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1 Equations of motion

1.1

Introduction

We begin by deriving the equations of motion for an inviscid fluid, that is a fluid with

zero viscosity. We treat the fluid as a continuum. This means that it can be described by

a number of state variables, namely density , velocity u, pressure p and temperature T ,

all of which depend continuously on position x and time t. In fact we assume throughout

this section that , u, p and T are all continuously differentiable functions of x and t.

Later we will examine what happens when this assumption is relaxed, when analysing

shock waves.

We begin by proving a theorem that will be very useful in deriving the equations

representing conservation of mass, momentum and energy.

1.2

Consider a time-dependent volume V (t) that is convected by the fluid, so that it always

consists of the same fluid particles. Then, for any function f (x, t) that is continuously

differentiable with respect to all of its arguments,

ZZZ

ZZZ

d

f

f dV =

+ (f u) dV.

(1.1)

dt

V (t)

V (t) t

We first give a simple-minded derivation of (1.1) before presenting a more rigorous proof,

using Lagrangian variables, in section 1.3.

Denote by I(t) the integral on the left-hand side of (1.1), that is

ZZZ

I(t) =

f (x, t) dV.

(1.2)

V (t)

ZZZ

I(t + t) =

f (x, t + t) dV.

(1.3)

V (t+t)

It follows that

ZZZ

ZZZ

I(t + t) I(t) =

f (x, t + t) f (x, t) dV +

V (t+t)

f (x, t) dV,

V

(1.4)

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V (t + t)

ut

V (t)

(a)

(b)

Figure 1.1: (a) A material volume V at times t and t + t. (b) A schematic showing

how the volume is swept out by the boundary with velocity u.

where V = V (t + t) \ V (t) is the volume swept out by the boundary V in the small

time t.

As shown in figure 1.1, V comprises thin shell whose thickness is approximately

u n t, where n is the unit normal to V . On the other hand, the first integral in (1.4)

may be estimated by applying the mean value theorem to the integrand, so (1.4) implies

that

ZZZ

ZZ

I(t + t) I(t)

f

(x, t) dV +

f (x, t)u n dS.

(1.5)

t

V (t+t) t

V

By letting t 0, we obtain

dI

=

dt

ZZZ

V

f

dV +

t

ZZ

f u n dS,

(1.6)

and application of the divergence theorem to the final integral leads to (1.1).

1.3

Lagrangian variables

as follows. At any time t, suppose the fluid element whose current position vector is

x = (x, y, z) was initially at position X. As the fluid moves, the Lagrangian variables

follow the flow, in that a fixed value of X always corresponds to the same fluid particle

for all time. In contrast, the Eulerian variables x remain fixed in space as the fluid flows

relative to them.

For this reason, the time derivative in the Lagrangian frame (i.e. with X fixed) is

referred to as the convective derivative, or the material derivative or simply the derivative

following the flow. It may be related to the normal Eulerian time derivative by using

the chain rule, viz.

f

f

x f

y f

z f

=

+

+

+

,

(1.7)

t X

t x

t X x

t X y

t X z

B6b

Now, if we follow the fluid, then the rate of change of the (Eulerian) position vector

x = (x, y, z) is simply the velocity u = (u, v, w), so (1.7) may be written as

f

f

f

f

f

f

=

+u

+v

+w

=

+ u f,

(1.8)

t X

t

x

y

z

t

where (u ) is shorthand for the directional derivative in the direction of u, that is

(u ) u

We use the notation

+v

+w .

x

y

z

D

=

=

+ (u )

Dt

t X

t

(1.9)

(1.10)

Now we transform the integral I(t) defined by (1.2) into Lagrangian variables to

obtain

ZZZ

ZZZ

I(t) =

f dxdydz =

f J dXdY dZ,

(1.11)

V (t)

V (0)

where

J=

(x, y, z)

(X, Y, Z)

(1.12)

is the Jacobian of the transformation. In (1.11), the Lagrangian integral is over the

fixed initial domain V (0) corresponding to the moving volume V (t). We can therefore

integrate through the integral as follows

ZZZ

dI

D

=

(f J) dXdY dZ,

(1.13)

dt

V (0) Dt

where the time derivative is taken with the integration variables (X, Y, Z) held fixed.

Now we calculate DJ/Dt by differentiating the determinant row-by-row.

x x x D x

D x

D x

X Y Z Dt X

Dt Y

Dt Z

DJ

D y y y

y

y

y

=

=

Dt

Dt X Y Z

X

Y

Z

z

z z

z

z

z

X Y Z

X

Y

Z

x

x

x

x

x

x

X

Y

Z

X

Y

Z

D y D y D y

y

y

y

+

+

X

Y

Z

Dt Y

Dt Z

Dt X

D

z

D

z

D

z

z

z

z

Dt X

Dt Y

Dt Z

X

Y

Z

(1.14)

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For convenience we denote the three determinants on the right-hand side of (1.14) by

1 , 2 and 3 respectively. Since the convective derivative is taken with X fixed,

it commutes with X-, Y - and Z-derivatives. Recalling also that Dx/Dt = u, we can

rewrite 1 as

u u u

X Y Z

y y y

.

1 =

(1.15)

X

Y

Z

z

z z

X Y Z

We apply the chain rule to each of the derivatives in the first row to obtain

x x x

y y y

z

z

z

X Y Z

X Y Z

X Y Z

u y y y u y y y u y y y

1 =

+

+

.

x X Y Z y X Y Z z X Y Z

z

z

z

z z

z z

z z

X Y Z

X Y Z

X Y Z

(1.16)

The final two determinants in (1.16) have repeated rows and are therefore identically

zero. It follows that

u

1 =

J,

(1.17)

x

and analogous manipulations lead to

2 =

v

J,

y

3 =

w

J.

z

(1.18)

DJ

= J u.

Dt

Now we expand out the derivative in (1.13) and use (1.19) to obtain

ZZZ

ZZZ

Df

Df

dI

=

+ f u J dXdY dZ =

+ f u dxdydz.

dt

Dt

V (0)

V (t) Dt

(1.19)

(1.20)

The definition (1.10) of the convective derivative then leads to Reynolds Transport

Theorem (1.1).

1.4

Conservation of mass

As a first application of (1.1), consider the mass M of a volume V (t) that moves with

the fluid, namely

ZZZ

M=

dV,

(1.21)

V (t)

B6b

where is the density. Since mass can be neither created nor destroyed, M must be

constant in time, that is

ZZZ

dM

0=

=

+ (u) dV.

(1.22)

dt

V t

Since the volume V (t) is arbitrary, we deduce that the integrand must be zero (assuming

it is continuous), that is

+ (u) = 0.

(1.23)

t

We can use (1.23) to deduce the following useful corollary of the transport theorem.

If f = h in (1.1), where h is any continuously differentiable function, then

ZZZ

ZZZ

Dh

d

h dV =

dV.

(1.24)

dt

V (t)

V (t) Dt

1.5

Conservation of momentum

Next we apply Newtons second law, namely rate of change of momentum equals applied

force to a material volume V (t). The net momentum of such a volume is

ZZZ

u dV,

V

while the applied force has two ingredients. First there is the external body force,

assumed to be solely due to gravitational acceleration g, which contributes a net force

ZZZ

g dV.

V

Second there is the internal force exerted on each volume V by the surrounding fluid.

We suppose that this may be accounted for by a pressure, p, which acts in the inward

normal direction at each point, so the net internal force on V is

ZZ

ZZZ

pn dS =

p dV,

V

using a well-known corollary of the divergence theorem. Here we have assumed that the

fluid is inviscid : a viscous fluid transmits tangential as well as normal internal forces.

Now we can formulate Newtons second law in the form

ZZZ

ZZZ

ZZZ

d

u dV =

p dV +

g dV.

(1.25)

dt

V

V

V

To calculate the left-hand side, we apply the transport theorem corollary (1.24) and

hence obtain

ZZZ

Du

+ p g dV = 0,

(1.26)

Dt

V

16

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which must hold for all material volumes V . It follows that (assuming it is continuous)

the integrand must be zero, and we therefore obtain the momentum equation

Du

= p + g,

Dt

(1.27)

1.6

Potential flow

So far we have derived (1.23) and the vector equation (1.27) representing conservation

of mass and momentum respectively. These comprise four scalar equations in total,

although , p and the three components of u give us five unknown dependent variables. It is clear, therefore, that we need one more piece of information to obtain a well

posed problem. The simplest additional assumption is that the fluid is incompressible,

meaning that its density is a known constant. This is a good approximation for most

liquids, whose densities typically do not vary much unless they are subjected to very

high pressure. Gases, though, are relatively easy to compress, and (as we shall see)

well-known phenomena such as sound waves and shock waves behind supersonic aircraft

cannot be explained without considering compressibility effects. If is constant, then

(1.23) reduces to

u=0

(1.28)

which, along with (1.27), gives us four equations for p and the three components of u.

The problem is simplified further if we assume that the flow is irrotational, meaning

that

u = 0.

(1.29)

If this is true, then there must exist a velocity potential such that

u = .

(1.30)

2 = 0.

(1.31)

Given suitable boundary conditions, (1.31) allows us to determine and hence the

velocity u, and the pressure is then found from (1.27). This final step may be simplified

as follows. The gravitational body force g is conservative and so may be described using

a gravitational potential function such that

g = .

(1.32)

(For example, if g = gez as usual, then = gz.) We also expand out the convective

derivative on the left-hand side of (1.27) to obtain

u

1

+ (u )u = p .

t

(1.33)

B6b

(u )u

2

1

2 |u|

+ ( u) u,

(1.34)

which is readily established by taking components. By substituting this into (1.33) and

using (1.30), we obtain

+

t

2

1

2 ||

1

= p .

(1.35)

Since the t-derivative commutes with and is constant, we can rearrange this to

1

p

+ 2 ||2 + + = 0.

(1.36)

1

p

+ 2 ||2 + + = F (t),

t

(1.37)

In (1.37), the function F (t) may be chosen arbitrarily to make the equations as

convenient as possible. This is because the velocity potential is only defined up to an

arbitrary function of t; if we define

= + f (t),

(1.38)

then is a potential corresponding to exactly the same velocity field through (1.30). In

addition, (1.37) then becomes

1 2 p

+ 2 || + + = F (t) f 0 (t)

t

(1.39)

so we can, for example, obtain (1.37) with F (t) 0 by choosing f 0 (t) = F (t).

Finally, we should ask ourselves whether it is reasonable to suppose the flow is irrotational. We will now justify this assumption by showing that, if the flow is irrotational

initially, then it is so for all time. We will do so by first establishing Kelvins circulation

theorem, for a closed curve C(t) that is convected by the flow. We define the circulation

around such a curve by

I

ZZ

(t) =

u dx =

( u) n dS,

(1.40)

C(t)

S(t)

where S is any surface spanning C, the latter identity following by Stokes theorem.

Kelvins theorem states that is independent of t, and we will prove it by showing that

d/dt is zero.

18

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using the chain rule. We follow the summation convention, in which summation is

assumed over any repeated suffix, to obtain

I

I

I

xi

xi

d

d

d

D

=

ui dxi =

ui

dXj =

ui

dXj ,

(1.41)

dt

dt C(t)

dt C(0) Xj

Xj

C(0) Dt

where we hold the integration variables X constant when differentiating through the

integral. We expand out the derivative in the integrand, using the fact that D/Dt

commutes with /Xj , to obtain

I

I

I

Dui

d

Dui xi

ui

+ ui

dXj =

ui dui .

(1.42)

=

dxi +

dt

Xj

C(t) Dt

C(0) Dt Xj

C(t)

The second integral here can be performed immediately, and we use (1.33) to substitute

for the acceleration in the first integral:

2

I

d

1

p

u

p

,

(1.43)

=

+ dxi + i

= + |u|2

dt

2 C(t)

2

C(t) xi

C(t)

where []C(t) denotes the change in as the closed loop C is traversed. Since p, and

u are all single-valued functions of position, we deduce that the right-hand side is zero

and, hence, that is constant.

Now, we can use this property to show that an initially irrotational flow remains

irrotational for all time. Suppose for contradiction that u = 0 at t = 0 but that

u is nonzero at some later time t. By (1.40), we can thus find a closed loop C(t)

such that the circulation (t) is nonzero. Since is independent of t, (0) must likewise

be nonzero, which is impossible because u was supposed to be zero initially.

1.7

If we do not assume that the density is constant, then (1.23) and (1.27) are insufficient

to determine , u and p. We obtain a further equation by applying the principle of

conservation of energy as follows. The total energy contained in a material volume V (t)

consists of the kinetic energy and the thermal energy, given by

ZZZ

ZZZ

1

2

|u| dV and

cv T dV

V 2

V

respectively, where T is the absolute temperature (i.e. relative to absolute zero) and

cv is the specific heat. In SI units, cv is the energy required to raise a kilogram of

fluid by one degree in temperature, while keeping the volume constant. We will assume

throughout that cv is constant although, in general, it may depend on temperature.

The internal energy changes due to the work done by the external body force g and

by the pressure on the boundary of V ; these are respectively given by

ZZZ

ZZ

g u dV and

pu n dS.

V

B6b

Energy may also flow through V by thermal conduction. Fouriers law of conduction

gives the heat flux into V as

ZZ

kT n dS,

V

where k is the thermal conductivity. Finally, we allow for internal production of thermal

energy (by, for example, microwave heating) at a rate q per unit mass.

Putting all these effects together, we arrive at the equation

ZZ

ZZZ

ZZZ

d

1

pu n dS

g u dV

|u|2 + cv T dV =

dt

V

V 2

V

ZZ

ZZZ

+

kT n dS +

q dV, (1.44)

V

representing net conservation of energy. By using the transport theorem and the divergence theorem, we rewrite this equation as

ZZZ

Du

DT

+ cv

g u + (pu) (kT ) q dV = 0, (1.45)

u

Dt

Dt

V

which must hold for all material volumes V (t). It follows that the integrand, if continuous, must be identically zero. The resulting energy equation may be simplified further

by using (1.27), leading to

cv

DT

= p u + (kT ) + q.

Dt

(1.46)

Under most practical conditions, gases are rather poor conductors of heat, so the

energy transport by conduction may be neglected.1 Henceforth, we will therefore assume

that (1.46) is well approximated by

cv

1.8

DT

= p u + q.

Dt

(1.47)

We have now succeeded in obtaining the energy equation (1.47) to supplement our

model, but at the expense of introducing a further unknown: the temperature T . We

are therefore still one equation short. The final piece of information we need is an

equation of state, relating the pressure, density and temperature. For a so-called perfect

gas, this equation reads

p = RT,

(1.48)

1

This approximation may be made more rigorous by nondimensionalising the equations and identifying a dimensionless parameter that measures the importance of conduction. Here the relevant parameter

is the Peclet number Pe = cv U L/k, where U and L are typical magnitudes of u and x respectively. If

Pe is large, which is true for gases under most conditions of practical interest, then thermal conductivity

is negligible. It is also worth noting that, in gases, the Peclet and Reynolds numbers are roughly equal,

so neglecting thermal conductivity is consistent with neglecting viscosity.

University of Oxford

Vol = V0

Temp = T0 + T

Pressure = p0

(a)

Vol = V0

Temp = T0

Pressure = p0

(b)

z

Cross-section

area = A

Vol = V0 + V

Temp = T0 + T

Figure 1.2: Schematic of a mass of gas heating up under (a) constant volume, (b) constant pressure.

where R is called the gas constant.2 If a fixed mass M of gas occupies a volume V , then

(1.48) reads

pV = M RT.

(1.49)

Thus, if the temperature is fixed, then pV is constant, which is known as Boyles Law.

On the other hand, if the pressure is fixed, then the gas expands as it heats, with the

volume being proportional to T ; this is Charles Law.

Now let us imagine heating up a mass M of gas under two different conditions, as

shown schematically in figure 1.2. We start with the gas at temperature T0 , occupying

a volume V0 , subject to an ambient pressure p0 . According to (1.49) these are related

by p0 V0 = M RT0 , and recall that the internal energy associated with such a scenario

is E0 = M cv T0 . If the volume is kept fixed, as depicted in figure 1.2(a), then the

2

If Mu is the molar mass of the gas (i.e. the mass of one mole), then R = R /Mu , where

R 8.3143510 J mol1 K1 is the universal gas constant.

B6b

Ev = M cv T.

(1.50)

then, as indicated in figure 1.2(b), the gas will expand by an amount V , which may

be found from (1.49):

p0 V = M RT.

(1.51)

The final thermal energy contained in the gas is still given by E = E0 + M cv T but

now the gas, by expanding, has done some work to the external atmosphere. In the

setup shown in figure 1.2(b), the gas occupies a cylindrical container, on the lid of which

it exerts a force p0 A, where A is the cross-sectional area. The work done when the lid

rises by a distance z is therefore p0 Az, that is

work done = p0 V.

(1.52)

It is easy to show that the work done by a gas at constant pressure p0 expanding by

a volume V is always given by (1.52), not just for the simple geometry shown in

figure 1.2(b).

The net energy that must be supplied to effect this temperature change and expansion is thus given by

Ep = M cv T + p0 V,

(1.53)

where the subscript p indicates that the temperature change occurs at constant pressure

rather than constant volume. By using (1.51) we can write this as

Ep = M cp T,

(1.54)

where cp is the specific heat at constant pressure (as opposed to the specific heat at

constant volume cv ), given by

cp = R + cv .

(1.55)

1.9

Entropy

Using (1.23) and (1.48), we can write the energy equation (1.47) in the form

DT

p D cv D p

p D

q = cv

.

Dt

Dt

R

Dt

Dt

(1.56)

=

cp

R

=1+ ,

cv

cv

(1.57)

1

Dp p D

D

p

q =

=

1 Dt

Dt

1 Dt

p D

p

=

log

.

1 Dt

(1.58)

(1.59)

University of Oxford

q=T

DS

,

Dt

where

S = S0 + cv log

(1.60)

,

(1.61)

and S0 is a constant.

The function S is called the entropy of the fluid per unit mass. Since internal

radiative cooling, as opposed to heating, is thought to be physically impossible, q must

be non-negative and (1.60) then shows that the entropy is a non-decreasing function

of time. This is an example of the so-called Second Law of Thermodynamics. If, as is

usually the case, there is no internal heating, then (1.60) reduces to

DS

= 0,

Dt

(1.62)

which implies that the entropy of each material element of fluid is constant. Such a flow

is called isentropic. This means that, if the entropy is spatially uniform initially, then

it is so for all time, and the flow is then called homentropic.

In homentropic flow, we thus have a simple functional relation

p = C

(1.63)

between p and , where C is constant. The exponent is a constant greater than 1; for

example 1.4 in air. By combining (1.63) with the mass- and momentum-conservation

equations (1.23) and (1.27) we finally have a closed system of equations for , u and p.

1.10

Boundary conditions

If the fluid is in contact with a fixed rigid boundary B, then the normal velocity of the

fluid there must be zero, that is

un=0

on B,

(1.64)

where n denotes the unit normal to B. This condition states that the fluid can neither

flow through B nor separate from B, leaving behind a vacuum.3

Next consider a moving boundary B(t), for example a piston or a moving membrane.

The condition corresponding to (1.64) is that the velocity of the fluid normal to B must

equal the velocity of B normal to itself, that is

u n = v B n,

(1.65)

3

Notice the contrast with a viscous fluid, in which all the velocity components are zero on a fixed

boundary: u = 0 on B. While a viscous fluid sticks to B, an inviscid fluid may slide past.

B6b

may be written implicitly as

f (x, t) = 0

(1.66)

for some function f . By writing n in terms of f , (1.65) may be written as

u f = v B f.

(1.67)

Now, any point x = xB (t) that is fixed to the boundary B(t) must satisfy

dxB

= vB

dt

(1.68)

f

+ v B f = 0.

t

(1.69)

Df

f

+ u f =

=0

t

Dt

when f = 0.

(1.70)

This so-called kinematic boundary condition implies that, if any fluid element starts at

f = 0, then f remains at zero for that particular element. In other words, any fluid

element that starts on B(t) must stay there.

If the boundary B is prescribed, whether it be fixed or moving, then just one boundary condition is needed, and either (1.64), (1.65) or (1.70) will suffice. One more condition is needed at a free boundary, whose position is unknown in advance. The simplest

example is the interface between two impermeable fluids, for example water and air. If

surface tension is neglected, then the pressure must be continuous across such an interface. Otherwise the interface would experience a finite force, which is impossible since

it has zero mass.

1.11

Rotating fluids

To describe the flow in the Earths atmosphere or oceans, it makes sense to express the

equations of motion relative to axes that rotate with the Earth instead of inertial axes

fixed in space. However, the governing equations we have derived so far apply only in

an inertial frame. We must determine how the equations transform when we switch to

a rotating frame.

Let S be an inertial frame, and R a rotating frame, rotating with angular velocity

2 , e

3 ) be a basis fixed in the rotating frame R. Then the

with respect to S. Let (

e1 , e

i as viewed in S is given by

motion of each e

d

ei

i .

=e

(1.71)

dt S

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We can express any vector v in terms of its components with respect to the basis

i (where we have adopted the summation convention). Then

{

ei } by writing v = vi e

dv

dvi

i + vi ( e

i )

e

(1.72)

=

dt S

dt

The first term on the left-hand side can be interpreted as the time derivative of v in

the rotating frame R, since it is obtained by differentiating each component in the basis

fixed in R. Hence we obtain

dv

dv

=

+v,

(1.73)

dt S

dt R

which holds for any vector v.

By setting v = x(t) the position of a fluid element, we obtain

dx

dx

=

+ x.

dt S

dt R

(1.74)

2

d

dx

dx

d x

=

+x +

+x ,

dt2 S

dt

dt R

dt R

R

2

d x

dx

d

=

+ 2

+

x + ( x) . (1.75)

dt2 R

dt R

dt R

We now note that

dx

dt

= uS ,

S

d2 x

dt2

=

S

DuS

Dt

,

(1.76)

where uS is the fluid velocity as seen in the inertial frame S. Similarly we have

2

dx

d x

DuR

= uR ,

=

.

(1.77)

dt R

dt2 R

Dt R

With taken to be constant, the two results (1.74) and (1.75) therefore become

DuS

DuR

uS = uR + x ,

=

+ 2 uR + ( x) . (1.78)

Dt S

Dt R

The change of frame from S to R affects only the time derivatives of vectors, so massand energy-conservation equations (1.23) and (1.47) are unchanged when we move the

rotating frame. Using the result (1.78), and dropping the subscript Rs, the momentum

equation (1.27) becomes

Du

1

+ 2 u + ( x) = p + g

Dt

(1.79)

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