife soaring in the air with her child and had just time to receive her

admonition at the "gate that leads to the skies". "After three

last

come and

harvests", she said, "you must

fetch me, else

rice-

become

shall

another's wife". Meanwhile go to Nata (Natal) and there you shall


the princess Aloih

but beware

you

lest

wed

victim to a passion for the

fall

Putroe Meureundam Diwi.

Malem Diwa undertook the journey to Nata with the aid of Dalikha
and her heroic spouse Malem Panyang. Peuduka Lila, the king of that
was compelled to succumb to the courage and magic power of

region,

the

But Putroe Aloih remained

three.

window of her chamber

the

still

unconquered. Over against

there stood an areca-palm of fabulous height,

on the top of which hung two betelnuts, one of gold and the other of
suasa

').

The hand

should succeed
princes

nine

of the princess was the destined reward of

plucking these

in

fruits.

had made the attempt

sooner had they climbed

to

Already no

less

him who

than ninety-

at the cost of their lives; for

level

with the princess's

no

window and

beheld her, than they swooned at the sight of her marvellous beauty,

and so
his

in

fell

down and were

task

by a

swarm of ^valang
creatures

he

killed.

Malem Diwa, however, was


a

number

[tupt'),

sangit

(geus6ng) and a kite [kleiieng),

had taken

Dalikha also spread

'-)

with

all

of which

him by the advice of Putroc Bungsu.

bed of tree-cotton

assisted

of white ants {kaniu'e), a

squirrel

at the fort of the

areca-palm

by way of precaution.
vSo

He

is

Malem Diwa wins


however warned

Mounted on

a bura

'')

his princess
in

and spends happy days

dream that Putroe Bungsu

is

in

at Nata.

danger.

which awaits him, he ascends into the upper

air,

and betakes himself disguised as a beggar to the kingdom of the sky.

Here he becomes acquainted with Ahmat

2)

An amalgam of gold and copper. ( Translator).


A kind of grasshopper (Mai. bSlalang) with an

3)

1)

(his

own

son)

who

informs

olTensivc smell.

fabulous creature, a namesake of the Biiraij on which the Prophet ascended to heaven.

him

that

mother

his

soon about to

is

be forced to marry the Raja

Muda. Malem Diwa and Ahmat now make war upon Raja Din and
son

Raja Muda, with the

the

result

re-united with her lawful consort.

more disturbed by a dream.

It is

Bungsu

Putroe

that

The joy of the pair


now the Putroe Aloih

is

his

shortly

is

however once

that

is

in

danger.

The king of China has waged a successful war against Nata and carried
lady

off the beautiful

in a crystal

Malem Diwa descends on


Pase (vulg.

at

Pasei),

chest.

the bura' to the sublunary world

Coast of Acheh and finally arrives at Lho'

Meureundam Diwi

by the geureuda (= garuda

Malem Diwa
Another

Diwa

beam

alone, hidden in a

slays the geureuda

and weds the

the Raja Jawa soon comes to assail his third

By magic

arts

its

in-

the beautiful princess

');

As

by her unhappy

-)

a matter of course

princess.

warning him of impending danger, causes Malem

vision,

determine on fortifying his abode

to

waste and

laid

of timber

awaited the coming of her deliverer.

father,

he alights

Sinibong the domain of

Raja Angkasa. The whole kingdom has been


habitants devoured

whence he traverses various places on the East

he succeeds in rendering

in this place.

Sure enough

experience of wedded

Malem Diwa

bliss.

as helpless as an

inanimate corpse, after which he carries off the princess

in a crystal chest.

Meureundam Diwi, however,


rouse Malem Diwa after her departure by fomentations

has .instructed a helpful bird [bayeu'cn] to

and then to

of rose-water,

both to Nata and Dalikha's country, and to bear to

fly

the latter and to the Putroe Bungsu news of what has occurred.

Restored to

once more, Malem Diwa

life

a sea-fight he

is

thrown into

sails for

China, but during

the sea by the Chinese and swallowed by

a whale.

This monster dies at sea and

The

carrion

attracts the notice of

king of Java,

form of a
the

who

whale's

the

In

name

little

of

is

boy,

i)

According

3)

I.

one Male Kaya

is

cast

on shore.

a relative of the
his childless wife.

they find Malem Diwa, who has assumed the

adopt him joyfully as their child and give him

Malem Muda.
had grown up, the Raja Muda wished to provide

fabulous monster of the grifTin order.

e.

Java where he

walking on the sea-shore with

carcase

When Malem Muda

2)

drifts to

to a variant, in

"wealthy but childless".

Translator').

drum {gettnJrang)

cf.

p.

145 below.

128

him with

but

wife,

he stoutly declared that he would marry none

Meureundam

other than

Diwi.

Hence arose

Dalikha and the princess Bungsu having


their

took an

fleets,

overcome and

slain,

active

part

China was crowned with the

realm

airy

the

the meantime arrived with

contest.

and Meureundam Diwi


like success

from her crystal prison. They now


each went back to

in

in

a quarrel that led to war.

his

own

all

country.

set

The Raja Jawa was


free.

war against

and the Putroe Aloih rescued

returned to Nata and from thence

Ahmat became

a sub-king of the

and married Janagaru the daughter of the Raja Muda of

that kingdom.

copy of the Menangkabau "Malim Diman" preserved

in

the library

of the Batavian Association, gives an account of the adventures of this

hero

with

Putri

Bungsu, which

while

varying in some details from

Malem Diwa, harmonizes with it in its main outline, but is much more
prolix. No mention is made of Dalikha or the two other objects of
Malem Diwa's love, and what we are told of Malem Diwa's early life
is
quite different from the Achehnese hikayat. The Batak story of

Deman

Malin

')

has only isolated points of resemblance with either of

the above.

Of Malem Diwa's immortality and


of the

his

wanderings

in

the wilderness

North and East Coasts of Acheh we have already spoken

in

our introductory remarks.


[In

June 1898 an

among

a tumult

giving

illiterate

man

of

Gayo

origin succeeded in rousing

the people of the East and North Coasts of

out that he

Acheh by

was invulnerable and that he had the power of

rendering harmless the weapons of the unbelievers. He was known as


Teungku Tapa, but the majority of the people regarded him as Malem
Diwa returned to life, or at least as one clothed with Malem Diwa's
authority

most of the Achehnese with

his pretensions as far

were defeated by the Dutch troops,


time.

In

whom

spoke of him regarded

from preposterous. Teungku Tapa and


after

1899, however, he again renewed

his followers

which he disappeared
his activity,

this

band of followers from the Gayo country. This second

suppressed

was

i)

for

still

slain in the

more promptly than the former.

et

effort

was

Teungku Tapa

neighbourhood of Piadah].

See G. K. Niemann's review of the contents of

1866, p. 255

In 1900

for a

time with

seq.

this story in

Bijdragdi Kon. Instititnt

129

Esenkanda All or Suganda Ali (XVI).

sway

In times of old Sultan Ali held

kingdom of Chamtalira

in the

by which the Achehnese mean the same tliat is


the writings of Marco Polo and Ibn Batutah. In
merchant of great wealth named Didi, who sent
with

ships to

there

This he did

trade.

declined,

first

had a ship

father

his

called
this

Sumatra

'),

in

^)

kingdom was

forth his son Ali Juhari

in Pasc, but

when the market

out to send on a voyage

fitted

of enquiry as to where his son might find a fruitful

field for his enter-

The ship's company found out that the best plan was to make
young man a sugarcane planter in Keureutoe (Kerti). With this in

prises.

the

from Ahli, king of Keureutoe and

view they purchased land

When

sumptuous residence which was called Indra Siluka.


was fetched

Ali Juhari

all

built a

was ready,

thither.

Ra'na Jamin, the daughter of the sovereign of Keureutoe had woven


a

cloth

of which

the merchants had

all

to gain possession, for


in

country

Ali

learns

Juhari

of

in
this,

which

as to the

its

maker

meaning of

His wish

is

hearts of both.

in

and there

some day come

his arrival

the

opening the chest.

hoists

it

as a flag in

him through

to

in

curiosity

this decoration.

and

fulfilled,

The

will

On

lay.

it

and succeeds

carries off the cloth to Indra Siluka

the hope that

vain endeavoured

in

might only be purchased by him who should

opening the chest

succeed

He

it

now

till

in

twinkling Cupid welds together the

princess however

him that her hand has been

tells

promised by her father to Sulutan Suloyman (Suleiman) of Salbian. She


is

meanwhile ready

him each day

visit

On
but

to

live

in

at nightfall.

three successive evenings she

each

time

Allah

lays on

comes

him

to

him so deep

at

an appointed hour

a sleep that she

depart leaving a letter as token of her faith to the tryst.


lover on the third night cuts

open

his finger

becomes disheartened and discontinues her

visits.

i)

thus 'iJU3AM
2)

to drive

The name

of this country

is

sometimes written

to

The unhappy

he receives; the princess

Achehnese

tlius

i^ALi^-ii, sometimes

The holy Abdurra'uf speaks

Sumatra 'i^^.^*-M*~S
II

in

fain

sleeps notwithstanding and


last

wound

is

and rubs red pepper into

away slumber; yet he


cannot be awakened. The third letter is the

the

and to

a secret union with Ali Juhari

^ji.i>-

in

one of his Malay

treatises of the

Malay lan(;uage of

iCjiij'.

I30

AH

In deep distress

now sends

Juhari

and himself enters on a

talira

his

all

people back to Cham-

wanderings.

series of objectless

While thus engaged he meets

in

a garden in the midst of the wilder-

Amin, who imparts to him sundry useful


knowledge, gives him certain objects endowed with miraculous power
ness a

Dahet

hermit,

(JcJcK)

name

and changes

his

Resuming

his

to

Eseukanda (Achehnese form of Alexander) AH.

journey,

he has soon reason to be thankful

which enable him

charms,

make

to

Rimba on

the plain of Indra Chahya.

his

haunt from

forest

him with
was

his

told

him

girl

stones.

master

in

all

The

magic

he had slain at a punishment for pelting

Eseukanda

giant had discovered that


arts,

AH

they became friends, and the giant

Suloyman was on the eve of being

They then

consulted together as to

how

Eseukanda

AH

was to assume the form of the

by

the

girl

and pretend to have been carried

by a jen, but to have had the good luck


The strategem succeeds, and Eseukanda AH,

forest

has assumed,

only succeeds

not

Ubat who has

Siti

giant and thus disguised to go to her mistress the

Sami'un,

flower-seller

celebrated.

best to frustrate the marriage.

been

slain

just returned to

the latest news from Keureutoe, that the espousal of the

as

princess to

had

latter

Keureutoe, bringing with him from thence the

whom
When the

dead body of a

for these

a conquest of the giant Mala'oy

becomes her servant. Thus

in

meeting

off into the

to escape.
in

the female form he

his beloved, but actually

after secretly revealing to her his true shape,

he manages to escape with her upon the wedding-day.

Two
kanda
a

pahlawans (warriors) pursue him, but lose their senses by Eseu-

magic

All's

humorous

the

Through

vein, the lovers

barely succeeds

princess

honour; one

named

art.

number

of occurrences described in

become separated from one another, and


in

escaping from

two

assailants

of her

a Kringgi sweet meat-seller, the other a one-legged

is

man

Si Pantong.

Disguised as a

whose

of Tahtanun,

husband
Princess

for his
in

man

she finally finds a resting-place

king

Ahmat was

daughter Kcumala Hayati


horse-race,

Ra'na Jamin achieves

at
;

that

in

the

kingdom

very time seeking a

only he

who

could beat the

was esteemed worthy to obtain her hand.

this feat

and weds the princess, whereupon her

father-in-law hands over the throne to her.

woman
Oamar Az-zaman in

This assumption of government by a


with

again

in

the tale of

in disguise is to

the

be met

Thousand and One

'31

Nights, which has also been rendered into Achehnese and enjoys

popularity

The

').

sequel puts one in mind of the denouements of

much
many

of the Malay hikayats.

The "king" has


the

under

capital

court
there

a golden statue of himself placed at the entrance to


strict

guard and

with

instructions

such passers-by as are seen to gaze at

all

come

bring to the

to

with emotion. Thus

it

succession the Kringgi, Si Puntong (both of

in

thrown into prison) and Eseukanda

Ali,

whom

are

on whose arrival Ra'na Jamin

reveals her sex.

The wanderer, happy once more, marries both


and becomes king of Tahtanun. The Kringgi and

princesses together,

Puntong are

Si

set

at liberty.

When
for war,

but

take

his

to

tings spreads abroad,

Suldyman prepares

of course defeated, and Sulutan Ahli

who had pretended

rumour of these

the

is

now

marriage. All

Some time

after,

and leaving both

Hadan
in

through

part

soon reconciled to

is

his

daughter's

return to Keureutoe.

Eseukanda

Ali

reminded of

is

his father in a

wives behind starts off to pay him a

his

his relative

visit.

Raja

Suloyman. Eseukanda's two wives

king of Tahtanun

letters asking aid of the old

dream

make war on Keureutoe

of Hidian avails himself of his absence to

revenge for the death of

send

fear,

he comes, quickly

followed by Eseukanda Ali himself, who, informed by a dream of what


is

taking place, has hastened back again.

disturber of Eseukanda's happiness

Nun
Nun

is

By

their united forces this last

also overthrown.

Hikayat

Parisi (XVII).
Parisi

was the son of Raja Sarah, the

ruler of Chamtalira (a

corruption of Sumatra). His companions from early youth were Lidam,

son of a mantri or state

The poet

official,

and

"^Arian,

also brings on the scene three

son of a professional singer.

young

girls,

daughters of three

advisers of Raja Sarah, thus at once prefiguring the romance that


in store for

While the boys are playing one day, a golden panta

Nun

Parisi

finds

1)

See N".

The

XXXII

way

its

without his noticing

2)

lies

the three young men.

it.

He

into
finds

the
it

pocket of one
later on, but

of his

is

explained below chap.

belonging to

companions

keeps his discovery of

below.

nature of the boh panta

'-)

Ill,

I5

I.

132
the

toy concealed from shame, as there has been a long and

made

search
three

for

The matter

it.

gurus without

result,

but

the

in

end one of the three young

damsels solves the riddle to the satisfaction of


occurrence gives

concerned, and the

all

to the three betrothals to

rise

fruitless

enquired into by the king and his

is

which the reader has

been looking forward.

The

young men now declare

three

journey to pursue their studies; the

Dabiah are overcome by Nun

of going on a

intention

their

difficulties

suggested by the queen

bayeuen-bird.

Parisi's talking

They prooceed to Aseuhan, the territory of the powerful prince


Bahrun Diwa, who has married ninety-nine wives one after another and
beheld them

all

disappear

No

he has wedded them.

daughter

in

an inexplicable manner immediately after

in

king will any longer venture to give him his

marriage, so he remains childless and

the arrival of the three youths,

whom

thus overjoyed at

is

he adopts as his sons.

After taking counsel with them the king puts his fortune to the test

On

once more, and marries the daughter of a mantri.

the night of the

marriage the three students keep watch armed to the teeth and repeating
exorcising

causes

all

formulas

of

known

but the three young

efficacy.

men

storm arises which

violent

to swoon.

Under cover of the storm

comes the wicked naga (dragon) which has destroyed the happiness of
the king, but this time he

carry off the

is

by the young heroes before he can

slain

new queen, Sambang Deureuma Subra.

Their noble deed nearly cost them

tlieir

lives,

for the

young queen

accused them of attempts upon her honour. Bahrun Diwa had already
after taking counsel with the teacher

to death,

Banu

*^Ubat, resolved to put

when they camt before him and each

them

recited a talc the moral

of which was that hasty actions lead to repentance.

The king made

searching enquiry which established the innocence of the heroes, where-

upon he divorced

his

wife

and married Deulima Rawan, daughter of

the Raja of Langkat and had children

Some

of Aseuhan,

the

young men proceed

to study under the

her.

Keujruen had

great

become the

wedded

bliss of the

to the country of

Kabu

king

(Ciayo

?)

renowned teacher ^Urupiah.

Meantime mischief was brewing


had

by

years after they had thus secured the

Chamtalira.

The powerful wazir

influence over the king, and his son Sa'it Burian

special

Reusam, known from

in

his

favourite

immoral

of the queen. In
life

company with

as the 'gampong-dog', he

Si

abused

133
the royal favour to the utmost, forming an intrigue with the betrothed

Nun

of

which

Parisi,

however betrayed

was,

the

to

latter

by the

talking bird.

Nun

and

Parisi

returned

home

daughter

of

companions, after three years of study,

three

his

On

Chamtalira.

to

Raja

and

Bahrun,

way one

the

them wedded

of

prince escorted

that

them on

tiieir

homeward journey. Nun Parisi, who had received from his teacher the
name of Pareh Sulutan, wedded both his own betrothed and that of
his comrade who had married in Aseuhan. Sa'it Burian continued his
adulterous
better

of

with

intercourse

Pareh

Sulutan

the

bride,

and succeeded

gaming by the

in

talisman, which the false wife secretly

however, the prince got back

his

aid

conveyed

in

of the

getting the
latter's

own

to her lover. Later on,

magic mango-stone, and was invincible

as before.

series

resulted

the

at

of evil

deeds committed

last

open

hostility

Sa'it

Burian and Si Reusam

between the king and

his family

on

one hand and Keujruen Kandang on the other. They waged war

on one another

for

years with varying fortune.

six

Then

the talking

Tiu Wareuchit went to bear the news to the prince of Aseuhan

bird

and

in

by

his son-in-law

and

to implore their help.

A man of Aseuhan called Pareh Suri repairs to the camp of Keujruen


Kandang representing himself as a son of a relative of his, the king of
Bangka Ulu. He gains time by deceiving him as to the intentions of
the raja of Aseuhan, who in the meantime raises a large army and
goes to
Burian,

West

the

assistance

of the

father

of Pareh

Sulutan.

Finally Sa'it

his misdeeds, flies to Mcuruda and thence to the


The king of Chamtalira pardons Keujruen Kandang and
latter's nephew Matang Silanga alias Gajah Pungo (the

ashamed of

Coast.

appoints the

"Mad Elephant") to succeed him as wazir.


On Raja Sarah's death Pareh Sulutan succeeds him on the throne
and reigns in peace and prosperity; his playmate Lidam who marrietl
the

princess

country.

of Aseuhan,

The widow

succeeds

his

father-in-law

on a pilgrimage to Mekka, where she remains


Pareg Sulutan, or as he
with a son and

some

of Raja Sarah goes with

heir, to

was

whom

at

first

till

ruler

of that

followers of rank

her death.

Nun Parisi, is
name of Useuman

called,

he gives the

as

blessed
.Areh.

134

Bantu Beuransah (XVIII).

Hikayat
Banta
Beuransah.

Jamishah

king of Aramiah, had three sons; Banta Beusiah

'),

Keureutaih by his

He dreams

Banta Barausah or Beuransah

first,

Ruhon Apenlah

of a beautiful princess

by

'')

*)

and

^)

his

second wife.

who

possesses a

miraculous bird called Mala'on Dirin and dwells in the land of Gulita

Ebeuram, of which her father Male' Sarah is ruler, Jamishah sends his
three sons forth to seek this princess of his dream and her magic belongings.

whom

where three ways meet. Those

to a place

they question describe the two side roads as easy but leading

nowhere

middle one as fraught with danger but rich

particular, the

in

The two

promise.

in

come

sons

Presently the

eldest choose each one of the easy paths, while

Beuransah defies the

middle one, keeping

of the

difficulties

his eyes

fixed on the future.

elder brothers are soon reduced to beggary; one

The two

the hands of gamblers, the other

Banta Beuransah
strange things

explained

all

him by an

to

beginning of

his

man

(holy

e'elia

of

all

or saint).

He

the other two

full

which

an unborn goat

which there

men

its

mother's

whence

issues to

in

gradually increases in size until

to, in

it

is

who when they

rying loads of wood,

on adding

it,

on

later

full

as being the
is

empty,

eagerly employed in collecting wood-shavings,


bleats

a small hole,

is

is

sees a tree

three barrels of water the middle one of which

many

journey encounters

of which have a symbolic meaning, which

each one of which beseeches him to pluck

of fruits
best

the

at

into

falls

despoiled by thieves.

is

place of lightening

buffalo fighting with one another;

womb;

view a mosquito which

as big as a
find their

a great tree in

mountain; people car-

burden too heavy, keep

two hind quarters of a slaughtered

it;

and a number of men gathering the

leaves of trees.

The
i)

who expounds

saint,

name

This

.^*..*.z>-

noticed, the bearer of this

In

various

the cheap

probably

catalogues

of

to

a corrupt form of

is

name has nothing


the Fathul Kareem

and popular works an Afghan


this

is

him the meaning of

to

Ax-Xs^:> Jamshid, but

these symbols,

as has

been ah'cady

do with the mythical king of the Persians.

Press at

Jt^

all

s^-**-

Bombay

''^S

there

is

to

be found among

(Kesah or story of Shah Bahram);

one of the popular Indian legends whence the Achehnese one

is

directly

or indirectly borrowed.

3)

From Bahrfimshah; very

meaning of Hanta
4)

_^iiV _,,.

sec

Vol.

I,

often
p. 92.

written

\^A^,i^

thus

In stories

it

is

x^/i'^^j or the

like.

I'"or

the

generally used in the sense of "prince".

135

imparts to him at the same time

him

much

knowledge, and advises

useful

to pursue his journey towards the East.

On

the far side of a river which he crosses, he finds a deserted town,

where he makes the acquaintance of Ni Keumaya


gbgasi (g^rgasi), a giant of the

Fortunately the giant

is

the mother of a

'),

who devours both men and beasts.


moment out hunting, and Banta lieu-

forest,

at the

ransah wins the favour of his mother to such an extent that she hides

him, and after her son's return draws from the latter
that

the

giant

seven

cuts off the hairs


a

from

hairs

and gives them

is

head

will

provide an

to

this

feels

He makes

in the

to

charm

woman

his journey.

form of a

bird,

himself master of this soulj the

and hastens to the place where

his soul

kept, but

is

here slain by Beuransah. Beuransah leaves the princesses behind him

on the mountain, intending to fetch them away on

He now
had 98 of

attaches to himself a griirenda (garuda

his return journey.

= griffin)

which has

young devoured by a gluttonous naza; our hero

its

dragon and thus saves the


in

According

infallible

Beuransah who pursues

mountain he finds the soul of the gogasi

guarded by two princesses.


gogasi

his

dangers of the road. While the gogasi sleeps, the

the

against

On

the secret lore

all

likely to aid our traveller in attaining his object.

is

him

gratitude carries

from the land of his

last

two survivors of

its

safely over the sea of fire

vision,

and awaits

and her

which separates him

his further disposal.

Presently he arrives at the court of Gulita


session of both the princess

kills this

The geureuda

brood.

Ebeuram and

gains pos-

bird.

For the present he takes the bird only and journeys home, fetching
en passant the princesses

meets

his

presents but they,

a well.

moved by envy,

On

the giant's soul.


to poverty.

plot against

He

it

is

they

who have reached

drives

them

into

way he
rich

him

into

their father

and

him and

cast

the object of the quest, while

younger brother has disappeared. Soon however

science

his

them

gives

Then they take the bird and the princesses to

pretend that
their

who guarded

two brothers, now reduced

their evil con-

the forest, where they gradually grow hairy

like the beasts of the field.

Beuransah

is

discovered by a rich travelling merchant, delivered from

his perilous position

l)

and adopted

as a son. After the death of his benc-

Possibly a variant of the Malay Kdbayan; this old

nese tales as Ni

Kubayan

or simply

Keubayan.

woman

often rc-appears in Achch-

136

he inherits his wealth

factor

stomach

magic stone {tnalakat) whence

is

inckiding a bird called Blanta in whose

viceable

lords

the bird

by

of jens.

may

be raised seven

ser-

Jewish pandit endeavours to deprive him of

trickery but as this miscarries for the time being, he joins

Beuransah as a fellow-traveller. They go together to Gulita Ebeuram,

and Beuransah who enters the place

happy consort of the

the

vialakat in

The Jew, who has

established himself here as a teacher of magic art,

gaining possession of the malakat and causes Beu-

in

child

little

),

fish

fisherman,

this

Beuransah succeeds

by

has himself conveyed back to his wife

and

kindly-disposed

these

after

spirits

in

now in
who brings

he comes,

into the hands of a fisherman,

him up. By the help of a mouse, a cat and a dog,


to

soon

he succeeds by the aid of his

as

ransah to be cast into the sea. Swallowed by a


the likeness of a

is

her every wish.

fulfilling

succeeds at length

princess

meanest of beggars

as the

all

of which belong

recovering the malakat and

the seven lords of jens. There-

transport

the

whole family, palace

to Beuransah's native country.

all,

Here there takes place a general meeting and reconciliation

Beu-

ransah restores his bestialized brothers to their former state and gives

them

wife the princesses ^\ho guarded the giant's soul. This

to

form a very suitable ending to the story, and


fact

very

look

hand of
daughter

though the sequel was an addition from the

as

succeeds his father and

Ahmat
the

Sanggila,

Ruhoy Akeuba -) his brother Keureutaih has


^). The last is, by Beuransah's wish, to be given
;

way has
now

ruler of the aerial

and a

daughter

in

marriage

kingdom.

descends to the world beneath to carry off his bride, but on


to

do battle with sundry

Pari on the mountain of Indra,

but

begets a son,

A'la

Ahmat, son of Indrapatra, and

to

would

does as a matter of

later copyists.

Beuransah

Ruhoy

much

it

herself suffers the

of gogasis,

man and

Not long

after

who

same

evil

powers, such as the Putroe

has boiled 99 kings

fate at

Ahmat's hands;

in

her caldron

also a couple

wife.

all

these

difiiculties

have been overcome and the

marriage with the celestial prince has been concluded, the king of China

i)

just like

3) .i'^JI

Malein Diwa

c'r

in

Java: see p.

127.

^17
tries

kidnap Ik^uransah's wife and

to

carrying her

in

oft"

own kingdom

to his

chest

in a crystal

').

very proHx account of the war which Beuransah then wages against

China and from which he

at length returns

end of the tedious sequel of

composed with care and


scene

acquainted

victorious, forms the

hikayat the earlier part of which

this

West Coast
deeds.

Beuransah's

of

home

is

skill.

places on the

Certain
the

after a destructive war, succeeds

are indicated

the

In

edition

no such localization appears, except

by

oral tradition as

which

with

am

episode of the

in the

war waged by the king of China. His expedition by sea

is

described

The poet makes him touch successively at almost all the


harbours of the East, West and North Coasts of Acheh and its dependencies, and finally arrive in Aramiah "at the source of the river of
length.

at

Singke (Singkel)".

Malem Diwanda
The adventures
of Panjalarah,

Having won

Hikayat

(XIX).

Malem Diwanda', son

of

are

just

like

bless,

and has her trampled

by

(=

bidadarij

death

of Sulutan Roih

named Mande Rubiah

midst of the forest

who
M. Diwanda', mad

she bears a son

forth as a wanderer,

adventures. Not

him of

rob

to

till

Siti,

himself with her in

is

he finds her guilty of adultery

horses.
-)

restores

well-disposed biiliadari

her to

knowledge of Diwanda' and gives her a palace with


in the

^
(Sultan Rus)

overcoming many obstacles and

after

enjoyed a brief period of wedded


to

of the majority of hikayat heroes.

those

Chahya

his wife Siti

life

all

its

without the
accessories

here bring already with child by Diwanda''

named Malem

or Banta

')

Sidi.

with grief after the execution of the sentence goes

and

is

re-united to his wife and child after sundry

after a protracted conflict with

Raja Sara who

tries

does he possess her undisturbed; he establishes


the country of Shahkubat *) whom he succeeds on

the throne after his death.

Eager
thither.

i)

2)

who

to behold his native land

On

the

way he

once more, he sets out on a journey

cures of a sickness the princess Santan

Compare the episode in Malem Diwa, p. 127 above.


The same name is borne, in the story of Mal^m Diwa quoted
plays therein the part of Ni Keubayan.

3) See Vol.

4) See

I,

p. 92.

below N". XXVII.

above, by the

Meu-

woman

Malem
Diwanda'.

138

daughter of the

taupi,

For her sake

her.

king Raja Din, and afterwards marries

celestial

also he

is

obliged to wage war with a disappointed

He

lover, the prince Sa'ti Indra Suara.

him and takes possession

slays

of his country.

The son
avenge

of Sa'ti Indra Suara makes war upon

he too loses his

his father, but

Santan Meuteupi dies of a wound

by the son of

her

shot against

its

is

in

his eagerness for

most favourite passage,

draws tears from many an Achehnese audience. As she

recital

she

dies

by an arrow of Brahma

Indra Suara

vengeance. The description of her death

and

to

life.

inflicted

Sa'ti

Malem Diwanda'

Malem Diwanda'

advises

below and

to return to the world

warns him of a number of dangers which threaten him on the journey.

With

the

help of a

flying

garment and a vialakat or magic stone

given him by the dying princess, he overcomes

Mohammedan

a raja of

He

assists

daughter of this prince (who appears to be a vassal of

marries the

Shahkubat

all difficulties.

jens of the sea to conquer his infidel kindred,

and begets by her a son, Indra Peukasa, who reigns

')

in

his grandfather's stead.

Malem Diwanda'
him and

between

Mo'min. But

hand

his

vain

in

to

and brings about a marriage

son

his

princess

Julusoy

daughter of

Asikin,

Abdoy

enemy Raja Sara had already sought this lady's


son, and now casts about for some means of
wedded happiness.
old

for

disturbing Sidi's

returns

the

his

After the honeymoon, Banta Sidi went on a journey as a merchant

and arrived

due time at an island ruled by the giant Jen Indra Diu

in

Keureuma, a man-eater having the shape of a


wife

of this

Djen Indra
service

to

who had

in

saved the

life

of Sidi by a stratagem, and caused

his

child.

Sidi in his struggle with

the

of a dancing

meantime succeeded

girl,

had poisoned

adulterous intercourse

in

description of the war

Banta
in

Sa'ti,

entering his palace in the guise

and was now

Sidi with the help of his

dream of

living

day and resolves

adopted

his wife's treachery.

to put his faithless spouse

to death, just as his father did before with Siti

See below N. XXVII.

the son of Raja Sara,

with Julusoy Asikin. Here follows a tedious

waged by Banta

In the end he gains the

This friendship was of great

his parents-in-law

father after he has been told in a

I)

Nahya, the

adopt him as

giant,
to

horse. Ibu

Chahya. Diu Keureuma,

139
the

of the

prince

before him

t,nant.s,

an image

however so benevolent

is

which resembles

shadow undergoes the death sentence


makes acquaintance with

name

the

marriage

in

as

charm up

to

respects. This

all

and when afterwards Banta Sidi

young widow of royal

lineage under

of Keumalahari and espouses her, he never suspects that this


is

no more than a re-union with

Diu Ka'indran

a beautiful

wife

his

his

now repentant

wife.

son,

born to them.

is

dream leads Banta

Sidi

to

go and

his

visit

father,

and

all

his

household accompanies him. Finally Malem Uiwanda' vacates the throne


in his favour,

while his son Diu Ka'indran becomes the successor of the

man-eater Diu Keureuma.

Gajah tujoh

ule'e

(XX).

Hikayat

In this story of the "seven-headed elephant"

To Suloyman, Raja

of

of Teuleukin,

it

is

Sa'doymanan, son

that wins his four princesses in

succession.

The
is

of these fair ladies is made known to him in


Meureudum Bunga and owing to a careless vow

first

called

a dream.

She

of her father*

Sulutan Sab, she has to be sacrificed to a seven-headed elephant, which

roams sohtary
her

After

Sa'doymanan
through

the

is

once

among

Seated

in the forest.

deliverer.

protracted

killed,

benevolence

of

these seven heads she awaits

combat,

but having been

an

pair

ascetic

course

the

in

restored

to

of ciingkbngs

of

which

life

again

(cocoanut

monkeys) the prince slays the elephant.


But then

hands and

his
feet,

thereby to win

own pahlawan

plays him false; having cut

he bears to his father the tale that he


for himself the princess'

oft"

is

his master's

dead, hoping

hand.

Sa'doy, however, recovers his hands and feet through the aid of the

eungkongs and marries the

celestial

[adara] princess

Meulu China. The

king of China comes with a great army to take the princess from him,

but Sa'doy and his

allies

entirely frustrate his designs.

daughter of the king of China

and takes the third place

By

in

is

Habib Nada the

the sole survivor of her father's defeat,

Sa'doy's affections.

the aid of the aged Ni, a lonely widow, the prince on returning

to his native land, recovers his first love.

After

all

these

adventures Sa'doy completes the tale of four by a

marriage with princess Maloyri. Finally the poet makes these princesses
entertain their lord with five witty tales.

"''^

^j^^

140
Hikayat

gumba'
^j""

;|
Mcuih.

Guinbo' Meu'ik (XXI)

Gumba
rules

Meiiih (goldenhead)

country of Gulitan Sagob

the

in

Achehnese). His
other

the daughter of king Hamsoykasa,

is

Sumatra, according to the

two wives gave him no children; the third on the

first

woman

hand, a

(in

who

humble

of

origin, after

12

months of pregnancy

gave birth on one and the same day to ninety-nine boys and one

whose
envy,

was of pure gold and diamonds. The barren wives,

hair

had

these

all

thrown into the water

children

then exhibited to their spouse

was born of

their

girl

full

in a chest.

of

They

manner of ordure as being that which

all

and so worked on him that he had her im-

rival,

prisoned as a witch.

The hundred children fell into the hands of a pair o{ gbgasi (gergasi),
man and wife, who tended and brought them up. Goldenhead is subsequently enlightened by a celestial bird as to the true descent of
and her brothers, and

herself

succeed

who thereupon

reaching their father,

in

an adventurous journey she and they

after

consort to

Goldenhead, long urged


celestial {adara)

vain

in

to

marry,

has

tormented by Bangguna's

married

by

sister

by her ninety-nine

In

at

length in the

to

the aerial realm, but

and the second wife

this sister's advice. In the

ones are unmasked.

finds

Bangguna the man whose piety makes him

prince Lila

worthy of her hand. With him she goes


there

restores his imprisoned

honour and banishes the other two.

he

end however these envious

her conflict with them Goldenhead

She returns with her husband

brothers.

whom

is

is

assisted

to the world

below, and the latter succeeds his step-father on the throne.

The wedded happiness


Achehnese hikayats

Bangguna

is

of this

heroine,

as

of so

many

by the king of China

assailed

'),

others

whom

in

Lila

defeats after a protracted struggle.

The son whom Goldenhead in due time brings into the world is
called Mira' Diwangga. He marries a princess from the kingdom of
Atrah (the territory of Shah Kubat see N, XXVII) named Cheureupu
;

Intan

(Diamond

marriage

The
fulfilled

i)

who

In

is

Sandal);

conveyed to and

hostile role played


in

the

case

fro

results

by a well-disposed bayeuen

in

this

bird.

of her daughter-in-law by the raja of Siam,

most prominent part

of liumpi'eng Bctisoe.

which

by the king of China against Goldenhead

this hikayat, as also in that of

plays a

correspondence

the

in

is

who

Banta Bcuiansah, the king of China has a brother

the conflict

and bears the genuinely Achehnese name

141

meets with the same


with

ninety-nine brothers and

son.

Of the marriage of Mira' Diwangga

who

Intan,

Cham Nadmian (XXII).


Cham Nadiman ^),

the son of

way in
miraculous goat Krukha. Coming
e.

He

China.

in

tells

Meunua Jho

king of Irandamin

''),

a deserted palace he there finds

to

him that the

beautiful princess Paridoh awaits

journeys thither; on the way he slays the man-eater

Madon-dangki and becomes king of Kawadamin

Si

')

the chase while vainly pursuing the

Iran zemin), loses his

an inscription which

him

born a daughter, Genggong

is

marries prince Kaharolah of Silan (Ceylon).

Prince
(i.

king of Atrah

Goldenhead and her husband,

vassals tenders his help to

his

all

ill-success as his predecessor, for the

(a

corruption of

Chwarizm), whose sovereign has just died.


Further on
Paridat

his

journey he conquers a magic stronghold

the sister of Pridoh

*),

'"')

in

which

imprisoned, and brings her back to

is

her father the king of China.

Here he

at first received with

is

way
Cham Nadiman
forced his

open arms, but afterwards, having

into Paridoh's villa, he


is

released

by

is

imprisoned by his royal host.

named Kamarah who has conceived

a lady

a passion for him, but his intrigue with her causes him to forfeit Pari-

doh's favour for a time. Yet soon

Paridoh follows him on

after,

Brahman's

cell

last

their
2)

Genggong

is

the

name

is

made of

of a plaything

-3^

jj

**

the

name

new

his

till

at

betrothal takes

this courtier,

iron used

and Paridat,

curious proper

4) Pers. Parlzad.
5) I'ers. Paridocht.

Fathul Kareem Press at

name formed from

by children. They place

lips over
1

'^'^

of Rustam's father.

the

it

in

it.

name

is

The

talc

really

an incorrect

of which a resume-

we find among the popular Urdu


Bombay a book entitled Q^yJ^ t*^*'

also probably of Indian origin, for

in the catalogues of the

3)

dead. In the wazir's house a

him

the house of a wazir and announces to

mouths and produce a musical note by drawing the


Sometimes pronounced .Sam Nadiman i^.P f-'*'

here given

restores

occasional visits to her sister Paridoh.

reading of the Persian


is

in

between Kamareutaih the son of

place, to wit

who pays

is

Cham Nadiman

maintaining his intercourse with her

in

king shuts her up

the world that she

i)

of the king of China

but succeeds

the

in

and wed one another.

At the demand
daughter,

new

his

series of wanderings; they live together for some time concealed

literature

^^^

Malay K'nmi Johor "the country of Johor".

142

Cham Nadiman and Kamareutaih have no


loves
his

after a

till

life.

Finally

peaceful enjoyment of their

which the

war with

their father-in-law, in

they

go away to Irandamin, the country of the

all

latter loses

hero's birth.

Hikayat

Amat

Baiita AJunat or

Banta

Ahmat came

(XXIII).

into the world shortly after the death of his father

He began

Ansari, king of the country of Nabati.


for his uncle

the

deep poverty,

his life in

Tapeuhi kept the whole inheritance

for himself leaving to

Rila and her son nothing but the house they lived in and

widow

an old broken parang or chopping-knife.

When Ahmat grew up


but the

rice

he planted

him how

rears, teaches

off

by

and Ahmat weds

floods the

time and

first

young dragon, which

to catch this bird; after

some time the

to be a princess in disguise, Putroe Indra or Rihan,

bayeuen turns out

By

was carried

devoured by a bayeuen-bird.

each later crop

Ahmat

he went and cleared forest with this parang,

her.

degrees the dragon becomes too big for the river in which

had placed

Ahmat

it,

and desires once more to behold

accompanies

it

on

this

Ahmat
Armed

parents in the sea.

its

journey during which there

of adventurous rencontres and fighting.

Ahmat

The parents

is

no lack

of his "naga" give

sundry instructions and the requisite magic charms [malakat).


with these he returns to his mother and then sets

off"

disguised

as a beggar for his father's kingdom.

On

the

way he

to the princess

Ahmat

till

The

has

infidel

finds the opportinity of

Chahya

in Iran

Supah. The marriage

made war upon and


[kaplie)

becoming secretly betrothed


is

not consummated

defeated his godless uncle Tapeuhi.

king of Pira'

in

vain

endeavours to wrest the

beauteous Chahya from her husband. Ahmat's elder wife presents him
with a successor to the throne,

Hikayat

who

is

called Lila

Kaha.

Putroc Bar en (XXIV).

Banta Sulutan

is

the son, and Putroe Baren (Bahren) Miga the daughter

of Raja Baren Nasi, king of Boreudat (Baghdad).

At

his

sister's

request

Banta goes forth to wrest from

the

guardian jens a silver tree which she wants to use

While

this palace

is

being erected, the king of

off the beautiful princess.

He

is

in

its

four

building a palace.

Yaman comes

to carry

however driven back by the Banta who

143

Yaman and

pursues him to

Peutroe

converts

mother died during a period of

Baren's

which she had imposed upon

[tapa],

people of that country to Islam.

tlie

made

previous existence before her birth had

religious seclusion

The daughter, who

herself.

in

a study of sacred thin<Ts

wished to accompany her mother to the tomb, but the

latter assured

her that before she died she must live through nine great events.

These events are then

They resemble in essentials the adManikam in the Malay tale of this name

detailed.

ventures of the chaste Johar

').

Thus Putroe Baren, while her


seduced by the
to

again

life

father

and afterwards

kali

by Jebrai

(Gabriel)

is

killed

on a pilgrimage to Mecca,

by her

She

(or

forest

where she

Sham) and becomes

again seduced on her journey over the sea by a nieun-

is

and

(mantri);

trb'e

brother, but restored

and brought to a

makes acquaintance with king Abdolah of Cham


his wife.

is

subsequently troubled

is

with the

attentions of a

jen pari and

of an Abeusi -). Finally she assumes male shape and


becomes Raja muda of Meulabari (Malabar). Thence she journeys to
Mecca where the happy reunion of the chief characters of the story

and

its

denouement take

place.

Banta All or Banta Peiirendan (XXV).


This

Banta

tale

At

celebrates

false

predictions

him that

adventures of Banta Peureudan, son of


'').

the age of seven Peureudan and his younger sister Bungsu Juhari,

taken into the

are

the

king of Boytay Jami

Ali,

evil

hermit

forest

by

their

father,

who has given ear to the


who had announced to

of certain wicked soothsayers

would

result

in the forest

from their presence

adopts the

girl

in

the palace.

and brings her up, and imparts

Peureudan divers hidden knowledge. The two children

to

prince

named Maharaja Sinha and

formed by the magic

skill

the

as well as a

wazir of the latter are trans-

of their teacher into a kind of ape [himbec).

In this shape Peureudan gains sovereignty over the beasts of the forest.

Peureudan then goes forth to win the lovely princess Sahbantii


1)

Published by Dr

modernes^ Keiden 1883,


2) Abyssinian,
(

"*),

de Hollander, Breda, 1845. Compare also Spitta-lJey's Contes ttrabes


p.

applied

VI "Story of the virtuous maid".


Acheh to all persons of negro blood,

80, N".
in

like habshi in

Malay.

Translator).
3)

^y-fc.*-i>-

o^'

It

4) Sometimes written
the

name

of a well

also pronounced Boy Ion Jami.


Nakeusoy Keubandi, which appears

is

known

mystic order.

to

be formed from Naqshibandi,

144

daughter of king Kisoy Kaseumi,

whose hand there are already

for

ninety-nine suitors, and whose six elder sisters are

He makes war upon


him

whom

her father,

his daughter's hand.

His father-in-law while lying on his death-bed


for

married to kings.

all

he defeats and compels to give

horns, which roams the depths of the forest.

deer with golden

The seven

seized with a desire

is

sons-in-law seek for

each

it,

his

in

own way. By the help


The other

of his old teacher, Peureudan gains possession of the deer.


six

meet him

wish,

the

in

more assumed

his

without recognizing him, as he has once

forest

human

and he gives them what

exchange

for

fact

in

is

his help to

fulfil

their father's

a duplicate of his deer, in

which they are obliged to declare themselves

and as token thereof he

for

its

putrefying

his slaves

their thighs.

on the way home, hunger compelled

to slaughter the animal, and

a fragment of

upon

sets his seal

Their joy was shortlived

them

They ask

form.

all

they could

flesh.

Peureudan having reverted to the form of an ape brings

home

in

safety,

which

is

in

successor of his dying father.

was

offer their father

itself

He now

finally

assumes

and thus shows his astonished brethren-in-law that

as

the

human form

his

he whose slaves

is

it

deer

his

him

indicate

to

sufficient

they have become. Thereupon they leave the country to seek for

allies

and gain a knowledge of magic.


After the old kings death Peureudan,
fetches

his

Kachah

')

sister

who succeeds him on

from the forest and gives her

Peureudan, son of the king of

marriage to prince

in

Tambon

the throne,

Parisi,

and appoints

his son-in-law his chief minister of state.

The six brethren-in-law, supported by ninety-nine


make war on Peureudan, but suffer a defeat.
Banta Ali and

At

have been

all

they go forth to seek for their

last

Daroy

his wife

Aman

as that land

this

sister

dies.

bears

lost children,

and

find

was called of which Peureudan's


his children

Banta Peureudan begets a son, Chambo

daughter;

these

cousins

allies,

time pursued by misfortune.

once was king. After living here happily with

Banta Ali

princes as

them

in

father- in-law
for a time,

Ali,

and

his

are eventually married to one

another.

i)

Sometimes written O'-ilo

pronouncing

v^JUili

sometimes *~^li, the

latter

being

tiie

Aehelinese

way of

H5

My

drawn by Dr. Brandes

attention has been

to the fact that

some of

the special features of this story reappear in popular tales of Hindustan.

appears as an ape

and a

Ape we

of Prince

the story

In

star on

constrained to

and

his
let

find a beautiful

in that of the

Boy

we meet with

chin,

zvith

a moon on his forehead

in

arc

lover of

the collection of

').

similar story of branding

Fourberies de Si Jeh'a",

to be

is

Bangsawan (XXVI) and another


"les

who

by the

in the forest

one of the seven princesses. Both these appear

Maive Stokes

originally

brethren-in-Iaw

six

themselves be branded

who

prince,

met with

in the Contes

Hikayat Indra

in the

Kabyles of A. Moulieras,

152 et seq. (N" L).

p.

Indra Bangsawan (XXVI).


This story

is

Iiikayat

same name, of which there are three copies


Berlin

among

respect

In

^).

Malay one of the

a fairly faithful reproduction of the

both

of

and subject

style

its

at Batavia
it

and one

^)

may

at

be classed

the more entertaining kind of native fiction.

Indra Bungsu

king of Chahrilah after praying and waiting

The

begets twin sons.

for years, at last

for issue

born Chahpari comes into

first

the world with an arrow, the second, Indra Bangsawan, with a sword.

The

question

which of the two

is,

Crown Prince? The

to be the

is

king dreams of a magic musical instrument [buloh mcnrindn) and decides

two procures him

that whichever of the

throne

succeed him on the

shall

this,

*).

The brothers go on

their

travels

together,

but are soon separated

by a storm.
Chahpari comes to a city whose inhabitants have

1)

See

Hague

in

39 vv. and
1881 under the

124 vv.

pp.

name

also Spitta Bey's Contes arahcs

of the

Dutch

all

been eaten up

which was published

translation

of Indhchc Sprookjcs by the Urolhcrs van Cleef.

modoncs^ Leiden, 1883,

p.

153

et

at

the

Compare

seq. N". Xll, Ilistoirc

du

prince et de son cheval.

Nos 160

2)

there

30)

is

162

of the collection of

no account of

Von de Wall; but in Van den Bergs Vers/ng (p.


Van den Berg himself appears not to have exa-

their contents.

mined the manuscripts; otherwise how could


of
of

it

have escaped his notice that

folios

39

45

Jumjum? A lithographed edition of the Malay version


Indra Bangsawan was published in the month of Muharram A. II, 1310 liy Ilaji Muh.an

161 contain the Iiikayat Raja

mad Tayib

Singapore.

at

3)

Konigl

4)

These circumstances reappear

Bibliothck, Collection

which appears
paper of Dr.
II

as

II.

n**

57

of the

N. van der Tuuk

Schumann. V,
to

some extent

Raffles
in

21.
in the

Collection

Essays

of

relat'nii; to

Malay

the

tale called

Indra Kajangan,

Royal Asiatic Society. Sec the

hulo-Chiiin^ Second Scries,

10

11, p.

36.

Indra Bangsawan.

14^

who has escaped


honour who have concealed

a gcureuda (griffin) with the exception of a princess

by

by hiding

in a

drum, and her eight maids of

He

themselves in a box.

slays the geureuda

Indra Bangsawan meets

who

and weds the princess

in the forest a well

rd sasa

disposed

(giant)

him of princess Sangirah daughter of king Gumbiran.

tells

').

monster called Bura'sa with seven eyes and noses demands her, and
her father sees no
her suitors

to

of avoiding the difficulty other than to propose

way

princes up

(nine

then) as the condition for aspiring

till

him

to her hand, that they should bring

The

ra'sasa

Beura'sa's eyes and noses.

Indra Bangsawan a charm which enables him to

gives

change to any shape he pleases; whereupon he makes himself into a


mannikin with a mangy

forest

little

Raja Gumbiran
The king gives
receives the name

to

skin,

and goes to

offer his services

^).

the

little

fellow as a plaything to his daughter.

Uneun

of Si

^)

He

and the princess gives him a pair of

goats to look after. Soon, in spite of his ludicrous exterior he wins her
favour and

She

tells

from her the new name of

receives

him her

and how

story,

books that one Indra Bangsawan

The

Gamba

Si

(Gambar).

has been revealed to her from

it

destined to be her deliverer.

is

princess gets a disease of the eyes, which the physicians declare

can only be cured by the application of tigress's milk. Indra Bangsawan


procures this from
this

milk,

his

in return

themselves as his slaves.

Maimed by
goat's

The

and Indra Bangsawan,

them goat's-milk

giving

ra'sasa.

the

nine

also

go

in quest of

them by

his true form, deceives

in

for

princes

which they are obliged to brand

*)

branding the

nine

return to the palace with their

milk and arc there put to shame by Si Gamba, whose tigress's

milk w^orks the cure.

i)

These towns devastated by geuvcudas appear

Ilikayat
2)

Malcm

We

are

in

many

liikayats; see for

example the

Divva p. 127 above.

reminded of the story of Banyakchatra prince of Pajajaran, who gained admiswhom he was in love, in the form of

sion to the presence of the princess Chiptarasa, with

an ape and under the name of Lutung KCsarung. This story appears

e.

g.

J. Knebel, Patavia 1898, pp 61 et seq. [Liittiug or hito/ig


large black monkey common in Malaya. Translator?^

translated

by

3) This form
"to the right".

4)

noted

In
in

the

is

derived from the more characteristic Malay

story of Panta Ali

Pcurcudan

(XXV) we

name

in P.abad Pasir,
is

Si Utan.

the

name

Uneun means

find a like occurrence, while, as

connection with that story, the incident of branding recurs

of a

wc

in Indian children's talcs.

'47

The

princess

now borne

is

off

his stronghold in vain, but Indra

of his

succeeds in

ra'sasa,

Gumbiran the wished

by

members.

fourteen

Gamba, Indra Bangsawan espouses the

The

nine

nine suitors besiege

the monster, and handing over to

slaying

for

The

Bura'sa.

Bangsawan, thanks to the instructions

Still

the form of Si

in

princess.

now make war on Gumbiran,

but Indra Bangsawan

his

in

princely shape turns the tide of battle, and the princess finally succeeds in

The marriage ceremony is repeated


and Indra Bangsawan acts as regent in his step-

removing the roughness of

much

with

kingdom.

father's

By

display,

the

help

ra'sasa's

brother

his

his skin.

him

finds

he obtains possession of the

and they go

out,

Bangsawan

joyfully recognizes Indra

inkayat

The adventurous expeditions


because this young hero

heavy tribute which


Atrah

'),

father

his

of

Chah Kubat were

could

originally under- Kubat.

endure the ignominy of a

not

Chah Peurasat Indra La'sana, king

of

had yearly to pay to Blia Indra, king of the apes.

Chah Kubat belonged by


grandfather Beureuma Sa'ti

the latter died

it

origin

still

made war

grandfather had

When

who

as his successor.

Knbat (XXVII).

C/ia/i

taken

mcurindu

biiloJi

together to their father,

realm of Indra where his

the

to

occupied the throne. In olden days this

against Blia Dikra, the father of Blia Indra.

was only due to the friendly mediation of the

prophet Suloyman (Salomon) that the kingdom of the apes was not
entirely

bow

laid

waste.

But Chah Kubat's father had been compelled to

before the king of the apes

who had

at his

command whole

armies

of wild beasts.

Chah Kubat was urged

who appeared
his

he

first

in a

all

By

lands.

man

the

aid

of

in

Arab

dress

at great length
his

grandfather

manner of supernatural

all

his

incidents arc his complete conquest of the

union

before

this

tlifticul-

Arab.

Atraf

mountain Kah (Arab.

"extremities."
Qiif)

kingdom

of apes,

war with the two princesses Jamani Ra'na

Diwi and Suganda Kumala. After the

i)

dream. The poet describes

he overcomes

visits,

by

and dangers.

The main
and

him

journeyings throughout

whom
ties

to

to his undertaking

According

to

and marched with the

war

is

over he gradually

our hii<ayat this country lay close


territory of the jcns.

fills

to

ilie

148

up the

by the addition of the

of four

tale

princesses

Chahya Hirani

and Keumala Deurcuja.


This hikayat appears to have been composed after a Malay original

may

as

deduced from the short abstract of the contents of the

be

Malay romance of the same name by Ur. H. N. van der Tuuk

').

Indrapatra (XXVIII).
This romance

very free imitation of

is

its

Malay namesake.

In

^)

most of the proper names of the Malay hikayat recur, as do also

it

various

actual

of the

features

story,

but the bulk of the narrative

is

entirely different.

of the celestial prince Bakrama, urged

son

Indrapatra,

Prince

dream, undertakes a wandering journey through the world. His


of importance

place

halting

charmed pond

is

naga with a diamond flower on


by Ni Kubayan (elsewhere Ni Keubayan
with a palace

destined to

is

in

The

monsters.

which

from the naga, but ninety-nine princes who


this quest

have paid

for

it

with their

the princess and becomes king

lives.

by various

Jamjama Ra'na Diwi,

him who succeeds

wife of

is

a garden watched

is

the portrait of a princess guarded

is

first

see p. 135 above), together

original of this portrait, the princess

become the

which there

in

head; close by

its

by a

taking the flower

in

have hitherto undertaken

Indrapatra succeeds, marries

her father's stead.

in

His subsequent wanderings form a concatenation of marvellous adventures,

which the author or compiler uses to

illustrate

the boundless

power of God.

One

of his

deeds

latest

is

the restoration to

life

of a prince, who,

enticed by the bayeucn bird of princess Chandralila to go and

her

hand

in

had

marriage,

met

his

death on the

stair of

demand

her palace

through want of magic power.

Hikayat
^"^"
'

sarlh

Diiua

Saiigsar/'/i

I'rincc

i)

Sec

(XXIX).

Diwa Sangsareh was the son of the king of Meuse, Uscuman

his

epitome of the

Royal Asiatic Society's Mss. (n 31)


II, p. 22
3 (London, 1887).

2)

Copies of

rclalhig to

this

are

Indo-Chiua^

to

Series,

Vol.

II,

p.

10);

N"*

9, 37,

1690 and 1933 (Catalogue of Dr. II. II. Juynboll, pp. 121
of the Catalogue of Mr. \^an den Berg (p. 31), and at Berlin
of the Ilof-liibliothek, V,

9.

"Essays

rclat'tiii^

to

be found in the Mss. of the Royal Asiatic Society (see Essays

Second

N"''

in

Indo Cfiina^\ Second Series, Vol.

55; at Leiden library


at Batavia in n 168

125);
in the

Schumann

collection

149

Sarch

'),

and was born

same

the

at

instant as Aminolali, the son of

the wazir of that country.


In his father's palace was a portrait of the celestial princess Badi'oy

Jami of the land of Iram. The prince was so smitten with


that he coukl not rest
doinij

in

after

lie

till

the

kindness,

on

which

yet

way and

his

Even
his

threaten

his

conflicts

whom

all

manner of

he

spirits of

meets with

he seeks. She helps Sangsareh

afterwards becomes the wife of his follower Aminolah.

has

princess

difficulties

come down

and

arise,

the

for

it

moment
to

him

attained his object and


Silan (Ceylon) sundry

in

only by the help of her father,

is

Bimaran Indra, that he succeeds

Sa'it

subduing the hostile milons once

in

all.

In the end the two brave wayfarers are happily

wedded and

where Sangsareh now mounts the throne of

Meuse,

to

with

Occasionally too

life.

not she for

is

Sangsareh has

after

celestial

for

fierce

Hanuman, who introduces him to the king


Nuroy Asikin who slightly resembles

as in the case of

portrait,

new

after

is

apes, and of the princess

of the

the

This he succeeds

such as geureudas, nagas, milons and other

monsters,

forest,

original.

journey throughout the world, on which he

lonij

attended by Aminolah, and


fabled

had found the

charms

its

his

return

forefathers

under the name of Sulutan Alam Chahya Nurolah.


"ikayat
Chintabuhan,

Chintabuhan (XXX).

Chintabuhan

is

the Malay

romance corresponds

poem
In

or

Tabuhan

main with Klinkert's edition

in the

tlie

-)

Achchnese

of the

Malay

of that name.

the

Achehnese hikayat the

and she

Puri

not borne

is

Malay

the

in

Ken Tambuhan

tale,

but

away

carried

called

Tanjong

by supernatural

force as

princess's country

to the forest
off

is

by Radcn Meuntroc's own

father

who makes war on her sire for refusing to pay him tribute.
The Achehnese composer has also given to the whole a slightly
Mohammadan tinge. The diwas, it is true, play a weighty part and
work

all

manner

them

so

to

do

of marvels, but not

and people

in

till

Allah has expressly charged

distress invoke the aid, not of the all-

administering diwas, but of the almighty Creator.


1)

The

written forms of tlicse names, which arc here i^ivcn accordinj^ to their Achehnese

pronunciation, are \^ijii


2)

i"^,

.*a/ (I'-Rypt)

and

\.fi^.y^

Dric Maleischc gcdkhlen ("Three Malay poems")

qU.aC

l,ei<lcn

18S6, pp.

151.

I50

Plhiggam (XXXI).

Dili

Ilikayat

This knight-errant was the younger of two sons

'

cam'"^"

Hina bore

to

Muda

Raja

dishke cherished

against

to

His mother owed her name to the

Sa'ti.

by the

life

celestial princess

Plinggam whilst the

Indra also

the conclusion
I

shall

fill

only mention

in

that

Diu

rings with

he awoke, he beheld the prin-

and

in the air,

it

The journcyings

was

this that first

Diu Plinggam

weds her

carries

after

off

gave

Budiman

of his brother

As however

the only copy of the story which

Indra Kayangan and

called

pregnancy,

Siton Glima.

a considerable portion of the hikayat.

missing

is

When

latter slept.

the impetus to his wanderings.


Sa'ti

six during her first

nymph

celestial

named Putroe Nilawanti changed

hovering over his head

cess

Putroe

his wife

her by her six fellow consorts. Putroe Hina

was actually put to death by the other


but was restored

whom

possess,

another princess

overcoming her father

in

battle.

-Ilikayat

Kamarodaman.

Kamarodanian (XXXII).

Kamarodaman we have the Achehnese rendering of


'). The composer has not followed
very closely. He has added many incidents of the kind

hikayat

the

In

one of the Thousand and One Nights.


his

original

which Achehnese audiences usually expect to meet

many

others and altered nearly

all

the

names except those of the hero

(Arab. Qamar-az-zaman) and the heroine


I

Badu (Arab. Badur)

have only been able to obtain an incomplete copy,

narrative

breaks off after the

marriage

of Badu,

dress and was exalted to the throne under the

The

story

closely in

We

up

to

point,

this

all essentials,

should

not

that

name

i)

In

the

tale

in

Thus

who adopted male


of Raja Muda Do.

we may

safely

assume the sequel does so

too.

Achehnese who know enough Arabic

who never

to

translate

this description.

One Nights of A. II. 1297 wc find


568 et seq. There was also a separate lithographed edition of the
Cairo in A. II. 1299.

Cairene edition of the the Tlnmsaiul and


Vol.

story published at
2)

-).

which the

however, follows the Arabic version so

read the language are the pandits and theologians,

this

in

be surprised to find that this story was taken from

a INIalay version, for the only

romances of

omitted

in hikayats,

the

I,

p.

country

Muhamat Saman, while

of
in

Kamarodaman

is

called

place of the land of

Koseutantiniah, the

brother of

Abanus we here have Baghdad,

etc.

ISadu

Mendeuha' (XXXIII).

The

l,ik,y^.

history of Meudcuha', the keen wittcd and just,

collection of choice anecdotes than a romance.

especially their chiefs, regard


It

it

ciation

Wall.

The Achehnese, and

as a short epitome of

all

there are two copies in the collection of the Batavian Asso-

and of which a portion has been published by A. F. Von de


are changed to some extent
that of the

')

The names only

leading

statesmanship.

Malay story of Mashudu'1-haqq,

a fairly faithful rendering of the

is

of which

more

really

is

composer has

we see, abbreviated
omitted some anecdotes, but has on

character

as

is,

and the Achehnese


the other hand added

a few trifles to the original.

Meudeuha' grows up under the protection of


and wealthy man, whose

a wise

residence

of the king Wadihirah.

so

much knowledge and

all

manner of disputes;

of his infallible

royal

problems
false

for

wisdom reach

king,

tlie

all

who would

once

at

had not the

at the court,

they persecute him with cunning

and

artifices

but he, supported by the wisdom of his wife Putroe

Chindu Kascumi, the daughter of the Brahman Uiu


to

Manual of

rival.

solution,

accusations

"Practical

moved by envy, done their best to hinder the


They lay before him numberless riddles and

"teachers",

promotion of their

his

66 83.

have given Meudeuha' a position of honour


four

youth he displays

called in as arbitrator in

is

Reader of

in the

the Achehnese language", pp.

Rumours

Sa'ti,

not far from Watu, the

lies

in his early

cleverness that he

Buka

see for instance the "three sentences of Meudeuha'"

by Van Langen

published

village

Even

his father

and catches

his

persecutors

in

the

nets

Sa'ti, rises

superior

they themselves

that

have spread.
Finally

he

is

succeed

in

tion

Meudeuha'

is

made supreme

exposed to the assaults of


doing

is

to thrust on

judge.

Even

in

this

high posi-

his crafty enemies, but all

they

him the conduct of a war which

Jiran

king of Panjalarah levies against the

ruler

of

Watu and

hundred

other princes.

Both

in

actual

Jiran's teacher,

1)

No

180 and

strategic

art

and

in

his interview

and dispute with

Brahman Kayuti, Meudeuha' continues

i8i

in

ihc collection of

II.

Von dc Wall;

show himself

sec p. 33 of Mr.

Berg's Catalogue.
2) Ilikayat Mashiidti'l-hak ditkhtisark'cn liatavia, G. A. KolfT,

to

iSSj.

\'an

den

^^'^"i'^"'^=^'-

152

complete master of the situation. Thanks to

king Wadihirah

his advice,

proves invincible, and finally marries Jiran's daughter, and has by her

Juhan Pahlawan

a son

The

'),

attractiveness of

who succeeds him on the


this book lies not so much

throne.

occurrences

in the

narrates as in the ingenious solution of the various riddles and pro-

it

blems propounded.

Plia

Pha Suasa.

(XXXIV).

Sllcisa

^)

Raja Ahmat, the king of Baghdad (Boreudat) has seven wives.

him

foretold

dream that he

in

have a son with

will

daughter with golden (or rather "suasa"

thighs.

^)

walking on the bank of a stream, he finds a

is

and throws away


it

comes back

home and
become

to

gives

the

in sport.

him of
it

its

Again and again,

own

accord.

to his wives, in

He

silver

One day

fig,

It

is

and a

as the king

which he picks up

as he hurls

from him,

it

takes this marvellous fruit

the hope that she who

eats

it

will

mother of the promised children. Only one of the seven,

Jaliman, has the courage to taste the

fig.

She thus becomes the mother

of Prince Silver-thigh and Princess Golden-thigh [Plia Suasa); the other

consumed with envy immediately

six,

Shortly after their birth, the

plot against the

children

life

of the twins.

changed into flowers and

are

Jaliman to save them from harm, gives them in charge to a cock. The
latter,

to the cunning devices of the envious wives, finds himself

owing

compelled to entrust them to the protection of a goat, and

manner they are thus passed on


and

to a bull, a buffalo

and an elephant,

finally to a tiger.

One day

this

tiger

resolves

to

river in pursuit of the children he

are found

till

with

doing

is

slain

by

The

a crocodile.

they are adopted by the childless Raja of

cess Pha Suasa, the admiration of

tance

devour them but while crossing a


infants

by Pawang Kuala on the river-bank; he takes them up and

tends them

is

in like

^a/)a

all

who behold

her,

Parisi.

Prin-

makes acquain-

prince of the aerial kingdom, the son of Raja Diu,

(penance) upon earth in the guise of a bird

who

she secretly

promises him her hand.

i)

It

is

perhaps from

this hikayat-princc

under which he pretended

to serve the

that ')"cuku

Gompeuni

L'ina

has borrowed the

as a military leader from

new name,

1893

to

1896.

Malay paha^ "a thigh". (Translator).


3) Suasa is really an amalgam of gold and copper; but golden ornaments of European
manufacture arc also spoken of as "suasa" by the natives of the Archipelago.
2)

"Pha"

=: the

153

Meantime Raja Aliniat

mother

thrust her

lias

having made away with the two children,

Pha Suasa

princess

the

sently

is

in

whom

he suspects of

a filthy

dungeon. Pre-

seized with longing to return to her

home and behold her mother once more; accompanied by her brother
and a crowd of attendants she embarks

now

Jaliman

disclosed,

wife

and

seek

the

suitors,

king

of the

consorts

hand

the shape of a bird to that of a


are married,

and

kingdom

fetch

to

who

his father Diu,

refuses

all

has meantime changed from

man comes

They

to claim her hand.

wedding the prince goes back

after the

six

journeys with his

She however stoutly

her betrothed. Raja Intan,

till

and the other

Ahmat

is

where a number of princes

Parisi

marriage.

in

prison,

the forest. Raja

and daughter to

their son
latter's

from

liberated

is

fly to

Baghdad. The secret

for

who descends with

his

to the aerial

son to earth

to visit his daughter-in-law.

The young husband

soon compelled to wage war against the king

is

Habeusah (Abyssinia) who

of

colossal

Habeusah and

The king
help

the

of

who has been

to

flies

Parisi,

conquest of the raja of

driven from his territory by the

where he embraces Islam and invokes

Pha Suasa's army. This

by various

attack upon

Parisi

Beusoe, the

English, Portuguese and

is

the

in

conversion to Islam.

his

of Siam,

of China,

raja

claim to the hand of his bride.

lays

ending

supervenes,

conflict

equally successful

however, results on an

alliance,

infidel kings

one

after

another Eumpieng

Dutch are beaten

off.

Pha Suasa

in a war with the Batak king Kabeulat, and she

then subdues once more the kingdom of Habeusi Raya ("Great Abys-

snia

).

This

last

undertaking seems to have no proper connection with the

Story of Pha Suasa, but the concluding portion of the copy


contains

further

account

an

(Turkey),

of a

of the Raja of

in

still

more

war waged by the kings of

Meuse (Egypt)

who demands

Sidiitan

narrative

etc.

possess

foreign to the subject. This

Cham (=

Syria),

is

Rom

against a certain pagan Raja Akeurani,

marriage the princess called Putroe Rom, the daughter

Cham. Pha Suasa takes no

part whatever in this enterprise.

Boseutaman (XXXV).

^"l"i"
I'.u.-.eut.ini.ni).

Although

this

tale

does not appear that


the

story;

introduces
the

itself

under the name

name belongs

the princii)al royal personage

to
is

lMseulaman,

il

any of the characters of


called

Vahya,

his minister

154

and

Meuntroe Apeulaih,
Yahya's

Ami

The

Suja'.

dependency

Dameuchah

himself on

establishes

'),

flies

One day Sulutan Yahya goes


late

is

elephant

with an

Ami

load,

and

Ami

Suja',

Bahut,

mercilessly

who

man

all

Ami Bahut

The animal succumbs under

the

has by this time arrived at the abode of

compels him and

leaving their daughter behind alone.

nothing of

born to him.

forth to hunt the deer. Finding that

him food.

to bring

and

where a daughter,

queen sends out her brother

the

returning,

in

is

is

into the forest with his wife

of Samteurani

the princess Saleumah or Salamiah

he

scene of which

in the conflict, the

borders

the

death of

the

disputed between him and his elder brother

is

worsted

latter

called

On

Samteurani.

country

his

father, the throne

his wife to bear the burden,

Meantime king Yahya, who knows

sends one of his attendants to seek for water; this

this

discovers the forsaken princess Saleumah, and the adventure ends

her marriage with Sulutan Yahya.

in

The

king's

wife

first

is

seized with jealousy

and

plots to get rid of

Malem Malabari who carries her off in his ship. On her lord's return home she
tells him that Saleumah has gone off to seek her lost parents. The
latter after many sufferings, had returned to their home in the forest
and have now gone forth once more to search for their missing
her

rival;

during the absence of

Yahya

she

sells

her to

daughter.

board the ship

Salcumah's presence on

unlucky one
for

so

Malem Malabari

puts her on shore. After wandering

a time in the forest she gives birth to a son; just about the

time a princess

is

born of her jealous

The minister Apeulaih


Saleumah; he

and

after

hidden

in

first

finds

is

her

many wanderings

parents

his first

by Sulutan Yahya

whom

he joins in their search,

the aerial roots of a rambong-tree.

wife and her brother

Ami Bahut

is

They

queen and of Saleumah

named

d^-^Ci^fl's^

is

go together to

and puts

to the sale of

some

respectively

and Ahmat Chareh determine to beg forgiveness

This name

all

cleared up; the king throws

into prison

the master of the strange ship. After the lapse of

l)

to seek for

they discover their daughter and her child

maids of honour, who lent themselves

of the

same

rival in the royal palace.

sent forth

the palace of the king, where everything

the

makes the voyage a most

to death

Saleumah

to

years the sons

Meureuhom Shah
for the

probaMy derived from ^A-i^xO (Damascus).

imprisoned

155

Ami

lady and for

Yahya complies

Bahut. King

with their rcciucst and

the story ends with a general reconciliation.

Gauibang China (XXVI).

Clint

Meureudan
his

the

Hiali,

way and

king of Parisi while on a hunting expedition

hand of a princess who bore him a

Keumala Intan;

daughter,

in the spirit-land of his

army, a palace, an ocean,

bidding

By

Banta Ahmat, and a

sent to receive instruction

mother. Ilere he was equipped with a number

which enabled him

of magic charms,

son,

on she had by him another son called

later

Ahmat grew up and was

Indra Johari. Banta

etc.,

at will to call into existence

and was

an

also given a miraculous bird

which was able to carry him through the

{bayeu'cn)

lost

strayed into the country of the Jen Diu. Here he obtained

air

and to do

his

the remotest parts of the earth.

in

the intermediary of this bird Banta

of the princess Chut

Gambang China

Ahmat made

of the

the acquaintance

kingdom of Kawa Mandari.

After an adventurous journey through the world, in the course of which

both giants and the beasts of the forests yielded to the hero's magic
power, he

won

this princess

and made her

his wife.

Thereafter he was compelled to wage a great war against the country

Banun, the king of which, Kubat Johari was betrothed to

of Da'iron

the

Chut Gambang. In the end he was completely victorious

princess

and not only remained


sort,

in

undisturbed possession of his beloved con-

but also took to wife the beautiful Sangila, a daughter of Kubat.

Accompanied by
Banta

Ahmat now

his

two wives and a

on the way. With him also came

had found

in

lonely

train

of

men and

animals,

returns to Parisi, slaying sundry troublesome giants


his sister

Keumala

Intan,

whom

he

wood; she had been unjustly banished on a

charge of unchastity through the intrigues of her father's chief minister,

Peudana Meuntroe. On arriving


sister's

honour and causes the

Keumala Intan
reaches

Parisi

is

in

wedded

to

in

Parisi,

Banta

false minister to

Ahmat

vindicates his

be put to death. P'inally

Budiman Cham, king

of Andara,

who

safety after a victorious progress through the world

with an invincible cock endowed with miraculous powers.

Diwa Akdih Chahya (XXXVII).


The hero

of this

tale

is

Uiwa La'sana and Mandu

the son of a royal pair of celestial origin,


Diwi, king and queen of Neureuta (iangsa.

156
Before his birth

He must

however,

him that

foretold of

is

it

the

in

fame

his

first

powers whose baneful influence begins to be

fill

the world.

felt

while he

is

still

in

womb.

mother's

his

will

place do battle with certain hostile

Diwi Seundari, a princess of the race of ra'sasas has conceived a


passion for

Diwa La'sana; one day while Mandu Diwi

chamber, the other succeeds

The

true

Mandu Diwi on

in

is

bathing

in her

assuming her form and taking her place.

what has happened, withdraws

finding out

without a protest to the house of Mangkubumi, the chief minister of


the kingdom,

she forbids to reveal the secret. While thus hidden

house she gives birth to Diwa Akaih Chahya Meungindra.

his

in

whom

As soon

as

Diwa Akaih has grown up and learned what has taken


he takes leave of his mother and starts on

in his father's court,

place

journey through the world. In the forest he meets the aged queen

his

Diwi Peureuba Nanta, who before her death presents him with a magic

He

sword.

subdues a

also

whereby he can

into

call

tree-spirit

who

existence

fortresses,

vinced him of his superiority.


to

mother,

his

and who

Brahman Diwa

palaces

and

seas.

He

advises
in

Sa'ti,

meets another prince who

him

is

related

to go and seek instruction from

order to

prepare

himself for

his

great

Here Diwa Akaih excites the jealousy of

conflict with the ra'sasas.

He

the prince Peura'na Lila, after he has con-

obtains similar gifts from

the

provides him with a charm

his

ninety seven royal fellow-pupils.

By

the

advice

of his teacher he

Ra'na Keumala of Nagarapuri.

It

is

demands
not

till

tlic

hand of the princess

after

he has waged a pro-

tracted conflict with his rivals and also with the father of the princess,
that the latter at length consents to accept

His next enemy

The

latter

magic

car,

a powerful

is

him

as a son-in-law.

young prince named Keureuma Wanda.

comes one day

to Nagarapuri flying through the air in his

and alights

in

garden, where he catches sight of Ra'na

Keumala, and from that moment can think of nothing but carrying
her off by force from her husband's arms.

Thus

is

kindled

long and fierce conflict,

whom Diwa Akaih made


of the ra'sasas,
in

he

casting
is

on

his

in

liberated thence

presents him with a

all

the friends

journeys join one by one. The king

Keureuma Wanda's most powerful

Diwa Akaih

which

ally, finally

succeeds

into the belly of the king of the dragons, but

by

his teacher

Diwa

Sa'ti,

new charm. The war goes on

and the dragon-king


till

Keureuma Wanda

157

by Diwa Akaih, and the king of the

slain

is

After having thus subdued


native

mes her

all

his

all

his enemies,

father

returns to his

slain

is

is

still

by him. He then

reunites

Mangkubumi,

living with

once more. The marriages of certain of the friends of

well

is

and

mother who

true

his

Diwa Akaih

Sa'ti.

pretended mother who on seeing him resu-

true shape as a ra'sasa,

with his

and

He meets

land.

by Diwa

ra'sasas

Diwa Akaih are celebrated with much rejoicing.


Diwa Akaih 's spouse Ra'na Kcumala presents him with
he succeeds to the throne of Meureuta Gangsa and rules

a son, and

in

peace and

prosperity.
I

of

have gradually obtained possession of more or


the

all

known

complete copies

above described. There remain others which are only

tales

me by name and by

to

less

incomplete oral information as to their

contents.

The
but we

at

once suggest Malay works with similar names,

not in a position to say

are

The names

some

of

titles

the resemblance goes further.

if

of these hikayats are as follows

yit/ia

Manikam (XXXVIII),

a rendering of the Malay tale quoted above on

Buda (XXXIX')), Bnda

de Hollander), Raja

Dr.

(XLH)), Abu Nazvdih (XLIP)),

Abdoviulo'

whose war with Rawana


Peureuleng

")

is

localized in

Putroc Bwiga Jeumpa (XLVIII),

(XLIX), Banta Rana{\J), Jiigi Tapa or

1)

Compare

N<^s

2)

153 and 154 of Mr.

etc.

Compare Dr.

en letterkundc.^

Rama

Sri)

(XLIII)

the popular tradition,

(XLIV), Blantasina or Plantasina (XLV), Lutong (XLVI),

Sepu Alani (XLVII),

meling Maleische

Meuseiikin (XL-)),

(=

Siri

Acheh by

by

143, (published

p.

5'''

J.

hatiJschriftcjt.^
J.

de

Edition,

\..

C.

W.

DabidaJi

Indra Peutanu

]\IilTm'''){}A),

van den Berg's

(}A\).

Vcrslag van ccuc vcrza-

Batavia 1877.

Hollander's Haiulleid'ing

N"

Siti

h'tj

tie

bcoefcning

licr

Maleische taal-

48, p. 344.

Van den Berg, opere citato, n 257.


Van den Berg, opere citato, n I2i,a. The Malay work however consists not so
much of anecdotes from the life of "the Arab poet" Abu Nawas, as of a collection of popular talcs respecting an imaginary court-fool, who has much in common with the German
Eulenspiegel, and to whom the name of this poet has been given. Compare also the Contes
Kahyles of A. Moulidras, Introduction; les Four her ics de Si yeh\i^ p. 12 (Bou Na'as) and
M. Hartmann's Schivdnke und Schnurren.^ S. 55 and 61 62 (Zeitschrift fiir Volkskundc, 1895).
3) Cf.

4)

Cf.

5)

Name 'of

6)

This

a small black bird.

7^/,

who

is

undergoing penance, and whose

guarded by one or more princesses, turns to stone

an end
life

all

to

this

those

all

soul

in

who approach

the shape of a bird

him. Banta

Amat

by gaining possession of the bird and slaying him, and then restoring

who had been

turned

to stone.

is

puts
to

Names of
tales,

158

Fables relating to Animals.

6.

Although animals occasionally play an important part


romances, none

who

this order, for as a rule the beasts

story are

in the

of the latter can properly be classed

human

beings or jcns (diwas

Achchncse

among

fables of

take part in the action of the

who have adopted

etc.)

the shape

of animals.

The two

we

as

which we are now about to describe, comprise,

collections

genuine fables relating to animals borrowed both from

shall see,

and from foreign (Indian) books of

indigenous

folklore

Achehnese

listeners are as

convinced of the truth of these

The

are of that of the romances.

popular imagination

belief that

into

tales as

they

sacred tradition that the prophet-king

Suloyman (Solomon) understood the language of animals


the

Most

fables.

in

changed

is

in

Solomon's time beasts

were gifted with speech and reason.

Thus

which genuine animals are made to think and speak

stories in

are regarded as accounts of what actually took place

Plmidn kanchi

We

we

stories

about the crafty mouse-deer are

collected a

But

Acheh such

in

number

obtain

26tli

possession

1)

offer

blidiJL

of one

Kanchi means
but

is

more

only very occasionally

the case; an

^).

only,

unknown author has

into a hikayat

Copies of this are rare

and

*);

which he

was able

this lacks the last part of the

to his readers has perhaps induced the

Achehnese not

in

an adjective meaning

beings. In Bimancse kanchi


2)

is

bhaih.

Anxiety to

ges,

is

them and formed them

of

divides into 26 sections or


to

it

among

a collection of these tales forming part of their written

find

literature^).

those times.

(LIII).

')

know how popular

a great proportion of the Indonesians; yet


that

in

See Dr.

J.

Brandes

a variety of mouse-deer, as in otlicr

"crafty",

"wicked", which

is

often

com-

Malayan langua-

applied

to

human

"craft", "cunning". (See the dictionary of Dr. J. Jonker).


Dwerghert-verhalcn in Vol.
of the Journal of the IJata-

XXXVII

vian Association {^Tljdschrift van hct Bataviaasch Gcnootschap') pp. 27 ct seq.


"enquiry", "subject".
3) Achehnese form of the Arabic bahth (ci*..^.)

4)

Numbers

of Achehnese

Mikayat

I'lando',

original

owner not

but

came and begged me

was obliged

to lend the

book

to
to

refuse,

to let

them transcribe my copy of the

having bound myself by a promise

any of his fellow-countrymen

to the

159

and thus to include them

description,

This

true for

is

popular

in

his hikayat.

in

example of the story

talcs of a different

bhaih

in

lo,

where the plandd'

the role of judge, which properly appertains to a

fulfils

no mention

for

mouse-dccr a place

the

give

to

piler

Javanese

On

is

to be found of the

mouse-deer

in

human being;

the European and

versions of this story.

')

other

the

hand the author has omitted other

which well

talcs

deserved to be included both on account of their characteristic quali-

and their popularity

ties

Thus
in the

for instance

in

Achch.

he leaves out the race with the snails which appears

Javanese kanchil series

^),

but

also universally

is

More data than we possess would be

known

Acheh,

in

of course required to enable

agreement of one of these Achehnese

us in each case of striking

stories

with a Malay, Sundanese, or Javanese version, to decide whether

common

the

inheritance

now^

Bhaih
in Jav.).
I

append a short

The

i.

is

of the race or has been imported from else-

where through some foreign channel of

We

it

of the contents of the 26 sections.

list

the

plando',

literature.

frog, the

gardener and the dog

In a Sundanese "dongeng of the ape

and the

(just as

tortoise",

which

got transcribed at Banten, the ape plays the part here assigned to the

frog

and the dog, while the tortoise takes the place of the mouse-deer.

The

sequel of this dongeng corresponds with that which

in
I

5.

and

than the version published

185
in

1,

It

here found

is

nearly resembles the contents of our BJidihs


in

Sundanese by A.

W.

Bhaih

The

2.

?)

in

is

story the

van

Vlieger,

snail,

the bicng pho

(a

Dutch.
(a

sort

small sort

and the prawn.

This fable

lotgevallcn

in

plando', the otter, the night-owl, the gatheue'

prawn?) the land crab, the

of prawn

1)

Holle

and those composed by A. F. Von de Wall (Batavia, Kolffi885)

Batavian Malay, and by K. F. Holle (Batavia, Kolff 1885)

of land

J.

much more

Bhaih

akin

to

that of

main features of which

Tijl Uileiispiei^cl (the

"Amsterdam, p. 66.

"///r otter

arc the same,

delightful

similar one

and

is

to

adventures

the crab'' published in

be found in
of Tijl

was written down

l>y

De

Tcnnal-cfijkt-

Uilcnspiegel) pub. by

mc

at

the dictation of

a Javanese dongcng-reciter at Jogjakarta.

We

van den kantjll (the book of tlie kanchil) published by llic


and the Si!)al kanchil pul). at Samarang, 1879.
In our epitome of the contents we refer to these two versions, for the sake of brevity, by
2)

refer here to Ilet hock

K'oninkiijk

Institttut

the contraction Jav.

at

the Hague, 1889,

i6o

Sundanese by Dr. Engelmann

'),

but

details are entirely different.

tlic

the Achehnese the plando' poses both as the murderer and as the

In

Solomon who helps the

of king

assessor

more

this respect the

In

interminable lawsuit.

the

resembles the Batak tale

closely

latter to decide the issue of

of

Achehnese version much

'^the otter

Batak Reader of H. N. van der Tuuk, part

(see the

Blidih

The man,

3.

the

crocodile,

the

and
4,

the roebuck'"'

pp. 86 et seq.).

the rice-mortar, the

pestle,

winnowing basket and the plando' (Ingratitude the reward of kindness).

similar fable appears in the Javanese Kanchil

BhaiJi

The plando' and

4.

by men.
Bhdih 5. The

^).

the elephant out fishing; the elephant

slain

buffalo's

cheated by the plando',

tiger

dung as Raja Slimeum's

'')

who palms

on him

off

food, a Ihan-snake as his head-cloth,

wasp's nest as his gong, and two trees grating against one another

as

his

wasp's nest, which

form

H.

in

of this

Part

violin.

wanting

is

the

is

in the

same

in

Jav.

Sundanese dongeng which

the deceit with the

Javanese versions, appears

Klinkert's Bloetnlezing (Leiden

C.

1890), pp.

mentioned under Bhdih

i,

54.

50

there

in

his

represented as the boreh

girdle,

and

in

the conclusion

The dung

himself and

dies.

the

The

6.

was that

heritage

burning sea. This

Damina

ed.

his

by the voice of the

own person

that he mutilates

According to another version he did not die but the

result of his violence


]'>hdih

of Batara Guru and the snake as

the ape misled

becomes so enraged against

tortoise

The

puts the ape in

the tiger's place, and the tortoise in that of the mouse-deer.


*)

another

in

is

Gonggrijp,

p.

his

descendants were born emasculate

of steel and
a variant of

128

et

salt,

the king, the plando' and

what we

seq.,

"').

dan

find in the Kalila

but the Achehnese version

is

prettier.

Bhdih

1)

The

7.

plando', the ram, the tiger and the bear.

the PujJiOi^i-n van hct Koniiihlijh Ned. hid.

In

I/istltiiut.,

3>1

The

tiger

Scries, Vol. IT, p.

is

348

ct seq.

Balav.
2) See Dr. J. Brandcs' notes in Nodtlcu
3)

The

prophet king
hikayat

even in

this

the form

Slimeum

is

Goiooischap Vol.

XXXT,

p.

5)

With

this

where the mouse-deer appears

seq.

as his assessor; but in this

one fable

is smeared on certain ceremonial occasions'.


compared the tales numbered 11^ and 11/ in Dr. N. Adri(Bijtlragcn Kon. Inst, voor de Taal-., Land- en Volkenkunde

may be now

Satigireeschc

the

ct

invariably used.

tekslen

also

1893, p. 321 et seq.). As we see, the tale of the wasps' nest


.al)ove-mcntioncd author supposed, a Sangirese innovation.
for

78

elsewhere always called Suloyman by the Achehnese,

yellow cosmetic with which the skin

4)

nni's

is

Solomon

year

is

not, as the

i6i

by a stratagem rendered innocuous

way

Bhdih

The

8.

tiger, the

Bhdih

two
9.

to the sheep, but not in the

same

and Jav.

as in Mai.

plando', the frog, the iguana, the carrion, the dog, the

buffaloes, the

The

two

elephant and the

tigers, the

human

beings.

plando', the smith, the sikin (Achehnese long knife or

sword), the fisherman and the ee^ [leujen).

Bhdih

Lawsuit between the rich and the poor as to the price

10.

of the savours of the former's kitchen, in which suit the plando' gives

judgment. This

tale

is

do not-really belong

Bhdih
the

II.

one of those spoken of on

The

cultivator

the

whale,

plando',

mouse-deer

to the

who goes

159 above, which

p.

series.

a-fishing.

The imprisoned

snake,

cocoanut monkeys and their king. Part

the

similar to Jav,

The

BhdiJi 12.

birds (Batavia:

te'-te'

plando', the herd of oxen

Bhdih

13.

The

Bhdih

14.

(Continuation of

known

plando', the dogs, and the bakoh-bird.

The plando', the


The plando' and

Bhdih

15.

Bhdih

16.

Bhdih

17.

The

13).

The

Bhdih

18.

(Continuation

turtle

plando', the

Alliance of

plando' as his deputy.


bles

in

its

Hiweuen
Bhdih
in Jav.)

Bhdih

plando', the kue'-bird, the fishes

of

all

The

and the

tiger.

the bridge of crocodiles, (Similar in Jav.),

two oxen, the


17).

dream. Suloyman, the plando' and


19,

bull.

meudabah and the tho\

as the

Bhdih

Suloyman (Solomon), the

kPjit),

and the black

and the crocodiles.

tiger

The two oxen,


his

the

and

tiger

his

dream, the sugar-mill.

the beasts under the tiger as king and the


tiger deceived

by the

plando'. This resem-

main features the story we have numbered

7 in the

Kisah

or Nasruan ade (LIV).


20.

he
21.

The elephant
is

in the well (quite different

from

its

namesake

afterwards devoured by crocodiles in the river.

All

the

animals

fish

with seines under direction of the

plando', the himbees (a kind of ape) serve as sentries.

Bhdih

22.

Continuation of 21.

The geureuda

or griffin (which here

plays the part of the buta or gergasi in Jav. and Mai.), the tiger, the
bear, the elephant

and the plando'

(the

same

Bhdih 23. All the beasts converted to Islam

in Jav.

and

Mai.).

by the plando', gathered

together in the mosque and cheated by him.

Bhdih

24.

The

plando'

cheats Nabi

Suloyman (Solomon) over the

chopping of wood.
II

"

l62
BJidiJi

who

The

25.

plando', the jackfruit and the oil-seller; the gardener

plants dried peas, and the deer.

Contest between the plando' and a jen (Arab, jinn) as to

26.

BlidiJi

who can keep awake


the only copy

in

makes

night-bird

this

(wagtail).

The

a noise.

In

we

two

the

flies

his

opponent keeps on making

above-quoted Sangireesche teksten of Dr. N. Adriani

between an ape and a heron (IV) and

contest

similar

samples

Javanese dongeng

keeping awake with the sikatan

abandons the duel as

latter

which according to popular belief

[chabd],

cries in its sleep, hold a contest in

find

lacking

have seen).

wakefulness between a wild cat and a night-bird.

and

is

Javanese Book of the Kancliil we find a similar contest in

the

In

the longest. (The conclusion of this fable

of such

between an ape and a sheitan

contests

(IV(^

and VI).

Achehnese

the

In

as in the Javanese kanchil-tales, the

just

deer appears as the assessor (waki

of the prophet-king

'))

mouse-

Suloyman

or Solomon.

His

title

is

thus always Teiingkii

nicknames Si Anin,

or

(after

Tuan

Clint

Waki, and he also bears the names


(Master Little one),

Saba the kingdom of the queen who had

Waki Saba

relations with Solomon),

Waki Buyong ("mannikin").

The

of the

style

hikayat

somewhat

is

defective.

The author

is

no

master of the sanja'; he treats his readers over and over again to the

same rhyming words and thus

finds himself constantly obliged to alter

the syllables which rhyme.

Not only

in the

orally transmitted, but also in the written literature

Achehnese, the plando' appears

of the

in

various other stories which

are not included in this hikayat.

Hikayat Nasruan Ade or KisaJi Hiiveu'cn (LIV).

Ilikayat

Nasruan ad6.

Under

i)

He

gampong
2)

ade

names

these

^)

is

circulated

the

Achehnese version of that

thus stands to the prophet-king in the same relation as the ivaki of an Achehnese
(see Vol.

Nasruan
('adil)

i.

e.

is

1.

the

p.

67) to his keuchi'.

Ach.

the just.

form of the Persian royal name Anosharwan, with the epithet

The

other

name

is

the Achehnese pronunciation of the Arab, words

aiggah haiwan, stories about beasts, but the meaning of tlicse words
in

Acheh save

the pandits.

is

understood by none

i63

known

collection of fables

and Panjatanderan

The

example that

sole

slovenly

is

from any known

dan Damina

as Kalila

')

have been able to obtain appears to be

incomplete at the conclusion, but

composition

Malay form

their

in

-).

am

not certain of

and confused.

Malay

It

has

and indeed

version,

not
it

is

this, as

the whole

been taken direct


possible that

it

has

been rendered into Achehnesc verse from an imperfect recollection of


a not over-accurate recitation of the Malay work.
Certain

and additions, however, seem

inconsistencies

indicate a

to

different origin.
1.

The Brahman Badrawiah (Barzoyeh)


Nasruan

here

is

on behalf of

sent

king of Hindustan, and the goal of his mission

^)

Hindustan. This identity of the names of the countries

is

is

also

probably

due to a mistake of the compiler or copyist. Kuja Buzurjmihr

Hakim composes

Damina

3.

4.
5.

more

which

those

2.

following tales

the

gives

the panegyric on Badrawiah.

or

comparisons, of which

or

agree

less

request of Nasruan.
the

Hilar

1)

The
The

As

to

the

shall notice

Malay Kalila dan


Ms.

told

by Badrawiah

place of the

In

Achehnese text has Brahmana

makes no mention of the water of


6.

with

the compiler

^).

The world as a mad camel


The thief cheated
The dog and the bone
Dream of the raja of Hindustan,
the

Then

*)

jackal,

the deundang-bird,

and crab

fable of the heron

is

17

23

327

C)6

at

Brahman and
Hilal;

it

also

life

the

i8

G.

snake and the man.

...

here wanting

the nature of these compositions see the essay of Dr.

J.

Brandes in the Fccst-

Leiden 1891, pp. 79 et seq.


2) This is also the name of a well known Tamil version, possibly the original of both
the Malay and the Achehnese (Translator).
is a son of
3) In the Malay versions he who sends forth the Brahman on his mission
btindel (dedicated to Prof, de Goeje),

this prince

named Harman

j^j^ which

is

4)

.\ch.

5)

By

or

Herman

formed from "-^t^

Bada Jameuhe

the letter G.

.y*.^). This

name

is

based on a wrong reading of

or ^.*.>

T^j^*

refer to Gonggrijp's edition (Leiden, Kolflf 1876). Portions

Ms. are those which do not appear


of Dr. de Hollander which

Batav. Gen. Vol.

Hormizd.

XXXVI,

is

now

p.

394

in this edition but are to

in
et

my

be found

in

marked

the Manuscript

possession (See Dr. Brandes' notes in Tijdschrift

seq.).

The numerals

indicate the page.

164

The keureukoih

7-

tiger

(explained as being the plando') slays the

G.

')

The crows and the owls


The plando' as ambassador of the moon
The cat as judge between the plando' and

8.

9.

10.

194

208

215

222

228

snake and the frogs

260

ape and the

265

274

292

301

321

122

34

The utoih (tradesman) of Silan and his


The marriage proposals of the mouse

11.
12.

The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The

13.
14.
15.

16.
17.
18.
19.

20.

the murong-bird.

adulterous wife

turtle

jackal, the tiger

and the

peuteurah-bird

and the king

^)

ass

tiger as pupil of the jackal

jackal judge

among

ape and the

hunt the deer

the tigers that

and the toadstool

night-owl, the apes

versions,
21.

wedge

and here, but not

in the Malay-

the rice-bird and the horses

The goldsmith,

the snake, the ape and the tiger

(a

fable

of gratitude)
22.

The

bull,

found

in

the

Mai.

ass

and the cock

we meet

it

(this

the

in

Nights, ed. Cairo, 1297 Hpg., Vol.


23.
24.
25.
26.

78

I,

story

pp.

'')

giver's face; the

340

28

Thousand and One

The musang ^), the tiger and the man (not


The bull ^) and the lion
The dervish and the king (not in Mai.).
(hermit), the king and the
The dahet
huntsmen and the jackal

not to be

is

6).

Mai.).

in

thief;

the two

the poison blown back in the

amputated nose

27.

Damina's stratagem against the

28.

Admonitions of the queen mother

53

bull

to the lion

131

Their heroic poems, their romances and their fables (but especially
their

romances),

supply

both

recreation

young, high and low of both sexes

2)

The contents are the same


The Achehnese reading is

3)

i)

kind of pole-cat

4) This

The word
5)

^J;-

is

common

called SitCrubuh in

as written in

as those of bhdih
wJCs

in the

in

and instruction to old and


Acheh. Thence they draw a

lo of the Hikayat Plando'.

Malay versions we

find ,*a

and ^^.

Malay archipelago.
the Malay version, and in Achehnese Sinadcubah {k^-Smm),
in the

Araliic letters

is

almost the same.

i65

considerable

almost

all

portion

goes on outside

the civilization of

worth

wishes cO understand the

to bear in

fail

mind the nature of

and should anyone desire

to try to lead

Acheh along a new channel, it would be undoubtedly


make his innovations palatable to them by presen-

'hikayat' form.

in

Legends relating

a.

The

Works.

Religious

7.

the Pre-Moliauiniedan period.

to

three kinds of Achehnese works which

common

describe, have in

hikayat

in

variety) are to be found in nalavi

The channels through which


Achehnese are

received

romantic

their

by the popular mind


from the

derived

from pure
catholic

And

testify.

far

of which

the

more

these

quasi-religious

other

heresies,

of the

still

romances,

enjoyed

stories

and

those

as

by which they

partly

India,

tradition

woven

with materials

of Persia,

partly

East, including Acheh, before the


or

canonical Arabic works

less

surviving opposition of the pandits,

coloured

largely
still

and legends reached

fabric of sacred history

unlearned

the

spite

in

The

reached

The

(only the third

in prose.

Mohammadan

common and

fiction,

tradition

and

religious

literature.
in

remains for us to

still

some

form;

main the same

the

in

it

with one another a religious character.

majority are composed

great

the

and

his while to

them

ting

Whoever

country.

mental pabulum;

their

this,

life,

of what has happened in the past, or what

Achehnese must not

of the

spirit

of their knowledi^e of the world and of

know
their own

that they

continue

to

with

the

enjoy

Shi'ite

and

considerable

popularity.

The South-Indian
came

to

this

Islam, the oldest form in which

Archipelago

still

survives in these works, not without a

large admixture of native superstition.


cism,

its

With

prayers and mysterious formularies,

history which

we have

just alluded to,

it

The
Acheh

in

theory driven

it

semi-pantheistic mysti-

its

popular works on sacred

its

will

orthodoxy of Mecca and Hadramaut, which

and which has

long bid defiance to the


is

may have been

partly direct from South India and partly

They

are

in

either

seeking to supplant

it,

entirely from the field.

materials of these popular works

Countries.

Mohammedanism

by way

imported into
of the

Malayan

case undoubtedly foreign wares, which

Origin of
legends'ofthe
-^'^hehnese.

66

the Achehncse have greatly adulterated or improved, however


to express

Hikayat
Asay pade.

we choose

it.

Hikayat asay pade (LV).


r

The aim

of this

poem

i-i

of the customs and superstitions connected with

When Adam

Hawa

and

nee and

to explain the origin ot

is

some

oi

culture.

its

(Eve) were driven from paradise, and after

they had wandered apart over the earth and met once more near the

Adam

mountain of Rahmat, Jebra'i (Gabriel) gave

lessons in agriculture

and brought him the necessary seeds from paradise.

When
ran

he had ploughed and sown

short.

command he

God's

I^y

all

Adam's seed supply

his fields,

slew his son,

\\\\o

bore the four

names Umahmani, Nurani, Acheuki and Seureujani. The members of

body were turned

his

sowed

Hawa

on learning of

who had been turned

this,

went

into

seed,

nese in connection with


rice culture.

Hawa
for

the

remain away too long.

not to

the

took with her seven blades;

hereof it

in imitation
r

uVe'e

')

names of the son of

this

it

may

Adam who

be concluded that the

recompense hereafter

is

to

his

rice).

assured by the utterance

was changed into seed.

tilling

of the soil
in this

is

a sacred

world and a

^).

The writer, who tells us that he is a


Teumen and that he wrote the book
appends

of the field seven

^)

and prophetic task which brings both a blessing

also

customary

pade (head or beginning of

the sowing of the rice an abundant crop

of the four

The rainbow.

is

Achehnese women, on the day before the harvest begins, to

blades, which they call the

From

He

yearly harvest.

pluck from the neighbourhood of the inbng pade

At

and begged her son

to the padifield

answered that he would come home once a year


Custom of
some Acheh-

Adam

wherewith

into rice-grains of various kinds

his last field.

story

an

native of the
in the

explanation

gampong

of

month Haji 1206

of the

significance

Lam

(1792)

of the

Rainbow {beuneung raja tinioli). He warns his readers against a pagan


conception of that phenomenon prevalent among the ancient Arabs,
and explains

it

in

token of storm and

connection
rain,

I,

is

of

Noh

(Noah) as a

practised here and there, but

this story

are

still

the prince of all brcadwinning"

sec Vol.

to in

p. 265.

3) "Agriculture

history

of overflowing and prosperity.

1) This and other customs alluded


by no means universally.

2) See Vol.

with the

I,

p.

175.

167

The Hikayat masa

jciict

donya (LVI),

i.

'

c.

history
^

(jf

tlic

ori<rin
*"

of

world, contains a collection of absurdities such as are to be occa-

the

met with

sionally

in

Arabic works about the primeval world.

We

"'''^y^'

masa jeuct
donya.

find

sundry information about the worlds that preceded our own, the beasts
that sustain the earth, the primeval Adam and Muhammad's mysterious

whose sake

first

principle

for

lays

claim

authenticity,

that

satisfies

to

that

all

for

it

exists

was created. The story

less a

one than Allah himself

no

is

the curiosity of Moses

by giving him

this representation

of the order of things.

Nabi Usoh (LVII).

Hikayat

This Achehnese version of the story of Yusuf and Zuleikha varies

marked degree not only from the Bible and Quran stories of
but also from the legends which in the Malay and Arabic

in

Joseph,

books known as the Kitab Anbia, are moulded on the

XII'''

chapter

of the Quran.

The man who buys Usoh

is

nahuda or seafaring merchant, who

was prepared beforehand by a dream

for his

meeting with the beauti-

boy. After the purchase the nahuda encounters a storm at sea,

ful

which can only be exorcised by the loosening of Usoh's chains. They


land

Baghdad

at

Bitay

(or

favourite

that

in

Here the king

Jerusalem).

is

Usoh, and the latter becomes such a

end he has

the

Mukadih

converted to the true faith by

to

with

fly

master for fear of

his

being forcibly withheld from further journeyings.

Arrived at the

of Tambasan, they meet king

land

Timus

{j^^*^.-^)-,

whose daughter Dalikha (= Zuleikha) dreams that Usoh, the son of a


king

(=

destined

is

Migr,

king and
offers

to

to

be

becomes

buy him

One day Adid goes


of his

This name

Egypt", applied
bearer

is

is

to

witness

child but

made king

In the

of Egypt.

to

')

the

Egypt, and Adid

but the scale does not turn

cockfight

to fetch

it.

(!),

On

but forgets one


this occasion the

40 days old witnesses

borrowed from the epithet

to Potiphar.

meets Adid

she

her golden head-ornament.

out

there

gold

in

weapons and sends Usoh home

seduction takes place.

l)

but

Then Usoh comes

weight

it

Afterward she journeys to Meuse

him,

for

wife.

his

for his

Dalikha throws into

till

its

her lord.

Egypt) to seek

Achehnese

and

aftcr-

Quran 'Aziz' Mi^r "the mafjnatc of


Adid is used as a proper name, and

in the

story

it

^'^^^^^o'^-

wards gives the

Usoh
of

women.

all

of famine

the years

Meuse.

Usoh's brethren

')

journey over the sea to

Usoh weds Dalikha and beconamed Ahmat.

the end, after Adid's death,

In

He

king.

begets a son,

The meeting
Hunoynen -).

Hikayat

to Dalikha's preposterous explanation of the matter.

lie

imprisoned, not as a suspect, but because he turns the heads

is

In

mes

68

who

Usoh with

of

is

father

his

takes

place

the plain of

in

Pra' un (LVIII).

Pra'un.

This hikayat, which comes as a sequel to the

last,

much

gives with

wealth of detail the history of king Pra'un (Pharaoh) and the prophet

Musa

(Moses).

history

of the

version

resembles

It

and additions.

in

of the

but exhibits

prophets,

Malay

the

in

many

variations

would be impossible without a detailed review of

It

would occupy

contents which

same story

the main the

far

too

much

its

space, to give a correct

idea of the nature and extent of these differences.

We

shall

however notice one which though not perhaps of Achehnese


accords with the taste of the people,

particularly

origin,

who have a

great admiration for craftiness. In the long conflict between the heathen

Pra'un and

Musa, the

by

course dictated

Musa

much
ning

him the reason of


in

^).

alms,

From

break him

i)
last

One
name

his

lets

these

habits,

"'),

says

long as he

other

in

of

native

stories

power. Allah disclo-

as

(=

and

rises

God

to his prophet,

continues to

of the brethren was called Seuma'un

occurs

all his

Pra'un has three virtues

this;

beard grow

three
as

for

off,

is

Allah. After sundry moral and miraculous victories

observes that Pra'un has not yet lost

to

ses

of this divine messenger

of conduct

line

betimes

in

he gives
the mor-

you must

perform these good

Simeon), and another Raja l.ahat. This

that of an

enemy

of

Muhammad.

It

is

taken

from the name of the mountain Uhud or from the name of Muhammads uncle Abu Lahab.
2) This name seems to be a corruption of Hunain, a valley in Arabia, which was the

Muhammad's battles.
The Moslim law looks with disfavour on

scene of one of
3)
in

the shaving of the beard. In Achch, as also


however very customary and thus the wearing of a beard (whiskers
the natives by nature) is regarded as a token of piety. As we have

Java, such shaving

arc

seen

rarely

given

above (Vol.

to
I,

is

p.

163)

people

in

.\cheh

call

the

wearing of the beard

i/ic

stinat

(custom) of the Prophet.


4) The Achehnese, except such as are keen on the performance of their morning
gious exercises arc incorrigible sluggards.

reli-

169

works he cannot be wholly overthrown

And Musa

faithfully follows

this diabolical advice of Allah.

Ilikayat Raja

Raja Jomjomah (LIX).

The

King
new and
of

story

restored to a
in

hikayat form.

assumed that
of the story

From
appears

its

sanctified

by that prophet,

life

contents do not

and who

skull speaks to Jesus,

have never seen a copy of

differ greatly

exists in

but

it,

it

Jomjomali.
is

Achehnese

may

well be

from the Malay version

').

the

Oriefitalischc

that

this

Georgian.

whose

Skull,

Bibliographie (VI

legend

An Afghan

Kareem

it

the Persian and the

in

K^i)

(sL.ioLj x.^.:^*^

version

catalogues of the Fathul

2119 and VII :i 571)

be found

to

also

is

mentioned

is

in the

Bombay.

Press at

Hikayat
Tamlikha.

Hikayat Tamlikha or Eclia tujoh (LX).

The

story of the seven sleepers

the Quran. The Moslim tradition

dealt with in the

is

calls

one of them

18'''

y;/r/2rt

chapter of

= Jamlichus,

from wdiich the Achehnese have formed Tamlikha.

The names
these

of the other six are

more corrupted. The names of

still

"seven saints" and that of their dog are regarded

ajewnats or charms which avert

evil things

all

furnishes

the

story

of the

devout

three

and bring a

and

Besides the legend about the seven saints

men

in

Acheh

as

blessing.

their dog, this hikayat


in

the cave, which has

been made up by the commentators on the Quran on the strength of


a text from the sacred book

(ch.

18,

verse

8).

In addition to the alte-

names the Achehnese version presents two other notable

ration of the
peculiarities.

the

In

first

place the story

law of the Prophet,

who

put

is

after

mouth

the

of AH, the son-in-

Jew who has just


of a number of

at the request of a

tells it

been converted to Islam,

in

the

solution

by AH

theological catch-questions which he has propounded, and which


to his

shame has proved unable

to answer.

Secondly the "quarrel" spoken of


is

explained

erect

i)

a war between a

as

mosque

close

See Van den Berg's

notice that there

is

also a

by

Vcrslag

Omar

in

chapter 18 verse 20 of the Quran

Mohammedan prmcc who

desires to

the cave where the seven saints repose, and

etc.,

W'-^

io6/',

copy of Raja Jumjiim"

109 and 161.


in

161

It

of the

has escaped that writer's


I'.atavian

Collection.

I/O

King who wishes

Christian

same spot with a temple

to sanctify the

containing an idolatrous image

Putroe Peureiikison (LXI).

Iiikayat
Putroii

,,_.,the

PeureuKison or reureukoyson

Peureukison.

name

is

king Nahi (J^>J) of Ncujeuran (Najran

Though brought up

in

of a prmcess, daughter of

Southern Arabia).

an atmosphere of paganism and immorality,

in

she has deep religious instincts which impel her to seek after the true

God.
Islam.

golden dove

')

from Paradise comes to teach her the creed of

Her singing of the

praises of Allah casts forth the Devil from

the greatest of her father's idols, but kindles the latter's wrath against
his

daughter

her hands

for despising the

to be smitten off

martyr to her

this

worship of her ancestors. Her

king are unavailing;

convert the

and banishes her to the mountains. Here

lives

faith

efforts to

enraged at her apostasy he causes

in

a cave and gives herself up to

reli-

gious devotions.

Abdolah, king of Entakiah (Antioch) loses

his

way

while out hunting

and comes by chance to the dwelling-place of Peureukison. He


with

love

brings

the

her

princess,

home

as

king's former favourites

converted by her to the

wife.

They

live

faith of

Islam and

happily for a time, but the

deem themselves neglected and

One day Abdolah was compelled

jealousy.
his

is

his

falls in

to

are filled with

go on a journey. Before

departure he committed his young wife to the care of his mother.

During the king's absence the enemies of Peureukison caused to be


delivered

to

the

mother two forged

Abdolah, wherein the king charged

letters

his

purporting to come from

mother to drive

forth his

young

enemy of the religion of his fathers.


The mother was deeply grieved, but showed the letters to her daughterin-law, who thereupon went forth into the wilds of her own accord
with her new-born child. The child was suckled by a female mouse-

spouse into the forest as being the

deer,
fell

but

one day as they were crossing a river

into the water

in

flood, the infant

and was drowned.

The golden dove appeared once more and taught the princess the
power of prayer. Then she besought Allah to restore her hands and
give

to

her

back her

child,

and the prayer was heard and her wish

accomplished. Mother and child continued their journey along with the

l)

In this tale the dove

is

always called by

lis

.Vrabic

name (hamdinah).

171
plando',

they came

till

where Allah had created

a spot

to

and a pomegranate

pavilion with a well of water

she took up her abode and led a

life

for her a

tree beside

it.

There

of prayer.

Meantime Abdolah had returned from

journey and on arriving

his

at Entakiah he heard of the strategem which had robbed him of his

He

the two are united once

Finally

five.

for

The

the sacred dove.

more by the intervention of

long-suffering Peureukison restrained her

from wreaking vengeance on his former favourites


their

He

woes.

Peureukison accom-

whole army of followers, who gradually dwindled down

panied by a
to

through the world to seek

forth

sallied

wife.

sent

back

his

news that he had forsaken

five

his

companions

royal

state for

husband

who had caused

to

all

Entakiah with the

good and

all.

Accom-

panied by his wife and child, he sought out a quiet abode where he
could surrender himself entirely to godly exercises, prayer and fasting.

When

the pious pair died, the whole creation

them up

This didactic
give long

which both the princess and the dove constantly

tale, in

Mohammedan

on the

disquisitions

teaching,

many

of the Jewish stories in the oldest

8.
b.

said to be a

is

whom are
Mohammedan literature.

handed down by Ka'b al-Ahbar, an ancient

tradition

ascribed

mourned and Allah took

to Paradise.

to

Religious Works.

Legends relating

to

the

Moliaimnedan period.

The foregoing hikayats have given us some notion of the popular


in Acheh in regard to pre-Mohammedan sacred history,

conceptions

while those that follow relate to the earlier period of the


era

Mohammedan

itself.

From what we have


writings

differ

legends

of the

in

already said,

details,

it

may be

gathered that these

but not in subject and essence, from the

same kind which enjoy popularity among the Malays

and Javanese,
Hi/cay at nnbiict or Niibiiet nabi (LXII).

The

first

hikayat

of this series

connected with the birth of


called forth as the Apostle of

deals principally with the miracles

Mohammad, and
God.

Ilikayat

his life

up

to his being

1/2

By

the

nubui't

Achehnese understand that eternal principle of the

whole creation, which


things, for

(like

whose sake

Word

the

in the

Gospel) was before

4'''

the rest were created, and which

all

conceived of as the principle of prophecy dwelling

God.

of

This divine essence

Muhammad")

Light of

Nur

or

properly called

is

in

all

all

specially-

is

the Apostles

Nur Muhavunad ("The

an-nnbuzvxvah ("The Light of Prophecy").

Ignorance of the meaning of the words however, has brought into use
such names as nubu'et

(in

Achehnese) or nurbmvat

(in

Sundanese)

for

the Logos of Islam.

Most of the

Prophets begin

of the

histories

primary mystic principle. Sometimes

this

this

by

of the principal prophets, sometimes only


also treatises to be

are

the description of the


It

in

is

followed by the history

that of

Muhammad;

met with which confine themselves

there

entirely to

Nur Muhammad.

any case quite possible that our copy, which deals with the

Muhammad

of

life

is

with a description of

up

to his 40"'

year,

is

incomplete, and ought pro-

perly to be continued up to the time of his death.

To

those

relation

who

not

are

wholly unacquainted

with the subject, the

of the contents of this hikayat to history, or to the orthodox

Mohammedan

legend,

will

be fully apparent from the examples given

below.

certain

woman named Fatimah Chami

(from

Sham

= Syria) learns

that the spirit of prophecy has descended on Abdallah (who afterwards

becomes the father of Muhammad). Providing


costly presents, she journeys to

mortal so that she

may become

But at the moment of her

became with
mad's
In

to ask the

herself with

hand of

the most

favoured

this

the mother of the last of the prophets.

arrival

Abdallah slept with

by him. He thus

lost the visible

his wife

token of

and she

"Muham-

light".

his

waged

child

Mecca

tender youth

a long

Muhammad

war against Abu

with the help of forty companions,

hay (Abu

king of Mecca and

who deemed

In his childhood too

Muhammad more

Jahl)

who is
by

himself slighted

represented as
the

young

lad.

than once performed the miracle

of feeding a multitude with a few loaves of bread.

When
and

he wrought the famous miracle of the cleaving of the moon,

at the request of the

king of the Arabians restored to an unmuti-

lated state a girl without hands, feet or eyes, the people were converted

by

tens of thousands.

173

Raja Bada (LXIII).

Hikayat

The Malays (probably on

authority of South-Indian teachers)

the

have personified the village of Badr,

Muhammad

defend himself against the attack


converted

prince,

The khandaq

his first victory, as a beautiful prince

canal

or

the

into

which the

father

Handak, Hendek and so

men and

king ruling over

So

is

also

it

the

in

fought

He

on.

is

under the names Hondok,

represented as a powerful infidej

jinns.

Achehnese

Raja Handa' or Keunda'

version.

The

the Prophet and his followers.

war were entirely

this

in

of that

make war upon

with his son Bada


battles

"^* "'

the neighbourhood of which

in

named Badar.
Prophet had dug round Medina to
of the men of Mekka, they have

gained

^^^'^

manner of those of

after the

the dewas and jinns.


Ali

romances.

South India the popular conception of Islam

in

and the members of

Ali

prevalent,

the

first

four

though

is

such as no

his

Shi'ite

Handa' and

Khalifas).

could object

his

to,

his

but occasionally

four companions

been unable to

(the

son Bada suffer defeat and death

of the

copy which has come

adding to

resist

into

his transcription

my

some

possession has

lines of maledic-

Dutch with the prayer that Acheh may soon shake

tion on the
free of these

dogs of

in

Achehnese a variation of a legend

versions.

of

herself

kafirs.

Under the name Hikayat prang Raja Khiba (LXIV) there


Malay

we

All's bravery in fighting for the true faith.

The penman

tion

is

family in the sacred tradition there

Prophet appearing surrounded by

find

exist

such

in

covered over with a veneer of orthodoxy. The entire part played

Shi'ite,

by

Indeed

Muhammad's commander-in-chief

made

generally

is

is

said to

known from

familiarly

the

Hikayat
prang Raja
Khiba.

This legend originated outside Arabia from the tradi-

Muhammad's

expedition

against

the Jews of Khaibar,

have

never seen a copy of the Achehnese version.

Seiimaiin

(LXV)

There

so far as

is,

').

can ascertain, not a single peg

sacred tradition of Islam on which to


narrative;

i)

This

is

it

seems

in

fact

to

have

fix

the

fallen

the Arabo-Achehnesc form of the Scripture

name

in

the accredited

of the hero of this

from the sky. Only

name Simeon.

in

the

Hikayat
Seuuuiun.

174

second part of the hikayat do we meet a very garbled allusion to the

then

the Prophet received as a gift from the

according to which

tradition

Egypt a

of

ruler

Mariah al-Qibtiyyah

concubine,

beautiful

(the

Egyptian or Koptic).
of the story of Sama'un has not however borrowed

The author
more from

than the name.

this tradition

the collection of

In

Von de Wall

a Malay copy of this story

to

copy which

that

known

all

at

-)

the
in

original

addition

in

find,

We

must not however jump to the

was either the work of an Arab or even

The language

Arabia.

we

at Batavia,

')

translated from the Javanese, another

written in Arabic.

is

conclusion

much

of this

copy

Arabic

clearly

betrays the hand of a foreigner, nor are there lacking other like hybridin the religious literature of the

Arabic products

The Achehnese
Seuma'un

Abu Jhay (Abu

Jahl),

unweaned

yet an

He

Islam.

only from

details

in

differs

slays

who here

Seuma'un speaks and converts

infant

also appears as king of

named Patian

hero

(qIxas)

his parents to

whose help Abu Jhay

was brought against him to take vengeance

he converts a
gains

^).

Mecca. While

had invoked against the Prophet; he defeats an army of


that

Malay

the

son of Halet (lXjL>), a mantri (minister of state) of

the

is

version

Eastern Archipelago.

Abu Jhay

for Patian's

woman whom Abu Jhay had sent to decoy


of Abu Jhay's daughter who is there and

possession

death

him, and

then con-

verted and becomes the wife of Seuma'un.

Mariah, daughter of king Kobeuti


of

dreamed a dream

Sa'ri,

in

^)

who was

established in the land

which she saw herself the destined bride

Muhammad,
The haughty refusal of

of the Prophet, She secretly had these tidings conveyed to

who thereupon asked


this

request

her hand

by Kobeuti gave

the field as a general.

i)

See Mr. L.
In

the

W.

Sa'ri,

C. van den Berg's

Hofbibliothek

rise

to a war, in

The war ended with

most of the inhabitants of

2)

marriage.

in

at

Berlin

which Seuma'un took

the conversion to Islam of

and Mariah was carried

Verslag pp. 15

there

are

off to

Medina.

16.

three copies

(numbered Schumann V,

18,

19 and 20) of the story of Sama'un in Malay, which similarly show clear tokens of a Java-

nese origin.
3)

Dr.

Van der Tuuk has given

a short

account of

its

contents in the Biji/ragcn van

hct Kouinklijk Institunt for the year 1866, pp. 357 et seq.

4)

Thus the word Qibti

which makes

it

into Ba'ti.

or

(^ubti

is

better

preserved here than

in

the

Malay version,

175

Nabi

vieucliuko or cheuniuko

Malay
by

meuchuko/'
after a

Muhammad was

shaven

and received from that archangel a cap made of a

leaf of

according to

is,

original. It relates

Gabriel

(LXVI).

composed

This edifying story

how once on
how

one of the trees of paradise, and

compiler,

its

a time

the buliadari (celestial nymphs)

almost fought with one another for the hairs, so that not one reached

ground.

the

Malay,

in

recited

There are various


Javanese

and

different versions of this shaving story

Sundanese.

It

customary to have them

is

by way of sacred reading on the occasion of various occurren-

ces in domestic

life,

especially

when they

entail

watching

at night.

YixV^y:^^

Me'reiiet (LXVII).

The Achehnese

me

version of the sacred tradition of

journey to heaven (Arab,

pronounced

nii^rdj,

in

Muhammad's
Ach.

reuiit.

nocturnal

me^reu'et) is pro-

bably derived from a Malay compilation from an Arabic original, so


at

far

least

the

as

these hikayats

is

subject

is

concerned.

The

style,

however, of

all

purely Achehnese.
Hikayat

Printaih Salam (LXVIII).


Tales

in

Printaih

which the Prophet enlarges upon the duties of the wife

towards her husband are very numerous

The

best

Fatimah

known
').

is

that in which

There are

also,

Salamah, sets forth

respect

to

her

all

popular Native literature.


instructs his

own daughter

however, numerous copies of a story

which the Prophet at the request


or

in

Muhammad

that a

of a

woman named

woman

Islam,

hereafter for the practice of wifely virtues

Salam

has to do or refrain from

husband and the recompense that awaits her

in

in

in

the

^).

In copies of the Achehnese version of this work

we

find before the

Compare Tambih 8 of the Tambih tiijoh blaih (N LXXXV below) in which appears
Achehnese version of that story. A Turkish version of the "Admonition of the Apostle
of God to Fatimah" is mentioned in the Zeitschrifl der deutschcn Morgcnldndischcn Gcscll1)

an

schaft LI

38.

2) In addition to the
to

Indo-China^ 2^ series,

in the llofbibliothek at
title

of e?;J>i

'

place

Malay copies mentioned by Ur. Van der Tuiik (in Essays relating
found
II, p. 32
33), I know of two in particular which are to be
Berlin under the numbers Schumann V, 24 and 44, which bear the

of

the

previous

one Lu'JJ, ^^^^ or q'^jS which occur in other

The Malay text is printed as an appendix to an edition (apparently lithographed


at Bombay) of the Malay rendering of as-Sha'ranl's al- Yawaqlt wal-Jiruuihir by Muhammad
Ali of Sumbawa, written by him at Mckka in 1243 Ilcg. The woman is therein called
versions.

lam.

Sa-

176
of Salamah a word which

name

is

written ^^yi or Uj^s; but the Acheh-

nese always speak of Printaih Salam and understand thereby the work
duties

or

of Salam,

printaih

having

Achehnese the meaning of

in

"work, management".

Ilikayat

Hikayat peudeiieng (LXIX).

pcudcueng.

Fatimah, the daughter of

by her
his

husband

Muhammad

was once suspected of unchastity

one day as he sat

for

Ali,

balcony of

in the front

man within.
woman had but

house he heard her as he supposed conversing with a

Inquiry however brought

it

to light that the chaste

addressed her husband's famous sword [peiideueng] Doypaka (Dul-faqar)


asking

how many infidels it had helped to rid


The sword had replied than these slain

it

of their heads

Ali's hand.

infidels

by

were past

counting.

The occasion

of the husband's suspicion and enquiry gives the oppor-

tunity for sundry profitable admonitions to


in

the

form

women, though not couched

which are conceived the Prophet's well-known lessons

in

to Fatimah.

The two next

stories

we

find

sometimes united as one, sometimes

attached as an appendix to the history of the

same

Ilikayat

is

life

of

Muhammad. The

the case with the Malay versions.

Hikayat soydina Usen or tuanteu

')

Ushi (LXX).

Soydina Usen

The martyrdom
mad,

is

certainly

Asan was king


Yazid)

in

jet herself

of Hasan and Husain the two grandsons of

nowhere more curiously


at

Medina; the

infidel

Meuse (Egypt). Lila-majan

-),

Muham-

told than in this hikayat.

Yadib (Ach. pronunciation of


one of the two wives of Asan

be persuaded by Yadib to poison her husband.

Usen succeeded

his brother

on the throne, but was soon warned by

Meuruan (Marwan) of the designs of Yadib and thereupon


an army of 70000

men

for

Kupah. He met Yadib

in

set off with

the

plain of

Akabala (Kerbela), and there Usen and most of the members of

1) Tuanteu =: "Our Lord" is the Achehnese translation of the Arab.


Achehnese pronounce as soydina.

2) This

name

is

Sayyiiiiaia^ which. the

compounded of J.aila and her lover Majnun for whom she had
Majnun and Laila are represented in the processions of the Hasan-

evidently

a desperate passion. Both

his

llusain feast in South India. See Herklots Qauoon-c-islam^

2''

edition p.

126

7.

died

family

Sharibanun

by carrying

his chief object

whom

Usen's wife, with

'),

won

the faith. Yadib

for

he was madly

The murderer of Usen was Sama La'in

oft

love.

in

The hands were severed

^).

from the body by a certain Hindu called Salitan.

Miihamat Napiah (LXXI).


the son of Ali, ruled in Buniara, a subdivision of

Muhamat Napiah

kingdom of Medina

the

blood

of the

He was

'').

the kings of China, Abyssinia,

etc.,

his allies,

mas

Yadib was

cave.

them

all.

appointed

(=

among whom were

lost his

two principal pangli-

small remnant of Yadib's followers took refuge

Muhamat Napiah followed them in on horseback and slew


At this moment the cave closed of its own accord, and the

man and

holy

slain.

as the avenger

brought their armies thither.

also

Napiah gained the victory though he

in

^^'^
'

his hosts in the

assembled

so

Yadib and

(Kerbela).

dream

indicated by a

Asan and Usen, and

of

of Akabala

plain

Hikayat

horse

his

still

resurrection.

their

for

are

awaiting patiently the day

there,

The

horse

feeds

on

komkoma-

saffron-) grass.

Tamim Ansa (LXXII).

Taml'n Ansa.

According to the Arabic

who seven

tradition,

the Hijrah

years after

Tamim

^)

ad-Darl was a Christian,

a Moslim; he then resided

became

Medina, transferring his abode to Jerusalem after the death of the

at

third caliph. It

is

sacred traditions

')

we

from

he had heard

was the

said that he

how

are told

Tamim

who

first

the Prophet quoted a story which

taught the faithful with regard to Antichrist

having narrated

as

the

1) In

etc.

,-y*^

he had already

Tamim

is

represented

once, before his conversion, he and a

comrades chanced to land upon an

of his

2)

how

of what

confirmation

in

"told stories". In the

island,

number

where they found

work of Herklots p. no, the wife of Husain is called Shahr-bano.


properly = "Sama the accursed". The Arab, name is Shamir. In South

-*",

see Qanoon-e-islam p. no.


it seems to be pronounced Shumar
Ibnul-Hanafiyyah
after his mother, borrowed his reputation
called
Mohammad,
This
3)
rebellion and afterwards became the
unsuccessful
Shi'ite
from
an
despite
almost in his own

India

patron saint of some branches of the Shl^ah.

This corrupt tradition


catalogues

and

^r!^

'-^:^***3

>**"^~^

4) See the article


5)

also

comes from India.

of the Fathul Kareem Press

at

the

find

Urdu books mentioned

both

a:y^>

i-Wr^^vJ

cX.*.^^^

on Tamim

in

the

Tnhdlb of Nawawl,

See the gaJiih of Moslim cd. Bulaq 1290


II

Among

Bombay we

II.

Vol.

II,

ed.

Wtistenfeld.

pp. 379 et scq.

in the

\^laXa>

178

another monster (Jassasah) waiting to break

Antichrist and

oose at

the approaching end of the world.

This more than apocryphal tradition

known only

in

its

Malay form, and

')

is

the basis of a story hitherto

which

in

all

the data of the ancient

Moslim history are turned topsy-turvy and even made a mockery of.
We are told that Tamlm was kidnapped by an infidel jen while bathing
Medina, and

at

borne away on a highly adventu-

forcibly

thereafter

expedition through the upper and lower worlds, in the course of

rous

which he was withheld

Among

the

far

from Medina

one hundred years.

for

encounters which he had we are told of that with

many

Daddjal (Antichrist), the believing and

infidel jens that

made war on

one another, and the prophet Chidhr.

Tamlm's

Meanwhile
years

after

was

wife

from

divorced

by the

his disappearance,

caliph

husband

seven

(for to this

period

her

Omar

the story belongs), and joined in marriage with another husband. Before
the consummation of the marriage,

and

spirits,

long

hair

wife found

his

and

faithful

invisible to

all

and

foreshortening

After the

and Tamlm

at

necessary change of

Umar's command related to

had beheld and experienced

-)

license.

poem Tamlm

the Achehnese

In

name

(two too many), while his wife bears a


narration of the occurrences

1)

Probably
to

(Zeitschrift

444

45

the
d.

this

tissue

Eastern

of impossibilities

Archipelago.

deutschen morgenliind.

story

In

W.

originated

Geiger's

Gesellschaft

Bd.

in

South

Balucischc

XLVII

its

Tamlm

own

India

S.

and would
sake.

With

and was brought

Tcxte mil

about a nameless infidel merchant in the time of

ventures in the main recall those of the

has been

thas does not belong to her.

as insipid as can be,

is

much

given three children

is

only please an audience which likes the absurd for

thence

other worlds

in

has been translated into Achehnese with

wrongly called a "helper"^) of the prophet; he

The

was covered with

man.

Malay story

This

he

that

brought back by good

at the well; but he

unrecognisable.

quite

shape they were re-united,


the

him

Tamlm was

Uehersctzting

we find on
Mohammad, whose

440

ff.)

pp.
ad-

of the Malay and Achehnese legend, though

Kareem Press at Bombay there


Urdu and Afghan.
2) This may be found in the collection of V'on de Wall (Batav. Genootschap) under
N" lOl. See p. 17 of Van den Berg's Verslag and Van der Tuuks notes in "Essays relating
to Indo-Chlna''\ 2' series, p. 34, in which mention is made of the copies preserved elsewhere and of a lithographed edition.
Angar.
3) This is the proper meaning of Ansa, which is a corruption of the Arabic
the details are very different. In the catalogues of the Fathul

appear versions of the story of

Tamim

Angari

in

179

regard

style

to

Achehnese

work belongs

the

also

him

of the

Hikayat

of a son of the second caliph

wine

for using

when he returned

to

the Achehnese legend

Abu Samaih

is

scourged

').

embroidered on

this

framework,

have been an excellent reciter of the Quran,

to

said

is

become

but to have

which

latter

Umar.

Medina Umar had him scourged

a second time and he died shortly afterwards


In

part

Abu Samaih.

him that the Prefect of Egypt under the

told of

is

poorest

the

literature.

Abu Samdih (LXXIII).


Abu Shahmah was the name
It

to

a prey to self-conceit.

As

of this fault, he let himself be over-persuaded

means

by

to cure himself

to take strong

Jew

he had an intrigue with this Jew's daughter.

drink,

and

When

the child born of this intercourse was shown to Umar, he had

cups

scourged to death

son

his

his

in

in spite

of the prayers of the faithful and

the tears of the celestial nymphs.

Hikayat Soydina Amdali or Tanibihonisa (LXXIV).


This

from

little

poem borrows

opening verses.

its

especially at

Hikayat Soy-

its

name, not from

actual

its

begins with a versified

It

Mekka and Medina,

list is

dina Amdah.

of holy places,

list

but elsewhere as well, set

out any regard to order. Every couplet in this

theme but

down

with-

followed by another

The first place mentioned


Hamzah (Ach. Amdah) on the mountain

containing a prayer for welfare and blessing.


the grave of

is

of

Uhud

Mohammads'

(Ach. Ahat)

Women

are

in

in

owes

second

of

the

habit

name

poem when
custom that the poem

of chanting [meucliakri)

holding a rateb Sainati.

they join
its

uncle

"").

It is

of Tanibihonisa

to this

(cL*^..''

^V^)

i-

this

c.

"Admonition

women".
Another hikayat which
i)

is

often chanted in the

womens'

ratcbs,

whence

See Xawawl's Tahdlb al-Asma ed. Wiistenfeld p. 385.

deeds, so popular in these countries, may with


have been composed from a Persian original. (See Dc Roman van Amir Hamza by Dr. Ph. S. van Ronkel, Leiden 1895). So far as I have been
able to ascertain, it is very well known in Acheh, but only in the Malay rendering. The
subject of this romance is very popular in the form of //<//'.?, or stories iiausmitted by
word of mouth. Persian, Afghan and Urdu versions arc mentioned in the catalogues of the
2)

The legendary

satisfactory

certainty

story

of Hamzah's

be said

to

Fathul Kareem Press at Hombay.

Kateb inong.

it

So

called Sculawenct or Rateb inbng

is

(LXXV),

contains a mystic com-

mentary on the somewhat obscure verse of the Quran 24 35. This


versified treatise deals in brief with sundry celestial and primeval mat:

ters,

derived

being

doctrines

its

who were once represented


and who won over to their

mystics,

Pansuri

from

those

Achch by

in

of pantheistic

circles

the heretic

teaching of the unity of

Hamzah
God and

the world a large majority of the people throughout the whole Indian

Archipelago.

The

three succeeding

poems

chiefly serve the purpose of

certain definite Arabic prayers. All

upon the head of him who

fall

manner of

recites or

blessings,

recommending
said, will

it is

wears them as an amulet upon

his person.

rolani

Otetibakoy

Hikayat
Dteubahoy
Rolam.

complete
^

to

bliss

')

(LXXVI) appeared after his death in a state of


man in a dream, and told him that he owed his

salvation to the continual recitation of a certain Arabic formulary.

Hikayat

was revealed to Edeurih Kholani

It
^"

lani.""

^ vision, that the prophet

Arab. KJiidhr) owed

the

^)

(LXXVII) by Mohammed

in

Khoyle (Ach. pronunciation of Khidhir, from


long

his

life

and to some extent even

his

salvation to the multiplied repetition of certain passages from the Quran.

The Hayakl'

Hikayat

Hayakf
1 ujoh.

Mohammad

(J^i^^) tujoh

to his

(LXXVIII)

companions

as

an

or seven haikals are given

charm, which

infallible

upon the throne of Allah, and which guards


evils,

them every

brings

blessing and enables

is

possessors against

its

them

by

inscribed
all

to hurl their enemies

to destruction.

Achura (LXXIX).

Palilat uroc

Hikayat
Palilat uroc

This

Achura.

Arab.
a

poem
iiLj*:2s)

illustrates in

of various

recapitulation

(David),

1) |.^Lii!

2)

'iuJis:.

^f^^^

125 verses the surpassing merit

i.

important events
Ya'kub,

Musa, Isa

Suldyman and Junus) which are

e.

^^.j^^'

"^Utbah the youth.

(/rt-Z/y^?/,

month Muharram, by

of the day Achura, the lO'h of the

prophets (Adam, Ibrahim,

Dawot

some

in

the

(Jesus),

lives

of certain

Ayyub, Yusuf,

stated to have occurred

i8i

on

The

day.

this

bath and to

therefore advised to take a ceremonial

arc

faithful

on the day Achura.

fast

Hikayat Dari (LXXX).

Dari

who

HikayatDari.

(written Da/iri^))

silenced

name

of an impious, ungodly heretic,

Moslim teachers by

the

all

the

is

reasoning, so that the creed was in danger. Happily there

Imeum Hanapi

the latter,

orthodox schools

four
his

master to

Abu

e.

(i.

remained

disciple of

whom

one of the

-).

named), though no more than a child, begs

is

him measure

let

Hanifah, after

still

Ahmat

one great teacher to withstand him, named

powers of

unequalled

his

strength

his

open discussion with

in

enemy of God. Should he fail, Ahmad could then be appealed to.


Imeum Hanapi succeeded in making such brilliant replies to the two

this

catch-questions given him that Dari was covered with


pelled to retire for

"How

were:

God doing

can

shame and com-

good from the theological arena. The two questions

God

occupying spacer", and "What

exist without

is

moment?"

at this present

The Kisah Abdolah Hadat (LXXXI)

Cheh Marahaban can hardly

of

^si^h'^HadaV

be regarded as a biography of Sayyid Abdallah al-Haddad, the great


of Hadramaut.

saint

Achehnese

fined himself to

and

the

rich

after his

The learned

author,

who

also translated for the

of the teaching of al-Haddad, has con-

version

poetical

drawing attention to the excellences of that wali

blessings

given

forth

by him while yet

alive

(saint),

and even

death from his grave at Trim (Hadramaut).

Surat kriman.

Surat kriman (LXXXII).

The

inhabitants of the meanest class in the sacred cities are in the

of occasionally distributing

habit

"Last Admonitions^)

1)

Dahri

story.

It

is

morphists;
this,

are

that of
2)
3)

in

materialist

but the class of people

more ready

to

regard

The purport

used as a proper name in

is

to the sect of the

is

this

Mujassimah or anthropo-

mysterious

sect.

teacher of

Abu Hanifah was

usual

which also appears

title

people".

his

Acheh who amuse themselves with stories such as


name as a family appellation rather than

in

this

unsophisticated pilgrims the

or atheist, but

added that Dahri belonged

an heretical

The
The

Prophet to

of the

means

Arabic

even

among

we find this name at the end


man (from the Mai. Kirimati)

in fact called

Hammad.

in native versions

is

of the Achehnese version, but


i.

e.

letter or epistle.

Wagiyyat^ "admonition", and


its

popular

title is

Surat Kri-

l82

namely that a

always the same,

appeared to some devout man


revealed

to

him

while before, the Prophet has

little

(generally called Abdallah or (^alih) and

that the patience of Allah

exhausted by the ever-

is

come

increasing sins of the Moslims; that great calamities are soon to


as a foreshadowing of the

upon the world

Mohammad

the Lord has granted to

may make some

he

believers

If all

they

will

in

them a chance

zealous of good works,

if

prepare themselves by fasting and almsgiving and break off

remain backward
for

conversion of this people.

now show themselves

communion with those who

all

a period of respite in order that

last efforts for the

will

day of Judgment, but that

the

refuse

fulfilment

believe

to

in

this

of their duties, there

and

vision

still

remains

of salvation.

which are usually composed

wagiyyats,

chief object of. these

in

the most slovenly style, appears to be to assure certain profits to those

who

distribute them, for they contain repeated

to hearers or readers to
It

especially in the

is

and emphatic injunctions

recompense the bearers of the

more

distant parts of the

tidings.

Mohammedan

such as West Africa and the East Indies, that the wagiyyat,
of

re-appearance at stated

its

dissemination always

Its

intervals, finds

results

scattered

in

world,

in spite

most widespread

Mohammedan

belief.

revivals,

coupled with religious intolerance.


the

In

Glds of July

IndiscJic

notes, of such an "admonition". It

1884

published a translation, with

appeared

in

1880 and was circulated

during that year throughout the Indian Archipelago, and

its

consequences

excited a good deal of attention. Since that time various Malay, Javanese

and Sundanese editions of the wasiat

come

my

into

possession.

They show

nabi, as the natives call

it,

have

different dates, extending over a

period of about 200 years.


I

discovered also that these treatises are

in fact

current at Medina

but do not attract the serious attention of the public

We

West
About

Louis

from

learn

Rinn

^)

that

in the

holy

')

cities.

they enjoy a great reputation

in

Africa.

i)

1891 there descended again upon the East Indian Archipelago

In 1884,

doubt as

to

when

first

their being

ment and defects of

obtained a copy, having then no data to guide me,

genuine Medina publications, owing

style.

Hut

these

phenomena

are

position of their editors.


2)

Murahouts

et

Khouan

(Algiers 1884) p. 130.

IT.

fully

felt

some

to their clumsiness of arrange-

explained

by

the

low social

i83
a perfect shower of copies of a

new

was printed and reprinted

edition. It

in

Malay

in

Hindustan and at Batavia to publish polemical

Palembang

at Singapore,

etc.,

and led orthodox pandits both


treatises in

which the

wasiat was branded as a lying vision.

As may
some form
versions

in

be supposed,

well

other to

appeared on the

I2th

Rabi'^

these publications find their

all

Acheh
hikayat form. One

or

but

is

know

of only two

of the

vision

is

Achehnese

al-awwal 12 17 Heg. (A.D. 1798), and the

were neglected, are announced


seer

in

according to this the vision

old;

calamities predicted as being about to visit the world

The

way

for

here

1222 Heg. (A.D.


called

Qalih

if

the admonition

1807

8).

(Ach. Salehj, and the

compiler has given as Achehnese a complexion as possible to his subject.

There

is

a curious prohibition against the slaughter of

fat

rams, with an

injunction to eat fish only.

The

other vision appeared to Sheikh

1287 (February 1871);

in

Ahmad

this version specific

(Ach. Amat) in Du'lqaMah

Achehnese

vices,

such as

increasing tendency to thieving as a result of opium-smoking, are

the

quoted as among the causes of the approaching judgment.

9.

Religious works.

Books of instruction and

c.

The works which we have

edification.

just dealt with

might be called edifying

legends from which the reader could draw sundry lessons. Those which
follow (some in hikayat form,

edifying

way

instruction

some

in

nalam and some

in prose)

contain

on religious matters, with an occasional story by

of illustration.

In

so

far as

they are free from heretical or corrupt traditions, they

are capable of being of service to the student or the pandit, but they

are

more

them

to,

history.

strictly

To

intended for persons

who have had no

knowledge of the Law, of


such they supply some

and that too

in

the

schooling to guide

religious teaching or of sacred

compensation

for this deficiency,

most agreeable form which appeals most to the

multitude, and without any severity of discipline.

Some

of these

works are compiled from the Arabic. This

have

where ascertained, but

noted

84

may

it

be true of one

or

two of the

others as well.

Tiijoh kisah

Tujohkisah.

(LXXXIII).

*)

These "seven
separates

same

more

stories" stand

from the

class

this

last

or less on the
fact

in

the

boundary

line

which

two comprise the

first

Hikayat nubuet (N LXII). The following

sort of material as the

a table of their contents:

is

On

the

2.

Nur Mohammad
The creation of Adam.

3.

On

death.

Kisah

I.

Kisah

Kisah
Kisah

4.

Kisah

5.

The
The

Kisah

6.

Hell.

Kisah

7.

Paradise.

Tambihoy

Tambihoy

insan"^)

(LXXXIV).
to man" contains

sacred

of

"logos").

signs of the approach of the resurrection.

"Admonition

collection

Mohammadan

resurrection.

insan

This

(the

legends

interspersed

but

variegated

with

ill

religious

assorted

lessons

of

various kinds.

The

first

Korah of the

the

to

raised

life

vanity

the

things

Certain

greatness,

earth

the

such

Namrot

Bible,

of these legends

of riches,
are
as

described
Allah's

is

as

to

draw the attention of mankind

the

all

ai

life

^^
No

fish

is

of

of this world.

man's apparent

which supports the

and so on. After mention has been made of sundry events


of the Prophet, there follows

Tavibih tujoh bldih

Tambih

that

counterpoise

throne [araih), the

by way of conclusion,

the preceding hikayat, a lengthy description of

iiijoi

Karon

Jomjomah = the skull


Adham = Ibrahim b. Adham.

power and

fame,

find

= Nimrod,

Ebeunu

LIX), and

(see

The main purpose


to

gives a long series of stories from the sacred history,

Mohammadan and pre-Mohammadan. Among them we

both

writer

gj^g below a

Arab.

list

2) j^L^o'bJ!

= history,

in

just as in

the next world.

(LXXXV).
of the contents of these "seventeen admonitions".

introductory remarks are required.

i) JCaoS

life

in

story, but in

Ach. also =. chapter.

i85

Tanibih

On

i.

belief.

On

2,

piety.

ficance of the religious obligations.

the faithful.
teacher.

teaching

given

bathing.

10.

by the Prophet

Usury.

12,

to

He was

Pare'.

from

narrate
after

among

behave towards one's

to

The

death.

On

The

11.

On

9.

').

excellence of

in

place of an infidel

restored

to

experience the terrible

Jomjomah

of Raja

history

names was

to the similarity of

subsequently

actual

Fatimah

daughter

his

Story of a certain believer named

15.

by the angel of death by mistake


bin

of pandits

signi-

Ritual religious exercises. 14. Irregularity in the

13.

who owing

Ata,

bin

7.

Our duty towards our neighbour.

performances of these exercises.


Jadid

How

The high

4.

Duties of the wife towards the husband. This contains the

8.

charity.

apostasy.

The high rank

5.

Duties towards parents.

6.

On

3.

so

life,

doom

named Jadid

that

that

carried off

he could

awaits kafirs

also passingly alluded

is

the punishments inflicted in the tomb.

to.

16.

for

invoking a blessing (seulaweuet) on the Prophet.

17.

The recompense

Tambihoy Rapilhr-) (LXXXVI).

RapiiTn^'^^

In this bulky "Admonition to the thoughtless"

we

find

some of the

many

subjects which are dealt with in the seventeen admonitions, and

others besides.
of the

XXVI

derived
wife.

His

and
*),

whom

of

in

the

Lam

di

his hikayat in

first

Jumada

I'akhlr 1242

Hijrah,

to

is

kali

ulama of the Government.

as-Samarqandl lived

library

his

1827.

mention has been made as an ulama and

as

be found

of the

= January

'')

and

half of this century

Gut from the gampong of

comprehensive table of contents of the Arabic


Abul-laith

kali

was father-in-law to the well-known Cheh

successor

and subsequently

nuscripts

in

in

original, the

the 4th

century

author
of the

Dr. O. Loth's Catalogue of the Arabic

of India

Office

(London 1877)

p.

34,

Ma-

under

147-

The Achehnese
only

exhibits

i)

Teungku

of

He completed
son

of which,

Mukims, who lived

name

the

Marahaban
raja

was translated from the Arabic by the learned

It

See

p.

rendering, which

few

trifling

^aajo".

3) See Vol.

I,

p.

4) See Vol.

I,

pp.

loi and Vol.


loi, 187.

II,

somewhat

differences

175 above.

2) j^-JLsLij!

is

p.

2i

free in regard to form,

from the Arabic original as

regards

into

division

its

chapters.

86
has 95 chapters, thus one more

It

than the edition noticed by Loth.

few years ago this work was printed at the lithographing esta-

bhshment of Haji Tirmldi

Even

the

date

of the

figure

last

in Singapore,

but

in

a most slovenly manner.

undecipherable. Probably this

is

the only Achehnese book that has up

to the present

appeared

is

in print.

Meuhajoy abidin (LXXXVII).

Mcnhajoy
abidin.

^j^^ Minhaj al-'Abidin of the celebrated Ghazali (t

we have

the same class as the worke


of sundry matters bearing on

im),

just dealt with. It

is

belongs to
a collection

religious law, doctrinal teaching

and even

mysticism likely to be of use to the devout layman. The author of the

much abbreviated Achehnese

version

is

Cheh Marahaban

').

Hikayat niaripat (LXXXVIII).


This mystic disquisition introduces

word seems

the

for there

to

have been selected merely

nothing either

is

contents, for the

its

kasidah (qagldah), but


for

purposes of rhyme,

form or contents of the hikayat that

in the

Arabic kasidah. The name given to the work above refers

an

recalls

to

itself as a

first

and most important part

is

devoted to the

knowledge (Ma'ripat) of the nature of mankind.


In this work, as in so

many

among

similar mystic writings popular

Malays, Javanese and Sundanese, man's knowledge of himself

is

the

so con-

ceived that every item in the description of his nature, his characteristics
etc.,

corresponds to something in the nature and qualities of God.

and the whole world are revelations


image

concept prepares the way

this

developed by our poet under the


the Achehnese),
in

i.

e.

title

mean

for

the dikr (Ach.

like)

advancing oneself

is

of tazvhid (pronounced

in this

The peculiar method of this


recommended to his readers by

great.

See Vol.

I.

pp. loi, 187 and Vol.

all

tc'cliit

its
is

by

things and

as forms of its manifestation.

described at great length as the best

II,

knowledge of

self

which

is

at the

so to weld together the doctrine of

unity with existence proper that the

l)

second theme which

the unity of God, which embraces

same time knowledge of God, and

is

for the

which man and the world are thus included


Finally

Man

of the Godhead, and reveal

little

Ego may be merged

recital of the confession of faith

the poet,

p.

28.

is,

in the

which

as he himself expressly

borrowed from the Malay work Umdat

says,

great Achehnese saint

Besides this

Though

Abdurrauf {Abdoradh),

its

is

al-ghafirtn

di

Kuala

').

also quotes the

"-).

a stumbling-block to those

way more and more


period

of a

who have been brought

in

Acheh.

It

which Mohammedanism

in

is

at present

belongs to the posthumous


this

in

Archipelago

Indian character; under the Arabic influences which are

an

exhibited

Tcungku

school of theology and religious learning which

in the

products

alias

by the

does not appertain to the heretical form of mysticism, this

it

Hikayat ma'ripat

winning

al-uiuhtaj'in written

famous mystic work our author

latter

Achehnese version of the Tanblh

up

87

continually gaining ground in our age the ideas which

only pass current

among

it

upholds could

the less developed or in the remoter districts

of the country.

HabibHadat.

Hikayat Habib Hadat (LXXXIX).

poem

didactic

al-Haddad,
gives

also

is

of the

clothed

great

Hadhramaut

Sayyid Abdallah

saint

Achehnese dress by the same pandit, who

in

a biography of the author in verse

^).

The World, Death,

Paradise and Hell are the four themes of which he treats.

The Meimajat*) (XC)


e. "intimate converse" (especially with God),
is also the work of Cheh Marahaban's pen. It is a prayer in verse which
the author recommends the pious to recite during the last four hours
i.

of the night.

above

(p.

It is

i8o) but in this last the narrative

the poet takes

Of

the

thus similar in character to the three

all

form

is

entirely absent, as

the praise of his formularies to his

following

works,

still

more than of the

hymns mentioned
own

credit.

foregoing,

is

it

true

that they take the place of "kitabs" or books of instruction for those

who do not know enough Malay


from them that children and
of the

illiterate

prime requirements of

nations of the

attributes

i)

See above

2) See

p.

17.

above pp. 185 and 186.

3) See p.

4) Arab.

181.

3L>LU.

men and women

religion.

is

gain a knowledge

Their chief contents are expla-

of God, of the angels and the prophets and

some description of the laws


iseumayatig).

or Arabic to read the kitabs. It

as

to

purification

and

ritual

prayers

Hikayat

i88

The twenty attributes of God {sipheu'et dua ploh) have suppHed the
names of three works which however deal also with other kindred subjects.
Sipheuet

dua ploh (XCI).

Sipheiiet
^

dua ploh.

This subject

Lam

dealt with in prose

is

called

Teungku

Bhu' after the name of her gampong. She was the wife of the learned

Malay Abduggamad
of her

Nalam

by a pious authoress

own

Patani,

and composed

this treatise for the benefit

disciples.

Nalavi sipheuct dua ploh (XCII).

sipheuet dua

This

ploh.

somewhat

is

composed

author,

in

poem on

prolix

nalam, the

by an unknown

the same subject

Achehnese

imitation

of the

Arabic

rajaz metre.

Nalam Sipheuet dua ploh (XCIII).


The same subject has also been cast

Second Na
dua pish.

Teungku Ba' Jeuleupe, so called from


disciple of Chch Marahaban and died

much

is

Beukeumeunan (prose).

briefer

and more

in

his

nalam form by a third writer

gampong

fully

in

Daya.

He was

30 years ago. His version

terse than the last.

Beukeumeunati (XCIV).
This

r
t
elementary teaching. It is composed
much used for
by an unknown author and deals with the same subject as

prose

in

the
Its

this

and

last

a treatise

is

also

of ritual purification and prayer [seumayang.)

those

name is a genuine Achehnese expletive. Beukeumeunan means "If


be the case", and the Achehnese when at fault for any other

introduction, are

wont

to begin their sentences (in the colloquial only)

with this word or one of


wishes in this as

in all

its

synonyms

').

The

writer of this

little

book

other respects to be a good Achehnese, so he

introduces every fresh paragraph with beukeumeunan, whence the name.

With the exception

Lam

Teungku
which

Abda'u
(nalam).

am

of the

Bhu', this

is

above-mentioned

treatise

of the

lady

the only prose work of the Achehnese with

acquainted.

Abda'u or Nalam Cheh Marduki (XCV).


^j^.^

1)

.^

^j^^

The Malays

Achehnese version of "a catechism

for

laymen" (Aqidat

often use "kalau bi^gitu" in the same way. {Translator.)

189
31*^3

It

warn m)

takes

Among

verse written by the Arabic pandit Abu'l-Fauz al-Marzijki

in

its

name from

the (Arabic)

word with which the

the Malays also this didactic poem, which

elementary schools,

is

known

Abdau; and

as

is

original begins

largely recited in

Malays the Achehnese

like the

are in the habit of repeating after each Arabic verse recited,

111

Akeubaro karim

It

catechism,

Akcubaro

11bears
work

contains, in

It

nalam,

in

karim.

the peculiar

title

of "Tales of the

ten chapters [pasay), the principle truths

its

together with

composed, not

is

trans-

(XCVI).

')

This somewhat lengthy

Generous".
of the

its

nalam or an imitation of the rajaz-metre.

lation in

rr-t

').
'^j.

laws of purification and prayer.

the

but

in

the Achehnese sanja

and has

thus the form of a hikayat.

Nalam

Nalam

Jaiube (XCVII).

Jawoe.

Cheh Marahaban's Nalam Jawoe


component

Although the name


the

more particularly devoted

to the

his

in

"Malay didactic poem'', the work

signifies

most part composed

announces

is

parts of the seiimayang or five daily prayers.

in

Achehnese;

introduction,

there

is

the author

as

but,

is

for

himself

an occasional intermixture of

Arabic and Malay.

Hikayat
Basa Jawoe.

Hikayat Basa Jawoe (XCVIII.

To complete

our

list

basa jawoe (Poem

blance

of

for

the

little

in

work

called

Hikayat

which without a sem-

method, a number of Malay words are given with their

Achehnese equivalents.
ration

we should mention

on the Malay language),

the

It

is

intended to serve as some sort of prepa-

reading of Malay

books to those who are practically

ignorant of Malay,

i)

It

was lithographed by Hasan at-TochI


sundry

contains

Maulid's

Mohammad Xawawi
2)

The

Merciful".

first

at

and prayers. Tliere

Cairo (1301
is

H.) in the Majmu"^ Latlf which

another edition

with

commentary by

the pandit of Banten.

half-verse runs thus:

"I begin {abda'ii) with the

name

of Allah and of the

CHAPTER

III.

GAMES AND PASTIMES.

Ovcr thc cradlcs of

Childrens'
^y^"

Various games of young and

I.

as

were hypnotise him. These are called keumbay

it

purpose

like

Acheh are hung sundry objects


infant by their colour and move-

children in

which charm the

of paper

out

cut

ment and

little

old.

served

is

by

biuidi.

boiled eggs coloured red and transfixed

with a small piece of stick, with paper ornaments fastened on the top.
In Java they use rattles called klontongan

and a

little

When

the

string

on cither side to which

^)

is

with membranes of paper

attached some hard object.

wooden handle passing through the drum

of the rattle

is

membrane in quick succession. In Acheh these are known under the name of thigtong or
geiindrang changgue (frogs' drum), as the noise they make bears some
smartly twisted round, these pellets strike the

resemblance to the croaking of

frogs.

Boys play a good deal with tops

[gaseng).

made from thc kiiiuukoih-^ruxt by


way of axis, and making a hole in the
our own
js

-)

thrusting
side.

kind of humming-top
stick

through

it

by

The wooden tops resemble

'').

Mai. kc/cniong (Translator).

i)

The Malay word is identical with the Achehnese Cgascns;). Among the Malays both
and young delight in spinning tops. Skeal mentions (Malay Magic p. 485) a bamboo
humming top, said however to have been borrowed from the Chinese. (Translator).
tops
3) Those for children the wood of which is brought to a point are called "female"
2)

old

(gaseng inong);

those

as

the

from

rule

losers.

tops"

in

(I

different

have

seen

the North of

round iron spindles gaseng

with

point gaseng pheuet. There

li

is

a certain

game with

biilat.^

this last in

those with a chisel-shaped

which there are two

gampongs, and the conquerors are allowed


a

game very

like

eland). (Translator).

this

to

parties,

"hack" the tops of

played by school-boys with similar "peg.

191

The

flying of kites

')

(pupb glayang)

is

a favourite recreation of both

and young. Children play with a simple kind of

old

be

also

seen

often

in

Java;

Grown-up people

tukbng.

NATIVE house;

in

Achehnese they are

fly large,

IN

kite

which

may

glayang

called

but very pretty and more compli-

THE FOREGROUND A KITE (GLAYANG).

cated kites which are called glayang kleucng from their resemblance to
the

kite

in

the

as

to

bird).

(the

representation

of one

of these

may

be

seen

photograph. Their owners have matches, sometimes for money,

who can

get

his

kite to rise highest, the cords being of equal

length.

Meiirimbans:
'^

^)

is

the

name

Both are

One

of the

that

of his

1)

2)

game

set

usually
played
J
J
>.

one against the other. Each


shell.

of a

'

is

by
two boys
J
--

provided with the top half of a cocoanut

on the ground at a certain distance from one another.

opponents kicks

his

opponent a certain

own shell backwards and


number of times he has the

Mai. layang-layang (xn Penang 7van). See Skeat's

Malay Magic

The Malays have a game called porok somewhat similar

pp.

if

he hits

privilege

484485. (Tnuislator).

to this

(Translator).

I^cking the
cocoanut.

19of giving

rough exterior of
Advantage
of winning.

Knuckle
bones.

adversary

vanquished

his

his shell.

The winner's advantage

many

in

games

of the native

to inflict slight bodily tortures like the above. It

right

instance with the meusimbang

played

usually

stones,

by

'),

all

the players

consists in the

thus too for

is

kind of knuckle-bone game with little


Each stakes a like number of stones,

girls.

which are thrown up, caught, or

by

hand with the

over the

rub

ground while

off the

lifted

in

motion

turn according to certain rules. Should any player

in

become "dead", each of the others may smite the back of her hand
seven times with the backs of theirs held loosely. The slaps are counted
aloud up to seven with the same ceremonious delivery as in the exer-

charms

cise of certain

").

employments which await them

Girls often imitate in play the

on as mothers and housekeepers. They


spathe

Or
the

of the betel-nut, pretending that

{seutu'c'')

else
fine

the

mother makes

for her

neudong as

where
is

it

it

is

longest.

called, across

After each insertion the woof


serves

is

from

for little girls.

stands

The

for

weaving from

then set to weave

is

home

with a

of

wood which

also

weave mats

slip

They

betlra).

from plantain-leaves. The task of stitching edgings


pattern |X|X|XlX

rice or rice-flour.

is

to right with similar stripes.

left

= Mai.

of the

spathe by drawing off

this

The daughter

driven

("weaver's rod"

as peiino

it

piece

in

daughter a warp

innermost coating (seuludang) of

alternate strips
this

sand

sift

later

in the mirah-pati

on the borderland between play and earnest

triangular spaces are covered with patches of various

colours in imitation of the larger borders used for cushions and curtains.
Dolls.

Dolls

[patong]

are

made from

These puppets, on which the

the seulumpu'e pisang (plantain-stem).

little

ones lavish their motherly care, are

not untastefully dressed up in sundry bright-coloured shreds and patches.


Playing at

Boys are given imitation weapons

playthings, swords and reun-

as

chongs made of the midrib of the cocoanut


of the leaves of other palms, and so on.
political

pamphlet

children that

little

^)

notices

as

leaf,

guns from the midribs

Teungku Kuta Karang

characteristic

boys when howling

lustily

trait

in

his

of Achehnese

can be quieted by nothing

so well as the sight of a flashing weapon.

The general meaning of s'tmbang is to throw something up and catch it on the open
in the closed hand. (This game is also played among the Malay and by them
known as main s'iremhan). (Translator).
i)

palm or

2) See Vol.

I,

p.

307.

3) See Vol.

I,

p.

186.

193

was a custom formerly more common than

It

lads, generally of different

To

with one another.

now

it

game

start the

a quarrel

is

young

for

is

gampongs, to have wrestling combats

riaying

at

[inculhb)

picked on purpose

'),

and there have sometimes been bones broken and blood spilt in these

mimic

battles.

The game,

made

meiisomsom ("covering up")

called

of rope.

One

sand, and the others must in turn prod for


is

found not to have been stuck inside the

who

succeeds in thrusting his stick within

again,

ring, has the privilege of hiding

game

favourite

it

the ineii'awo.

is

The

so

The

ball

^).

backwards over

ball
if

as bu (rice)

they catch

(<?',

now

party has

endeavour to

to

the

in

player

first

Should they succeed

it.

this position

head

his

the

it,

From

is

to form a sphere,

as

as clay.

lit.

= "to

he

Two

plai-

and

parties

come up") stands

so,

in

the

game

is

one of the players throws the

direction of the opposing side;

"dead". If they

hit the

doing

in

e.

made by

is

near a small stick or rib of the aren-leaf [pureh] which

known

i.

stand at a suitable interval from one

their

which opens the game

side

may

"hider"

circumference of the

the

some hard material such

number take up

of equal
another.

of ball

interior with

the

filling

stick. If the stick

until another wins.

young leaves of the cocoanut

the

with a

ring, the first

it

ting

it

fail,

the opposite

bu with the ball and overthrow


the

first

player

then dead.

is

Should he survive, he has another turn, but each turn only gives the

When

have a single throw.

to

right

the whole side

dead,

is

it

is

suc-

ceeded by another.

There are two other games played with balls, on which there is no
winning [meiinang] or losing [talo], but which only give an opportunity
for the display of bodily strength

ragd) which

football [sipa

Malays

1)

^),

and meulagi.

For instance

challenging air;

war

lays

and

skill

this

a leaf on

his

of the opposite

last

the

ball

tramples

or

spits

it

amongst the

made

{raga,

head and then throws


party

games an

oljject

which

is,

as

it

of plaited

on the ground with a


it, after which the

upon

were, guarded by one side or by one player

called bit\ the comparison being the care with which


3)

[meuteuga-teuga). These are

also such a favourite pastime

begins..

2) In sundry
is

B one

In

is

The

the ball

is

men

tend the

staff

of

!i'"c.

Malay game of scpak raga resembles the ?iiciilagi as here described, except that
kept going with the foot and not with the hand. The Malays sometimes attain
Malays
skill in this game. I have seen a party of lo Province Wellesley

extraordinary
II

Hiding the

heap of

on which a third player "prods". The winner,

hide

played with a ring

conceals this beneath

players

of the

is

'3

Game

of ball,

194
rattan)

thrown into the

is

kept going by a smart blow

is

with a sort of bat

off

back by the other.

which a

in

by one

[go)

ball [boh)
side,

known

is

in

their

mupH-pet or meiiko-ko

play together.

Two

sides of equal

which both

^),

number

are formed.

of a

^/^

as vieusinggarn.

a combination of our hide and seek

The Achehnese have

thrown

is

and then struck

variety of this in which a stick about

yard long serves as go and a shorter stick as boh,

soners-base

is

flying

it

up and driven

it

with the hand, all the players doing their

by fresh buffets.
another game of meulagi

best to keep

There

of the players, after which

by one

air

')

girls

The

and

pri-

and boys

first

go and

hide in different places, while meantime the second keep their eyes shut

backs

or their

and keeps watch

When

.selected.

at the

that

is

bti,

player of the hiding side, however, stays


for

the hiders call

however keep leaving


bu),

One

turned.

which a tree or some similar object


k'6,

the seeking begins.

their hiding places to

succeeds

in

one of the

touching the body of any of the adverse

side, or in

it is left

unguarded,

change places, and the former seekers must go and

then

players

moment when

[bu) at a

taking possession of the tree


the

when

their opponents. If

they are safe from being touched


latter

The hidden ones

"go and eat rice" [pajoh

to say they run with all possible speed to the tree,

by

is

hide in their turn.

A guessing

Meiivaja-raja bise (or Use' or sise)

is

another game played by the

chil-

dren of both sexes. Between two sides of equal number stands a neutral
raja,

sometimes supported by a couple of ;;/r//;//r6'd'i' (mantris or ministers)

to prevent unfairness on his part.

Each

side has also a

nang ("mother"

rather than takes part in

Those on one

who

or leader)

directs the

game

it.

by agreement which

side choose

be pushed into the midst by the nang; and

this

of their fellows

to

communicated

secretly

is

is

to the raja.

keep the

ball

up 120 times without once allowing

it

to drop.

They kick

it

upwards with

the ball of the foot, and skilful players in so doing often bring the foot up level with the
breast,

feat

quite

impossible

to

the

ordinary

European, who can make nothing of the

game. The Chinese play a similar game with large shuttlecocks. ( Translator^.
i) The Malay game of hide and seek is called sorok-sorok., see Skeat's Malay Magic, p.
500. {Translator).
2)

The

first

other hides;

name has
the

second

reference to the shutting of their eyes by the one party, whilst the
to

the

call

"/v",

when

they

have

all

hidden

reminds us of "cosey", the cry in the English game of hide and seek].

themselves ["ko"

Translator)

195

A
by

now

player on the other side


chosen.

thus

his

own

If

"dead"

go over as
with

but

side,

name

guess the

he guesses correctly, the child


other

the

to

exception

the

if

tries to

of the one

wrong, then a new choice must be made

he guesses

of the nang,

side.

The

loses

the game,

side

question must

in

which are

killed

all

which then begins

afresh.

variation of the

above

to be found in the viiimayio' -mano'

is

kapay

'^^^

^^^

board ship.

or vieukapay-kapay ("the cock on board ship" or "ship game"). In this

two

also

sides,

Between them
covered

each under a nang, take their stand opposite one another.

which

a mat, on

is

with a kerchief.

The

"Let him crow then"!

Now

"What

"A

else"?

and

also

All

same way

the

in

Meusugot-siigot

1-11
little boys

by

(child-stealing)

ayieit

the

called

is

who

"mother"

Kemiri-nuts

{bbJi

kreh)

will

also

is

boh kreh

2)

kind

not

the

in

of

row and who plays

^).

Two

in

in the end, in

touching the children one by one

line as

being "dead".

games

various

in

Acheh

as well

sides contend, usually for a wager

the other's nut with his [piipo

of marble-game

(Ach. mupado^,

favourite

pastime

bbJi

in

krcli)

*).

which the

however both with young and old

This word properly means, "combing each other", and


the children

who

play in

it

is

applied to this game simply

take their places one behind the other, as

do when combing each other's hair.


Main sesel or kachaii kueh (vide Skeat, Malay Magic,

is

women

are

to

equivalent.
3)

Game

The

used.

is

The most

wont

split

first

used

are

as in neighbouring countries

who

is

in

and so compelling them to quit the

i)

girls

nang and must try and prevent the children

spite of the efforts of the

because

played by

in front of her.

The enemy however always succeeds

part of thief.

There

is

child-stealing

from being "stolen" by the one

to

The game

the players but one stand in a row one behind the other, each

foremost

as

is.

o\
-).

holding on to the back of the garment of the one

the

it

as the meiiraja-raja bise

or meiicJio -cho

')

blind cock".

the child crows three times as requested,

and then the nang of the opposite side must guess who
then proceeds

to her

that"? She replies, say, "English".

is

the cargo", "Cocoanut shells".

is

his face

comes up

7iang of the other side

opponent and asks "what ship

"What

one of the children with

sits

Schoolboys

game with

p.

494) appears

in

some

parts

of Great

Britain

and Ireland play

horse-chestnuts. (Translator).

4) See the

to

be the Malay

Translator).

Tijdschrift

Tcysmannia

for

1893, p. 786 et seq.

similar

"hacking"

Games with

196
the

game
many

called nieugato

mupanta

or

mention of which

'),

is

to be found

The number of players is not limited, but it can if


necessary be played by two. Each player has a boh gato or bbli panta,
e. a betel-nut or a small hemisphere of horn or ivory. Some small
in

hikayats.

i.

7 to

made
9 feet. The

first

hole

holes

are

Whoever succeeds

The

i,

2,

3,

hard

finger of

to spring forward.

boh panta into or nearest of

all

to the

fixed

them further away from


game is to get the boh panta
number of times in the following

At each

2,

3,

2,

shot the player endeavours either

object of the

row a

the holes in the

all

it

it

gets a shot at the others to send

hole,

order;

panta from the

by squeezing

hand and the middle

right

in getting his

that hole, and so on.


into

of the

his boh

the missile

the elastic pressure of the fingers causing

left,

third

a straight line at intervals of from

They shoot

finger

fore

in

by each jerking

players begin

into the third.

between the
the

the ground

in

etc.

knock away

to attain the hole next in the sequence, or to

boh further from

Doing the

opponent's

his

it.

has the double advantage of driving the adversary

latter

further from his goal, and of giving the player another shot at the hole,

much easier than


The first who has got

which

the

first

into

all

is

number

of times

is

the

first

the

now

is

holes

in

last

is

closer

up

to

it.

the row the required

who come

called the raja, but those

esteemed winners. The

also

as he

after

him are

the only loser and has to stand at

hole and hold out his ankle [gato) as a target for the winners

Each of them

[theun gato).

own
member not

gets a shot at

from the third hole, not

it

The

only with his

bbh

luckless

infrequently becomes quite swollen in consequence

of this operation, and

in

is

it

The "hopping-game"
played

but

those of

also

in

any case

painful.

nieuingklie or meungkhe)

(hop-scotch; Ach.

good many

different

his fellow-players.

all

ways

as

regards

we

details;

is

give

here a single example.

figure

is first

The

small scale.
four lines

i)

it

is

as

like that
it

represented on the next page on a

are called

eu'c

(boundary of

drawn from the extremities of the boundary

This game

same

the

marked out

lines enclosing

is

what

also
is

common among
called

in

the Malays

who

play

Ireland "three-hole span".

it

It is

The Malay name

is

very

to place his bare

take shots at them

in

knuckles level with the rim of one hole, while

turn from the next. (Translator).

all

much

main guli\

played as here described, except as regards the penalty imposed on the loser,

compelled

The

and bottom

at top

with marbles.

land).

who

is

the winners

197

known

are

as

(strings);

)iiise

A F

the spaces

player (there are usually only two) has a


as

throwing

play

to

ball

game with

the

his ball into rtivioh

fruit

as rumoJi (houses).

of the lumbe or leumbe^)

The

{boli).

Each

first

A, and then hops up to

player
it

begins by

without touching

D
C

the line

{eiie)

and kicks

it

back with

his free foot.

within the boundary close to which he

and leaps over


the

come
or

into

fall

taking care to land with one of his feet covering

it,

or

contact with the

eiic

on

his

fail

to

alight

and the opposite side


If the

on

till

first

all

turn

is

course of any of these operations

in the

Should the player

boh.

Then he hops back

stops, plants his feet together

or the mise, or should he


bbli

when he

leaps, then

he

is

dead,

plays.

successful the

same

is

done with rumbh B and so

the spaces have been visited. In kicking back the boh out

of the spaces

F,

it is

not counted as a fault

if

the boh lands in another

rumbh and not beyond the boundaries, always provided


is

hop badly,

that no

boundary

touched.

The winning

side

sometimes refuses to give the

except on the condition of the

i)

We

have noticed

this tree

cause goitre and other diseases.

latter's

above Vol.

I.

pp.

losers their

revenge

playing their boh up through the

411 412

as the

dread abode of jens, who

198
smaller ruinohs on the right of the dotted live ab, which of course gives

them

Playing at
^^

'

""

much worse

chance.

serious variation of the wrestling bouts

more

gampongs hold with each


("pushing and resisting").
river-game", as
Pidie

it

This

is

in

the ineuta -tham

meukrii'cng-krii'eng "the

called

also

called meugeudeu-geudeii. It

is

which lads of different

be found

to

is

often played on the banks of

is

it

other,

rivers or creeks. In

played by full-grown youths,

is

generally of sides chosen from two different gampongs, and preferably


in the

evenings or at night at the time of the

full

moon.

The two sides are composed of an equal number of champions who


meet on some wide open space, often in the presence of a great crowd
of onlookers. One side (whose task is tliani = "to withstand" and
drob

"

catch")

to

The

opponents.

drawn up

is

and keeps watch on their

line

in

endeavour to give each of their adversaries a

latter

push and then to run away at the top of their speed so as


to

reach a boundary

one of their enemies. Should one of them succeed

unopposed
is

he

gaining the boundary

but the latter and his fellows

the

He

refuge.

(for

more than one

do their best to catch the assailant before

pursue the fugitive)

reaches

possible

pushing an opponent, then he who received the thrust

after

reckoned dead

may

in

if

being overtaken by

line far in their rear, before

for his part resists his capture with

might

own side are allowed to help him. Thus


when once taken captive the fugitive
sanguinary battles often occur
whilst he whom he pushed remains alive. As soon as the
is dead,
whole side is dead, the order of the game is reversed.
and main, and none of

his

Keuchi's,
fighting
to

elders

games

or

panglimas are

to prevent all serious violence.

through rage against his

resist

their

own

feelings

at

habit

of attending these

prisoner

in

such as

and have no right

in

continues

revengeful language through

blow or push, that they have joined

free will

who

they admonish to surrender;

fate,

and they remind players who indulge

annoyance

the

in

any case

might display themselves

in the

game

of

to cherish revengeful

in earnest

when

the

game

was over.

As we
we must

see,

not

games savouring of war


forget

that

it

are very popular in Acheh. But

was necessary

before the Diain pukiilan at Batavia and the


of Java

could

they now are.

for the police to intervene

prang desa

in

other parts

be brought within bounds and rendered as harmless as

199

more peaceful

line

variation

drawn, called

is

galah

eiic

produced indefinitely

at

are a

number of other

{eu'e

and separated by equal


ber

of players;

thus

and so on. Each

number

in

the

eu'e

cross

all

the cues

in the figure).

both ends. Crossing

intervals.

This

').

below)

make

this at right angles


etc.,

of equal length

Their number depends on the num5

liiiteucng,

eiie

form one side

their

main

supposed

is

14 players

guarded by one player, and these guards

is

till

EF

CD,

Imteu'aig)

12 players require

figure

has to try to

side

(A B

-)

to be

lines

the vieuta-tluiin cue galah

is

way from

they get behind the

in

in

the game.

The

front of the line

line

6,

(6 in

other

a-

D.

A
D

M
B
On
the

their

guards,

cross

lines

way they
in

are exposed to the danger of being touched

which case they become "dead". The guards of the

must only

strike in the direction

advance; that of the main


to

hit

he can

1)

his

line

adversary no guard

jump with

variation

by

can strike in every direction. In trying

must move further from

his feet touching.

of this

game

is

from which the assailants

his line

than

Otherwise his blow does not count.

played by the Malays of the Peninsula under the name

galah panjang (Translator).


2)

The name galah given

to

the principal cue or boundary

with which prahos or other vessels are propelled up a

river.

is

taken from galah the pole

200

Should one of the attacking party be touched then all are dead, and
the players change places, but if once two of them succeed in passing

backwards and forwards unopposed over the space between the

LM
Rice-mortar

game

and CD,

At

the

women

this

is

and they are the winners.

called bilon

time of the

full

moon

number of grown

often assemble to fob alee eumpieng

eumpieng-pounders". Each holds


leaf,

in

literally

'),

girls or

= "to

her hand the mid-rib of an aren-

and with these implements they pound

of which
Girls

is

together in the rice-

all

called

fond

of a sort of knuckle-bone game, played with keiipida

^m^W

meugeiiti,

known

fruit

meugiiti,

or,

in

in

Java as native

some

almost identical with that called kubii


Chato.

Another game which


bles

in

geiitu'e

effect

often pleasing to the ear.

are

^^ ^^^

^^.^^

young

pound wath

mortar [leusong) to the accompaniment of a singsong chant the

Knucklebone game.

lines

principle

the

is

much played by women and

Wooden

is

and

is

is

children, resem-

played with peiikida or

boards are sometimes used

as a rule the required holes are simply

being called the uriie

This game

in Java.

Javanese dakon and

seeds or pebbles.

sazvo).

places, miipachih inbng'^),

made

or holes of the game.

in

for

it,

but

the ground, the whole

201

The two
commence

players put 4 ancii's in each of six small holes.


play,

to

selected

hole

The
the

in

from

is

and from right to

player,

contents

the

taking the

turn

from any one

pips

each they pass.

followed

direction

takes

his

in

hap-hazard and distributing them among the other

at

dropping one

holes,

each

Then they

the

of

he

The

the opposite ones.

in

left

hole

to right for the six holes next

left

with

reaches

his

last

goes on playing. Should he reach an empty hole with his

player

and

pip,

last

pip he

dead.

is

Should

sueb

as

has

still

happen that when the player reaches the

it

him

of pips enables

store

his

called, that

is

it

is

last

hole which

to gain, he finds 3 pips therein, he has

may add

to say he

these

remaining and put these 4 as winnings

to the

his

in

can then go on playing with the pips in the next hole [adbc
the "younger brother" of the

may

but

sii'eb);

if

this

one he

He

geudong.
siieb

next hole be empty he

retain the winnings but the turn passes to his opponent.

Thus they go on

until

there are too few pips

left

outside the two

geudongs to play round with. Then each of the players takes one turn

one

with

of the

board. If he

remains

compelled to put

is

opposite side, he loses


is

which

pips

it

his pip in

and when

all

own

over on his

side

of the

one of the holes on the

the pips are thus lost the

game

finished.

Pachih
aware

a favourite

is

that

has

it

Hindustan.

Appx.

pp.

')

may

LVIII

in

Acheh. They are well

also possibly be of foreign origin, for the description

LIX

to be found in G.

A. Herklots Qanoon-e-islam,

and Plate VII, Fig.

by the Klings now

that there are varieties of this


is

men

been introduced by Klings and other natives of

{-^pachih)

of play adopted

Pachih

the

has been adopted with but slight modifications and even

It

such as there are


of pacJiisi

game among

game

in
in

2, differs

Acheh, so that

from the system


it

would appear

India also.

played with two, three or four persons. Each player

sits

one extremity of the cross-shaped pachih-board [papeiien pachih) or

at

pachih-cloth

[ruja pachih).

Ornamental cloths are sometimes made

for

this

game, with the squares handsomely embroidered. The starting points

for

the

l)

players

The name

is

are the squares A, B,

C and D;

in

these each places

derived from pacchls the Hindustani for 25 that being one of

(according to Herklots' description the highest) throw of the game.

tlie

higlic^l

Pachih.

202
his

the

like.

little

conical pawo'ih

The

players

which are made of wood, of betelnuts or

now make throws by

turns with seven cowries

203
of squares, then continuint^ along

line

returns to

He who
rayeii)

brings his 4 pavvoihs into the central [dalani or biingbng

the winner.

four throws to

and

that

{adb'c);

may

throw, but a player

fresh

succession,

in

which distinctive names are given have, as

"younger brother"

called, a

of a

thence up the middle squares to the round central space.

first

is

The

the outside squares, until he

all

is

it

to say they give the privilege

not throw more than three times

throw that has no name the turn passes

after a

is

at

once to the next player.

may

After each throw the player


will

advance. The chief obstacle on the


that

this,

in

choose which of

another's

is

point (A, B,

when one

player's pawoiJi

already standing,

or D);

way

it

is

the

latter

his four pieces

he

to the central space consists

on which

reaches a square

must

retreat to his starting-

only in the squares marked thus

which

are called biingbng (flower) that several pawoiJis arc allowed to stand at

once and take their chance.


Certain

other games which enjoy a great

popularity

in

Java also

The
game.

under the name of machanan or the "tiger-game" and some varieties


of which resemble our draughts, are

Acheh under

in

rimtt'eng-rimueng

the generic

game

by

introduced

from

India

no longer

is

known, there can be no doubt of


been

of meu-

Although

("tiger-game").

actual origin of this

the

name

known

as

its

having

is

shown

the description in the Qanoo?i-e-islain of

Herklots Appx. pp. LVIII and LIX, Plate


VII, Fig.
in

of two

games commonly played

Southern India. Indeed the figure on which

according to Herklots the Mogul and Pathan

game
is

as

it

is

called in

precisely the

same

South India,
as that on

is

')

played,

which the

Achehnese play the tiger-game we

shall first

describe and the Javanese another variety of


the

same. Herklots also mentions another

played

on the same board or

and sixteen sheep".

figure,

game

called

and which he

Madranggam

calls

^),

"four tigers

tiger

204

The

rules of the

Achehnese tiger-game are

are placed at A, and the eight sheep at B, C, etc. to

keeps

The two

as follows.

tigers

while the player

I,

more sheep one of which he puts on the board whenever

fifteen

one of those

in

Each moves

play

killed.

is

along the lines of the figure.

turn

in

take a sheep each time in any direction or even

The game

3,

of the figure to the other, as for example from

to

on the

may

tiger

or from

M.

to N,

played on the second figure

is

tigers

and

fifteen

and a sheep are

first

placed

here represented with


sheep.

The

or 7 from one side

tiger

board wherever the player

likes.

Fresh sheep are added one at a time after


each move, so long as the supply

The game ends

either

are killed, or the tigers

move

to be unable to

fneurimu'eng-rimiieng-dd

word do

contradistinction

in

to

the sheep

hemmed
hence

it

in so as
is

called

The

next game.

in the

howling recita-

has in Achehnese the general meaning of "swooning, falling into

tions,

to

the

all

which belongs originally to the verbiage of mysticism and

')

betokens the state ot religious ecstasy arrived at

when

lasts.

So

faint".

it

is

applied

the

to

when hemmed

tiger

in

and unable

move.

The third game is called ineurimueng-rimueng peuet ploh" ("tigergame played with forty") as each player puts forty pieces on the board
and the pusat (navel) A remains unoccupied. The players may move
'^

and take

every direction and so eventually win, though no one

in

obliged to take

As
sort

another

if

the two sides are


of

game

move appears more advantageous.


exactly equal in number and in privileges,
can only

of draughts

belong to the tiger-games.

Dutch dam

The

It

is

for

these

all

From

figurative

called in Java

this

sense be said to

dam-daman, from the

games are usually drawn on the ground,

and small stones or the kernels of

1)

in

= draughts.

figures

the

savour of the

is

Arabic
divine

t/tiitt/

things

fruits serve as pieces.

(vJJj^) =: savour

of the

mystics

or

taste

in

general,

and

Where
in

neces-

particular the

which sometimes causes a temporary

loss of

consciousness.
2)

The Malays play

all

three

under

the

name

of

("tiger-game" or "tiger and goat-game".) (Translator).

maiu rimau or main rimau kambing

205
sary

(as in the case of tigers

ferent sizes

and colours.

and sheep

for instance) these are of dif-

2o6
civilization

every region of the globe. The same

in

is

true of legends,

theories regarding nature and the universe, proverbs etc.

But

games such

that

marbles warn us of

tiger-games and the

the

the fact

have been so widely spread by borrowing

these

as

it

must prevent us too hastily excluding every form of indirect contact


even between peoples entirely strange to one another.

or interchange,

The examination

of apparently

long since recognized

same time an

by

survive

in

1n.vn.

Of
some

method of training the young practised

More than

in

this,

the games of children there

dead or dying customs and superstitions of their ancestors, so

that they form a

NiTowong

pastimes has a value

comparative ethnography and gives us at the

in

insight into the

peoples.

different

insignificant

this

we

museum

little

find a beautiful

of the ethnography of the past.

example

districts in that island a figure

is

Towong

the Ni

in

composed of a

in Java.

In

creel or basket

with brooms for arms, a cocoanut-shell for head and eyes of chalk and
soot, dressed in a

rigged

wise
is

garment purposely stolen

out so as to give

it

placed in a cemetery by old

something of the human

women on

that

humming

to the
it

is

inspired

Some women
its

with

life

own accord and

itself

to answer
telling

there in

it

carried

process.

endowed

supposed to move

by gestures the questions put


the

to

it

maiden of her destined bridewill

cure his ailment,

on.

Children

who have

been present and beheld

often

Towong, imitate

when other
the

artificially

is

groom, pointing out to the sick the tree whose leaf

of Ni

is

it

by Ni Tozvong during the above

hold a mirror before the figure thus

by the surrounding crowd,


and so

later

of verses of incantation, the popular belief being

with a soul, and after beholding


of

shape. This

the evening before Friday

amid the burning of incense, and an hour or two

away

and other-

for the occasion

superstitions

in

it

or

original to obscurity, as

their

play,

and continue

this

apparation

to

do so even

Mohammedan orthodoxy have


is the case in many districts of

relegated

Java and

also at Batavia.

Thus too

in all probability ancestral superstitions

survives in certain other pastimes of the

young

in

and disused customs

Sumatra

as well as in

They might be described as games of suggestion. We find an


example among the Sundanese in Java, who in their momonyetan, me-

Java.

Diirakan and similar games impart to their comrades the characteristics


of the

ape, the peacock or

some other animal. The boy who submits

207

game

to be the subject of the

made

with

dizzy

placed under a cloth.

He

by

his

is

and shaken

incense

to

and

fro

sometimes

is

companions,

tapped on the head and subjected to various other stupefying mani-

Meantime they chant incessantly round him

pulations.

incantation the meaning of which

of rhyming

comprehend, but

which the animal typified

in

and attention drawn


After

while,

cocoanut and other

some of

to

if

fruit trees

his

hands and

characteristics.

up, climbs

or else, perhaps, he

with greediness;
its

spreading

cries with his voice

its

mentioned by name,

with the activity and gestures of an ape,

fruits

a peacock, imitating

like

is

chorus a sort

in

impossible fully to

is

charm succeeds the boy jumps

the

and devours hard unripe


struts

its

it

till

with the gestures of

tail

human

at last his

conscious-

ness returns to him.

When

the

"suggestion"

actual

does not take

place,

becomes a

it

The "charmed" boy, when he thinks the proper


game
time has come, merely makes some idiotic jumps and grimaces and
pure and simple.

perhaps climbs a tree or two or pursues his comrades

in a

threatening

manner.

The
the

children

common ape

whose nature
suggestion

At

is

in

Acheh

[bn'e),

play these games, and

it

is

especially

supposed to be imparted to the boys by means of

').

the time of the

selves to give their

make

also

the cocoanut monkey [eungkbng) and the elephant

their faces

full

moon young

lads

sometimes disguise them-

comrades of the same gampong a

fright.

unrecognizable by means of a mask and

by unwonted garments

are

known

Those who
their bodies

where they imitate

as Si Daliipa;

the forms of animals, they takes their appellation from that which they

copy

l)

For

the

kanji riimi^

Stambul

name

metigajah-gajah ^- to play the elephant.

e. g.

is

"ape-suggestion"

vieuteiimeting kaye'e

they

sing

the

following

cheuko\ jigo'-go'

le

si

verse:
ba/iggi^

chho'
i.

e.

already slippery, already slippery, he finds a crooked tree.

of the eungkong,

the elephant suggestion

owing
is

to his constant

kalichhc\ kalichho\

"Chho', the paste of

Opium smoker

(nick-

yawning) shakes him". The verse containing

almost entirely untranslateable.

208

Games

2.

Amongst
played

games so

the

far

of Chance.

described

money according

for love or for

there

are

several

to preference.

which are

There are

also,

however, a large number of purely gambling games, the issue of which


quite independent of the player's

is

opponent of

fleece the

The

passion for gambling betrays itself even

whom

have no money to stake. Boys


grass

for

the

can knock

by throwing

a distance

wager on the

detect this

father

by the pain of
and

As might

fraud

which

fill

up

it.

The

is

up

or cut in twain a grass-stalk set

players

they have cut; so

result equal quantities of the grass

bish, putting a little grass in

Pitch

down

who

lads

[nteutie')

his grass-knife {sadeu'cb) at

go home. Then he hastens to

his

to

is

send out to cut

fathers

happens that one of the party has no grass

often
to

their

among young

play the hurling-game"

often

cattle

won by whoever
at

and the object of which

skill,

money.

his

left

when

his sack with leaves

it

it

time

is

and rub-

on top to cover the deficiency, but should


the fun of the

a sound thrashing at

ineiitie'

is

often succeeded

home.

be expected, there are sundry gambling games

naturally

which correspond with our "pitch and toss"


puteli (black or white") so called

').

For instance vieuitam-

owing to the Achehncse leaden coins

game having been whitened with chalk on one


side and blackened with soot on the other. The name is still in use,
though the two sides of the Dutch or English coins now employed are
originally used for this

called respectively raja or

house).

In

patong ("king" or

"doll")

and geiidong

(store

{mupeh) one player takes two coins placed close

"tossing"

together with their like sides touching each other, between his

thumb

and forefinger and knocks them against a stone or a piece of wood


letting

them go

person

who

1)

have

The Malay
all

as he does so.

tossed

a head

tlic

pitch

Should both

fall

on the same side the

coins wins; otherwise his opponent

and

is

the victor

'-).

is
called main hunga kcpala^ as the copper coins in use
one side and some conventional ornamentation (bunga) on

toss

(kepala) on

the other.
2)

Among

known

as

te

tiijti

one of the commonest gambling games played with coins

Malays,

luhang

Newbold and Skeat;

(=

the

played as follows: a hole


certain

number of

coins,

"aim-at-the-holc").

It

former erroneously calls


is

say

made
five

in

the ground

a-picce.

The

is

that

mentioned but not described by both

is
it

tujoh lubang

(=

"sevenholes").

It

and each of the two players puts up

first

i)layer

is

stands at a prescribed distance

209

There are three

Meusreng

over

shell

The banker

("twirling").

edge and twirls

its

games which may be

sorts of

banking games,

called

of which one of the players or an impartial outsider acts as banker.

in all

Before

it.

on the ground, one of which

is

the banker

gemlong and the

the cocoanut-shell,

lifts

').

Meuche. In

game

this

banker takes a handful from a heap

the

money, and counts

of copper

called puteh (white) or

the stakes of the losing parties while he doubles those

in

of the winners
2

on one of two spaces marked

his stake

Then

other itam (black) or patong.

and sweeps

ceases to revolve he puts a cocoanut

it

Each player puts

it.

places a coin on the board on

to see

it

whether

odd or

consists of an

it

even number of coins. The players are divided into sides who stake

odd or even. The banker often

against each other on the

and joins

the

rest

else

he takes no

part in

recompense

rest as

the

in

pieces of

money

opposite

for his bankership.

Mupiteh. The banker

sits

game as a player without an opponent, or


the game and takes a commission from the
mat

[iireu'eng

or fiches (from piteh -=

has in his control

piteJi)

pitis,

120

Chinese coins) and takes

a handful from this store. Meanwhile the players stake on the numbers
one, two, three and four.

by

and

four,

all

The handful taken by the banker

with the remainder

left

over,

o counting as

winners twice their stake and rakes

numbers

and

to

tries

opponent

own

as his

throw

Should he

hit

profit

lie

4.

divided

The banker pays

the

the stakes on the other three

in

into

the

and the

Should

hole.

first

he

fail

player has a shot at

he has another turn; otherwise the turn passes

it

player get

now

'^).

coins

the

all

one as they

selects

is

win who have staked on the figure which corresponds

become

to
it

to his

get

any

in

his

with a spare coin.

opponent. Should

where some
and some remain outside, he gets a shot at one of the latter selected by the adversary, and if he can hit it without touching another {Inxclui) he wins them all; otherwise
he only wins such as fall into the hole. In Malacca this game is known as main koba.

the

first

fall

in

the coins into the hole, they all

all

his property;

Translator).
1)

as

This resembles the Chinese game of

lette.

/^//,

which

is

however

Instead

of a

coin

the

Chinese spin a

little

more complicated,
somewhat as in rou-

slightly

players are allowed to bet on the lines separating the spaces,

the

heavy brass box with a

The box which has


The lid is drawn off when

lid

fitting

over

it,

containing a die cdloured red and white.

a slightly rounded bottom

is

spun

the revolutions cease

in

the

centre

of the

the winners are those to

game

is

gambling games

in

2)

This

and the handful


II

is

whose

practically

China.

table.

and

side the red inclines. {^Translator).

identical

Counters

with the Chinese fantan.^ the most popular of

all

are generally used by the Chinese in place of coins,

carefully divided into fours with a small

bamboo wand. {Translator).


14

210
Card games.

gamcs with cards

file

arc of

European

origin.

"spade game" from the Dutch "schoppen"


a pack of 52 cards, from which an even

Each plays

apiece.

gets

of

rid

among 4

dealt

who

As we

of players receive

trumps)

played

Each

in

turn

with

makes

a pack of 32 which
his

own trumps. Those

by Islam. In Acheh

game

of chance

most rigorously

is

only the leubes and not even

It

who

as

so

carried

is

are

rule

far

opposed to gaming

holiest

days of

common

all

the

two great

religious feasts

Nay more, they

year.

which form

actually allow the

religion, to

gaming-house.

law simply as a means of increasmg their revenues.


of prohibition within their territory,

order

it

To

transgress an

was necessary, they

soned, to obtain their permission. Such licence they granted on

rea-

payment

on the amount staked. This source of income was called upat.

I'^/y

Under the general name


the

be used

former days the uleebalangs utilized this prohibition of religious

In

of

these

shut their eyes to

public,

in

meunasah, a public building originally dedicated to

of

all

even those headmen of gampongs

that

transgressions of this kind on the

Fights

is

game.

are aware, every kind of

gamble.

as a

first

majority of the people consider no festivity complete without a

great

Tax on gam-

whoever

themselves about this prohibition. Most of the chiefs and the

concern

the

played with

opposite one another are partners, and the side that gains most

sit

forbidden

chance.

number

is

(literally

')

Meutrob ("trump game" from

is

players.

tricks wins the


Islam and

Dutch "troef"

the

"spades")

turn, following not suit but colour;

in

his cards wins the stake.

all

Meusikupan

various

sorts

of gambling {meiijiidi) the

Achehnese include

of fights between animals which form with

favourite and universal a pastime.

As

a matter of fact

on simply

tional to find such contests carried

for the

it

is

them

so

very excep-

honour and glory

of victory.
Nurture of
fighting

mals.

ani-

Many

The

stall

occasionally

strength

in

rearing their fighting animals.


bull

or

which

is

fighting

separate

l)

and other prominent personages spend the greater part

chiefs

....
of their time

buftalo

and the fighting ram are placed

in

always kept scrupulously clean. They are only

taken out, led by a rope, for a walk or, to measure their

momentarily against another by way of

trial.

They

are most

Malay sahopong. For an account of the Malay card games, see Skeat's Malay Magic

pp. 487

493.

(Translator).

211

they are being made ready for an approaching


is

kept over them, and

the

up several times

get

will

When

and treated with shampooing and medicaments.

carefully dieted

chiefs,

lazy

constant watch

fight, a

they arc at other times,

as

whether their servants are

in a night to see

Rams are taken for quick runs by


way of exercise, and are exposed from time to time to the heat of a
wood fire which is supposed to rid them of their superfluous fat.

attending properly to the animals.

Not a whit

less care

ting cocks. In the

does the Achehnese noble bestow on his

day time they are fastened with cords

underneath the house; but

They

verandah.

they are brought into the front

night

of these

amateurs are often w-aked

by the cocks while they

cackling set up

the

to the posts

rob their owners of a good deal of their night's

too

The neighbours

rest.

at

figh-

at

fly

by

are being bathed and

having their bodies shampooed to make them supple


they are allowed to

at night

occasionally too

may

one another so that they

not forget

their exalted destiny.

The other
varieties

dove,

of the

the piiyoJi

birds, such as the

fighting

by the Malays tekukur and

called

kind of quail) and the chempala are kept

(a

many

princes and uleebalangs a leisurely

takes

the

place

of

their

devotional

dariicts (crickets) are kept in

No Achehnese
feeding,

the

and the mcnrcub'o

leii'e

bamboo

tubes

devotes a measure

repose

promenade past

exercises

comparable to that he bestows on

[biiloh

of care

and the pleasure of

in

his

to

own

the

ketitiran)

cages

in

(both
')

with

their prisons

The

morning.

daruct).

the

cleanliness,

child

in

the

any way

scrupulous training of these

his

fighting animals.

The

great and formal tournaments of animals are held in glanggangs

(enclosures) for

marked
tators

which wide open spaces are selected. The arena

off with posts or else

simply indicated by

who group themselves around

Certain fixed days of the

it

week on which

in

is

either

the crowd of spec-

an oval circle or square.

fights regularly take place in

a glanggang, are called gantoe (succession or turn).

All
in

who

desire to enter their animals in a contest against each other

the arena must

territory

l)

the

The Malays

obtain the consent of the uleebalang in whose

first

glanggang

in

is

situated

the X. of the Straits call

Achehnese, making allowance

whereupon they enter

them

for the difference in

mcr'cbo'

the identical

pronunciation.

(Ti

into

the

word used by the

aiislator).

212

one another. All

necessary agreements with

takes place several

this

days before hand. At the making of the contract each party produces

and exhibits

fighting animal

his

When

witnesses.

to his

opponent

presence of

in the

have been agreed upon, the two animals

stakes

the

it

are symbolically dedicated to enmity against one another in the future

by being allowed

moment

for a

charge each other with their heads

to

case of birds) to peck at each other.

The animals

down, or

(in

after this

ceremony, said to be "betrothed" {ineutnnang or lam tunang),

while the owners are said to have

The
stake,

stake

and

"made

of each pair of opponents

handed over

is

an

to

')

are,

this stake" [ka ineutaroh).

= principal

called taroh ba'

is

ideebalang or

(who usually

kencJii

deducts a commission for his trouble) to be delivered to the winner after


the

fight

during the
bet

are

midst

Outsiders

over.

is

the

in

meantime, both before and

lay wagers with one another on

fight,

its

men may be

betting

the

struggle

through the crowd, while their

seen

pre-

'pj^g

preparation
^

final

parations.

amounts

of the

animals for

deal of superstition.

Not only

is

moving about

"two to one, three to two!" and

cries

glanggang

so on, alternate with the tide of battle within the


Final

issue; the

taroh chabeiieng or additional stakes. Thus even in the

called

of the

may

^).

good
the fight
savours a a
o

the choice of strengthening and other

medicines controlled by superstition, but ajeiiuiats (charms) are employed

by the owner

make

to

his

by which the opponent

The

courage.

its

ted

to

to

to

start

the

1)

In

the

its

stall.

of bullocks this symbolical challenge

case

will

it

scene of the combat, and in what direction

T\\q animals are in the charge of their masters

is

of

it

lucky times and seasons are resor-

decide at what hour of the appointed day

for

the animal shall issue from


Juara.

weaken and rob

sure to endeavour to

is

kiitikas or tables of

order

in

be best

animal proof against the arts of witchcraft

given to the combat proper); that of rams

is

known

who however

usually

same name as
and of birds /^k//^',

called pupo' (the

is

as peusigbng^

pencluito'^ peiichato' or pcuchoh.

2)

Fights

between animals, though now prohibited by law

Settlements and
recently

and

discouraged

are in the outlying districts, as popular

still

sula as in Acheh. Skeat. (^Malay

information

furnished

183

etc.)

and

especially

dear

to

179

shape of a sharp
thus usually

<";

steel

Magic pp. 468

with regard to

Clifford

the

Colony of the

in the

by the Government of the Federated Malay

these

(/ Court and

483)

Newbold

pp.

48

61

{^Malacca
etc.).

Malay; the birds are generally armed with an


blade

(/<{//)

which

Voutraitcc. CTranslator).

inflicts

Straits

have

till

the Malays of the Penin-

has collected and given in

pastimes by

Kampong

among

States,

vol.

full

the

II,

'pp.

Cockfighting

artificial

is

spur in the

most deadly wounds, and the combats arc

^^^

214

employ one

or

two servants

to look after

them under the supervision

of an expert (juara).

These bring the animals to the scene of the encounter armed with
of strengthening and invigorating appliances so as to render

sorts

all

them

and between the rounds.

service both before the fight

talisman

hostile

some

against the possibility of the adversary having buried

To guard

of the fighting-ring, the servants of

under the earth

each party go diligently over the ground every here and there with
ajemnats which they pull over the surface by strings so as to drive

away

evil influences.

Fighting-birds

indulge

parties

held

are
in

hand by

the

in

one or two sham

real onslaught the signal for which


is

So long

off".

some

back

The

release

first

tries to get its bird

of the

given by the cry "-Ka asi'

is

"it

may

hold

moment, and each

side

been heard, either party

as this cry has not

his bird to repair

juaras while both

their

attacks pending the time for the

real or fancied omission.

birds

worked up

is

critical

to the proper

pitch for

it.

Errors in supervision, committed by one party and ascribed by the


other

to wilful malice, have led to sanguinary encounters

and even to

manslaughter.

Another stimulus

to quarrels over the sport lies in the cries of ap-

plause {sura) of the side whose cock seems to be winning. Should

opponents imagine that they see something insulting


should

or

in

its

the words used,

the language be derogatory to the dignity of the owner of

the losing bird, reunchongs and sikins will be promptly drawn.

one of the

Should

rival birds

become exhausted,

juara and

its

make every conceivable effort to instil new life


speaking to it, by spitting on it, by rubbing it, and so on.

helpers

continues to
to escape

To
ways

a
in

lie

helpless

and breathless, or should

from the fighting-ring, then the combat

European spectator there

is

shun

is

its

the bird

foe

and seek

decided against

something ridiculous

in

it:

"dog of a cock!

trouble and care spent on you!


the

it.

the different

which the juaras and others urge on their fighting-cocks. One

terest insults at

sillier

by

it

If

greybeards dance madly round a yielding cock and hurl the

sees

on

it

into

his

head!" and so on. In

Ha!

is

this the

way you repay

that's better! So's that!

reality

all

Peck

bit-

the
hihi

however, these doings are no

than the excitement which racehorses and jockeys seem capable

of arousing in a certain section of the

European

public.

215

both the combatants decline to renew the

If

are over, the fight

The
ging

said to be sri; in other

lower plane of sport than

cocks and

those

of bulls, buffaloes, rams,

For

').

all

not to disdain this childish sport; indeed

that,

older people are said

was

said of the Pretender-

it

Sultan that he was a great patron of fights between

sums upon the

often staked large

was due to

it

drawn.

is

it

while combats between crickets are ofticially regarded

leuc^s,

an amusement for children

as

words

between chempalas, menreubT)'s and puyohs rank as belon-

fights

to

is

rounds

fight after several

this

sport.

darii'ct

kleng

and

^),

According to what people say,

propensity that gambling was permitted within the

house, since the young and lively tuanku would have been put to shame
before

Tuanku Asem,

old guardian,

his

unlawful

pleasures

donment

of the godless

Even when

if

he openly indulged

time when stress was being laid on the aban-

at a

Achehnese adats

'').

from wagers and matches these pleasures are

free

how much more then when the two


parably intertwined Under the war-created hegemony of
bidden by Islam

between

animals

many

disgust of

fancy that

it

it

the Teungkus,

becoming

rarer

and

to

rarer,

the

great

and of most of the common people. These

chiefs
is

are

for-

sins are inse-

fights

such

in

suflicient

if

last

these fights are held outside the limits

of consecrated ground and on days other than the Friday.

former times there seem

In

taking part

to

now and then come


a

had no compunction about

in the ritual of divine service,

actively sharing in these sports.

juara,

have been individuals who besides

across

combination

At

persons

least in the historical hikayats

bearing the appellation

of leubc

from an orthodox standpoint seems

which

we

irre-

concilable.

i)

To

miipo'')\

oxen, rams and

allow
iu

case

the

buflfaloes

of birds the

to

fight

is

called ptipb" (the actual fighting

terms are pcttlot and inetildt\

in

is

the case of crickets

peukab and mciikab.


2)

Only

so

called

"the

Kling cricket"

for fights.

3)

These

lines

were written

in

1893.

from

its

dark colour

it

is

much used

2l6

fo

Character of

versed

well

tliosc

Ratebs.

3.

the

in

and not trained up

of Islam

lore

to

the Acrieli"

uese ratebs.

Achehnese prejudices and customs, the ratebs of the Achehnese present


the appearance of a kind of parody on certain form of worship.

we here employ

In the connection in which


ratib)

form of prayer consisting of the repeated chanting

of certain religious formulas, such as the confession of faith,

')

number of

different epithets applied to

These ratebs are not

Apostle.

his

signifies

')

chorus

in

some of them

law, but

while

tradition,

the word raieb (Arab.

it,

are

recommended

appertain

others

God, or praises of Allah and

strictly

by the

enjoined

religious

by the sacred

to all believers

to the systems established by the

founders of certain tarlqahs or schools of mysticism.


The

ratib

Samman

in

Eastern
Archipelago,
the

One

which was introduced at Medina

vdtib,

in

whom
,

the

Eastern Archipelago.

The same holy

Ahmad

a century early (A. D.

and whose Malay and Javanese

^ife

1661),

in

was also the sphere of

city

the teaching of another saint,

who

Qushashl,

flourished

full

half

disciples

of spreading so widely in the far East a certain form


tarlqah or form of mysticism.

Shattarite

of the individual.

latter teacher's

on the religious

effect

The teaching conveyed by

votaries

The

^)

more extensive and had a greater

influence was

this SatariaJi to the

indeed confined to the repetition of certain

majority

of

formulas

at fixed seasons, generally after the performance of the pres-

cribed

its

prayers

is

but

{setnbahyang);

many

derive from

mystic lore with a colour of pantheism, which


for the esoteric

o"u-

half of the

r-

people revered as a saint, enjoys a high degree of popularity

of the

\hmad"

first

^j^^

were the means

Muhammad

the
n

Century by a teacher of mysticism called Saiiuuan

eighteenth

It

also a peculiar

satisfies their

cravings

and abstruse.

was not the intention of

Ahmad

it

Qushashl to

Muhammad Samman any more

introduce any

really

new

than of

element into the sphere

shashi.

1)

The

root

meaning of the word

in

Arabic

is

"standing firm";

with a fixed as opposed to a temporary employment, and

to

it

is

applied to persons

things which are firmly fixed

or settled.
2)

The

sons and

between the rUfib

distinction

dikir

which can

as a (fikir

be chanted by

chanted

in

a single person,

every dikr^ whether recited alone or in chorus at fixed seasons,


3)

For further

saint in

details respecting this teacher

Acheh, see

p.

17 et seq. above.

and

chorus by a number of peris


is

entirely local. In Arabia

called ratib.

his pupil Abdurra'uf, also revered as a

217
of mysticism

and win

votaries

fresh

was rather

object

their

for,

the methods of the earlier masters which

they taught and practised. The


evidenced
or

results

of a very

are

Indonesia,

in

to attract greater attention to,

of the labours of the two, as

The

different nature.

traditions of the spiritual descendants of QushashI

oral

countries are restricted to brief treatises on mystic bliss or

writings
in

these

more exten-

ded works on the training of mankind to a consciousness of

their unity

with God, while the outward manifestation of this Satariah

is

to the observance of certain simple

The Samaniah was productive


wherever the former

but

they assemble

volume

young

they

till

the

in

chapel of the
far into

rise to a shout,

once

itself at

felt.

gampong

some other

or

known

the night the dikrs

as

later

due instruction join

laid

and from a shout to a bellow. The

gampong begin by attending this performance as


they commence to imitate their elders and finally
in the

chorus themselves.

of
Shaikh Samman, the originator

and

presence makes

of the

lads

onlookers;
after

are, their

chanting the praises of Allah with voices that increase gradually

ratib,
in

of votaries rather than of actual adepts,

and there prolong

suitable place

insignificant seasons of devotion.

and especially that which precedes Friday, the day of

In the evenings

prayer,

and

confined

down

rules as to the

this ratib,

both composed the words

movements

of the

body and the postures

which were to accompany them. There can be no question but that


this teacher of

for

mysticism held noise and motion to be powerful agents

producing the desired state of mystic transport. In

from some of
conditions

however, have

in

in this respect,

Samman

ratib

All

matter

later times

and such
in

is

dififerred

disciples,

their master

especially the case with the votaries of the

Malayan Archipelago.

the

noisiness

His

dikrs.

gone very much further than

orthodox teachers, even though they


of

he

this

quiet and repose the

proper performance of their

the

for

who made

brother teachers,

his

the

in

celebration

of

may
the

be indulgent

and

ratib

in

the

excessive

gymnastic exercise of the members of the body as an accojnpaniment


thereto, require of
clearly

and

all

who perform

distinctly the

and designations of God

by many
the

as

ratib or dikr, that they

words of the confession of

wanton breaches of

pronounce

and the names

faith

this rule are

even regarded

a token of unbelief. But in the East Indian Archipelago

performers of the ratib

Noisy character of the

Samman

have strayed

path. In place of the words of the shahadah, of the

far

from the right

names

or pronouns

rruib

Samman

2l8

Hn

as

(such

He) used to designate Allah, senseless sounds are

e.

i.

introduced which bear scarcely any resemblance to their originals.


votaries

first

change

contortions,

half-kneeling

standing one

for

in

sit

they twist their bodies into

shaking their heads too and

and shouting a medley of such sounds


This goes on

till

their bodies

fro

all

kinds of

they become giddy,

till

Allahu che

as

The

which they subsequently

posture,

lahii sihihihihi q\.c.

perspiration, and they

become bathed with

often attain to a state of unnatural excitement, which

is

by no means dimi-

nished by the custom observed in some places of extinguishing the lights.


Nasib.

^^Q

divisions

different

separated

present recites what

word
the

is

The proper meaning

called a nasib.

is

"love-poem". In the mystic teaching


of the

fellowship

earthly

most exhausting performances are

of these

from one another by intervals during which one of those

love

is

customary to represent

with the Creator through the image of

faithful

poems

these

it

composed

are

in this spirit

the sexual with the mystic, or else love-poems are


intention of which

is

of this Arabic

which combine

employed the

purely worldly but which are adopted

in a

original

mystic

sense and recited without any modification.

The

nasib

prototype than
find here
in

prose

or

in

Hikayat

Samman.

the

is

pantuns

is

case

Malay

in

Arabia.

in

recited

still

In

further from

place of Arabic verses

by one

or

little

popular

or

two of those present

life

and doings of the

saint

Samman

that he wrought, and the virtues

known

cellences" of

Samman). They

recitation

in

l)

Samman

that the saint

his intercession

A number

all

the wonders

distinguished.

They

are valued not merely for their contents;

regarded as a meritorious task both for reader and

and vows are often made

have the hikayat


is

as

by which he was

Hikayat or Manaqib Safmnan ("Story" or "Ex-

are generally

idea

are also very

Archipelago. These tales are composed in Arabic, Malay

in the

listeners,

in succession,

to.

and other native languages and contain an account of

their

we

nothing to do with religion.

chorus the meaningless sounds above referred


of the

original

with a refrain or vary the performance by yelling

rest join in

Histories

its

or other native languages, tales or dialogues

which have

verse,

Such a piece
and the

Indonesia has wandered

in

recited

whose story

in

if

is

cases of sickness or mishap, to

the peril should be averted.

the object of the vow, will through

bring about the desired end

of other

sacred

tales

arc

The

employed

in

').

the

same way

in

the Archipelago

219
In Acheh, as in the neighbouring countries, the ratcb Sanian

devout recreations

of the

more

certainly

deny us the

category were

rateb

\chch.

right to classify this rateb

not that a description of this rateb

it

The

expounders of the law.

strict

under the head of games and amusements nor should we include


this

one

which a religiously inclined public takes

in

part in spite of the criticism of the

The Achehnese would

is

in

it

requisite as

is

an introduction to our account of those others, which even the Achehnese regard as corruptions of the true rateb Saman, without any

They

gious significance.

may be
now

about to describe can properly become

Acheh,

In

"true" rateb

Mohammedan

as in other

Saman

is

the usual scene of

is

Saman
which we

also declare that while the real rateb

the subject of a vow, neither of those secular ratebs

are

reli-

so.

countries

what

'),

is

called the

noisy to an extreme degree; ihQ meunasah,v!\nc\\


its

performance, sometimes threatens to collapse,

and the whole gampong resounds with the shouting and stamping of
the

devotees.

punish an

to

The youth

of the

gampong

often seize the opportunity

unpopular comrade by thrusting him into the midst of

the throng or else squeezing him against one of the posts of the meu-

nasah with a violence that he remembers for days to come. There are

no

lights so that

it

is

very

difficult to

detect the offenders, and in any

case the latter can plead their state of holy ecstasy as an excuse

The composition which does duty

outward appearance devoted to religious subjects, but on closer

to

is

as jiasib {=nasib, see p. 218 above)

examination proves to be nothing but droll doggerel,

some words from the parlance of mysticism and

in

which appear

certain

names from

sacred history.

The w^omen have

Saman

a rateb

of their own, differing

details

from that of the men, but identical with

The
among

part

chakri

or

as

for

is

in

)neuhadi.

may

the

The mother

excel in this

in

her

Muhammad's head,

in cooperation {b'crdrao). This

At the threshing a

in

her

the Biography of Sheikh

AbJul-

Malayan countries the planting and threshing of padi are performed by the

United States of America.

dying out

that

etc., etc.

whole of a neighbourhood
occasional

prays

vieu-

art.

instance that of the shaving of

l) In certain

cradlesong

distribution

of cocoanuts

Province Wellesley, but

is

and sugarcane
still

to

system recalls the "bees" of the

sort of noisy ratib


to

be met with

the
in

is

performed, varied by

threshers.

This custom

I'erak. {Ti-ansliitor^,

Women's
xz.x.g\>.

the main.

women's rateb designated by the verb

qadir JailanT, called in West-Java Hikayat Seh (Shaikh)

the

in

of the performance called )neunasib ("recitation of nasW')

men

the

daughter

in

it

somewhat

is

220

Wc may

Specimens

Saman

^^^

here give a small specimen of each of these interludes to

Like almost every composition

ratebs.

they are made


is

common metre known

in the

a sample of nasib from a men's rateb

"The holy mosque

mosque

are three persons

He

companions.

his

command
fidels

that

all

one of them

The

following

our Prophet, the other two

is

Sham

sends a letter to the land of

Dutchmen

not adopt

will

-)

as sanja

')

that at Mekka), Alahu, Alahu, in the holy

e.

(i.

Achehnese language

the

in

the

with a

become Moslems. These Jewish

shall

true

(Syria),

religion

their

faith,

in-

a state of

in

is

everlasting decay".

The

following

"In

Paradise

is

women's rateb'):

a sample of chakri from a

how

glorious

the

is

lamps hang

light,

all

round; the

lamps hang by no cord, but are suspended of themselves by the grace


of the Lord."

There

one variety of the rateb Saman which

is

ordinary sort in
fasting

month

meunasah
sitting

is

noisiness.

This

is

finished.

down, then standing and

ilalah; the words:

This ratcb
nese,
is,

who do

is

Ini,

hu, hayyiin,

called kuluJiet but

not however

as a matter of fact, the

= "saw".

the recital of the

The assembled devotees

four of those present act as leaders

Rateb Mensa.

performed more especially

when

at the metidaroih,

know

i/ii'r

1)

sidroi

dikr

their

Neupai'it

first

responding

Mensa

Achehnese pronunciation of the arable minsliar

i.

e.

we

actually find constant

the "saw-dikr"; this

name

is

is

described

that the performer

outward course to penetrate through "the plank

wooden board. These

descrip-

borrowed from a manual of the Shattarite tarlqah

dua.

the

from two to

the real meaning of either word.

Metiseujideharam Alahu Alaht<^ Mcuseuj ideharam na


sabatneti

in

hu hay at also form part of the chorus.

of his heart" as a carpenter saws through a


tions are indeed

in the

more commonly mensa by the Acheh-

al-minshdri

its

Quran

ileuheu, the rest

leii

in detail, and one explanation given of the

should cause his voice on

recite

leaping madly;

finally

and cry

In the primbons or manuals of Java

mention made of the

far surpasses the

suiat

kcudeh nanggro'e

banduin blanda. Kaphc

uretieng dua

Cham

droc

*),

but

nahitai

geuyue maso^ eseulam

dalatn sun to' runtoh agama.


Yahudi hart jitem ntaso'
As we saw above (p. 82 note 3) the popular tradition of the Achehnese is prone
regard the European infidels as followers of the prophet Musa (Moses) and worshippers

2)
to

of the sun.

meugantung kandi ban siseun lingka. Kande


3) Dalatn Cheuruga bukon peungeu'th le
meugantung keudroe Tuhan karonya.
meugantung hana ngon talo'c
4) This book is called ul-Jawahir al-khamsah. See Loth's Catalogue of the Arabic Manuscripts of the library of the India Office (London 1877) p. 185
87.

221
the idea

of ctourse applicable to any tarlqah, and the Achehnese have

is

applied the "saw" notion as an ornamental epithet of the rateb Saman.

The

rateb sadati

the most characteristic and at the

is

most favourite caricature of the


It

performed by companies of from

is

Acheh
men accompanied by

to 2o

15

same time the

met with

religious rateb

in

The
^^*

ratdl)

^"'

').

who has been specially trained for


the purpose. The men composing each company always come from the
same gampong; they are called the dalcms, adiiens or abangs e. "elder

pretty

boy

little

female dress

in

i.

brothers"

of the boy, while the latter shares with the rateb

name of sadati.
Each company

has

cJiek

its

(chief of the rateb) or

rateb

(Arab,

pangkay

one or two persons called radat

'-),

The boys who

who

is

also called

the

tilee

or ba' (director or foreman) and

melody of the chant

skilled in the

and the recitation of nasib or

[lagee)

shaicli)

itself

kisaJis.

are trained for these performances, are

some of them

best-looking children of Nias slaves, while others are the offspring

the

of poor Achehnese

the

in

highlands.

It

is

said

Training of
"^

'

that these last used

sometimes to be stolen by the dalems, but they were more generally


obtained

by

transaction with the parents, not far

actual purchase.

money

to

The

hand over

to

removed from an

were induced by the payment of a sum of

latter

intended "elder brethren" the most pro-

his

mising of their boys as regards voice and personal beauty. The parents
satisfy their consciences with the reflection that the

finely dressed

and tended with the utmost

up he

will learn

The

following

how
is

care,

boy

will

be always

and that as he grows

to provide for himself in the future.

the

most probable origin of the name

sadati. In

Arabic love-poems, both those which are properly so called and those

which are employed as a vehicle

makes

often

his

lament to

words yd sadati (Arabic


corrupted like

appear

all

that the

his

"Oh,

for

whom

he addresses with the

masters!").

Such expressions, much

audience

my

Achehnese have borrowed from abroad,

in the sadati poetry.

Hence no doubt the name, of

be applied both to the rateb

to

for mysticism, the languishing lover

itself,

and

later

also

came

sadati

on to the boy who

takes the leading part therein.

1)

This caricature of ratib

2)

Probably

which

is

is

unknown among

the Malays. (Translator).

the Arab, raddad^ which properly

used in reference to the performers

in

means "repeater" or "answerer",

other (Jikrs as well as these.

name

Origin ofthe

222
The
poe

sadati

considerable portion of the poetry recited by the sadatis and their

ry.

diilems

is

and even paederastic

erotic

himself in

character

in

while the sadati

female garb forms a special centre of attraction to the

his

onlookers. But

a mistake to suppose that the profession of sadati

is

it

implies his being devoted to immoral purposes.

The view taken by

The morals
of the sadatis.

the dalems
.

that both the voice and the per-

is

sonal charms of their charge would quickly deteriorate

over to vicious

much money

They have devoted much

life.

if

he were given

time to his training and

and they take good care that they are

to his wardrobe,

not deprived prematurely of the interest on that capital, in the shape

who employ them

of the remuneration they receive from those


The

The

sadati-

a^"nTTt^'^^

rateb sadati always takes the form of a contest

from different gampongs, each with their

and perform

The

in

passion

from the

fact

of the Achehnese for these exhibitions


a

that

by a great crowd

We

performance

single

To

always engaged

is

may

be judged

from about eight

lasts

p.

m.

followed with unflagging interest

of spectators.

now proceed

shall

sadatis, are

two companies

each trying to win the palm from the other.

turns,

noon of the following day, and

till

as players.

to give a brief description of a rateb sadati.

we should here observe, that a


Acheh by Mr. L. W. C. van den
misunderstood by him ').

avoid misconception of the subject

rateb of this description witnessed in

Berg

in

First of
:n

was entirely

1881,
all,

this

performance was given at the request of a European

an unusual place, and thus

nary native representation

fell

and

it

errors into

leader

(and

which he

fell.

all

by

telling him, in entire conflict

the same.

Nor were these the only

all

by the

cJicli

first

this

or

famous mystic teachers,

that of Naqshiband) are extolled. Hearing this

Naqshibandiyyah. The
illusion

Van den Berg only

and those who furnished the enter-

by way of prologue, the names of

among them

respects of the ordi-

In the pious formulas recited

he rushed to the conclusion that

this

short

with the truth, that the rest was

many

the next place

in

saw the beginning of the rateb due


tainment found means to cut

short in

name

was a mystic performance of the

Achehnese he met could have corrected

had he enquired of him

and had the person questioned

had some knowledge of the Naqshibandiyyah form of worship (which,

l)

Tijdschr. van Jut Batav. gcnootschap^ Vol.

XXVIIl,

adds nothing to the knowledge of the matter indicated

jip.

liy

its

158

ct scq.

title.

This contnl)Ution

223

by the way,

is little

explanation

that

which

recitation

known

order

the

just

is

Acheh) he would have added

in

mystic

this

special

and of the radeb sadati which


In

shed

In

leaves.

middle of which

the

is

Behind them

finery;

he generally

the

leader

= Arab

[cheh

he

the

is

mancc.^*^'^'^'^"

on

their position

shaich, idee,

not

is

already

sadati,

down and

lies

performance, as

posts and the ordinary thatch

two parties take up

Mounting

or abangs of one party form a line, in the

background

the

in

to take place, a simple

is

pangkay or

one or more of those who act as radats.

sit

further

wooden

or

Saman

a corruption of the latter.

is

this the

The dalems

opposite sides.

ba').

bamboo

erected with

is

of sagopalm

characteristic of the ratcb

where the performance

the enclosure

this further

strongly opposed to that noisy

is

clothed

sleeps through the

upon

called

in

first

Still

his

all

portion of

to play his part

after

till

midnight.

The prelude
adopt

therein

is

called rateb due

the

half-sitting,

Moslim worshipper

after

or "sitting rateb", since the dalems

half-kneeling

prostration,

in

position

by

assumed

performance of

the

The siuing

a'^^''^'

ritual

prayers [seinbahyang].

One party

leads

oft",

while

the

other joins* in the chorus, carefully

following the tune and exactly imitating the gestures of their opponents.

The

earlier stage of the recitation consists of an absolutely

of words,

string

which the

songs of praise, but so corrupted that

The names
are also in

At

lagees

ilaha

difficult to trace

or "tunes" to which the pieces are recited,

party sets the


la

ilahi

etc.;

chanting somewhat as follows;

tune,

prompted by

their clieh

to this stage of the proceedings

connection

gestures .(also

with
called

many
lagee)

and

all

five)

ha

they

that the

first

in.

in succession,
is

ih

if

join

we need only say

of these chants there

and that

a series of rythmic

performed partly with the head and hands

and partly with the aid of


a group of lagees in

the others take their cue from him, or

party chants a number of lagees (usually


in

Arabic

the original.

some instances corrupted from Arabic words.

forget the words, are

As

it is

in fact imitations of

the beginning of each division of the recitation, the radat of the

leading
la

of the

be a medley of Arabic

take to

listeners

and Achehnese. Some of these pieces are

meaningless

kerchiefs.

common

use

The

following are the

names of

Task of the
'^

^'

224

22

1;

any

1.

Lagec

2.

Lagec sakinin, accompanied by the lagec

special gestures.

Lageesofthe
rate).
tune"), ^'"'"S

("hand

jaro'c

an elegant series of movements of the hands performed by

c.

i.

time and unison, punctuated

perfect

in

all

idan^), without

asb'e

by the snapping of

the fingers.

Lagec bado salam

3.

of the

("tune

folded

by the

accompanied

-),

kerchiefs"),

lagcl'

biingkoiJi

ija

which each performer has

in

before him a twisted kerchief which he gracefully manoeuvres in

time with the chanting of his comrades.

Lagec minidarwin, accompanied by the lagec

4.

interwoven

Each performer

kerchiefs").

with that of his neighbour

("tune of

Iho'

interlaces

kerchief

his

sometimes a chain of kerchiefs

Later on they are disunited

formed.

ija

again

is

thus

and spread out

in

front of their several owners.

Lagec salala

5.

the

accompanied by the lagec

^),

drawn over the shoulders and round the


These

examples

five

will

of the real rateb there

did

not

true

go too

"nonsense
repeated
has

which

rateb,

of

to give

throat.

some notion of how much


it will be seen that we

performance;

chant

in

which these

to

taku'e (tune

characterizing the latter as a caricature of the

is

verses"

is

in

far

suffice

in this

ba

Here the kerchiefs are repeatedly

on the neck).

kerchiefs

ija

of

praise

God and

his apostle.

The

form the accompaniment are

lage'cs

over and over again, time after time, until the leading party

exhausted

gymnastic exercises at

the

all

its

command

respect

in

of that particular tune.

As soon

the

as

party
ces to

nieunasib'".

between the two


it

rateb

first

due

is

finished an

expert of the same

which has hitherto taken the lead in the performance,

The

commen-

nasib of the rateb sadati consists of a dialogue

parties,

beginning with mutual greetings, after which

The

takes the form of question and answer.

questions are in outward

appearance of a religious or philosophical nature, but as a matter of


fact

the

nasib

whole rateb

is

is

much

as

a caricature of a learned discussion as the

a travesty of a service of prayer and praise.

however, as well as most of the audience, who

1)

This appears to be a corruption of the Arabic

2) Arab, ba'da ''s-salam

3)

From gaW

i.

Allah^ the

e.

y'a

have but

The

little

players,

knowledge

sayyidana^ "Oh, our Lord!"

"after the benediction".

beginning of the well

known

prayer for a blessing upon the

Prophet.
II

15

Nasibofthis

226

227
the

ot"

Mohammedan

of

intricacies

and the former endeavour

actual earnest,

by

paltry invective,

the

party

at

company. In

which are recited

We

expert story-teller

chants his

by

tale

appertain

this respect

performance

half-

resembles certain of the dikrs

it

is

11

salutation,
1

this part of the

that

Specimen of
nasib with the
accompany^^

often considerably prolonged. It also frequently happens

that one party plays out

which the

after

observing at the same time

thereto;

nasib.

chorus.

in

append a specimen of one of these dialogues of

con-

by the

and
1-1
of the question and answer which follow, together with the kisahs which
-

in

called kisah ujong nasib or story in con-

is

An

nasib.

Kisah

elusion of the

a time, each half-verse being taken up and repeated

of his

rest

by-

say after each of these dialogues con-

to

is

what

gives

of the

verses

opponents

prelimmary greetmg followed by question and answer, the

sisting of a

clusion

as

to injure their

leading

performance

questions and unexpected rejoinders.

difficult

each nasib, that

After

regard

law,

its

part to the end before the other intervenes,

one does not again enter the

first

until after the

lists

conclusion of the whole nasib.

God

Salutation of the party A.

my

convey
I

have not

salutation to

my

no betel-bowl;
place

In

day.

five

Kisah
a

fetch

(to

in conclusion

mounted warrior

upon

')

of

you
is

now

all,

this nasib.

of great bravery

who

its

existence

this warriors real

eyes
In

is

his

l)

of late

the

lay

My

ten fingers
fingers,

is

life

again.

For

wage

he has waked from his long sleep. Seek not to

know

name; men

call

"I

though they were flowers".

lay

come

him Nari Tareugi. The white of his


(red) like saga-seeds.

hand he holdeth a squared iron club; there

is

in

to

has

infidel

even as (black) bayam-secd, their pupils are

The meaning

too late

when our country

he has come to

he has slumbered, but since the


us,

have

there performed tapa (penance

(Acheh) began

war against

but

Near the Meuseugit Raya there

did tapa there in the olden days


;

but

way from my

oh teungkus. Ten

He

ages

sirih,

Salutation,

head.

with seclusion).

many

you

sirih,

token of respect).

(in

my

it

the

all

offer

it),

offer

wish to

then, oh worshipful masters,

sirih

head

oh teungkus,

have come

all,

would gladly

crave forgiveness of you

uplift as flowers

my

upon

wished to

cannot return

of giving you

my hands
my head, to

me

away.

far

lies

both

on

of you.

all

sirih-bag with

gampong, which

save you

your commands upon

my head

(in

is

no man

in the

token of obedience) as

Kisah.

228

who can

world

becomes a sea
keunong sa

might.

his

resist

The

place where he takes his stand

a storm ariseth there like unto the rainstorms of the

The water around him ebbs and

').

is

sane

terrible

over

whom

sa u a ion.
\i^yxs\

In the

shadow

suffer his

Umong

Raja

the

In

'')

to

on him,

fall

the

is

wish

my

hands upon

my

mark of

as a

you

salute

to

head.

token of respect,

in

esteem.

self-abasement, for such

for the use of

has instructed me, teungkus,

Kisah

three steps backwards in token of

make

to

first

the salutation

My

teacher

and then to wel-

clasp your hands

raises

he has ships, and

wondrous deeds

up

When

steeds

is

friends,

last follows

he moves

upon the

celebrate

Raja Beureuhat,

this

hands there

his

Gampong Jawa

In

^).

my

marvellous hero

unsurpassed throughout the whole world.

the sea

salutation

Hear me,

this nasib.

of

of Raja Beureuhat.

ground shakes; when he

On

hands

sirih.

conclusion

in

name

the

make

'^^).

my

stretch forth

the custom of the gently bred.

is

come the new-comer. After


the offering of

*),

can prevail.

Moslims towards a new-comer, come he from where he may


I

lest

Che'bre'

sane

his strength,

Here followeth the salutation ordained by the sunat


all

Kisah.

shall

river

of the party B. Hail to you, oh noble teung-

salutation

my

lay

no man

let

no human being however great

Answering

Answering

-)

overtake him.

evil

Thus

Daroy

flows again.

you know the demon of the Meuseugit Raya.

his feet the

an earthquake.

is

Now

land.

turn to

the heavens are greatly overcast;

storms of rain and thunder and lightning come up. Cocoanut trees are
twain

cleft in

think upon

remind you that


wait.

there

If

you

if

my

it,

will

friends

not enter the

themselves against us

1)

See Vol.

I,

p.

256.

2)

See Vol.

I,

p.

409.

Dalam

is

the

(royal residence

Che'br^'

4)

name

or

5)

let

and

chibrc'

them

6)

reuhat
to

fortified

is

the

the

marshal
I

is

better to

their

ranks.

If

ranks

their

(i.

e.

Achehnese

of a tree

known

as

juar

in Java,

where

it

is

exten-

on the roadsides.
to

"where he may" are

in

very

corrupt Arabic 'pro-

fashion.
to

the

miraculous deeds of Raja Beu-

wondrous performance by which he and his party mean


opponents from the field. The sequel is a more or less contemptuous challenge.

really

drive their

it

have no relationship with you

Here the speaker, while apparently alluding


is

us,

would

enclosure) of Acheh.

name

The words "Here followeth"


in

with

lists

of the great expanse of cultivated land lying on the borders of the

sively used as a shade-tree

nounced

stand without. But

any among you teungkus, that are ready to match

are

arc not in proper order, then will

3) This

who

referring

to

the

229

you arc not worthy opponents). Ask them

(the rival party; here the

speaker appears to address the audience) whether they indeed dare to

do battle with us;

so

if

them

let

get

ready their weapons and put

their fortifications in a state of defence. Their fort

guns must carry

their

Tiian hcusa

with

form of a

in the

question.

did he express the niet

Mohammedan

and so

act,

as

has

not

its

(=

doctrinal
question,

"intention", the Arab, niyyat, which

formulate as the introduction to a ritual

to

all

kinds of

ritual

Let not the jar be broken,

w^ater*-).

covering (say of leaves or cotton) be open; what, oh teungkus

are the conditions of a valid ritual ablution

The same party


nasib;

in the

(to fetch a bucket);

be the conditions, oh teungkus of such a

ablution? In this jar are


let

after-

Nasib

present case to the taking of a bath of purifi-

the

in

How many

cation)?

There was once a

house and went to the well but found

his

no bucket there. Thence he went to the mosque

every

of the

and dreamed that he had committed adultery;

slept

wards he went down from

how then

must be strong, and

we have bombs

us

').

Nasib of the party

man who

here

for

far,

brevity's

for

now follows with


sake we shall pass

a short story, a kisali iijong

over and

this

go on to the

answer of the opposite party.

Nasib of the party


I

in the

form of an answer.

If

Allah so

will

^),

question. Set me no learned questions; I cannot


am no doctor of the law^). Answer me first, oh teungku,
answer me correctly, how many conditions there be to the setting

now answer your

shall

solve them,

and
of a

question.

Without conditions and

all

Not

that depends on these con-

the conditions and that

your questioning

is

in

which depends on them

is

known, has the asking of questions any

ditions,

Grammar

meaning.
As

i)

the

to

2) After

the

I,

p.

produced

(i. e.

As

in

Lam

till

Nyong, the learning of the law

Acheh by

this

Malay name

for the

Governor of

171.

putting a question as to the forms prescribed by the law for ritual ablutions,

speaker ilow compares his mind

water
3)

first

taught) at

(is

impression

that country, see Vol.

vain.

to

a water-jar, in

which

is

to

be found

all

manner of

knowledge).

to the

common

use and misuse of this formula by the Achehnese, see Vol.

I,

p.

311,

footnote.
4) This

is

of course

meant

ironically, for directly afterwards the opposite party

sented as unfitted even to propound (lucstions.

is

repre-

Nasib
question,

in

230
Pucho'; elsewhere there are no famous teachers; come, sound

Lam

at

Logic

our depth!

Lam

taught at

is

dogma

Paya,

On

your questions are put without consideration.


are

at

Krueng Kale;

the mountains there

on the shore there are aron-trees; the waves come

sala-trees,

in

and pile up the sand. Take some rice (provision for the travelling
student) and come and learn from me even though I teach you but one
single little line. At Krueng Kale there are many teachers, Teungku
Meuse ') is as the lamp of the world. They (these great teachers) have

man

never yet entered into a contest with any

do so

to

is

with learned questions;

a token of conceit, ambition, pride and vain-glory

and ambition, pride and vain glory, by these

ceit

brought

who are
who trust

People

destruction.

to

well

Con-

-).

have many been

sins

brought up are

never

in God are never overtaken


made a prey to shame; those
by misfortune. Others have propounded many learned questions, oh
my master, but never such foolish ones as thou. With a single kupang

of a dollar) in thy purse, thou dost desire to take

(one-eighth

land

Hereupon

The second

in

pledge

ing ra c

mes the

follows

the

^);

kisah

has been pursued

jiasib

^j^^

of the

turn

of the party B, and after this or after

still

party

further in the

to

now

the party

same manner,

beco-

it

take the leading part. Immediately

after the latter has recited their last kisah,

in

the

no such value on their wealth as thou.

set

world

the

in

all

others possess store of diamonds and

it

begins

its

rateb due

which previously took the lead must exhibit

and

its skill

gym-

following quickly and without mistakes the tunes, gestures and

hands and kerchiefs, which their opponents have pre-

nastic play with

viously rehearsed and can thus perform with case.

The

rateb thus runs again exactly the

change of

just described, only with a

which do not
The standing
rale

).

^'^'

mcnccment

of

ihe sadaiis'

As soon
rateb

dons;
<->

midnight,

roles,

affect the essence of the

as

this

or

"standing

about the

is

finished,

all

rateb'".

first

same course
and with

as that

we have

certain variations

performance.

the rateb due

is

succeeded by the

This generally
occurs somewhat after
/
fc.

cock-crow.

The

of party

sadati

comes

performance.

and

forward,

1)

See

2)

These four

3)

1.

e.

p.

behind him; party

his daleins ("elder brothers") stand

continues sitting,

no longer

in

the

half-kneeling

posture of one

who

27 above.

"with

sins arc frequently

grouped together, especially

your pennyworth of learning

arena of theological controversy".

you

dare

to

in

take

mystic works.

your stand

in

the great

231

232

performs

society.

polite

three

prayer,

ritual

two or three voices


sadati

the chorus in place of one.

in

member
his

greeting

the

that there are

is

convenience sake we adopt the singular) begins by

(for

between both of
return

in

sometimes happens that one party produces two or

It

saluting each

always does

native

but the only difiference in such a case

sadatis,

The

but squatting as a

by taking the

of the opposite party

and

letting

between

slide

it

The

his palms.

by momentarily covering the

hand

right

others

sadati's right

hand

with both of theirs.

The

Dress of the

sadati takes up his position facing his dalems, but from time to

time while speaking or reciting he

round so as not to keep

shifts

He

back continually turned to any portion of the audience.


head a kupiaJi or cap with a golden crown

his

many gold buttons and trousers of costly


He is covered with feminine ornaments,
a

Over

his

shoulders hang a

wont

are

round the neck and a

chain

rings,

embroidered with peacocks

in

now

sadati

jareucng

words

less

There

sings

women

red colour and

of a

first

tune

by chanting

in

chorus

which the

long-drawn chant of the kind known as

is

such as

bura')

head,

as hehe lain heuin a. This tune to

The dalems chime

').

round the waist.

girdle

silver

bracelets,

gold thread. In one hand he holds a fan.

His dalems start him off on the

some nonsense words such

material, but no loin-cloth.

the

for

wears on

a coat with

{taiiipo'),

such as anklets,

kerchief [btmgkdih

wear as a covering

to

his

in

now and then with

lage'e

a refrain of meaning-

-).

much coherency

not

is

the sadati's recital;

in

consists of

it

pantons strung together of moralizings upon the pleasure and pain of

known Acheh-

love or on recent events, of anecdotes from universally

Introduction
of the sadati.

nese

poems

room

to be

Sadati
j

Side)
in

[Jiikayats),

made
:

for

introduced

all

him

(the sadati) to

Elder brothers

make room

the middle);

on the opposite

in

i)

See

The

3)

p.

order that the sadati

will

side),

perform

for

in.

(here he addresses those of the opposite

may

,.

enter

give flowers to master sadati


a tiingkoy

^)

nosegays of jeumpa-flowers. These

2)

by the superfluous request

of flowers,
I

shall

(i.

(i.

e.
e.

into the space


his colleague

among which

go and buy

at

are three

Keutapang

75 above.

singing of such a refrain

tal'oc

or

is

called metichakrum.

karang consists of ten flowers

tied

together; ten ialoe form one ttingkoy.

233

Dua. The market

dented

the land

fails;

in

is

my

and

at war,

stream.

heart

is

time

time and chime

to

paper

is little

perturbed

During the succeeding part of the performance the dalems


tune from

rows, a straight unin-

mountain with a holy tomb. There

coast, a lofty

the ink

left,

gampong Jeumpet down

master sadati. Bunot-trees

send flowers to

up-stream, the

lies

').

set the

with their refrain, but most of

in

these tunes, with the exception of that employed for the introduction,
are lage'e bagdih, or quick time, not slow intonations.

At Chot Sinibong on the shore of Peulari, there


this poor
is the gampong of the mother of Meureundam Diwi. Alas
little girl shut up in the drum ^), the mother of the child is dead,
devoured by the geureuda-bird. Teungku Malem (i.e. Malem Diwa) climbs
The sadati

pj'oceeds.

up

into the palace

Elder brothers,

(i.

book of
e.

the

have here a (question) in

Klibeuet at the

instructed at

the

and fetches the princess down from the

inflections;

distinguish person,

of

Teungku Muda.

which

number and

in

recitation^

garret.

grammar, wherein
first

began with the fourteen forms of

fourteen forms

home

Continuation

was

studied

inflection

every tense of the verb serve to

What

gender).

are the pronouns which

appertain to the perfect tense of the verb? Tell

me

quickly, oh sadati

(of the opposite side).

The above

will give the

songs

.,,.,,
with which the

for a

time

is

till

reader some notion of the sort of fragmentary


.

sadati

new item

commences
of the

his

T-,

pertormance. ihese continue

programme, the kisahs of the

sadati,

reached.

Most of these kisahs

consist in dialogues

dalems, but even where a continuous tale

is

between the sadati and

his

recounted, the dalems take

turns with their sadati in his recital.

i)

Here Jhe

sadati repeats the complaint with

which many Achchncse authors or copyists

preface their works.


2) Here the sadati recalls the episode, in the well-known Hikayat Malem Diwa, of the
town which was entirely laid waste by the geureuda, the only person saved being the
beautiful princess Meureundam Diwi, who was concealed by her father in a drum. Sec

pp. 127, 146 above.

The

kisah

of the sadati.

234

When

the dalcms are speaking, the sadati always remains silent; but

the intonation of the latter

former;

of the

with

Achehnese encyclopaedia of geography and

by the

sadati
Specimen of

murmur

of dull

sort

S and

letter

by

chorus and are addressed collectively

in

and

whether he
thus

of

it

rule

only

the

first

in

person

not generally apparent from what the sadati says,

is

We

addressing them in the singular or the plural.

is

as

plural

they generally speak of themselves

their sadati,

singular;

denote the

dalems by D.

his

Although the dalems sing

We

politics.

a kisah-dialo-

guc.

of the sounds

of a kisah-dialogue, which also comprises a sort of

translation

in

by occasional clapping of the hands. Let us begin

varied

hi'lahoho,

by the cJiakrum

invariably accompanied

is

consists

this

employ the

singular

some of the many

our

in

translation

shall

using

the

cases which admit of the possibility

use.

its

Dialogue-kisah.

U.

Wilt thou,

engage
S.

What

go forth to try thy fortune and

brother,

little

some place or other


has a just

sea-coast

busiest mart

D.

oh

trade in

in

king,

on what river-mouth

lies

the

Well,

little

brother,

diamond, the land of Kluang has a

little

thriving mart.
S.

not go

will

to

the

land

of Kluang,

Nakhoda Nya' Agam no

longer reigns there.

Be not disturbed

U.

Uduh
S.

What

matters whether Raja

no acquaintance with you


D.

S.

with
I).

this

If

Putoih

no longer king; Raja

Udah

there or not, since he hath

is

thee

not,

take

you

farther

still;

go to Gle

to plant pepper.

men

of

Daya

are at enmity

Achehnese.
that

If

(Lanibfesi)
S.

is

not go to Gle Putoih, for the

will

(us)

contents

Daya)

(in

mind because he

in

his successor.

is

please

thee

not,

oh younger brother, go to Lambeusoc

under the Kcujruen Kuala.

go not to the country of Lambeusoe,

for

is

it

at strife with

Kuala Unga.
1).

He not disturbed that the country

is

at

war;

appoint thee a

panglima (leader of fighting men) there.


S.

How

can you

make me

a leader in war,

who am

not yet fully grown

235

Where

D.

let

thee

go and

my

fight,

my

heart,

star,

the

shall

not

mine eyes?

light of

you

If

S.

should

let

me

my

not go and fight then, by

body,

be a panglima.
D.

place Suits thee not, go as panglima to the kuta (fortress)

If that

of Chutli.
S.

will

not establish myself in Chutli

it

is

too close to the shore,

on the border of the estuary.


D.

If that please

Awe

Babah

at

S.

will

thee not,

that

It

please

the I2 Rantos

in

S.

you by

this

proposal

We

he

is

D.
S.

(i.

the

12

Muda

(of

thee

fear to die there

burial).

little

brother,

will

settle thee

Rantos, brother;

tell

me, what mean

little

brother, to take thee there to the

Trumon).

day before yesterday

As you pass along the


how many places are subject

as

it

West

rantos of the
to the

Tell

me

for

pray.

returned from

were.

Dutch

Coast,

little

brother,

Beginning at Padang right up to Singkel,

S.

for

have naught to do now with the Raja of Trumon,

D.

the

my

for

e.

Awe,

in the pay of the Tuan Beusa -).


Where didst thou learn that, blessed little brother?
I
know it but too well, brother, I have but just

there, the

will set

intention was, blessed

can

^).

not live in

house of the Raja


S.

me

thee not, blessed

will

Our

D.

heart,

little

(above Kuala Unga).

not establish myself at Babah

with not one to care for

D.

brother,

little

all

tribute

is

raised for

King of Holland.

D.

When

you come,

little

brother of mine, to the bay of Tapa' Tuan

Tempat Tuan), who is king there ?


S. The king there is indeed a Moslim, but the flag is that of the Dutch.
D. When you get to Laboh Ilaji (vulg. Labuan Haji), who is king there?
she keeps us all in
S. The uleebalang of that place is a woman

(vulg.

'),

her protection.

1)

See p. 120 above.

2)

As

3)

A woman

of years.

to the

meaning of this Malayan title fTuan 15csai) sec Vol. I,


named Chut Nya' I'atimah was in fact uleebalang of this

p.

171.

place for a

number

236
travels, little brother

While on thy

D.

to the land of Batu

m., see Vol.

a.

Dear

D.

morning, brother, at Kuala Batu, by rice-time (about

in the

Early

S.

199)

p.

I,

Lama Muda.
punishment, I am

one comes to

brother, thou deservest

little

teungku, hast thou been also

going to banish

= Gold-(mountain).

thee to the mountain of Seulawaih

me now Why did you not think of this before, when


first you begged me from my brothers?
D. When I asked for thee, I thought that it would be for a long
To

S.

time,

banish

brother,

little

Where

S.

vexed

not

could

at

life

be hard for a sadati

banishment");

this

become

heart, that thou wouldst

little

my

brother.

other words, "I

(in

am

he can find everywhere foot-gear to

adorn himself withal.

Why

D.

me

should

set

but art not good

me

to

am

the day

after

We

U.

may

die,

brother, to a far country, so

or the

day

after.

on the morrow or

lest

have had a clear insight into the matter during the time

will

among

be better to

at least recover

D.

morrow

us in

on the morrow or the day

It

given to

you long not to have me back again.

thou hast been

either
S.

little

Should you banish me, brothers, beware

S.

who wert

the mountains yonder that

going to banish thee,

that thou canst not return to

that

thee, sadati,

may devour me?

that tigers

D.

by

store

banish

Wilt thou

S.

much

will

my

sell

me

this

land

mayst thou not return

after.

may

than to banish me, so that you

value in money.

hang no burden round

my

neck;

have had expense and

trouble enough on thy account.


S.

Allah,

hands upon
D.

take

my
my

head

If

former

(in

superiors,

my

fate

shall

lay

now come

my

clear

least.

one has good fortune, brothers, one wins renown


fail,

token of compliance).

chance, whatever be

through danger at
S.

my

oh elder brothers who are

allah,

we must be content with

D. Shouldst thou have good fortune

should the

the past.
'),

oh lamp and

light,

then shalt

thou go forth with an umbrella and return on horseback.


i)

The meaning

is:

"shouldst thou be successful in this sadati contest, no marks of honour

arc too great for thee".

237

good luck be the

Should

S.

lot of you and me in this contest,


vow after you return home from this place.
win my way through these engulfing waves,
shall

then you must

Should

D.

have thee bathed

perfume

in

').

We

have ere now, brothers, been delivered from seven dangers


come successfully through seven contests), but of a surety this

S.
e.

(i.

fulfil

evening's

D.

the greatest of

is

Yes,

very different from the former ones, of another kind

is

it

from (our contests

My

S.

all.

the past.

in)

vow, brothers,

Teungku Anjong

an oftering of seven bunches of flowers for

Gampong

in

")

is

Jawa.

whom

shall

shall see

how

D. This evening there will perhaps be a mighty contest


I

appoint to be panglima?

shall

make me your

Brothers,

S.

D.

you

shake the earth

will

S.

It

fear,

it

leader in the fight

brothers,

when

that

of the upper reaches of the river

D.

^),

the contest begins.

should not

and

This

D.

Little brother,

endure the

forth your

D.

we remind

result,

Brothers,

S.

who am

a son

little

brother.^

fear that

tears.

no boastfulness nor high words of mine, brothers; you

is

will see that I give proofs of valour,

self

flee,

skilled in fight.

Wherefore so boastful and conceited,

thou wilt lose this courage and burst into


S.

you

not be as thou sayest, and that

will

it

out yonder

flee

assured,

trembles again.

brother, that

little

mayhap
is

till

be

thee of one thing only

good or

it

one against many,

only ask you to stand

hands

in

prayer

(for

thou must thy-

ill.

fast

behind

me and

to spread

our success).

have told thee of seven lands,

brother;

little

now go

to study

for three years.


S.
in

all

D.
S.

know

What

teungku

is

thy wish,

little

brother,

wish to take the geuditbang

and make war,

i)

my

you have been sought

for

lands.

D.

well, brother,

it

How

thou,

little

Here we have the dalems' vow.

2) See Vol. I, p.

156.

3) See Vol.

34.

p.

us thy desire.

of sikin) and to go forth

being panglima.

canst

I,

tell

(a sort

brother

go forth to war

Thou

seest

238
that thy

arc witliout the

brotliers

my

Be not dismayed,

S.

Emperor

Of

S.

a truth, brothers,

mountain

In the

Lampanaih

lawaih, in

we go

If

S.

of China.

who

friend

forges artillery,

of China.

travelled even as far as

D.

Emperor

my

is

such a purpose.

for

lack of the necessary means,

for hire to the

This king of the unbelievers

D.

by

brothers,

go and tender your services

the

means required

you are speaking

foolishly!

Lam Weueng (in the


range of Lam Weueng

is

You have

XII Mukims).
is

the peak of the Seu-

(small cannon) with a bell

lilla

to the country of

never

Acheh, brothers, what

').

we

find

to

be

the greatest tokens of the power of the king?

Speak not

D.
posted

to

me

every direction.

in

S.

The Meuseugit Raya had

(i.e.

Habib Abdurrahman) that


That

D.

what
S.

indeed just as

is

the form of the

is

Its

tokens of his power; he has artillery

of the

summit

is

fallen into disrepair


first

took

hand

in

it

thou sayest,

was the Habib

it

after his arrival-).

brother;

little

summit of the Gunongan

tell

me now

*).

of a truth exceeding beautiful; the king goes thither

on horseback.
Little brother,

D.
let

now

us

S.

thou hast already told us of the country of Acheh,

get us hence and go elsewhere.

Whither

you go, oh brothers,

will

my

teungkus? take your

little

brother with you, dear brothers, panglimas.

Let us remain no longer

D.
to

Teungku Takeh
S.

to

Nay,

will

Acheh, and
D.

If that

it

in

Acheh,

little

brother;

let

us go yonder

(the king of Pidie).

not go to

Teungku Pakeh,

brothers, that

is

so close

would take so short a time to return home.

please thee not,

little

grain of an car of padi,

will

take

thee to Kuala Gigieng.


S.

place),

not live at Kuala Gigieng, brothers; were

will

there

is

none that would look

after

my

to die (in that

dead body.

have no

brothers there.
1) Here commences another geographical disqiusition, whicli takes us from Acheh
North and East Coasts.

2) Sec Vol.

I,

p.

to the

163.

3) This curious erection in the

neighbourhood of the Dalam, now incorrectly named Kotta


is said by the Achehnese to have been constructed by

Pechut (Kuta Pochut) by Europeans,


a

former king of Acheh

in

the

form

of a

mountain

consort a native of the highlands of the interior.

to relieve

the home-sickness of his

239

Dear

D.

Kuala
S.

Leubeue

le

at that place there are

D.

that

If

Eunjong
S.

crocodiles.
let

us go and dwell at

the house of the La'seumana.

in

Brothers,

will

thee

please

If that

gampong there is
many bangka-trees.

not dwell at Eunjong, the

muddy) and there

of holes (and thus

D.

many

the fresh-water creek

in

thee not, brave brotherkin,

suits

shall take thee to

Aver Labu).

(vulg.

not live at Kuala Ic Leubeue, for

will

brother, to cut the matter short,

little

not,

little

are too

brother,

full

shall take thee to the

land of Meureudu.
S.

Brothers,

wmU not

Meureudu; the whole country

at

live

in

is

tumult and war prevails.


D.

Dear

brother, blessed

little

little

brother,

shall

go and establish

thee at Samalanga.
S.

At Samalanga

also

been driven into the


D.

brother,

Little

Ben
D.
S.

S.

if

that please thee not, let us go to the country

is

brother,

shall take thee to

Samoti.

If that will

not do, blessed

Brothers,

will not live at Samoti; the prince of that place, the

is

-),

If that please

Brothers,

which
D.

Teuku

dead, and no successor has yet been appointed.

little

not to be depended on.

thee not,

shall carry thee to

Awe

will not live at

Chut Muda would forbid me


to

has

forest.

In the country of Peusangan there are also strange doings;


{-= Bentara)

Keujruen Kuala
D.

')

Glumpang Dua.

of Peusangan in
S.

are strange doings; Keuchi' Ali

there

e.

(i.

Geutah, for

forbid

my

Awe

Geutah.

fear that

Teungku

performance as a sadati,

ulamas are averse).

all

If that

not do,

will

little

brother sadati,

let

us go

down

to

Meu-

nasah Dua.
S.

am

Cheh Deuruih
D.

If

Meunasah Dua brother; Teungku


teacher established there) is still but a young man.

not very well

that

(a

will

not

do,

known
little

at

brother teungku,

will

take thee to

Pante Paku.
S.

will

fibre (there

1)

not go to Pante Paku, for


is

here a play on the word "paku").

This uleebalang, father of the present chief,

home by

his

cannot twist rope of cocoanut

was actually driven out of house and

enemies from Meureudu.

of settlements at the
2) Title given to the chiefs {k^junian)

mouths of

rivers.

240

Dear

D.

little

brother,

am

going to bring thee to Lho' Seumawe,

Sawang Keupula.
to (the
S. I will not live at Sawang Keupula,
(of Lho' Seumawe) may carry me off.

gampong

D.

of)

please thee not, blessed

If that

for

fear lest the

brother,

little

Mahraja

shall take thee to

the country of Piadah.


Brothers,

S.

further off;

will

D.

not stop at

my

Jambu Aye;

thee not,

If that suit

country of Piadah

the

in

go

will

now.

will start

If that please thee not,

D.
S.

not live

will

little

go and stay at Jambu Aye.

heart,
I

fear that

may perish

if

a flood comes.

brother sadati, go yonder to Idi (vulg.

Edi) that great mart.


S.

will not live at Idi,

Teuku Nya' Paya

brothers;

a raja

is

')

who

cannot be trusted.
D.

If that will

not

suit, little

on the island of Sampoe

We

S.

now no

can

taken by the
D.

infidel,

If this please

brother,

(near

^)

my

teungku,

shall place thee

Teumieng, vulg. Tamiang).

longer live on the island

by Sampoe

it

has been

the King of Holland.

thee not, blessed

little

brother,

us whither thou

tell

dost wish to go.

My

S.

my

desire, brothers,

is

to

go to Pulo Pinang") that

passions in the "long house"

D.

Little brother,

may

indulge

*).

go not to Pulo Pinang, one requires much money

to visit the long house.


S.

Trouble not yourselves on the score of money;

can always hold

horses and drive for hire.

D.

brother,

Little

thou

if

dost go and

work

for hire,

it

will

be a

reproach to thine elder brethren.

Let

S.

not here,

D.

i;

my

Do

my

wish, brothers,

teungkus; so long as

hear,

my

darling here

your hear,

my

masters
is

stay

island

(this to

the audience)

how

strong in

masters?

di

am

said to be strong in dispute.

Buket, as to

whom

see Vol.

I,

p.

156.

formed part of the sphere of influence of the well-known Tuanku Ascm

1897), the guardian of the

young pretender

to

the sultanate.

Pinang represents for the Achehnese "the world" in all


4) Mai. ritmah fanjang = house of ill-fame. (Translator)

3)

care not.

This was a chief subject to Teungku

2) This

(ob.

Do you

dispute
S.

me have my

its

aspects both good and evil.

241

Never yet ere now has

D.

this sin

God

S.

shall

enough

is

forbid that

darling wrangled with his teacher;

fuel for hell.

my teacher I know that


of my godless occupation

should wrangle with

any case go

in

my

make him

to

to hell (on account

of sadati).

D.

speak one way and he answers

S.

It

not

is

fitting,

brothers,

speak

to

nature as clever as a leue' banggiina

D.

have slept

another

in

thou art indeed

making remarks and propounding questions.

clever in

like

this;

am

indeed by

').

moment and have had

for a

a dream, but

how to interpret my dream.


S. What have you dreamed, brother, my teungku
brother, that I may explain the meaning thereof.

know

not

D.

dreamed,

that

When you

S.

little

brother,

that

may

crave forgiveness for his

D, Let us not go this year, dear

(the haj),

sins.

heart, thy brother has

little

no money

all.

Then

S.

your garden and your

sell

funds for the journey of your

D.
find
S.

to

Kiss

the

Ah

D.

make

S.

may

he

dear

Allah,

my
D.

of

you

leave

brother,

little

Allah,

not

sell;

them

furnish

to

wishes to depart at once.


fear that the chiefs will

^).

at least as

blessed

much money
brother,

little

as

you

what can

require.

do to

are bad.

blessed

go and pawn the (golden) crown

brother,

cap.

pawn the crown of thy


when you are bidden to

dare not

thou requirest)
S.

who

brother,

knees of the uleebalang, do obeisance (seumbah) at his

money? The times

get

own

their

rice-field,

brother,

little

and garden dare

Rice-field

means

feet, so that

of

went on pilgrimage

little

go on the pilgrimage, teungku, pray take the sadati

with you, that he

at

Tell your

in the glorious city (of Mekka).

went to purify myself

If

that

suffice

my

not,

brother,

cap,

it

is

thy ornament (which

play.

my

teungku, go and pawn

my

bracelets.

1)

This sort of hue' (see

regarded as

excelling

translated clever^ also


2)

under

As

in

p.

211 above) continually emits short broken soiinds,

tameness and

skill

in

fighting.

The word

ras^'c-,

wl>ich

.inJ

is

we have

means tame.

to the greed with

which the uleebalangs appropriate the

fictations pretexts, see

Vol.

I,

p.

rice-fields of their subjects

liS-

16

242

How

U.

canst thou wish to have thy bracelets

look badly

in

How

D.

shame upon

the eyes of the people, and bring

my

go and pawn

S. If that suffice not, brother,

pawned? That would


us.

anklets.

thou wish to have they anklets pawned? That too

canst

looks not well in the eyes of the world.

Go

S.

let

me

also go;

some money,

for

which thou didst ask

and

thyself, teungku,

now

D. Here

is

desire so to travel.

among thy followers.


but take me I
S. Rather accompany me not, my brother, my teungku.

just

now;

shall

come

pray thee

back quickly and rejoin you.


D. In what ship art thou going to travel? Tell

Banan

go, brothers, in the ship of

B.

D.

Go

S.

Be not alarmed

Banan's ship

not, little brother, in

this

now,

In that ship

').

it is

heavy expense

as to

me

well

work

brother.

shall set sail.

known to be

shall

little

expensive.

for the

nakhoda

(captain) for wages.

D.

thou receivest wages,

If

little

brother,

gives thy elder brothers

it

a bad name.

Never mind

S.

When

D.

that, if

only

can reach the holy land.

go on board,

dost thou

brother?

little

tell

me when

dost

thou depart.

Sunday evening

S.

ture

is

Monday morning, on

this

morning

my

depar-

fixed.

D.

When

thou goest,

S.

Come

thou not with me,

back

brother,

little

my

my

teungku, take

master;

shall

me

with thee.

of a surety

come

in a year.

D.

be

If that

so,

blessed

little

brother,

fetter

thy steps no longer,

on thy journey.

start

Convey

S.
is

my

salutations to

my

father, (say to him:)

"Your darling

gone, his journey has begun".

D.

What

S.

Brother,

pray

for

D. In

me
the

night, the

i)

took

shall

give to thy mother as thy parting gift?

dear brother,
(i.

c.

let

palms of

my

p.

199.

hands

famous

pilgrims to Arabia.

2) See Vol.

spread out your hands and

teungku,

your prayer take the place of such parting

four seasons of the

sailing ship once

many

my

in

day

shall

^)

and

in

the four seasons of the

be turned upwards

Acheh, belonging

to

gift).

in

prayer.

an Arab named Ali Banniin, which

-4:)

Should

S.

my

upon

die

pilgrimage, brother, wilt thou give kan-

me

duris (religious feasts) and pray for

May

D.

may

they journey be prosperous,

Allah, Allah, brother,

which thou

my

teungku, this

could

money,

find the

which thou wishest to have held?


thou wert

in gifts to thee, whilst

We

append
a
^^

brief

repeats

dalems

the

dialogue;

after

it

little

of a truth a fine prayer

brother, for the kanduri's

have already exhausted

still

my

each

intone

first

them. The tune

is

means

but young.

{lagee jareu'eng)

and

recited

not in the form of a

is

verse

is

and the sadati

{ajat),

called janiilen and

is

introduced by

dalems with the following chakrum: alah hayolak adoe eu janiilen

leungb lonkisah (Alah, hayolah,

little

brother, jamilen, hear

words being likewise repeated by

these

the recital

is

The Land
(i.

is

specimen
of another kind of kisah which
'^

slow time intonation

the

sharks devour thee and

up thy hands.

liftest

Whence

D.

in

may

whales swallow thee

S.

in

the sadati.

my

story")

The remainder

of

as follow's

of Pidie forms a square

four uleebalangs hold the balance

the power) in their hands.

e.

The
Indra

is

Mukims are
he who rules

subject to Bentara

Keumangan^); Teungku Sama

the VIII ^lukims.

The La'seumana (the Chief of Eunjong) is a fatherless child he


rules the XXII Mukims.
The V Mukims are under the control of (him that is mighty as)
midday thunder, Teungku Ujong Rimba.
Teungku Pakeh has a single mukim; he has watch-towers built at
;

the four corners of his stronghold.

The entrance of
built by Chinese.

1)

The popular

terpart

that

in

gate

its

representation

of Pidiii

as

of

is

very beautiful; there

Acheh

square,

the

as

a triangle

divisions

{Ilicc

of the

is

a prison there

sa^oe) finds here

latter

being

in

like

its

coun-

manner

mukims which make them up.


Muhamat (see pp. 9293 etc. above), the lerritory
2)
B6ntara Keumangan (Pangulcc Beunaroe) is called the IX Mukims which appellation

named from
In

still

the numbers of

the

retains.

Hikayat

Pochut

of
it

Second
.

kisah not in
dialogue,

244

The VII Mukim.s belong

glima Polem (the panglima of

Bram6e

In

On

is

Pochut

Siti

'),

Acheh they are


the XXII Mukims

to

along the sea-board

the banks of the salt-water creek

is

is

the property of Panof Acheh).

Teungku Siah Kuala ^).

who

established one

is

said

is known as Teuku Ne' of Meurasa.


Teungku Pakeh, in Acheh we have our lord the King.
Mukims (of Acheh are subject to) Panglima Chut Oh ")

to be invincible; he

In Pidie they have

XXVI

The
the

XXV

Ulama.

to Siah

The XXII under Panglima Polem they


;

Distribution
of roles.

There

no fixed rule as to the number of kisahs to be recited

is

succession

by one party;

gives

to

rise

the

tired,

is

left

to the performers'

own

the

is

plays

party

first

other

commence

allowing the other to

always ready to take

in

choice and

sides.
its

When

turn, but

do so they may continue. Ordinarily speaking,

as long as they like to

one side

this

no differences of opinion between the two

one party gets

however,

are subject to our lord the King.

will often last until

dong

its

rateb

its

recital;

through

right

before

and the rateb dong of the

five o'clock in the

morning

('oh tot sani-

bang, "after the falling of the morning shot"). Before the opposing side
the

begins,

performers add some further nasib such as that of

first

we have already given examples

which

our

in

description

of

the

rateb duc\

The opposite party then take


same programme

rival

contents of

some

kisahs.

I
'J'^*-'

fragments of

sneering gibes at

sung by the sadati and accompanied by the

all

performances,

they

which

one of these, which

i)

The

2)

Abdora'oh

"/'w/5//_^"

worshipped

(see

Vol.

Acheh, now the second


I

differ too little in

to lay claim to reproduction in

3) Cf. Vol.

little

but a brief abstract of some few more kisahs in

sadati

skilled reciter;

In

stage and follow essentially the

refrain of his dalems.

shall give
'"

party

chakrum or
Brief descrip-

the

which wc have just described

covert allusions, quasi-learned questions,

verse,

the

as that

p.

after

footnote to

may have observed, belong

is

in

common
lips

of a

character from those given above

full.

dialogue form, the insatiable desire of

as a saint, see Vol.

156, and above pps

Teungku Aujong.
138. The details of

p.
to

took down from the

an earlier period.

p.

379.

17 etc.) formerly the greatest saint of

this

geographical kisah, as the reader

245
the sadati

for

but

trade,

for

travel again constitutes the

of this he

and

number

of seats of religious learning.

attached

to

Another kisah which


by

verse

rence

the

to

him

enable

death he

mention

Passing

himself

is

will

remain

made

of a

sung by the dalems and repeated by the

sadati-contest),

the

gain

to

dalems.

is

travel for study or

some remarks on the method of calcommencing a contest (with special refe-

verse, comprises

proper hour for

the

culating

his

is

will

sure, that in life or

is

faithful

sadati

main subject; he

whither he will go, and whether he

uncertain

prayer of the

victory,

sadati

for

strength

to

and certain geographical particulars

with regard to the environs of the capital of Acheh.

which

Another,

recited

is

some disconnected

besides

in

same way

the

allusions, a

as the last, contains,

fragment from the story of Diwa

Sangsareh, which forms the subject of a popular hikayat

which

fourth,

intoned partly by the sadati (with an accompa-

is

by the dalems,

niment) and

partly

(for instance,

one regarding the heavenly recompense

one or two

which

fifth,

and

riddles,
is

').

consists of one or

finally a challenge

two metaphors

for ritual prayers),

addressed to the opposite party.

sung by the sadati to a slow tune

[lage'e

jareiicng)

and accompanied by the dalems, consist simply of such challenges.

sixth contains similar challenges recited

by the dalems,

in succes-

sion to a riddle intoned by the sadati.

So the performance goes on during the course of the morning; the


second party laying
the questions put

itself

by the

out

first,

to give

mocking

and to repay

all

or jesting answers to
their sneers two-fold.

One or two hours before midday the party which has been sitting
down and resting stands up once more, and now both sides recite
together, each its own kisah in its own way, to that it is impossible
understand what they are saying, especially as each side

to

tries to

shout their opponents down.

The
often

sadatis

come

engaged

the house,

i)

See

to blows,

interfere

initiative

ready

approach closer and closer to one another, and would

for

p.

to

were

it

not that the authorities of the gampongs

and put an end to the contest about midday. The

the closing of the performance

is

given by the master of

who has meanwhile caused rice and its accessories to be got


the players. At his request two elders one from each gam-

148 above.

'^^^ ^'^^ of
the contest.

246
pong, "separate" [puhla, the ordinary word for the separation of fighters)

Each

the sadatis and give out that the time for departure has arrived.

makes obeisance

of the elders

forgiveness

for

may have

for

all

to the opposite side,

and beseeches them

shortcomings or disagreeable expressions which

caused them offence.

As may be imagined

the players, quite

worn out with 16 hours of excitement and tension, hurry home to seek
repose after partaking of the meal which concluded the performance.
Like

Gradual
sadati

erfbr^

^^ ^^^^

manccs.

forbidden amusements, the sadati performances have fallen

all

Acheh during

in

xi\\\z\\

Within thc

"linie"

and

in

have made themselves most

other parts where the effects of the war


the people lack the energy necessary

felt,

these contests; while outside these limits the teungkus

getting up

for

the last twenty years.

and ulamas have been preaching reform with


out

repentance,

the

kafirs.

they say,

it

will

their might, as with-

all

never be possible to prevail against

Should they show a more complacent

towards these

spirit

popular wickednesses, they would soon lose their prestige and would behold the influence which the war has given them gradually dwindle away.
It

in

is,

however,

far

from being the case that

theory universally acknowledged as

forced

in

the

with general
with

acceptance.

equally certain that

it

in

practise en-

in
is

able to meet

Java would certainly bring

wayang performances, but

it

is

would take more than twenty years to entirely uproot

Even though

popular amusements.

these

holy war

though

this asceticism,

and now

most disaffected parts of the country,

the prohibition of gamelan and

it

right,

gamelans were silenced

the

and the wayang-poppets consigned to the dust heap, a moment's respite

would

suftice to

performances.

when

bring them to light again. So

They continue

the power of the latter

doubt revive and


Ihc sadau
performances
and morality,

^y\\q.

flourish

Acheh

pointed

exist

in

is it

spite

to

once broken, these ratebs

is

(p.

will

without

once more.
stasje

of the sadatis

have some connection with the general prevalence

of immorality

out

also with the sadati

of the teungkus, and

manner of dress and appearance


on the
'^^

must bc admitted
in

to

of the

222 above)

it

worst kind; but as has been already

cannot be said that such immorality

is

by these performances.
other ways besides in which the significance
of the Acheh

directly ministered to
'Ihc sadati

There are

pcrformancc

and the J-ava- ucsc


>L a>ang.
j^^^^.

sadati

performances

compared with

details

that

in

regard

of thc

to the

life

of the people

Javanese wayangs though

may
in

be

actual

the two are entirely different from one another. In the former,

247
as

in the latter,

in

the

way

grown

the play holds the audience because

of national

be the

to

tradition,

science,

deals with

it

and

religion

art

that

property of the mass of the people. In both

down by

the material handed

tradition

interwoven wqth

is

contain allusions to living persons or those

who have

away, to present events or those

recent past.

the

in

sallies

all

has

alike,

which

but lately passed

Love and war

supply both with inexhaustible themes.

The

sadati performance has, besides,

even though there

skill,

depend on the

most

intones

when

rateb"

the

questions

orcM^'^^TT^
tne sadatis.

'

to

and

its

rated)

while

said to

is

that

its

rivals

"gain the victory in

which puts the neatest

opponents, scores the wittiest

of the

hits against

them, and

greatest variety of kisahs, "gains the victory in

the nasib" [meunang ba


or players have

most successfully imitate

can

turn to play,

their

[meiinang ba

to

command

has

Final issue

the most graceful


and best studied movements, which

correctly

comes

it

of

almost always unanimous. That party which displays

is

due

in the rateb

trial

no stake, and though victory and defeat

is

of the audience alone.

fiat

This decision

the attractions of a

all

nasib).

any doubt

It

as to

seldom happens that either audience

who

deserves the palm.

Another equally popular variation of the travesty of the true rateb

known as rateb chiie^


or rateb briie ^). The
performance takes it name from its special feature, namely playing in
rhythmic unison with a number of wooden rings known as boh pulet or
bru'e pulet. The upper circumference of these rings has a greater diais

the

rateb piilet

'),

also

'-)

meter than the lower, so that they

may

The
^^

rateb

^^'

be compared to the rim of a

funnel cut off horizontally.

This

rateb

is

also of the nature of a contest

possible from different

gampongs, take up

tw^o parties,

chosen

if Nature of the

their position opposite each

other in the seueng (booth) or meunasah. Each party consists of from


8

to

1)

20 players; behind each

Pulet- properly

means

"to

turn a

company

thing

inside

the rings used therein are continually twisted by the


2) Chtie' is an earthenware

sambals

(relishes

eaten

with

bowl or
curi^)

sit

one or two

out"; the rat^b

movements

is

reciters called

so called because

of the player.

platter used as a receptacle for children's food or for


etc.

The shape

of the

bowl

is

like that of the boh

pulet except that the latter has no bottom.


3) Bru'e^ properly

means cocoanut-shell, and

is

also used for other hemispherical objects.

Performance,

248
as

radat,

the ordinary rateb. There

in

tambourine orchestra

also a

is

which accompanies the songs and gestures of the players. These tambourines are called rapana (compare the Malay reband) or else rapai,

from the religious performance

in

which they are much used.

the members of
The
the company often have small ones set before them on which they
play their own accompaniment in certain portions of the performance.

musicians proper play on large tambourines

This

rateb

played entirely in a sitting posture {ratcb diic) and

is

resembles the ratcb sadati in essentials except that the


Task of the

^\\c radiits of the party

which commences

.yrt^^/Zi'

are missing.

the recitation set the tunes

radat.

and intone four ajats to every tune;

"companions"

after this the

follow suit. Like the dalcm of the sadati performance they

the

or

boll

must join

As soon
also

similarly

this

which

is

is

going on, the opposite side

made

as difficult for

them

ouc party has intoned a number of lagces, there


rateb sadati) an interval which

the

rounded

off with a kisah.

of the leading party, and the

the recitation

nor

in this part of the

At

all

as

their opponents.

as

in

(as

While

pulet.

and keep time,

in

by

possible
Nasib and

manoeuvring of kerchiefs and especially with

fingers,

bnic

accompany

rhythmic gestures, such as movements of the arms,

their intoning with

snapping of the

(r^'^//)

is

The

members

nasib

is

is

filled

started

is

here

up by a nasib

by the radats

of this party only chime in with

there any gesticulation or play with kerchiefs etc.

performance.

beginning of the rateb

pulet

the performers recite certain

lines in imitation of a real rateb or dikr,

and which give an impression

the

though the task on hand were a work ordained of the Prophet and

as

the saints
"In the

down from
phet

of Allah

now commence,

We

the very beginning.

respond,

For the
far

e. g.

name

rest

my

masters

following the fashion handed

borrow our tradition from the Pro-

!"

all

the recitation consists mainly of ordinary pantons,

by

the most of which celebrate the joys and sorrows of love.

The

rateb pulet has not, any

more than the rateb

sadati, a religious

character.

The ulamas regard

it

as a forbidden

amusement, but are somewhat

less

severe in their condemnation of the rateb pulet than of the rateb sadati,
since the former does not include

boys

in

female dress

among

its

performers.

249

The rapai performance


a

the

rchgious character in

can

may' be classed amon;^ the ratebs;

estimation

become the subject of

therefore

of the

Thus we

a vow.

dertaking to give rapa'i performances

it

bears

Achehnese pubHc, and

^"^"^

The rapa'i
onnancc.

find people un-

in their enclosures,

should they

escape some threatening danger, or should one of their relations recover

from

his

sometimes given on

also

family feast, whether in accordance with a

occasion of a

the

Such performances are

etc.

illness,

vow

or

not,

and persons of wealth and rank occasionally organize them without

any

special reason.

The

great saint of the mystics,

Ahmad

Rifa'I (ob.

1182), a

Ahmad

younger

Rifa'i.

contemporary of the equally celebrated Abdulqadir

who was

held

Mohammedan

the

we read

the

story of his

wisdom

piety and

Acheh

')

(ob.

1166),

as well as in other parts of

world, was the founder of a wide-spread order (the

which afterwards

Rifa'iyyah),
If

high honour in

in

Jilani

and

up into a number of subdivisions.

split
life

"-)

we

find

an abundant record of his

also of the miracles (karamat)

which he worked

through God's grace, but nothing which bridges over the gulf which
separates

Yet

him from the


connection

the

all

but juggling performances which bear his name.

may be

Not only

traced.

the

in

Miracles of

Rifa'ite but

certain orders

also

other mystic orders cases are quoted from their

in

own

tradition of

where members of the fraternity who have attained a high degree of


perfection in mysticism, have through divine grace sufiered no hurt from
acts

which

in

ordinary circumstances

result

in

sickness or in death

the eating of fragments of glass, biting off the heads of snakes, woun-

ding themselves with knives, throwing themselves beneath the feet of


horses,

these and other like acts have proved harmless to the suc-

all

cessors of the founders of these orders, and they too have been given

endow

the power to

The
also

the

current about

stories

certainly

their true disciples with

be set

down

to

such matters

some extent

in

temporary invulnerability.
the mystic tradition must

to pious fiction, but there are

instances where the condition of high-strung transport into which

work themselves by wakeful

dervishes

hausting exercises, do actually result

in

nights,

by

temporary or

fasting

and ex-

local insensibility

to pain.

i)

See Vol.

2)

For instance

I,

pp. 130, 165, 191.


in

the

Tiryaq al-miihibbtn of Abdarrahman al-Wasiti, printed in Cairo


find reference to the methods of

H. 1304. In the works of Ibn Khallikan we however


the Rifa'ites, and to the animadversion which they aroused

in A.

in

certain theological circles.

dervishes.

250

No

matter what explanation science

or what learned terms (such as

may employ
mena

sober and

pared

for

of these matters,
etc.)

our savants

consciousness, the fact remains that what the most

such

have seen of these dervish-miracles

witnesses

sceptical

Mohammedan

various

ofifer

conceal their ignorance with respect to these pheno-

to

human

of the

may

')

mesmerism, paroxysm

countries would cause a


to

revelations,

shrug

their

in

European public unpre-

shoulders in

unbelieving

amazement.

For centuries past certain sections of these orders who possessed

Deterioration

miracles^Tnto
jugglery.

such

made

mystic powers, have

these arts.

The brethren

a sort of trade out of the practice of

of the craft assemble together at fixed times,

and under the guidance of their teacher give themselves up to the


recitation of dikirs accompanied by movements of the body which tend
to

produce giddiness, and thus

finally fall into the ecstasy

which causes

them to perform without fear the dangerous tricks which we have just
spoken of

Should one of them

a victim to his hardihood,

fall

ascribed to the weakness of his faith; should he


a

little

spittle

from

his

wound

it

is

mouth, with an invocation of the

teacher's

name of the founder of the order, suffices to ensure


Where these gatherings of dervishes take place in
cially at religious feasts,

it

himself slightly,

his recovery.

and espe-

public,

not unfrequently happens that some of the

onlookers are infected with the frenzy of the performers and becoming
as
is

it

were possessed, voluntarily join

the hazardous

in

game

this also

ascribed to the mystic influence of the founder of the order.

These public performances are apt


representations,

name and

fact

in

into

the

a few formalities recall

possibility

is

that

theatrical

mere conjuring, where nothing but the


its

connection with mysticism. Indeed

become thus corrupted. The


wrong to cast any doubt on

the most celebrated of these orders have

orthodox conception

mere

to degenerate into

while

it

is

of the existence of such

phenomena, and while certain

chosen mystics have indeed shown by such means

how

close

was

their

walk with God, these modern performances although bearing sanctified

names are

really

empty

if

not profane counterfeits.

The general Mohammedan world however does not

l)

See

the

interesting

schaftcti bci den

treatise

Marokkancrn^

and especially pp. 686

etc.

in

of

M. Quedenfelt,

Aherglatibc

und

participate in

halbrel'igtose

Brudcr-

the 7,eitschtijt fiir Ethnologic for the year 1886, N. VI,

251

and the tendency towards excessive veneration

this censure; superstition


for

persons with a reputation

appearance

for

reahty and to be even ready to defend this stand-

for the

point with true fanaticism against

somewhat backward

teachers

cause them to accept the

sanctity

This makes the orthodox

assailants.

its

expressing their condemnation of such

in

practices.

Among

performances cloaked

the

ceremonial of

the

in

which are based partly on hysteria and mesmerism, and

and

Rifa'I,

on

partly

legerdemain, voluntary self-infliction of wounds takes a leading place

They

').

are (though to a less degree than formerly) universally practised

throughout the Eastern Archipelago under the name of dabnsor gedebiis-'p&rioxmdincQS


serves

chief instrument

the

as

Achehnese

the

for

infliction

The

of the wounds.

speak of daboih (the weapon) and uieudaboih

also

debus-

"),

from the Arabic dabbns, an iron awl, which

^),-

(its

use)

or else call the performance rapdi (from Rifa'I) which word also serves

designate

to

tambourine which

the

is