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RNC

V200R011

Technical Description

Issue

01

Date

2009-02-10

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RNC
Technical Description

Contents

Contents
About This Document.....................................................................................................................1
1 Changes in RNC Technical Description................................................................................1-1
2 RNC Logical Structure..............................................................................................................2-1
3 RNC Logical Subsystems..........................................................................................................3-1
3.1 RNC Switching Subsystem.............................................................................................................................3-2
3.1.1 Functions of the RNC Switching Subsystem.........................................................................................3-2
3.1.2 Components of the RNC Switching Subsystem.....................................................................................3-2
3.2 RNC Service Processing Subsystem...............................................................................................................3-4
3.2.1 Functions of the RNC Service Processing Subsystem...........................................................................3-4
3.2.2 Components of the RNC Service Processing Subsystem.......................................................................3-5
3.3 RNC Transport Subsystem..............................................................................................................................3-7
3.3.1 Functions of the RNC Transport Subsystem..........................................................................................3-7
3.3.2 Components of the RNC Transport Subsystem.....................................................................................3-7
3.4 RNC OM Subsystem.......................................................................................................................................3-8
3.4.1 Components of the RNC OM Subsystem..............................................................................................3-9
3.4.2 Working Principles of the RNC OM Subsystem.................................................................................3-10
3.4.3 RNC OM Functions.............................................................................................................................3-13
3.4.4 RNC Active/Standby Workspaces.......................................................................................................3-13
3.4.5 RNC Security Management.................................................................................................................3-15
3.4.6 RNC Log Management........................................................................................................................3-16
3.4.7 RNC Configuration Management........................................................................................................3-17
3.4.8 RNC Performance Management..........................................................................................................3-21
3.4.9 RNC Alarm Management.....................................................................................................................3-22
3.4.10 RNC Loading Management...............................................................................................................3-24
3.4.11 BOOTP and DHCP on the Iub Interface............................................................................................3-28
3.4.12 RNC Upgrade Management...............................................................................................................3-29
3.5 RNC Clock Synchronization Subsystem.......................................................................................................3-31
3.5.1 RNC Clock Sources.............................................................................................................................3-31
3.5.2 Structure of the RNC Clock Synchronization Subsystem....................................................................3-32
3.5.3 Timing Signal Processing in the RNC.................................................................................................3-34
3.5.4 RFN Generation and Reception...........................................................................................................3-34
3.6 RNC Power Subsystem.................................................................................................................................3-35
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Contents

3.6.1 Power Supply Requirements of the RNC.............................................................................................3-36


3.6.2 Working Mechanism of the Power Distribution Box ..........................................................................3-40
3.6.3 Connections of Power Cables and PGND Cables in the RNC Cabinet...............................................3-42
3.7 RNC Environment Monitoring Subsystem...................................................................................................3-46
3.7.1 RNC Power Supply Monitoring...........................................................................................................3-46
3.7.2 RNC Fan Monitoring...........................................................................................................................3-47
3.7.3 RNC Cabinet Door Monitoring............................................................................................................3-48
3.7.4 RNC Environment Monitoring.............................................................................................................3-49

4 RNC Signal Flow........................................................................................................................4-1


4.1 RNC Signal Flow on the Control Plane..........................................................................................................4-2
4.1.1 Control Message Flow on the Uu Interface...........................................................................................4-2
4.1.2 Control Message Flow on the Iub Interface...........................................................................................4-4
4.1.3 Control Message Flow on the Iu/Iur Interfaces......................................................................................4-5
4.2 RNC Signal Flow on the User Plane...............................................................................................................4-6
4.2.1 Data Flow Between Iub and Iu-CS/Iu-PS..............................................................................................4-6
4.2.2 Data Flow from Iu-BC to Iub.................................................................................................................4-8

5 RNC Transport and Networking.............................................................................................5-1


5.1 Transport and Networking on the Iub Interface..............................................................................................5-2
5.1.1 Interface Boards for the Iub....................................................................................................................5-2
5.1.2 ATM-Based Networking on the Iub Interface.......................................................................................5-3
5.1.3 IP-Based Networking on the Iub Interface.............................................................................................5-5
5.1.4 ATM/IP-Based Networking on the Iub Interface...................................................................................5-8
5.1.5 Satellite-Based Networking on the Iub Interface.................................................................................5-10
5.1.6 2G/3G Concurrent Transmission and Networking...............................................................................5-11
5.2 Transport and Networking on the Iu/Iur Interface........................................................................................5-14
5.2.1 Interface Boards for the Iu or Iur Interface..........................................................................................5-14
5.2.2 Networking Differences in 3GPP Protocol Releases...........................................................................5-15
5.2.3 ATM-Based Networking on the Iu or Iur Interface.............................................................................5-16
5.2.4 IP-Based Networking on the Iu/Iur Interface.......................................................................................5-21
5.3 Transport and Networking on the Iu-BC Interface.......................................................................................5-27
5.3.1 Interface Boards for the Iu-BC Interface..............................................................................................5-27
5.3.2 ATM-Based Networking on the Iu-BC Interface.................................................................................5-28
5.3.3 IP-Based Networking on the Iu-BC Interface......................................................................................5-29
5.4 RNC OM Networking...................................................................................................................................5-29

6 RNC Parts Reliability................................................................................................................6-1


6.1 Concepts Related to RNC Parts Reliability.....................................................................................................6-2
6.1.1 RNC Backup Types................................................................................................................................6-2
6.1.2 Resource Pool.........................................................................................................................................6-2
6.1.3 Port Trunking.........................................................................................................................................6-2
6.1.4 Load Sharing Between FE/GE Ports......................................................................................................6-3
6.2 RNC Board Redundancy.................................................................................................................................6-3
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Contents

6.2.1 Backup of OMUa Boards.......................................................................................................................6-4


6.2.2 Backup of SCUa Boards........................................................................................................................6-5
6.2.3 Backup of SPUa Boards.........................................................................................................................6-5
6.2.4 Backup of GCUa/GCGa Boards............................................................................................................6-6
6.2.5 Backup of AEUa Boards........................................................................................................................6-7
6.2.6 Backup of PEUa Boards.........................................................................................................................6-8
6.2.7 Backup of AOUa Boards........................................................................................................................6-8
6.2.8 Backup of POUa Boards........................................................................................................................6-9
6.2.9 Backup of UOIa Boards.......................................................................................................................6-10
6.2.10 Backup of FG2a/GOUa Boards..........................................................................................................6-11
6.2.11 Resource Pool of DPUb Boards.........................................................................................................6-12
6.3 RNC Port Redundancy..................................................................................................................................6-12
6.3.1 Backup of AOUa Optical Ports............................................................................................................6-13
6.3.2 Backup of POUa Optical Ports.............................................................................................................6-14
6.3.3 Backup of UOIa Optical Ports.............................................................................................................6-15
6.3.4 Backup of FE/GE Ports........................................................................................................................6-16
6.3.5 Load Sharing on FE/GE Ports..............................................................................................................6-16
6.3.6 Port Trunking of GE Ports...................................................................................................................6-17

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Figures

Figures
Figure 2-1 RNC logical structure.........................................................................................................................2-1
Figure 3-1 Components of the RNC switching subsystem..................................................................................3-3
Figure 3-2 RNC inter-subrack switching.............................................................................................................3-4
Figure 3-3 Components of the RNC service processing subsystem....................................................................3-5
Figure 3-4 Components and physical connections of the RNC OM subsystem..................................................3-9
Figure 3-5 Structure of the RNC OM subsystem...............................................................................................3-11
Figure 3-6 OM dual planes.................................................................................................................................3-12
Figure 3-7 Process of RNC online configuration...............................................................................................3-18
Figure 3-8 Process of RNC offline configuration..............................................................................................3-19
Figure 3-9 Process of RNC dynamic batch configuration..................................................................................3-20
Figure 3-10 Process of performance measurement............................................................................................3-22
Figure 3-11 Process of alarm management........................................................................................................3-23
Figure 3-12 Process of driving the RNC alarm box...........................................................................................3-24
Figure 3-13 Process of loading RNC program files...........................................................................................3-26
Figure 3-14 Process of loading RNC data files..................................................................................................3-27
Figure 3-15 RNC remote upgrade......................................................................................................................3-29
Figure 3-16 Structure of the RNC clock synchronization subsystem................................................................3-32
Figure 3-17 Clock cable connections between GCUa/GCGa boards and SCUa boards....................................3-33
Figure 3-18 RFN generation and reception........................................................................................................3-35
Figure 3-19 Power supply schemes of the RNC................................................................................................3-37
Figure 3-20 Working mechanism of the power distribution box.......................................................................3-40
Figure 3-21 Assignment of power switches on the power distribution box ......................................................3-41
Figure 3-22 Connections of power cables and PGND cables in the N68E-22 cabinet......................................3-43
Figure 3-23 Connections of power cables and PGND cables in the N68-21-N cabinet....................................3-45
Figure 3-24 RNC power monitoring principles.................................................................................................3-47
Figure 3-25 RNC fan monitoring principles......................................................................................................3-47
Figure 3-26 RNC cabinet door monitoring principles........................................................................................3-48
Figure 3-27 RNC environment monitoring principles.......................................................................................3-49
Figure 4-1 Intra-RNC control message flow on the Uu interface .......................................................................4-2
Figure 4-2 Inter-RNC control message flow on the Uu interface .......................................................................4-3
Figure 4-3 Control message flow on the Iub interface.........................................................................................4-4
Figure 4-4 Control message flow on the Iu/Iur interfaces....................................................................................4-5
Figure 4-5 Intra-RNC data flow between Iub and Iu-CS/Iu-PS...........................................................................4-6
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Figures

Figure 4-6 Inter-RNC data flow between Iub and Iu-CS/Iu-PS...........................................................................4-7


Figure 4-7 Data flow from Iu-BC to Iub..............................................................................................................4-8
Figure 5-1 ATM networking based on PDH........................................................................................................5-3
Figure 5-2 ATM networking based on ATM over E1/T1 over SDH...................................................................5-4
Figure 5-3 ATM networking based on ATM over SDH......................................................................................5-4
Figure 5-4 IP networking based on PDH/SDH....................................................................................................5-6
Figure 5-5 IP networking based on ATM over E1/T1 over SDH........................................................................5-6
Figure 5-6 IP networking based on MSTP...........................................................................................................5-7
Figure 5-7 IP networking based on data network.................................................................................................5-7
Figure 5-8 IP networking based on hybrid IP transport.......................................................................................5-8
Figure 5-9 ATM/IP-based networking on the Iub interface.................................................................................5-9
Figure 5-10 Satellite-based networking on the Iub interface.............................................................................5-10
Figure 5-11 Fractional-based networking with timeslot cross connection on 2G equipment............................5-12
Figure 5-12 Fractional-based networking with timeslot cross connection on 3G equipment............................5-13
Figure 5-13 Fractional-based networking with timeslot cross connection on external equipment....................5-14
Figure 5-14 Iu-CS networking in R99................................................................................................................5-15
Figure 5-15 Iu-CS networking in R4/R5/R6......................................................................................................5-16
Figure 5-16 Networking based on SDH with MSP backup between optical ports............................................5-17
Figure 5-17 Networking based on SDH with load sharing between optical ports.............................................5-18
Figure 5-18 Networking based on SDH with STM-1 shared by Iu and Iur.......................................................5-19
Figure 5-19 Networking based on ATM............................................................................................................5-20
Figure 5-20 Single-homing layer 3 networking.................................................................................................5-22
Figure 5-21 Dual-homing layer 3 networking....................................................................................................5-23
Figure 5-22 Direct connection with load sharing...............................................................................................5-23
Figure 5-23 Networking based on SDH with MSP backup between optical ports............................................5-24
Figure 5-24 Networking based on SDH with load sharing between optical ports.............................................5-25
Figure 5-25 Networking based on SDH with STM-1 shared by Iu and Iur.......................................................5-26
Figure 5-26 ATM-based networking on the Iu-BC interface.............................................................................5-28
Figure 5-27 IP networking based on data network.............................................................................................5-29
Figure 5-28 RNC OM networking.....................................................................................................................5-30

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Tables

Tables
Table 3-1 RNC offline configuration commands...............................................................................................3-18
Table 3-2 Program file names of RNC boards...................................................................................................3-24
Table 3-3 Description of the data file names......................................................................................................3-25
Table 3-4 Nominal voltage and frequency of low-voltage AC power...............................................................3-38
Table 3-5 Specifications for the DC power supply............................................................................................3-39
Table 3-6 Working mechanism of the power distribution box...........................................................................3-40
Table 3-7 Relation between the switches and subracks......................................................................................3-42
Table 3-8 Connections of power cables and PGND cables in the N68E-22 cabinet..........................................3-43
Table 3-9 Connections of power cables and PGND cables in the N68-21-N cabinet........................................3-45
Table 5-1 Satellite transmission bands...............................................................................................................5-11

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RNC
Technical Description

About This Document

About This Document

Purpose
This document describes the RNC in terms of the physical, logical, and software structures, the
physical and logical components, and the working principles. In addition, this document
describes the signal flows, transport and networking, and technical specifications for the RNC.

Version
The following table lists the product version related to this document.
Product Name

Model

Version

RNC

BSC6810

V200R011

Intended Audience
This document is intended for:
l

System engineers

Field engineers

Organization
1 Changes in RNC Technical Description
This describes the changes in RNC Technical Description.
2 RNC Logical Structure
Logically, the RNC consists of the following subsystems: switching subsystem, service
processing subsystem, transport subsystem, clock synchronization subsystem, Operation and
Maintenance (OM) subsystem, power subsystem, and environment monitoring subsystem.
3 RNC Logical Subsystems
The RNC logical subsystems consist of the following subsystems: switching subsystem, service
processing subsystem, transport subsystem, clock synchronization subsystem, Operation and
Maintenance (OM) subsystem, power subsystem, and environment monitoring subsystem.
4 RNC Signal Flow
This describes signal flows on the control planes and user planes of the Uu, Iub, Iur, and Iu
interfaces.
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5 RNC Transport and Networking


This describes the networking modes on the RNC side in terms of the transport and networking
on the Iub, Iu-CS/Iu-PS/Iur, and Iu-BC interfaces and the RNC OM networking.
6 RNC Parts Reliability
The RNC guarantees its operation reliability by means of board redundancy and port redundancy.

Conventions
Symbol Conventions
The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows.
Symbol

Description
Indicates a hazard with a high level of risk, which if not
avoided,will result in death or serious injury.
Indicates a hazard with a medium or low level of risk, which
if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury.
Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which if not
avoided,could result in equipment damage, data loss,
performance degradation, or unexpected results.
Indicates a tip that may help you solve a problem or save
time.
Provides additional information to emphasize or supplement
important points of the main text.

General Conventions
The general conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.
Convention

Description

Times New Roman

Normal paragraphs are in Times New Roman.

Boldface

Names of files, directories, folders, and users are in


boldface. For example, log in as user root.

Italic

Book titles are in italics.

Courier New

Examples of information displayed on the screen are in


Courier New.

Command Conventions
The command conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.

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Convention

Description

Boldface

The keywords of a command line are in boldface.

Italic

Command arguments are in italics.

[]

Items (keywords or arguments) in brackets [ ] are optional.

{ x | y | ... }

Optional items are grouped in braces and separated by


vertical bars. One item is selected.

[ x | y | ... ]

Optional items are grouped in brackets and separated by


vertical bars. One item is selected or no item is selected.

{ x | y | ... }*

Optional items are grouped in braces and separated by


vertical bars. A minimum of one item or a maximum of all
items can be selected.

[ x | y | ... ]*

Optional items are grouped in brackets and separated by


vertical bars. Several items or no item can be selected.

GUI Conventions
The GUI conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.
Convention

Description

Boldface

Buttons, menus, parameters, tabs, window, and dialog titles


are in boldface. For example, click OK.

>

Multi-level menus are in boldface and separated by the ">"


signs. For example, choose File > Create > Folder .

Keyboard Operations
The keyboard operations that may be found in this document are defined as follows.
Format

Description

Key

Press the key. For example, press Enter and press Tab.

Key 1+Key 2

Press the keys concurrently. For example, pressing Ctrl+Alt


+A means the three keys should be pressed concurrently.

Key 1, Key 2

Press the keys in turn. For example, pressing Alt, A means


the two keys should be pressed in turn.

Mouse Operations
The mouse operations that may be found in this document are defined as follows.

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Action

Description

Click

Select and release the primary mouse button without moving


the pointer.

Double-click

Press the primary mouse button twice continuously and


quickly without moving the pointer.

Drag

Press and hold the primary mouse button and move the
pointer to a certain position.

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1 Changes in RNC Technical Description

Changes in RNC Technical Description


This describes the changes in RNC Technical Description.

01(2009-02-10)
This is the field trial release.
Compared with issue 03(2008-08-30) of V200R010, the following parts are deleted:
l

RNC Hardware Configuration Types

RNC Technical Specifications

Compared with issue 03 (2008-08-30) of V200R010, this issue incorporates the changes
described in the following table

Issue 01 (2009-02-10)

Parts

Changes

About This Document

The description of the purpose and intended


audience of the document is modified.

3.4.4.1 Active/Standby Workspaces


of the BAM

The description of working principles of BAM


board active/standby workspaces is modified.

3.4.12 RNC Upgrade Management

The description of the remote upgrade process is


modified.

3.6.2 Working Mechanism of the


Power Distribution Box

The figure of working mechanism of the power


distribution box is changed.

5.2.1 Interface Boards for the Iu or


Iur Interface

The description of the interface boards for the Iu/


Iur Interface is modified.

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2 RNC Logical Structure

RNC Logical Structure

Logically, the RNC consists of the following subsystems: switching subsystem, service
processing subsystem, transport subsystem, clock synchronization subsystem, Operation and
Maintenance (OM) subsystem, power subsystem, and environment monitoring subsystem.
Figure 2-1 shows the logical structure of the RNC.
Figure 2-1 RNC logical structure

NOTE

Figure 2-1 shows only the switching subsystem, service processing subsystem, transport subsystem, OM
subsystem, and clock synchronization subsystem. Besides these subsystems, the RNC has the power
subsystem and environment monitoring subsystem.

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3 RNC Logical Subsystems

RNC Logical Subsystems

About This Chapter


The RNC logical subsystems consist of the following subsystems: switching subsystem, service
processing subsystem, transport subsystem, clock synchronization subsystem, Operation and
Maintenance (OM) subsystem, power subsystem, and environment monitoring subsystem.
3.1 RNC Switching Subsystem
This describes the functions and components of the RNC switching subsystem.
3.2 RNC Service Processing Subsystem
This describes the functions and components of the RNC service processing subsystem.
3.3 RNC Transport Subsystem
This describes the functions and components of the RNC transport subsystem.
3.4 RNC OM Subsystem
The RNC OM subsystem is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the RNC.
3.5 RNC Clock Synchronization Subsystem
The RNC clock synchronization subsystem consists of the GCUa/GCGa boards in the RSS
subrack and the clock processing unit of each subrack. It provides timing signals for the RNC,
generates the RFN, and provides reference clocks for NodeBs.
3.6 RNC Power Subsystem
The RNC power subsystem serves the entire equipment. This subsystem adopts the dual-circuit
backup and monitor-at-each-point solution, thus featuring high reliability.
3.7 RNC Environment Monitoring Subsystem
The RNC environment monitoring subsystem automatically monitors the working environment
of the RNC and reports faults in real time.

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3 RNC Logical Subsystems

3.1 RNC Switching Subsystem


This describes the functions and components of the RNC switching subsystem.
3.1.1 Functions of the RNC Switching Subsystem
The RNC switching subsystem mainly performs the switching of data in the RNC.
3.1.2 Components of the RNC Switching Subsystem
The RNC switching subsystem consists of the switching and control unit and high-speed
backplane channels in each subrack.

3.1.1 Functions of the RNC Switching Subsystem


The RNC switching subsystem mainly performs the switching of data in the RNC.
The switching subsystem has the following functions:
l

Provides internal Medium Access Control (MAC) switching for the RNC and enables
convergence of ATM and IP networks.

Provides port trunking for the RNC.

Connects subracks of the RNC.

Provides a service switching channel for the service processing subracks of the RNC.

Provides an OM channel for the service processing subracks of the RNC.

Distributes timing signals and RFN signals to the service processing boards of the RNC.

3.1.2 Components of the RNC Switching Subsystem


The RNC switching subsystem consists of the switching and control unit and high-speed
backplane channels in each subrack.
Figure 3-1 shows the components of the RNC switching subsystem.

3-2

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Figure 3-1 Components of the RNC switching subsystem

Switching and Control Unit


Each switching and control unit shown in Figure 3-1 is implemented by an SCUa board. The
board provides a platform of GE switching and of maintenance and administration for the RNC.
For functions of the SCUa board, refer to Functions of the SCUa Board.
Each subrack of the RNC can be configured with two SCUa boards. The SCUa boards enable
connection of subracks for the RNC.
NOTE

For details about the maintenance and administration functions of the SCUa board, refer to 3.4.1
Components of the RNC OM Subsystem.

Intra-Subrack Data Switching


The intra-subrack data switching of the RNC adopts backplane-based communication. The intrasubrack switching channels provide port trunking. The GE switching between the SCUa board
and the other boards in the subrack is performed through the high-speed backplane channels.

Inter-Subrack Data Switching


The inter-subrack data switching of the RNC adopts star topology. In this topology, the RSS is
the main subrack and the RBSs are extension subracks. The SCUa boards in the RBS subracks
are connected to the SCUa boards in the RSS subrack through Ethernet cables. The inter-subrack
GE switching is performed through the RSS subrack. Figure 3-2 shows the inter-subrack
connections.
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3 RNC Logical Subsystems

Figure 3-2 RNC inter-subrack switching

The RSS subrack and an RBS subrack are connected in full connection mode. Thus, the failure
of any board does not affect data switching of the RNC. The GE ports on the SCUa board provide
port trunking. As shown in Figure 3-2, four GE channels comprise a trunk group. Port trunking
enables bandwidth expansion and traffic balancing.

3.2 RNC Service Processing Subsystem


This describes the functions and components of the RNC service processing subsystem.
3.2.1 Functions of the RNC Service Processing Subsystem
The RNC service processing subsystem implements most RNC functions defined in the 3GPP
protocols and processes services of the RNC.
3.2.2 Components of the RNC Service Processing Subsystem
The RNC service processing subsystem consists of the signaling processing unit and data
processing unit.

3.2.1 Functions of the RNC Service Processing Subsystem


The RNC service processing subsystem implements most RNC functions defined in the 3GPP
protocols and processes services of the RNC.
The service processing subsystem has the following functions:

3-4

User data transfer

System admission control

Radio channel ciphering and deciphering

Integrity protection

Mobility management

Radio resource management and control

Multimedia broadcast
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Message tracing

Radio Access Network (RAN) information management

Service processing subsystems can be increased as required, thus expanding the service
processing capacity of the RNC.
Service processing subsystems communicate with each other through the switching subsystem
to perform coordination tasks such as handover.

3.2.2 Components of the RNC Service Processing Subsystem


The RNC service processing subsystem consists of the signaling processing unit and data
processing unit.
Figure 3-3 shows the components of the RNC service processing subsystem.
Figure 3-3 Components of the RNC service processing subsystem

Signaling Processing Unit


The signaling processing unit is implemented by the SPUa board. An SPUa board has four
independent subsystems. Each subrack has a subsystem working as the Main Processing Unit
(MPU) subsystem for the management of resources on the user plane and resource allocation
during a call. The other subsystems work as Signaling Process Unit (SPU) subsystems, which
process signaling messages on the Iu, Iur, Iub, and Uu interfaces to implement the signaling
processing function. For details about the functions of the SPUa board, refer to Functions of the
SPUa Board.
The signaling processing unit has the radio network layer and the transport network layer in
terms of functions. The two layers have the following functions:
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l

The radio network layer processes the signaling on the Uu, Iu, Iur, and Iub interfaces.

The transport network layer provides bearer resources for the signaling on the Iu, Iur, and
Iub interfaces.

Data Processing Unit


The data processing unit is implemented by the DPUb board. A DPUb board has 22 Digital
Signal Processors (DSPs). The DPUb performs L2 processing on the data sent from the interface
board and separates CS and PS domain data and Uu signaling messages. For details about the
functions of the DPUb board, refer to Functions of the DPUb Board.
The data processing unit has the following modules:
l

FP: Frame Protocol (FP) implements Iub and Iur signaling procedures, such as frame
processing, synchronization, and time adjustment.

MDC: Macro Diversity Combining (MDC) processes the uplink combining and downlink
distribution of the macro diversity for a UE during soft handover, thus improving the
transmission quality.

MAC: Medium Access Control (MAC) implements certain functions during data
transmission. These functions are mapping of logical channels to transport channels,
transport channel scheduling, radio resource reconfiguration, and traffic measurement.
MAC entities are of three types: MAC-hs, MAC-d, and MAC-es. MAC-c entities process
data on common channels. MAC-d entities process data on dedicated channels. MAC-es
entities process High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) services.

RLC: Radio Link Control (RLC) transfers upper-layer Service Data Units (SDUs) in
Transparent Mode (TM), Unacknowledged Mode (UM), or Acknowledged Mode (AM).
AM provides the sliding window mechanism to ensure error-free data transmission.

PDCP: Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) processes PS data on the Iu interface
and forwards the data during certain operations. These operations are PS data transmission,
header compression and decompression of IP data streams, and lossless Serving Radio
Network System (SRNS) relocation.

Iu UP: Iu User Plane protocol (Iu UP) performs operations such as Iu UP in-band control
procedures and Iu data conversion and transmission from Non-Access Stratum (NAS) at
the CN to the Access Stratum (AS) user plane at the RNC.

BMC: Broadcast/Multicast Control protocol (BMC) saves cell broadcast messages,


measures traffic, requests radio resources for the Cell Broadcast Service (CBS), schedules
BMC messages, and transmits scheduling messages and CBS messages to the BMC of the
UE.

GTP-U: GPRS Tunnelling Protocol for User Plane carries user packets and signaling
messages for path management and error indication.

Resource Sharing Between RNC Control Plane and User Plane


In the RNC, the SPU subsystems, working as the processor for control plane data, form a control
plane resource pool; the DSPs, working as the processor for user plane data, form a user plane
resource pool.
The resources of control plane and user plane within a subrack are managed and allocated by
the MPU subsystem on the controlling SPUa board. When a new service request arrives at the
subrack, the MPU subsystem forwards the resources request to other subracks in case of
overload. If any subrack has enough resources of control plane and user plane, the new service
request can be successfully processed.
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3.3 RNC Transport Subsystem


This describes the functions and components of the RNC transport subsystem.
3.3.1 Functions of the RNC Transport Subsystem
The RNC transport subsystem provides transmission ports and resources on the Iub, Iur, and Iu
interfaces for the RNC, processes transport network layer messages, and enables interaction
between RNC internal data and external data.
3.3.2 Components of the RNC Transport Subsystem
The RNC transport subsystem consists of the transmission interface boards.

3.3.1 Functions of the RNC Transport Subsystem


The RNC transport subsystem provides transmission ports and resources on the Iub, Iur, and Iu
interfaces for the RNC, processes transport network layer messages, and enables interaction
between RNC internal data and external data.

Providing Diverse Transmission Ports


The RNC transport subsystem provides the RNC with diverse transport solutions, supports ATM
and IP transport at the same time, and meets networking requirements of different transport
networks.
The transport subsystem provides the following types of transmission port:
l

E1/T1

Channelized STM-1/OC-3 optical port

Unchannelized STM-1/OC-3c optical port

FE/GE electrical port

GE optical port

Processing Transport Network Layer Data


The RNC transport subsystem processes transport network layer messages.
l

In ATM transport mode, the transport subsystem terminates AAL2/AAL5 messages.

In IP transport mode, the transport subsystem terminates user plane UDP/IP messages and
forwards control plane IP messages.

Through the transport subsystem, the RNC shields the differences between transport network
layer messages within the RNC.
The transport subsystem terminates transport network layer messages at the interface boards.
Then, according to the configuration transfer table, the subsystem transfers user plane, control
plane, and management plane datagrams to the DPUb and SPUa boards in the RNC for
processing.

3.3.2 Components of the RNC Transport Subsystem


The RNC transport subsystem consists of the transmission interface boards.
The RNC provides the following interface boards:
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l

ATM interface boards:

AEUa Board

AOUa Board

UOIa Board (UOI_ATM)

IP interface boards:

FG2a Board

GOUa Board

PEUa Board

POUa Board

UOIa Board (UOI_IP)

NOTE

The UOIa_ATM is the UOIa board used in ATM transport. The UOIa_IP is the UOIa board used in IP
transport.

The RNC transport subsystem enables the processing of ATM and IP data through ATM and IP
interface boards respectively.

3.4 RNC OM Subsystem


The RNC OM subsystem is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the RNC.
3.4.1 Components of the RNC OM Subsystem
The RNC OM subsystem consists of the LMT, OMUa boards, SCUa boards, and OM modules
on other boards.
3.4.2 Working Principles of the RNC OM Subsystem
The RNC OM subsystem works in dual-plane mode through the OM network of the RNC.
3.4.3 RNC OM Functions
The RNC OM functions enable routine and emergency maintenance of the RNC.
3.4.4 RNC Active/Standby Workspaces
RNC active/standby workspaces consist of active/standby workspaces of the BAM and those of
FAM boards.
3.4.5 RNC Security Management
RNC security management consists of authority management, operator information protection,
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) transmission based on ciphering, and encryption of the
communication interface between the RNC and the Element Management System (EMS).
3.4.6 RNC Log Management
RNC log management enables you to query the information about the operation and running of
the RNC, thus facilitating fault analysis and identification.
3.4.7 RNC Configuration Management
RNC configuration management enables configuration and management of RNC data on the
OM console (LMT or M2000).
3.4.8 RNC Performance Management
RNC performance management enables the RNC to collect performance data.
3.4.9 RNC Alarm Management
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RNC alarm management facilitates you to monitor the running state of the RNC and informs
you of faults in real time so that you can take measures in time.
3.4.10 RNC Loading Management
RNC loading management enables you to manage the process of loading program and data files
onto boards after the FAM boards (or subracks) start or restart.
3.4.11 BOOTP and DHCP on the Iub Interface
The RNC and NodeB support the BOOTP and DHCP functions. By the BOOTP or DHCP
function, a NodeB can automatically get an IP address from an RNC and create an OM channel
between the NodeB and the RNC. The BOOTP and DHCP functions are applicable to ATM and
IP transport on the Iub interface respectively.
3.4.12 RNC Upgrade Management
RNC upgrade refers to a process where the RNC is upgraded to a later version.

3.4.1 Components of the RNC OM Subsystem


The RNC OM subsystem consists of the LMT, OMUa boards, SCUa boards, and OM modules
on other boards.
Figure 3-4 shows the components and physical connections of the RNC OM subsystem.
Figure 3-4 Components and physical connections of the RNC OM subsystem

NOTE

The RNC OM subsystem covers relevant modules on all boards of the RNC. Figure 3-4 shows only some
of the boards.

LMT
The LMT is a computer installed with Huawei Local Maintenance Terminal software. It runs
under the Windows XP Professional operating system. The RNC can be configured with one or
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more LMTs. The LMT is connected to the OMUa directly or through the hub and to the alarm
box through a serial cable.

OMUa Board
The OMUa board is the Back Administration Module (BAM) of the RNC. The OMUa boards
are connected to external devices through Ethernet cables.
The OMUa board serves as a bridge between Front Administration Module (FAM) and BAM
of the RNC. Based on the OMUa board, the OM network of the RNC is divided into the following
networks:
l

Internal network: serves the communication between the OMUa and the RNC host.

External network: serves the communication between the OMUa board and the external
device, such as the OM terminal LMT or M2000.
NOTE

The RNC can be configured with one or two OMUa boards. In the latter case, the two boards work in
active/standby mode.

SCUa Board
The SCUa is the switching and control board of the RNC. It is responsible for OM of its housing
RSS subrack or RBS subrack. A subrack can be configured with two SCUa boards. In this case,
the two boards work in active/standby mode.
The SCUa board performs OM on other boards in the same subrack through the backplane
channels. The SCUa boards in the RSS are connected to the SCUa boards in the RBSs through
Ethernet cables.
NOTE

For details about the switching function of the SCUa board, refer to 3.1.2 Components of the RNC
Switching Subsystem.

3.4.2 Working Principles of the RNC OM Subsystem


The RNC OM subsystem works in dual-plane mode through the OM network of the RNC.
3.4.2.1 RNC OM Subnets
The RNC OM network is divided into the external network, internal network, RSS network,
RSS-RBS network, and RBS network. Each subnet is responsible for certain functions.
3.4.2.2 RNC OM Dual Planes
The RNC adopts the OM dual-plane design to guarantee proper operation and maintenance in
the case of single-point failure.

RNC OM Subnets
The RNC OM network is divided into the external network, internal network, RSS network,
RSS-RBS network, and RBS network. Each subnet is responsible for certain functions.
Figure 3-5 shows the structure of the RNC OM subsystem.

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Figure 3-5 Structure of the RNC OM subsystem

NOTE

The RINT in the figure refers to the Iu/Iur/Iub interface board. You can choose to use different interface
boards based on the requirements.

External Network
The external network refers to the network between the OMUa board and the OM console (LMT
or M2000). The external network provides the interface for the OM console to access the OM
subsystem.

Internal Network
The internal network refers to the network between the OMUa board and the SCUa board in the
RSS subrack. The internal network provides a bridge for the communication between the OMUa
and the FAM.

RSS Network
The RSS network refers to the OM network between the SCUa board in the RSS subrack and
the other boards in the same subrack. The backplane in the RSS subrack is used to connect
entities on this network.
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RSS-RBS Network
The RSS-RBS network refers to the network between the SCUa board in the RSS subrack and
the SCUa in each RBS subrack. The connections between the SCUa board in the RSS subrack
and the SCUa board in each RBS subrack through Ethernet cables comprise the RSS-RBS
network.
Through this network, the RNC can transmit the OM information to the SCUa board in each
RBS subrack through the SCUa board in the RSS subrack.

RBS Network
The RBS network refers to the OM network between the SCUa board in an RBS subrack and
the other boards in the same subrack. The backplane in the RBS subrack is used to connect
entities on this network.

RNC OM Dual Planes


The RNC adopts the OM dual-plane design to guarantee proper operation and maintenance in
the case of single-point failure.
The RNC OM subsystem adopts the dual-plane design, as shown in Figure 3-6.
Figure 3-6 OM dual planes

This design is realized by the hardware that works in redundancy mode. When the active part is
faulty but the standby part works properly, the active and standby parts can be switched over
automatically to guarantee proper working of the OM channel. The involved hardware is as
follows:
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Active/Standby OMUa boards (if two OMUa boards are configured)

Active/Standby SCUa boards in the RSS subrack

Active/Standby SCUa boards in an RBS subrack

The active/standby OMUa boards use one external virtual IP address when communicating with
the LMT or M2000 and use one internal virtual IP address when communicating with the SCUa
board. As shown in Figure 3-6, if the active OMUa board fails but the standby one works
properly, the active and standby OMUa boards are switched over automatically. The standby
OMUa board takes the role of the active OMUa board to perform OM for the RNC. The internal
and external virtual IP addresses remain unchanged. Thus, the proper communication between
the internal and external networks of the RNC is guaranteed.

3.4.3 RNC OM Functions


The RNC OM functions enable routine and emergency maintenance of the RNC.
The RNC has powerful OM functions, including security management, log management,
configuration management, performance management, alarm management, message tracing,
loading management, and upgrade management.
The OM software of the RNC can perform all-round management and maintenance of the RNC.

3.4.4 RNC Active/Standby Workspaces


RNC active/standby workspaces consist of active/standby workspaces of the BAM and those of
FAM boards.
3.4.4.1 Active/Standby Workspaces of the BAM
The active/standby workspaces of the BAM, that is, active/standby workspaces of the OMUa
board, are applied to upgrade and rollback of BAM and RNC versions, thus enabling quick
switching between versions.
3.4.4.2 Active/Standby Workspaces of RNC FAM Boards
RNC FAM boards refer to all the boards except the OMUa board. The active/standby workspaces
of FAM boards are applied to file loading for the FAM boards, thus speeding up version upgrade
and rollback.

Active/Standby Workspaces of the BAM


The active/standby workspaces of the BAM, that is, active/standby workspaces of the OMUa
board, are applied to upgrade and rollback of BAM and RNC versions, thus enabling quick
switching between versions.

Concept of BAM Active/Standby Workspaces


The active/standby workspaces of the BAM refer to the active and standby workspaces in the
BAM divided to store different version files.
The active/standby workspaces are a relative concept. The active/standby relationship depends
on the running version. The workspace that stores the running BAM version files is the active
workspace, and the other is the standby workspace.

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Working Principle of BAM Active/Standby Workspaces


There are three sub-directories in the directory for BAM applications: common, version_a, and
version_b.
The two version directories of the BAM are independent from each other and have no impact
on each other. Similarly, the databases of the two versions are independent from each other.
Each version uses its own directory and database. That is, the active version uses its own BAM
directory and database during operation without modifying the directory and database of the
standby BAM.

CAUTION
During the switchover between the BAM active and standby workspaces, the OM of the BAM
is interrupted for about one minute.

Relationship Between Intra-BAM Active and Standby Workspaces


The active workspace of the BAM is independent of the standby workspace, or the other way
round. The operations in the active workspace do not change any information in the standby
workspace.

Relationship Between Inter-BAM Active and Standby Workspaces


The active and standby workspaces of the active BAM correspond to the active and standby
workspaces of the standby BAM respectively. Between the active and standby BAMs, the files
in the active workspaces are automatically synchronized in real time.

Relationship Between the Active/Standby Workspaces of FAM Boards and the


Active/Standby Workspaces of the BAM
On the active workspaces of the FAM boards, files can be loaded from only the active workspace
of the BAM. On the standby workspaces of the FAM boards, files can be loaded from only the
standby workspace of the BAM. When the FAM boards are loaded, the active and standby
workspaces of the FAM boards can be synchronized with the active and standby workspaces of
the BAM respectively.
NOTE

Run the SYN BRDAREA command, and then you can manually synchronize the active and standby
workspaces of FAM boards with those of the BAM.

Run the LOD BRD command, and you can forcibly load program files and data files of FAM boards
from the BAM and write the program files and data files to the active or standby workspaces of FAM
boards.

Active/Standby Workspaces of RNC FAM Boards


RNC FAM boards refer to all the boards except the OMUa board. The active/standby workspaces
of FAM boards are applied to file loading for the FAM boards, thus speeding up version upgrade
and rollback.
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Concept of FAM Board Active/Standby Workspaces


The active/standby workspaces of FAM boards refer to the active and standby workspaces in
the board flash memory divided to store program, data, and patch files for different versions.
The active/standby workspaces are a relative concept. The active/standby relationship depends
on the running version. The workspace that stores the running version files of a board is the
active workspace, and the other is the standby workspace.

Working Principles of FAM Board Active/Standby Workspaces


Before loading program and data files, FAM boards choose the loading mode according to the
loading control parameter. In the negotiation mode, to negotiate the loading mode for program
files, the RNC compares the versions of the program files stored in the active and standby
workspaces of FAM boards with the versions of current program files in the BAM. To negotiate
the loading mode for data files, the RNC compares the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) value
of the data files in the active workspace of FAM boards with that in the BAM. For details about
loading RNC FAM boards, refer to 3.4.10 RNC Loading Management.

Relationship Between Intra-Board Active and Standby Workspaces


The active workspace of a FAM board is independent of the standby workspace of the same
board, or the other way round. The operations in the active workspace do not change any
information in the standby workspace.

Relationship Between Inter-Board Active and Standby Workspaces


The active and standby workspaces of an active FAM board are independent of those of the
associated standby FAM board, or the other way round. The operations in the workspaces of the
active board do not change any information in the workspaces of the standby board.

Relationship Between the Active/Standby Workspaces of FAM Boards and the


Active/Standby Workspaces of the BAM
On the active workspaces of the FAM boards, files can be loaded from only the active workspace
of the BAM. On the standby workspaces of the FAM boards, files can be loaded from only the
standby workspace of the BAM. When the FAM boards are loaded, the active and standby
workspaces of the FAM boards can be synchronized with the active and standby workspaces of
the BAM respectively.
NOTE

Run the SYN BRDAREA command, and then you can manually synchronize the active and standby
workspaces of FAM boards with those of the BAM.

Run the LOD BRD command, and you can forcibly load program files and data files of FAM boards
from the BAM and write the program files and data files to the active or standby workspaces of FAM
boards.

3.4.5 RNC Security Management


RNC security management consists of authority management, operator information protection,
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) transmission based on ciphering, and encryption of the
communication interface between the RNC and the Element Management System (EMS).
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Authority Management
RNC authority management is performed to identify the user and define the authority of the user.
The RNC supports multi-user operation. It performs hierarchical authority management for users
to ensure security. In this mode, the RNC provides multiple authority levels, each of which is
configured for a type of operator. To log in to the RNC OM subsystem through the LMT, a user
must enter the correct user name and password, through which the RNC identifies the user.
The users of the RNC are of the two types: local user and EMS user. For details, refer to RNC
LMT User Types.
The RNC provides 32 command groups: G_0 to G_31. Each command group contains several
MML commands or binary commands. For details, refer to RNC Command Groups.

Operator Information Protection


If no operation is performed for a certain period, the user interface is automatically locked.

FTP Transmission Based on Ciphering


This ensures the security of FTP transmission.

Encryption of the Communication Interface Between RNC and EMS


The RNC uses the Security Socket Layer (SSL) protocol to fulfill transmission of ciphertext
over the OM channel between the RNC and the EMS. This ensures data security.

3.4.6 RNC Log Management


RNC log management enables you to query the information about the operation and running of
the RNC, thus facilitating fault analysis and identification.
The logs of the RNC are of three types: operation logs, running logs, and security logs.

Operation Log
Operation logs refer to the operation data saved in the BAM database in real time. The log
management module in the BAM records all the operations performed on the RNC. It supports
acquisition and deletion of logs.

Running Log
Running log refers to the information recorded in the RNC about the running of the RNC host.

Security Log
Security log refers to security-related events recorded in the RNC. These events include user
login, user management, and user authentication.

Cell Log
A cell log records the cell procedure information, which, in case of cell abnormality, is exported
to the log files for problem identification.
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3.4.7 RNC Configuration Management


RNC configuration management enables configuration and management of RNC data on the
OM console (LMT or M2000).
3.4.7.1 RNC Online and Offline States
The RNC can be in either online or offline data configuration mode.
3.4.7.2 RNC Data Configuration Modes
The RNC supports three data configuration modes: online configuration, offline configuration,
and dynamic batch configuration.
3.4.7.3 RNC Data Configuration Right Management
RNC data configuration right management enables only one user to perform RNC data
configuration on only one configuration console at a time. The configuration console may be
the LMT or the M2000.
3.4.7.4 RNC Data Configuration Rollback
RNC data configuration rollback is performed to restore configurations when errors occur. If
data configuration fails to achieve the expected result or even causes equipment or network
faults, you can perform rollback to restore the configurations quickly. This ensures the proper
running of the RNC.
3.4.7.5 RNC Data Consistency Check
RNC data consistency check ensures consistency between the data in the BAM and that in the
FAM. Data inconsistency between BAM and FAM affects the stable running of the RNC. Data
inconsistency also leads to a scenario wherein a part of data configuration on the LMT does not
take effect at the host.

RNC Online and Offline States


The RNC can be in either online or offline data configuration mode.

RNC Online Mode


If data configuration is performed on the RNC in online state, the relevant configuration data
can take effect in the FAM in real time.
When the RNC is online, you can adopt the online data configuration mode. For details about
the mode, refer to 3.4.7.2 RNC Data Configuration Modes.

RNC Offline Mode


If data configuration is performed on the RNC in offline state, the relevant configuration data
can take effect only after the RNC is reset or switched to online state.
When the RNC is offline, you can adopt the offline data configuration and dynamic batch
configuration modes. For details about the modes, refer to 3.4.7.2 RNC Data Configuration
Modes.

RNC Online Configuration Commands


When the RNC is online, you can run all the configuration commands except those described
in Table 3-1.
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Table 3-1 RNC offline configuration commands


Run...

To...

ADD RNCBASIC

Add the basic information of the RNC.

MOD SUBRACK

Modify the name of the subrack.

ADD OPC

Add an originating signaling point.

MOD OPC

Modify an originating signaling point.

MOD N7DPC

Modify a destination signaling point.

RMV OPC

Remove an originating signaling point.

SET SUBNET

Set the number of the subnet of the RNC.

SET SCTPSRVPORT

Set the service listening ports on the SCTP server.

NOTE

The commands described in Table 3-1 are executable only in offline state.

RNC Offline Configuration Commands


All the configuration commands are executable when the RNC is offline.

RNC Data Configuration Modes


The RNC supports three data configuration modes: online configuration, offline configuration,
and dynamic batch configuration.

RNC Online Configuration


RNC online configuration can be performed only when the RNC is online. Such data
configuration is mainly applicable to dynamic configuration of RNC data.
Figure 3-7 shows the process of RNC online configuration.
Figure 3-7 Process of RNC online configuration

The process of RNC online configuration is as follows:


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1.

The RNC is switched to online state.

2.

The configuration console (LMT or M2000) sends MML commands to the configuration
management module of the BAM.

3.

The configuration management module sends the configuration data to the database of the
related FAM board and writes the data to the BAM database DB.

RNC Offline Configuration


RNC offline configuration can be performed only when the RNC is offline. Such data
configuration is mainly applicable to RNC initial configuration.
Figure 3-8 shows the process of RNC offline configuration.
Figure 3-8 Process of RNC offline configuration

The process of RNC offline configuration is as follows:


1.

The RNC is switched to offline state.

2.

The configuration console (LMT or M2000) sends MML commands to the configuration
management module of the BAM.

3.

The configuration management module only sends the configuration data to the BAM
database DB.

4.

When a subrack or the RNC is reset, the BAM formats the configuration data in the DB
into a .dat file, loads the file onto the relevant FAM boards, and validates the configuration
data.
NOTE

During RNC offline configuration, you can start the quick configuration mode to improve efficiency.

RNC Dynamic Batch Configuration


RNC dynamic batch configuration can be performed only when the RNC is offline. Such data
configuration is mainly applicable to RNC capacity expansion and NodeB reparent.
Figure 3-9 shows the process of RNC dynamic batch configuration.

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Figure 3-9 Process of RNC dynamic batch configuration

The process of RNC dynamic batch configuration is as follows:


1.

The RNC is switched to offline mode and dynamic batch configuration is enabled.

2.

The configuration console (LMT or M2000) sends MML commands to the configuration
management module of the BAM.

3.

The configuration management module sends the configuration data only to the BAM
database DB.

4.

When the RNC is switched to online state and immediate validation of configuration data
is enabled, the BAM sends the configuration data in the DB to the relevant FAM boards
and validates the data.
NOTE

Offline configuration commands cannot be run in dynamic batch configuration mode.

RNC Data Configuration Right Management


RNC data configuration right management enables only one user to perform RNC data
configuration on only one configuration console at a time. The configuration console may be
the LMT or the M2000.
In case of conflicts during data configuration, the BAM manages the configuration right as
follows:
l

When the data configuration right control switch is ON, only one user has the data
configuration right at a time. When the switch is OFF, no data configuration right control
is applicable. You can run the SET CMCTRLSW command to set the switch to ON or
OFF.

Before data configuration, the data configuration right must be obtained. The data
configuration right is always occupied unless the user manually releases the right. That is,
if the user is logged out and the right is not manually released, he or she can still has the
data configuration right at the next login. The ADMINISTRATOR-level operators,
however, can obtain the data configuration right by running the FOC CMCTRL command.

With the control, different users cannot configure data for the RNC at the same time. A user can
perform data configuration for the RNC only after the user is granted the data configuration
right.

RNC Data Configuration Rollback


RNC data configuration rollback is performed to restore configurations when errors occur. If
data configuration fails to achieve the expected result or even causes equipment or network
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faults, you can perform rollback to restore the configurations quickly. This ensures the proper
running of the RNC.

Definition of Configuration Rollback


During data configuration, a rollback point is used to identify a data configuration status.
Rollback points can be set by users or automatically allocated by the RNC.
Configuration rollback: By setting data configuration status to rollback points, the user can
flexibly roll back or forward to any rollback point during the configuration, so as to roll back or
forward to the expected data configuration status.

Operations of Configuration Rollback


Configuration rollback is applicable when the data configuration right control switch is ON. You
can run the SET CMCTRLSW command to set the switch to ON.
RNC data configuration rollback consists of the following types of operation:
l

Undoing a single configuration command: After undoing the command, the RNC rolls back
to the configuration state that existed before the relevant command was run. This operation
is applicable to only the previous ten configuration commands.

Redoing a single configuration command: After redoing the command, the RNC returns to
the configuration state that existed after the relevant command was run. This operation is
applicable to only the previous ten configuration commands that were rolled back.

Undoing configuration commands in batches: This operation is performed to undo all the
configuration commands that were run after a specified rollback point. After the undoing,
the RNC rolls back to the configuration of the specified rollback point.

Redoing configuration commands in batches: This operation is performed to redo the


configurations that were rolled back in batches. After the redoing, the RNC returns to either
the configuration of the specified rollback point or the configuration that existed before the
undoing was performed.

RNC Data Consistency Check


RNC data consistency check ensures consistency between the data in the BAM and that in the
FAM. Data inconsistency between BAM and FAM affects the stable running of the RNC. Data
inconsistency also leads to a scenario wherein a part of data configuration on the LMT does not
take effect at the host.
RNC data consistency check can be initiated by an operator through the LMT, or it can be
initiated periodically by the MML Server module of the BAM through the configuration on the
LMT. This task checks the data consistency between the BAM database and the databases of
FAM boards. The fundamental unit for the data consistency check is table records.

3.4.8 RNC Performance Management


RNC performance management enables the RNC to collect performance data.

RNC Performance Management Process


The boards of the RNC collect performance measurement data and periodically report the data
to the performance management module of the BAM. According to the task file, the performance
management module reports the measurement data to the M2000 periodically. The BAM stores
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the performance measurement data generated in the last 168 hours, by deleting the earlier
records.
Figure 3-10 shows the process of performance measurement.
Figure 3-10 Process of performance measurement

In the performance measurement process, the performance console on the M2000 controls the
BAM to collect measurement data, based on a default measurement task file that is in .xml
format. According to the task file, the RNC reports the measurement data at the granularity
period of the measurement unit.

Measurement Types
Performance measurement objects are of two types: default measurement objects and optional
measurement objects.
l

Default measurement objects


The RNC automatically measures all objects of this type. The default measurement task
file supports dual periods. One is the normal measurement period with a default duration
of 30 minutes. The other is the short measurement period with a default duration of five
minutes. The latter one is used for real-time Key Performance Indicator (KPI) monitoring.
The M2000 cannot add objects to the list of default measurement objects or remove objects
from the list.

Optional measurement objects


By default, the RNC does not measure the objects of this type. The purpose of defining this
object type is to avoid measuring these objects, which are of a large quantity, every time.
The M2000 can add objects to the list of optional measurement objects or remove objects
from the list.

3.4.9 RNC Alarm Management


RNC alarm management facilitates you to monitor the running state of the RNC and informs
you of faults in real time so that you can take measures in time.

RNC Alarm Management Function


RNC alarm management covers the following functions:
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Setting the storage capacity and generation period for alarm logs
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The RNC can store the information of the alarms generated in the last 90 days and a
maximum of 100,000 alarm logs. You can set the storage capacity and log generation period
as required.
l

Setting alarm levels


The RNC has the alarm level setting function. You can set a level for a specific alarm object.

Masking alarms of certain objects


The RNC can mask specific alarm objects. The alarms that satisfy the masking conditions
are masked, that is, they are not reported to the alarm console.

Masking derivative alarms


The RNC can mask derivative alarms, that is, the derivative alarms are not reported to the
alarm console.

Alarm indication
When a fault alarm is generated, the RNC informs you of the alarm in any of the following
ways: blinking of the icon, audible indication of the terminal, and audible and visible
indication on the alarm box.

Alarm information processing


You can browse real-time alarm information, query history alarm information, and handle
alarms based on the handling suggestions available from the Online Help of the RNC.

RNC Alarm Management Mechanism


The alarm management process consists of alarm generation, alarm reporting, and alarm
handling. Figure 3-11 shows the process of alarm management.
Figure 3-11 Process of alarm management

Each board automatically detects alarms and reports the alarms to the BAM in acknowledged
mode.
The Warn module of the BAM has the following functions:
l

Alarm storage
The module stores the alarms in the database DB of the BAM.

Alarm processing
The module processes the commands sent from the alarm console and sends the responses
to the alarm console. The commands can be used to query active alarms or alarm logs or
to modify alarm configurations.

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RNC Alarm Box Driving


The RNC uses the universal alarm box of Huawei. The alarm box provides audible and visible
indications of alarms. For appearance and functions of the alarm box, refer to RNC Alarm Box.
Figure 3-12 shows the process of driving the alarm box.
Figure 3-12 Process of driving the RNC alarm box

The alarm box is connected to the LMT through the serial port. When an alarm is reported, the
LMT transfers it to the alarm box. The alarm box then emits audible and visible indications.
NOTE

The RNC can control alarm reporting by the alarm box. Through settings on the alarm box, the RNC can
mask specified alarm objects and all the alarms under the specified alarm level.

3.4.10 RNC Loading Management


RNC loading management enables you to manage the process of loading program and data files
onto boards after the FAM boards (or subracks) start or restart.

RNC Files to Be Loaded


RNC files to be loaded include the program files and data files, which are stored in the directory
BAM active workspace installation directory\bin\fam on the BAM. The program files have the
extension of .bin and the data files have the extension of .DAT.
l

All the boards of the RNC must be loaded with program files.

The SCUa and SPUa boards must be loaded with data files, in addition to program files.

Table 3-2 lists the names of the program files of RNC boards.
Table 3-2 Program file names of RNC boards

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Board/Subsystem

Program File Name

SCUa board

SCUa.bin

MPU subsystem

MPUa.bin

SPU subsystem

XPUa_U.bin

GCUa/GCGa board

GCKa.bin

DPUb board

DPUd.bin

AEUa board

AEUa.bin

AOUa board

AOUa.bin
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Board/Subsystem

Program File Name

PEUa board

PEUa.bin

POUa board

POUa.bin

UOIa board (UOI_ATM)

UOIa_ATM.bin

UOIa board (UOI_IP)

UOIa_IP.bin

FG2a/GOUa board

FG2a.bin

The data file names of an SCUa board or SPUa board are in the form of ABCXXYYZ.DAT.
Table 3-3 describes the detailed meaning of the data file names.
Table 3-3 Description of the data file names
Parameter

Meaning

ABC

Board name or subsystem name


l

For an SCUa board, the content of ABC is


SCU.

For subsystem 0 on a controlling SPUa


board, the content of ABC is MPU.

For a non-controlling SPUa board and


subsystems 1, 2, and 3 on a controlling
SPUa board, the content of ABC is SPU.

XX

Subrack number

YY

Slot number

Subsystem number
Z is valid only for an SPUa board. For an
SCUa board, the value of Z is 0.

For example, SPU00040.DAT is the file name of the data file in SPU subsystem 0 on the SPUa
board in slot 4 of subrack 0; MPU05000.DAT is the file name of the data file in SPU subsystem
0 on the SPUa board in slot 0 of subrack 5.

RNC Loading Modes


You can use the SET LODCTRL command to set the loading control parameter to specify the
loading mode.
The following loading modes are applicable to RNC program and data files:
l

Always loading from the BAM and writing to the flash memory of the board
NOTE

This mode is mainly applicable to loading patches.


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Negotiated Loading
The loading of program files and that of data files differ in terms of the negotiation mode.
To negotiate the loading mode for program files, the RNC compares the versions of the program
files stored in the active and standby workspaces of the flash memory of a board with the versions
of current program files in the BAM.
l

If the versions are inconsistent, the board loads program files from the BAM and writes the
files to the active workspace of the flash memory of the board.

If the versions are consistent, the board loads program files directly from the active or
standby workspace of the flash memory of the board.
NOTE

If the board loads program files from the standby workspace of the flash memory, the standby workspace
switches to be active automatically, and the other workspace becomes standby.

To negotiate the loading mode for data files, the RNC compares the Cyclic Redundancy Check
(CRC) value of the data files in the active workspace of the flash memory of a board with that
in the active workspace of the BAM.
l

If the CRC values are inconsistent, the board loads data files from the active workspace of
the BAM and writes the files to the active workspace of the flash memory of the board.

If the CRC values are consistent, the board loads data files directly from the active
workspace of the flash memory of the board.
NOTE

If a board fails to load program or data files from the flash memory after negotiation, the board loads the
files from the BAM and writes the files to the flash memory.

Process of Loading RNC Program Files


Figure 3-13 shows the process of loading RNC program files. During the loading process, the
RNC loads the SCUa boards in the RSS and RBSs before loading the other boards in the subracks.
Figure 3-13 Process of loading RNC program files

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The process of loading RNC program files is as follows:


1.

After starting up, the RNC boards broadcast BOOTP request messages to the BAM.

2.

After receiving the BOOTP request message from the SCUa, the BAM generates a BOOTP
response message and sends it to the SCUa board. The response message contains the
loading control parameter, IP address, and version information.

3.

The SCUa board receives the response message and then loads the program files according
to the loading control parameter.

4.

After the loading, the SCUa board forwards the BOOTP request messages of other boards
in the subrack to the BAM.

5.

On receiving the BOOTP request messages from other boards, the BAM returns to the
boards response messages, through the SCUa board.

6.

The boards receive the response messages and then load the program files according to the
loading control parameter.

7.

The loading of RNC program files ends.

Process of Loading RNC Data Files


RNC data files are loaded after RNC program files are loaded. Figure 3-14 shows the process
of loading RNC data files.
Figure 3-14 Process of loading RNC data files

The process of loading RNC data files is as follows:


1.

After the RNC program files are loaded, the SCUa board loads the data files according to
the loading control parameter.

2.

After the SCUa board finishes loading the data files, the SPUa board loads the data files
according to the loading control parameter.

3.

The loading of RNC data files ends.

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3.4.11 BOOTP and DHCP on the Iub Interface


The RNC and NodeB support the BOOTP and DHCP functions. By the BOOTP or DHCP
function, a NodeB can automatically get an IP address from an RNC and create an OM channel
between the NodeB and the RNC. The BOOTP and DHCP functions are applicable to ATM and
IP transport on the Iub interface respectively.

Concept of BOOTP and DHCP


The Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) is usually used to boot diskless workstations.
In a TCP/IP network, DHCP provides configuration information for hosts on the Internet. DHCP
is based on BOOTP. DHCP retains the relay function as provided by BOOTP and adds the
capability of automatic allocation of reusable network addresses and additional configuration
options.
NOTE

Currently, the Iub interface is applied with static IP address allocation of DHCP instead of dynamic
allocation of IP addresses.

BOOTP is similar to the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), but the former can be
implemented more easily than the latter.

Working Mechanisms of BOOTP and DHCP


BOOTP and DHCP work in client/server mode. The client applies towards the server for
configuration parameters, including the requested IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway.
The server responds with relevant configuration information according to certain strategy. The
response messages are encapsulated by UDP.
NOTE

DHCP is extended from BOOTP. A DHCP server can interoperate with a BOOTP client.

In a RAN system, an RNC acts as a server and a NodeB acts as a client.

The UDP port number of the BOOTP/DHCP client is 68, and that of the BOOTP/DHCP server
is 67. BOOTP and DHCP are applicable to only the scenario where the client and the server are
located in the same subnet. When the client and the server are located in different subnets, the
DHCP/BOOTP relay is required in the subnet where the client resides. The DHCP/BOOTP relay
can be implemented by an Internet host or a router.
A BOOTP signaling procedure includes interaction of only a request and a response. The
signaling interaction of DHCP is more complicated than that of BOOTP.
NOTE

The DHCP server can receive at least the following datagrams from the client: DHCPDISCOVER,
DHCPREQUEST, DHCPDECLINE, DHCPRELEASE, and DHCPINFORM.

The DHCP client can receive at least the following datagrams from the server: DHCPOFFER,
DHCPACK, and DHCPNAK.

Benefits of BOOTP and DHCP


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In the case that the OM channel between the RNC and the NodeB is broken, BOOTP and
DHCP enable the channel to be automatically repaired.
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BOOTP and DHCP reduce the necessity for local NodeB maintenance, thus increasing
maintainability of NodeBs and reducing the operation costs.

3.4.12 RNC Upgrade Management


RNC upgrade refers to a process where the RNC is upgraded to a later version.

Upgrade Scenarios
The RNC may be developed to support new features, higher specifications, or later protocol
standards, or to have defects remedied. In such cases, an RNC needs to be upgraded to a later
version so that it can provide better services.

Upgrade Mode
The RNC upgrade adopts the remote mode. You can use the dedicated upgrade tool to upgrade
an RNC remotely through the OM network of the RNC. Figure 3-15 shows the RNC remote
upgrade.
Figure 3-15 RNC remote upgrade

NOTE

The upgrade tool supports batch upgrade for RNCs.

Upgrade Tool
The RNC is upgraded remotely by the dedicated upgrade tool, which consists of the upgrade
client and the upgrade server. The upgrade tool has the following functions:
l

Checking data before upgrade: checks the BAM operating system, database, BAM
application, and user-input data.

Upgrading the BAM: upgrades the BAM application and data files.

Upgrading host boards: upgrades loading program and data files of the RSS and RBS
subracks.

Providing three types of upgrade: version upgrade, patch upgrade, and version+patch
upgrade.

Methods of obtaining the RNC upgrade client: The upgrade client is released with associated
versions of the BAM application.
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Process of Remote Upgrade


No.

Operation

Operato
r

The user sends the version files required for the upgrade and the
upgrade server program to the specified directories of the active and
standby BAM through the upgrade network.

User

The user starts the upgrade client at the local end and sets up
connection between the upgrade client and the upgrade server.

User

The user uses the upgrade client to remotely start the upgrade server.

User

The upgrade server backs up the data in the active workspace of the
active BAM before the upgrade.

Tool

The upgrade server upgrades the program and data files in the
standby workspace of the active BAM.

Tool

The upgrade server issues a command to synchronize the standby


workspace of the standby BAM and that of the active BAM.

Tool

The upgrade server issues a command to load the host program, DSP,
BOOTROM, and data files in the standby workspaces of the BAMs
onto the standby workspaces of the boards so that the standby
workspaces of the boards are synchronized with those of the BAMs.

Tool

The upgrade server issues a command to switch over the active and
standby workspaces of the active BAM so as to upgrade the active
BAM.

Tool

The upgrade server issues a command to reset all the boards of the
RNC.

User

10

After the reset, the RNC boards negotiate the loading of version files
with the BAMs. The boards automatically load the program and data
files from the standby workspaces of their flash memories to upgrade
the boards.

Tool

11

The upgrade server prompts the user to verify services.

User

12

After the service verification is passed, the upgrade server issues a


command to switch over the active and standby workspaces of the
standby BAM so as to upgrade the standby BAM.

User

13

The RNC upgrade ends.

User

NOTE

The methods of remotely upgrading the RNC through the upgrade tool differ with the different versions.
Therefore, for detailed upgrade operations, refer to the upgrade guide released with the associated versions.

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3.5 RNC Clock Synchronization Subsystem


The RNC clock synchronization subsystem consists of the GCUa/GCGa boards in the RSS
subrack and the clock processing unit of each subrack. It provides timing signals for the RNC,
generates the RFN, and provides reference clocks for NodeBs.
3.5.1 RNC Clock Sources
The RNC has the following clock sources: Building Integrated Timing Supply System (BITS)
clock, Global Positioning System (GPS) clock, line clock, and external 8 kHz clock.
3.5.2 Structure of the RNC Clock Synchronization Subsystem
The RNC clock synchronization subsystem consists of the clock module and other boards. The
clock module is implemented by the GCUa/GCGa board.
3.5.3 Timing Signal Processing in the RNC
The RNC processes foreign timing signals before sends the timing signals to the boards.
3.5.4 RFN Generation and Reception
RNC Frame Number (RFN) is applicable to node synchronization for the RNC. The node
synchronization frames that the RNC sends to the NodeB carry the RFN signals.

3.5.1 RNC Clock Sources


The RNC has the following clock sources: Building Integrated Timing Supply System (BITS)
clock, Global Positioning System (GPS) clock, line clock, and external 8 kHz clock.

BITS Clock
The BITS clock is of three types: 2 MHz, 2 Mbit/s, and 1.5 Mbit/s. The BITS clock has two
input modes: BITS 1 and BITS 2. The RNC obtains the BITS timing signals through the timing
signal input ports on the GCUa/GCGa board.
NOTE

The 2 MHz and 2 Mbit/s timing signals are E1 timing signals, and the 1.5 Mbit/s timing signals are T1
timing signals.

GPS Clock
The GPS clock provides 1 Pulse Per Second (PPS) timing signals. The RNC obtains the GPS
timing signals from the GPS system. The GCGa board is configured with a GPS card, and the
RNC receives the GPS signals at the ANT port on the GCGa.
NOTE

The GCUa board is not configured with a GPS card. Therefore, when the RNC is configured with the GCUa
instead of the GCGa, the GPS clock is unavailable to the RNC.

Line Clock
The line clock is an 8 kHz clock that the Iu interface board in the RSS subrack provides for the
GCUa/GCGa board through the backplane channels. The line clock has two input modes: line
1 and line 2.
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External 8 kHz Clock


Through the COM1 port on the GCUa/GCGa board, the RNC obtains 8 kHz standard timing
signals in RS-422 level mode from an external device.

Local Oscillator
If the RNC fails to obtain any external clock, the RNC can obtain its working timing signals
from the local oscillator.
NOTE

The timing signals generated by the local oscillator, however, do not meet the requirements of NodeBs for
clock precision. Therefore, when the RNC uses such timing signals, the NodeBs fail to obtain the timing
signals that meet the precision requirements from the RNC.

3.5.2 Structure of the RNC Clock Synchronization Subsystem


The RNC clock synchronization subsystem consists of the clock module and other boards. The
clock module is implemented by the GCUa/GCGa board.
Figure 3-16 shows the structure of the RNC clock synchronization subsystem.
Figure 3-16 Structure of the RNC clock synchronization subsystem

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The RINT in the figure refers to the Iu/Iur/Iub interface board. You can choose to use
different interface boards based on the requirements.
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The RNC can use the GPS timing signals shown in Figure 3-16 only when the RNC is
configured with the GCGa board, because the GCGa board is configured with a GPS card
but the GCUa board is not.

If the RINT (AEUa, PEUa, POUa, AOUa, or UOIa) that extracts the line clock from the
CN is located in the RSS subrack, the timing signals travel to the GCUa/GCGa board either
through a backplane channel in the RSS subrack or through the 2 MHz timing signal output
port on the panel of the RINT. In the former case, the channel can be either line 0 channel
or line 1 channel. In the latter case, a clock cable connects the RINT to the GCUa/GCGa
board.

If the RINT that extracts the clock from the CN is located in an RBS subrack, the timing
signals travel to the GCUa/GCGa board only through the 2 MHz timing signal output port
on the panel of the RINT. In this case, a clock cable connects the RINT to the GCUa/GCGa
board.

When the RNC is configured with active/standby GCUa/GCGa boards and active/standby SCUa
boards, the connections of clock cables between the boards follow certain rules. Figure 3-17
shows the connections between the GCUa/GCGa boards in the RSS subrack and the SCUa
boards in an RBS subrack.
Figure 3-17 Clock cable connections between GCUa/GCGa boards and SCUa boards

As shown in Figure 3-17, the active/standby GCUa/GCGa boards in the RSS subrack are
connected to the active/standby SCUa boards in the RBS subrack through the Y-shaped clock
cables. This connection mode ensures proper working of the timing signals for the RNC system
if a single-point failure occurs to the GCUa/GCGa board, Y-shaped clock cable, or SCUa board.
In addition, the Y-shaped cable protects the proper working of the SCUa boards from switchover
of the GCUa/GCGa boards.
NOTE

In the RSS subrack, the GCUa/GCGa boards send timing signals to the SCUa boards in the same subrack
through the backplane channels. Therefore, the Y-shaped cables are not required.

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3.5.3 Timing Signal Processing in the RNC


The RNC processes foreign timing signals before sends the timing signals to the boards.
The system timing signals are processed as follows:
1.

The clock module of the GCUa/GCGa board receives timing signals.

2.

The clock module sends the timing signals to the SCUa board in the RSS subrack through
the backplane channel and to the SCUa board in each RBS subrack through the timing
signal output ports on the GCUa/GCGa board.

3.

The SCUa board in the RSS subrack generates the 19.44 MHz, 32.768 MHz, and 8 kHz
system timing signals and sends them to the boards in the subrack through the high-speed
backplane channel. The same is true for each RBS subrack.

4.

The AEUa and PEUa boards obtain 32.768 MHz working timing signals.

The AOUa and POUa boards obtain 19.44 MHz working timing signals.

The UOIa board obtains 8 kHz working timing signals.

The FG2a and GOUa boards do not use the timing signals provided by the clock module.

The RINT (AEUa, PEUa, POUa, AOUa, or UOIa) sends the timing signals to NodeBs.

3.5.4 RFN Generation and Reception


RNC Frame Number (RFN) is applicable to node synchronization for the RNC. The node
synchronization frames that the RNC sends to the NodeB carry the RFN signals.
Figure 3-18 shows the process of RFN generation and reception. This figure takes the GCUa
board as an example.

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Figure 3-18 RFN generation and reception

As shown in Figure 3-18, the GCUa/GCGa board in the RSS subrack sends the 1 PPS signals
and synchronization time packets to the SCUa board in each subrack. The SCUa board then
sends them to the other boards in each subrack. The boards generate the required RFN signals
according to the received 1 PPS signals and synchronization time packets.
NOTE

The 1 PPS signals can be generated by the GCUa/GCGa board.

When the RNC is configured with the GCGa board, the RNC can obtain GPS synchronization signals
through the GPS card to generate the 1 PPS signals that are synchronized with the satellite signals.

3.6 RNC Power Subsystem


The RNC power subsystem serves the entire equipment. This subsystem adopts the dual-circuit
backup and monitor-at-each-point solution, thus featuring high reliability.
3.6.1 Power Supply Requirements of the RNC
This describes the power supply schemes of the RNC and requirements for the AC power and
DC power supplied to the RNC.
3.6.2 Working Mechanism of the Power Distribution Box
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There is a fixed relation between outputs of the power distribution box of the RNC cabinet and
the intra-cabinet components.
3.6.3 Connections of Power Cables and PGND Cables in the RNC Cabinet
This describes the connections of power cables and PGND cables in the RNC cabinet. The RNC
uses the Huawei N68E-22 cabinet or the Huawei N68-21-N cabinet. The connections of power
cables and PGND cables for the N68E-22 cabinet are different from those for the N68-21-N
cabinet.

3.6.1 Power Supply Requirements of the RNC


This describes the power supply schemes of the RNC and requirements for the AC power and
DC power supplied to the RNC.
3.6.1.1 Power Supply Schemes of the RNC
This describes the power supply schemes of the RNC. The RNC power supply system consists
of the 48 V DC power system, PDF, and DC power distribution box configured on top of the
cabinet.
3.6.1.2 AC Power Requirements of the RNC
This describes the AC power requirements of the RNC. The RNC has higher AC power
requirements. The AC power of the equipment room should be ready before construction of the
room.
3.6.1.3 DC Power Requirements of the RNC
This describes the DC power requirements of the RNC. The RNC has high DC power
requirements, Therefore, the equipment should be placed near the telecom equipment to
minimize the DC feeder loss. In addition, the loop voltage drop from the battery port to the
equipment port should be less than 3.2 V to reduce power consumption and installation cost.

Power Supply Schemes of the RNC


This describes the power supply schemes of the RNC. The RNC power supply system consists
of the 48 V DC power system, PDF, and DC power distribution box configured on top of the
cabinet.
Use two or more independent power supply systems when there is heavy traffic or there are more
than two switching systems within the telecom office.
For a large-scale office, configure multiple power supply systems at different floors. The power
supply systems are used for different equipment rooms respectively.
Configure a centralized power room or battery room for an office with medium traffic, or adopt
the distributed power supply mode. Use the integrated power supply for an office with small
traffic. Figure 3-19 shows the power supply schemes of the RNC.

CAUTION
Note that corrosive gas released by the batteries would erode the circuit boards.

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Figure 3-19 Power supply schemes of the RNC

The PDF provides two DC power outputs in 1+1 backup mode. The outputs are connected to
the power distribution box on the RNC cabinet top to supply power to the RNC equipment.
NOTE

Each RNC cabinet is configured with nine cables, that is four -48 V power cables, four RTN power
cables, and one PGND cable.

When the PDF is located far away from the RNC cabinet, for example, when they are not in the same
equipment room, connect the PGND cables of the RNC cabinets to the nearest grounding bar cogrounded with the PDF rather than connect the PGND cables directly with the PDF.

AC Power Requirements of the RNC


This describes the AC power requirements of the RNC. The RNC has higher AC power
requirements. The AC power of the equipment room should be ready before construction of the
room.

WARNING
The Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) must be configured to ensure proper working of the
maintenance terminal in case of power failure.
The centralized power supply mode is preferred for the AC power supply system that consists
of a mains, UPS, and house generator set.

WARNING
The AC backup power supply is in the same phase with the mains. The UPSmains switchover
duration must be less than 10 ms. Otherwise, the equipment may be restarted or reset.
The three-phase or mono-phase mode is preferred for the low-voltage power supply system.
Table 3-4 lists the nominal voltage and frequency of the low-voltage AC.
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Table 3-4 Nominal voltage and frequency of low-voltage AC power


Nominal Voltage (V)

Nominal Frequency (Hz)

110/127/200/220/230/240/380

50/60

NOTE

Different countries or different areas in a country may use different low-voltage power supply systems.
The following is an example: three-phase three-wire of 200 V, three-phase four-wire of 200 V, and monophase three-wire of 200 V.

When determining the AC power distribution capacity in the equipment room, consider the
working current and fault current. Each individual equipment must have an independent AC
distribution protection device. The protection switch must be more powerful than those of the
lower-level electricity devices. Cable outlet of the power distribution panel is determined by the
maximum load capacity of the supplied power. This enables you to decide the type and size of
the conducting wire. Cable type and specification can be determined accordingly.
Specifications for AC voltage of the communications and power supply equipment are as
follows:
l

If the communications equipment uses the AC power supply, the permissible voltage range
is +5% to -10% of the nominal voltage.

If the power supply equipment and major buildings use the AC power supply, the
permissible voltage range is +10% to 15% of the nominal voltage. the permissible voltage
range is +10% to -15% of the nominal voltage.

The permissible fluctuation range of AC frequencies is within 4%. Sinusoidal distortion


rate of the voltage waveform is no more than 5%.

The self-provided generator set on site should be automatic. The requirements for the generator
set are as follows:
l

No loud noise

Automatic power-on and power-off, supply, and communication

Remote control and mesurement

Standard interface and communication protocols

Specifications for the AC power cables are as follows:


l

Cross-sectional area of the AC power cables should be the same as that of the phase cable.

The conducting wires should be fire-resistant. Their layout must comply with the local
regulations.

The requirements for the AC power supplied to the RNC are as follows:
l

3-38

Use the voltage regulator in the following two situations:

When the communications equipment is powered directly by the mains, the power
supply voltage exceeds the rated voltage by 10% to +5%, or exceeds the voltage range
permitted for the communications equipment.

When the communications equipment is not powered directly by the mains, the mains
voltage exceeds the rated voltage by 15% to +10%, or the AC input voltage range
permitted for the DC power equipment.

To ensure stable power supply, use a UPS or inverter.


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Configure the generator set for the office to ensure proper communication in case of mains
failure. The capacity of the generator set should be greater than or equal to 1.52 times the
capacity of the continuous power supply equipment.

Capacity of the UPS or inverter must be larger than the total load power, preferably with
a surplus of 80% of the total load power. Backup is required for the use of the UPS or
inverter.

DC Power Requirements of the RNC


This describes the DC power requirements of the RNC. The RNC has high DC power
requirements, Therefore, the equipment should be placed near the telecom equipment to
minimize the DC feeder loss. In addition, the loop voltage drop from the battery port to the
equipment port should be less than 3.2 V to reduce power consumption and installation cost.
Table 3-5 lists the specifications for the DC power supply.
Table 3-5 Specifications for the DC power supply
Item

Specification

Permitted voltage range for the -48 V


DC power

-40 V to -57 V

DC power capacity to support the surge


current

At least 1.5 times greater than the rated current

Regulated voltage precision

If the AC input voltage is in the range of 85%


110% of the rated value, and the load current is in
the range of 5%100% of the rated value, the
output voltage of the rectifier is an integer in the
range of 46.0 V to 56.4 V, with the regulated
voltage precision not more than 1%.

Overshoot amplitude of switch on/off

Within 5% of the rated DC output voltage

Peak-to-peak noise voltage

200 mV

Dynamic response

The recovery time is less than 200 ms. The


overshoot is within 5% of the rated DC output
voltage.

The requirements for the DC power supplied to the RNC are as follows:
l

The power supply in the dispersed mode is preferred. Use multiple DC power supply
systems and place the power equipment in multiple positions.

Use the standard DC power supply system, and set the output voltage of the power system
within the specified range.

Improve the reliability of the DC power supply system, and reduce storage batteries. For
small offices, add batteries if it is difficult to enhance the reliability of the DC power supply
system.

The total capacity of the high frequency switch rectifier should meet the power
specifications of the communication loading and battery charging. Configure the backup
rectifier modules. If there are less than 10 active modules, configure one backup module.

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If there are more than 10 active modules, configure one backup module for every 10 active
modules.
l

Install the storage batteries in two or more groups. The capacity is determined by the
duration taken by the storage batteries to supply power to the load. For most offices, the
batteries must be able to supply power for at least one hour.

3.6.2 Working Mechanism of the Power Distribution Box


There is a fixed relation between outputs of the power distribution box of the RNC cabinet and
the intra-cabinet components.

Working Mechanism of the Power Distribution Box


The working mechanism of the power distribution box is shown in Figure 3-20.
Figure 3-20 Working mechanism of the power distribution box

Table 3-6 describes the working mechanism of the power distribution box.
Table 3-6 Working mechanism of the power distribution box

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PDF Output

PDB Input

PDB Output

Subrack Input

-48 V 63 A DC
output

Power input
terminal block A 1
(-) and B 1(-)

A8 and
B8

RTN input of subrack 2 or


5

RTN(+)

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PDF Output

PDB Input

RTN output of the


PDF

Power input
terminal block A 1
(+) 3(+) and B 1
(+) 3(+)

-48 V 100 A DC
output of the PDF

Power input
terminal block A 3
(-) and B 3(-)

PDB Output

A9 and
B9

A10 and
B10

Subrack Input

NEG(-)

-48 V DC input of subrack


2 or 5

RTN(+)

RTN input of subrack 1 or


4

NEG(-)

-48 V DC input of subrack


1 or 4

RTN(+)

RTN input of subrack 0 or


3

NEG(-)

-48 V DC input of subrack


0 or 3

Layout of Power Switches on the RNC Cabinet


The power distribution box of the RNC cabinet provides six power outputs for the subracks. The
power supply is divided into two groups: A and B. The switches related are A8 to A10 and B8
to B10.
The assignment of power switches A8 to A10 and B8 to B10 on the power distribution box is
shown in Figure 3-21.
Figure 3-21 Assignment of power switches on the power distribution box

Table 3-7 describes the relation between the switches and subracks.

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Table 3-7 Relation between the switches and subracks


RNC Subracks

Power Switches

Subrack 2, subrack 5

A8, B8

Subrack 1, subrack 4

A9, B9

Subrack 0, subrack 3

A10, B10

3.6.3 Connections of Power Cables and PGND Cables in the RNC


Cabinet
This describes the connections of power cables and PGND cables in the RNC cabinet. The RNC
uses the Huawei N68E-22 cabinet or the Huawei N68-21-N cabinet. The connections of power
cables and PGND cables for the N68E-22 cabinet are different from those for the N68-21-N
cabinet.

The N68E-22 Cabinet


Figure 3-22 shows the connections of the power cables and the PGND cables in the N68E-22
cabinet.

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Figure 3-22 Connections of power cables and PGND cables in the N68E-22 cabinet

Table 3-8 describes connections of the power cables and PGND cables in the N68E-22 cabinet.
Table 3-8 Connections of power cables and PGND cables in the N68E-22 cabinet

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Number

Description

5, 6; 11, 12

Power cable of the lowest subrack

3, 4; 9, 10

Power cable of the middle subrack

1, 2; 7, 8

Power cable of the highest subrack

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Number

Description

13

PGND cable connecting the power distribution box and


the mounting bar

14, 15, 16; 17, 18, 19

PGND cables connecting the subracks and the mounting


bar

24, 25, 26

PGND cables connecting the adjacent cabinets

50 to 57

PGND cables of cabinet doors

The N68-21-N Cabinet


Figure 3-23 shows the connections of the power cables and the PGND cables in the N68-21-N
cabinet.

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Figure 3-23 Connections of power cables and PGND cables in the N68-21-N cabinet

Table 3-9 describes connections of the power cables and PGND cables in the N68-21-N cabinet.
Table 3-9 Connections of power cables and PGND cables in the N68-21-N cabinet

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Number

Description

5, 6; 11, 12

Power cable of the lowest subrack

3, 4; 9, 10

Power cable of the middle subrack

1, 2; 7, 8

Power cable of the highest subrack

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Number

Description

13

PGND cable connecting the power distribution box and


the busbar

14, 15, 16; 17, 18, 19

PGND cables connecting subracks to busbars

20, 21

PGND cables of the cabinet busbar

24, 25, 26

PGND cables connecting the busbars of different cabinets

50 to 57

PGND cables of cabinet doors

3.7 RNC Environment Monitoring Subsystem


The RNC environment monitoring subsystem automatically monitors the working environment
of the RNC and reports faults in real time.
The RNC environment monitoring subsystem consists of the power distribution box and the
environment monitoring parts in each subrack. This subsystem is responsible for power supply
monitoring, fan monitoring, cabinet door monitoring, and water monitoring.
3.7.1 RNC Power Supply Monitoring
RNC power monitoring is performed to monitor the power subsystem in real time, report the
running state of the power supply, and generate alarms when faults occur.
3.7.2 RNC Fan Monitoring
RNC fan monitoring is performed to monitor the fans in real time and adjust the speed of the
fans based on the temperature in the subrack.
3.7.3 RNC Cabinet Door Monitoring
RNC cabinet door monitoring is optional. When the RNC detects that the front or back door of
a cabinet is open, the RNC generates and reports an appropriate alarm.
3.7.4 RNC Environment Monitoring
RNC environment monitoring is optional. When the RNC detects environment abnormal, the
RNC generates and reports an appropriate alarm.

3.7.1 RNC Power Supply Monitoring


RNC power monitoring is performed to monitor the power subsystem in real time, report the
running state of the power supply, and generate alarms when faults occur.
Figure 3-24 shows the power monitoring principles.

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Figure 3-24 RNC power monitoring principles

The RNC power monitoring process is as follows:


1.

The PAMU in the power distribution box monitors the running state of the power
distribution box and sends the monitoring results to the power distribution interface board
through the signal transfer board.

2.

The power distribution box monitoring signal cable sends the monitoring signals to the
SCUa board in the power monitoring subrack of the RNC.

3.

The SCUa board processes the monitoring signals. If a fault occurs, the SCUa board
generates and reports an alarm to the OMUa board.

3.7.2 RNC Fan Monitoring


RNC fan monitoring is performed to monitor the fans in real time and adjust the speed of the
fans based on the temperature in the subrack.
The fans are integrated with the subrack. Every subrack has a fan box in which there are a
maximum of nine fans. The temperature sensor beside the air outlet can detect the temperature
in the subrack.
Figure 3-25 shows the fan monitoring principles.
Figure 3-25 RNC fan monitoring principles

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The RNC fan monitoring process is as follows:


1.

The fan monitoring unit PFCU in the fan box monitors the running state of the fans in real
time and reports the monitoring signals to the SCUa board in the subrack.

2.

The SCUa board processes the monitoring signals. If a fault occurs, the SCUa board
generates and reports an alarm to the OMUa board.

3.7.3 RNC Cabinet Door Monitoring


RNC cabinet door monitoring is optional. When the RNC detects that the front or back door of
a cabinet is open, the RNC generates and reports an appropriate alarm.
Figure 3-26 shows the cabinet door monitoring principles.
Figure 3-26 RNC cabinet door monitoring principles

The door control sensor is installed on the doorhead of the RNC cabinet. The sensor is connected
to the power distribution interface board of a power distribution box through a cable.
The RNC cabinet door monitoring process is as follows:

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1.

The door control sensor monitors the front and back doors of the RNC cabinet in real time.
If the front or back door is open, the door control sensor generates appropriate monitoring
signals.

2.

The monitoring signals travel to the power distribution interface board of the power
distribution box through the cable.

3.

The power distribution interface board processes the monitoring signals and then send the
signals to the SCUa board in the power monitoring subrack of the RNC.

4.

The SCUa board processes the signals, generates an appropriate door control alarm, and
reports the alarm to the OMUa board.
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3.7.4 RNC Environment Monitoring


RNC environment monitoring is optional. When the RNC detects environment abnormal, the
RNC generates and reports an appropriate alarm.
Figure 3-27 shows the environment monitoring principles.
Figure 3-27 RNC environment monitoring principles

The environment monitoring unit is connected to the power distribution interface board of a
EMU RS485 communication cable.
The RNC environment monitoring process is as follows:
1.

The sensors monitor the environment in real time and send the monitoring signals to the
EMU.

2.

The EMU sends the monitoring signals to the power distribution interface board of the
power distribution box.

3.

The power distribution interface board processes the monitoring signals and then send the
signals to the SCUa board in the power monitoring subrack of the RNC.

4.

The SCUa board processes the signals, generates an alarm when environment is abnormal,
and reports the alarm to the OMUa board. The OMUa board then forwards the alarms to
the LMT and M2000.

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RNC Signal Flow

About This Chapter


This describes signal flows on the control planes and user planes of the Uu, Iub, Iur, and Iu
interfaces.
4.1 RNC Signal Flow on the Control Plane
The control plane in the RNC processes the control plane messages on the Uu, Iub, Iur, and Iu
interfaces. All control plane messages are terminated at the SPUa boards in the RNC.
4.2 RNC Signal Flow on the User Plane
The user plane in the RNC processes the user plane messages on the Uu, Iub, Iur, and Iu
interfaces.

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4.1 RNC Signal Flow on the Control Plane


The control plane in the RNC processes the control plane messages on the Uu, Iub, Iur, and Iu
interfaces. All control plane messages are terminated at the SPUa boards in the RNC.
4.1.1 Control Message Flow on the Uu Interface
Uu control messages are the Radio Resource Control (RRC) messages, which are signaling
messages that travel between the UE and the RNC when the UE accesses the network or when
the UE communicates with the RNC. The RRC messages are used in the UE activities such as
location updates and calls.
4.1.2 Control Message Flow on the Iub Interface
Iub control messages are the control plane messages between the RNC and the NodeB.
4.1.3 Control Message Flow on the Iu/Iur Interfaces
Iu/Iur control messages are the control plane messages between the RNC and the MSC, SGSN,
or neighboring RNC. The MSC is divided into the MGW and the MSC server in R4, R5, or R6
networking.

4.1.1 Control Message Flow on the Uu Interface


Uu control messages are the Radio Resource Control (RRC) messages, which are signaling
messages that travel between the UE and the RNC when the UE accesses the network or when
the UE communicates with the RNC. The RRC messages are used in the UE activities such as
location updates and calls.

Intra-RNC Control Message Flow on the Uu Interface


Figure 4-1 shows the Uu control message flow that applies to the scenario where one RNC
performs radio resource management and provides radio links for the UE. See signal flows 1
and 2 in the figure.
Figure 4-1 Intra-RNC control message flow on the Uu interface

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NOTE

The RINT in the figure refers to the Iu/Iur/Iub interface board. You can choose to use different interface
boards based on the requirements.

The

symbol of the RSS subrack in the figure indicates the switching unit in the RSS subrack.

In the uplink, the intra-RNC control message flow on the Uu interface is as follows:
1.

The RRC messages sent from the UE are processed on the physical layer of the NodeB and
then sent to the Iub RINT of the RNC over the Iub interface.

2.

The RINT processes the messages and then sends them to the DPUb board. See signal flow
1 in Figure 4-1.
If the SPUa board that processes the RRC messages and the RINT that receives the RRC
messages are located in different subracks, the messages travel to the appropriate DPUb
board after the switching in the RSS subrack. See signal flow 2 in Figure 4-1.

3.

The DPUb board performs FP, MDC, MAC, and RLC processing on the messages and then
sends the messages to the appropriate SPUa board where the messages are terminated.

The downlink flow is the converse of the uplink flow.

Inter-RNC Control Message Flow on the Uu Interface


Figure 4-2 shows the Uu control message flow that applies to the scenario where the Serving
RNC (SRNC) performs radio resource management and the Drift RNC (DRNC) provides radio
links for the UE respectively.
Figure 4-2 Inter-RNC control message flow on the Uu interface

NOTE

The RINT in the figure refers to the Iu/Iur/Iub interface board. You can choose to use different interface
boards based on the requirements.

In the uplink, the inter-RNC control message flow on the Uu interface is as follows:
1.

The RRC messages sent from the UE are processed on the physical layer of the NodeB and
then sent to the Iub RINT of the DRNC over the Iub interface.

2.

The Iub RINT and the DPUb board of the DRNC process the messages and then send them
to the Iur RINT of the DRNC.

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NOTE

When the UE performs a cell update across the Iur interface, the RRC messages travel to the Iur
RINT of the DRNC through the SPUa board of the DRNC. In any other case, the RRC messages do
not need to travel through the SPUa board.

3.

The Iur RINT of the DRNC processes the messages and then sends them to the Iur RINT
of the SRNC over the Iur interface between the DRNC and the SRNC.

4.

The Iur RINT of the SRNC processes the messages and then sends them to the DPUb board.

5.

The DPUb board performs FP, MDC, MAC, and RLC processing on the messages and then
sends the messages to the appropriate SPUa board where the messages are terminated.

The downlink flow is the converse of the uplink flow.

4.1.2 Control Message Flow on the Iub Interface


Iub control messages are the control plane messages between the RNC and the NodeB.
Figure 4-3 shows the control message flow on the Iub interface.
Figure 4-3 Control message flow on the Iub interface

NOTE

The RINT in the figure refers to the Iu/Iur/Iub interface board. You can choose to use different interface
boards based on the requirements.

The

symbol of the RSS subrack in the figure indicates the switching unit in the RSS subrack.

In the uplink, the control message flow on the Iub interface is as follows:

4-4

1.

The control plane messages sent from the NodeB travel to the Iub RINT of the RNC over
the Iub interface.

2.

The Iub RINT processes the messages and then sends them to the SPUa board where the
messages are terminated. See signal flow 1 in Figure 4-3.
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If the SPUa board that processes the messages and the RINT that receives the messages
are located in different subracks, the messages travel to the processing SPUa board after
the switching in the RSS subrack. See signal flow 2 in Figure 4-3.
The downlink flow is the converse of the uplink flow.

4.1.3 Control Message Flow on the Iu/Iur Interfaces


Iu/Iur control messages are the control plane messages between the RNC and the MSC, SGSN,
or neighboring RNC. The MSC is divided into the MGW and the MSC server in R4, R5, or R6
networking.
Figure 4-4 shows the control message flow on the Iu and Iur interfaces. See signal flows 1, 2
and 3 in the figure.
Figure 4-4 Control message flow on the Iu/Iur interfaces

NOTE

The RINT in the figure refers to the Iu/Iur/Iub interface board. You can choose to use different interface
boards based on the requirements.

The

symbol of the RSS subrack in the figure indicates the switching unit in the RSS subrack.

In the downlink, the control message flow on the Iu/Iur interfaces is as follows:
1.

The control plane messages sent from the MSC or SGSN travel to the Iu RINT of the RNC
over the Iu interface, or the control plane messages sent from the neighboring RNC travel
to the Iur RINT of the local RNC over the Iur interface.

2.

The RINT processes the messages and then sends them to the SPUa board in the same
subrack for processing. See signal flow 1 in Figure 4-4.
The RINT processes the messages, then sends them to the SPUa board in the same subrack
for processing, and finally sends them to another SPUa board for processing after the
switching in the RSS subrack. See signal flow 2 in Figure 4-4.
The RINT processes the messages and then sends them to another SPUa board for
processing after the switching in the RSS subrack. See signal flow 3 in Figure 4-4.

The uplink flow is the converse of the downlink flow.


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4.2 RNC Signal Flow on the User Plane


The user plane in the RNC processes the user plane messages on the Uu, Iub, Iur, and Iu
interfaces.
4.2.1 Data Flow Between Iub and Iu-CS/Iu-PS
Data between Iub and Iu-CS/Iu-PS is the user plane data between the RNC and the MSC or
SGSN. The MSC is divided into the MGW and the MSC server in R4, R5, or R6 networking.
4.2.2 Data Flow from Iu-BC to Iub
Data from Iu-BC to Iub refers to the BC domain data.

4.2.1 Data Flow Between Iub and Iu-CS/Iu-PS


Data between Iub and Iu-CS/Iu-PS is the user plane data between the RNC and the MSC or
SGSN. The MSC is divided into the MGW and the MSC server in R4, R5, or R6 networking.
The data flow between Iub and Iu-CS/Iu-PS is categorized into the following types:
l

Intra-RNC data flow between Iub and Iu-CS/Iu-PS

Inter-RNC data flow between Iub and Iu-CS/Iu-PS

Intra-RNC data flow between Iub and Iu-CS/Iu-PS


If the RNC that receives the data on the Iub interface sends the data directly to the MSC/SGSN
through the Iu-CS/Iu-PS connection, the data flow is called an intra-RNC data flow between Iub
and Iu-CS/Iu-PS. Figure 4-5 shows the intra-RNC data flow between Iub and Iu-CS/Iu-PS. See
data flows 1 and 2.
Figure 4-5 Intra-RNC data flow between Iub and Iu-CS/Iu-PS

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NOTE

The RINT in the figure refers to the Iu/Iur/Iub interface board. You can choose to use different interface
boards based on the requirements.

The

symbol of the RSS subrack in the figure indicates the switching unit in the RSS subrack.

In the uplink, the intra-RNC data flow between Iub and Iu-CS/Iu-PS is as follows:
1.

The NodeB processes the data and sends it to the Iub RINT of the RNC over the Iub
interface.

2.

The Iub RINT processes the data and sends it to the appropriate DPUb board. See data flow
1 in Figure 4-5.
If the DPUb board that processes the user plane data and the RINT that receives the data
are located in different subracks, the data travels to the appropriate DPUb board through
switching at the RSS subrack. See data flow 2 in Figure 4-5.

3.

The DPUb board performs the FP, MDC, MAC, RLC, and Iu UP or PDCP/GTP-U
processing on the data, separates CS/PS user plane data from other data, and then sends the
data to the Iu-CS/Iu-PS RINT.
NOTE

If the DPUb board that processes the user plane data and the Iu-CS/Iu-PS RINT are located in different
subracks, the data processed by the DPUb board travels to the Iu-CS/Iu-PS RINT through switching
at the RSS subrack.

4.

The Iu-CS/Iu-PS RINT processes the data and then sends it to the MSC/SGSN.

The downlink flow is the converse of the uplink flow.

Inter-RNC data flow between Iub and Iu-CS/Iu-PS


If the RNC that receives the data over the Iub interface sends the data to the MSC/SGSN through
another RNC, the data flow is called an inter-RNC data flow between Iub and Iu-CS/Iu-PS.
Figure 4-6 shows the inter-RNC data flow between Iub and Iu-CS/Iu-PS. The Drift RNC
(DRNC) and the Serving RNC (SRNC) are involved.
Figure 4-6 Inter-RNC data flow between Iub and Iu-CS/Iu-PS

NOTE

The RINT in the figure refers to the Iu/Iur/Iub interface board. You can choose to use different interface
boards based on the requirements.

In the uplink, the inter-RNC data flow between Iub and Iu-CS/Iu-PS is as follows:
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1.

The NodeB processes the data and sends it to the Iub RINT of the DRNC.

2.

The Iub RINT and the DPUb board of the DRNC process the data and then send it to the
Iur RINT of the DRNC.
NOTE

The DPUb board of the DRNC performs only FP and MDC processing on the data.

3.

The Iur RINT of the DRNC processes the data and then sends it to the Iur RINT of the
SRNC over the Iur interface between the DRNC and the SRNC.

4.

The Iur RINT of the SRNC processes the data and then sends it to the DPUb board.

5.

The DPUb board processes the data, separates CS/PS user plane data from other data, and
then sends the data to the Iu-CS/Iu-PS RINT.

6.

The Iu-CS/Iu-PS RINT processes the data and then sends it to the MSC/SGSN.

The downlink flow is the converse of the uplink flow.

4.2.2 Data Flow from Iu-BC to Iub


Data from Iu-BC to Iub refers to the BC domain data.
Figure 4-7 shows the data flow from Iu-BC to Iub. See data flows 1 and 2 in the figure.
Figure 4-7 Data flow from Iu-BC to Iub

NOTE

The RINT in the figure refers to the Iu/Iur/Iub interface board. You can choose to use different interface
boards based on the requirements.

The

symbol of the RSS subrack in the figure indicates the switching unit in the RSS subrack.

The data flow from Iu-BC to Iub is as follows:

4-8

1.

The Cell Broadcast Center (CBC) sends the broadcast data to the Iu-BC RINT of the RNC
over the Iu-BC interface.

2.

The Iu-BC RINT processes the data and then sends it to the SPUa board.
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3.

4 RNC Signal Flow

The SPUa board processes the Service Area Broadcast Protocol (SABP) data and sends
relevant data to the appropriate DPUb board. See data flow 1 in Figure 4-7.
If the Iub RINT that delivers the broadcast data and the Iu-BC RINT are located in different
subracks, the data travels to the RSS subrack for switching. The RSS subrack then sends
the data to the SPUa board in the same subrack as the Iub RINT that delivers the data. After
that, the data travels to the appropriate DPUb board. See data flow 2 in Figure 4-7.

4.

The DPUb board performs the BMC, RLC, and MAC processing on the data and then sends
the data to the Iub RINT.

5.

The Iub RINT processes the data and then sends it to the NodeB.

6.

The NodeB broadcasts the data to the UEs in the cells controlled by the NodeB.

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RNC Transport and Networking

About This Chapter


This describes the networking modes on the RNC side in terms of the transport and networking
on the Iub, Iu-CS/Iu-PS/Iur, and Iu-BC interfaces and the RNC OM networking.
5.1 Transport and Networking on the Iub Interface
This describes the interface boards and network solutions applicable to data transmission
between RNC and NodeB.
5.2 Transport and Networking on the Iu/Iur Interface
This describes the interface boards and network solutions applicable to data transmission
between the RNC and the CN or neighboring RNC.
5.3 Transport and Networking on the Iu-BC Interface
This part describes the interface boards and network solutions applicable to data transmission
between the RNC and the CBC.
5.4 RNC OM Networking
The RNC OM networking provides operation and maintenance for the RNC and NodeB.

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5.1 Transport and Networking on the Iub Interface


This describes the interface boards and network solutions applicable to data transmission
between RNC and NodeB.
5.1.1 Interface Boards for the Iub
The Iub interface supports data transmission based on ATM, IP, or ATM/IP dual stack. Different
types of interface board are applicable to different modes of data transmission.
5.1.2 ATM-Based Networking on the Iub Interface
In ATM-based networking on the Iub interface, the RNC and the NodeB communicate based
on the ATM protocol stack.
5.1.3 IP-Based Networking on the Iub Interface
In IP-based networking on the Iub interface, the RNC and the NodeB communicate based on
the IP protocol stack.
5.1.4 ATM/IP-Based Networking on the Iub Interface
In ATM/IP-based networking on the Iub interface, the RNC and the NodeB communicate based
on the ATM/IP dual stack, that is, based on the ATM and IP protocol stacks at the same time.
5.1.5 Satellite-Based Networking on the Iub Interface
In satellite-based networking on the Iub interface, the RNC and the NodeB communicate through
the satellite.
5.1.6 2G/3G Concurrent Transmission and Networking
In 2G/3G concurrent transmission, the 2G and 3G information share transmission resources.
This topic describes the networking for such transmission.

5.1.1 Interface Boards for the Iub


The Iub interface supports data transmission based on ATM, IP, or ATM/IP dual stack. Different
types of interface board are applicable to different modes of data transmission.

ATM-Based Iub Interface Boards


The following types of board are applicable to the ATM-based Iub interface:
l

AEUa board

AOUa board

UOIa board (UOI_ATM)

IP-Based Iub Interface Boards


The following types of board are applicable to the IP-based Iub interface:

5-2

PEUa board

POUa board

FG2a board

GOUa board

UOIa board (UOI_IP)


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ATM/IP-Based Iub Interface Boards


Over the Iub interface based on the ATM/IP dual stack, the RNC can communicate with a NodeB
through ATM and IP transport at the same time.
The following types of interface board are applicable to the ATM transport option on the Iub
interface:
l

AEUa board

AOUa board

UOIa board (UOI_ATM)

The following types of interface board are applicable to the IP transport option on the Iub
interface:
l

POUa board

FG2a board

GOUa board

UOIa board (UOI_IP)


NOTE

When data transmission based on the ATM/IP dual stack applies, the IP transport option is mainly used to
carry high-speed large-throughput traffic, such as HSDPA and HSUPA. The PEUa board, however, does
not meet the transmission requirements of such services. Therefore, the PEUa board is usually not applied
to ATM/IP dual stackbased transport.

5.1.2 ATM-Based Networking on the Iub Interface


In ATM-based networking on the Iub interface, the RNC and the NodeB communicate based
on the ATM protocol stack.

Scenario of the Networking


The RNC and the NodeB can communicate with each other through the existing PDH, SDH, or
ATM network.

ATM Networking Based on PDH


In this networking mode, the RNC uses the AEUa as the Iub interface board.
Figure 5-1 shows the ATM networking based on PDH. E1/T1 ports on the RNC serve the ATM
transport.
Figure 5-1 ATM networking based on PDH

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NOTE

If the NodeBs are distributed on different PDH rings, additional ADM/DXC devices are required.

ATM Networking Based on ATM over E1/T1 over SDH


In this networking mode, the AOUa board of the RNC serves as the Iub interface board and
supports board backup and MSP 1:1 optical port backup.
Figure 5-2 shows the ATM networking based on ATM over E1 over SDH. Channelized STM-1
optical ports on the RNC serve the ATM transport.
Figure 5-2 ATM networking based on ATM over E1/T1 over SDH

The SDH network converges the E1/T1 traffic, which travels from multiple NodeBs, to a
channelized STM-1 optical port. The network then communicates with the RNC through a
channelized STM-1 optical port.
NOTE

If the NodeBs are distributed on different SDH rings, additional ADM/DXC devices are required.

ATM Networking Based on ATM over SDH


In this networking mode, the UOIa board (UOI_ATM) of the RNC serves as the Iub interface
board and supports board backup and MSP 1+1 or MSP 1:1 optical port backup.
Figure 5-3 shows the ATM networking based on ATM over SDH. Unchannelized STM-1 optical
ports on the RNC serve the ATM transport.
Figure 5-3 ATM networking based on ATM over SDH

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The ATM network converges the E1/T1 traffic, which travels from multiple NodeBs, to an
STM-1 port. The ATM network then connects to the unchannelized optical port on the UOIa
board of the RNC.

Advantages of the Networking


The mature ATM-based networking on the Iub interface ensures ATM transmission bandwidth,
has a QoS guarantee mechanism, and features security and reliability. The telecom operators
can make efficient use of the existing PDH, SDH, or ATM transmission resources.
The advantages of each type of networking are as follows:
l

ATM Networking Based on PDH


This type of networking enables the telecom operators to use the existing PDH transmission
resources.

ATM Networking Based on ATM over E1/T1 over SDH


This type of networking requires simple cable connections, features convenient equipment
installation and maintenance, and supports MSP 1:1 backup.

ATM Networking Based on ATM over SDH


This type of networking requires simple cable connections, features convenient equipment
installation and maintenance, and supports MSP 1+1 backup. The ATM switch converges
E1/T1 traffic, which travels from multiple NodeBs, to an STM-1 device, thus enabling
statistical multiplexing, obtaining convergence gain, and saving transmission resources.

Disadvantages of the Networking


Compared with IP-based networking, ATM-based networking on the Iub interface has a high
cost.

5.1.3 IP-Based Networking on the Iub Interface


In IP-based networking on the Iub interface, the RNC and the NodeB communicate based on
the IP protocol stack.

Scenario of the Networking


The RNC and the NodeB can communicate with each other through the existing PDH, SDH,
MSTP, or data network.

IP Networking Based on PDH/SDH


In this networking mode, the RNC uses the PEUa as the Iub interface board.
Figure 5-4 shows the IP networking based on PDH/SDH. E1/T1 ports on the RNC serve the IP
transport.

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Figure 5-4 IP networking based on PDH/SDH

The RNC accesses the PDH/SDH networks through E1/T1 ports and transmits data in IP over
MLPPP/PPP over E1/T1 mode. The NodeB can obtain timing signals from the E1/T1 links.
The PDH/SDH network allows transparent transport for E1/T1 data. The network guarantees
reliability, security, and QoS for the transmission of Iub interface data.

IP Networking Based on IP over E1/T1 over SDH


In this networking mode, the POUa board of the RNC serves as the Iub interface board and
supports board backup and MSP 1+1 or MSP 1:1 optical port backup.
Figure 5-5 shows the IP networking based on IP over E1/T1 over SDH. Channelized STM-1
optical ports on the RNC serve the IP transport.
Figure 5-5 IP networking based on ATM over E1/T1 over SDH

The SDH network converges the E1/T1 traffic, which travels from multiple NodeBs, to a
channelized STM-1 optical port. The network then communicates with the RNC through a
channelized STM-1 optical port.
NOTE

If the NodeBs are distributed on different SDH rings, additional ADM/DXC devices are required.

IP Networking Based on MSTP


In this networking mode, the FG2a or GOUa board of the RNC serves as the Iub interface board
and supports board backup and FE/GE port backup.
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Figure 5-6 shows the IP networking based on MSTP. FE/GE ports on the RNC serve the IP
transport.
Figure 5-6 IP networking based on MSTP

The MSTP device on the RNC side encapsulates Ethernet frames into a VC trunk and transmits
them in transparent mode to the MSTP device on the NodeB side through the MSTP network.
The MSTP device on the NodeB side then retrieves the Ethernet frames and sends them to the
NodeB through the FE/GE ports.

IP Networking Based on Data Network


In this networking mode, the FG2a or GOUa board of the RNC serves as the Iub interface board
and supports board backup and FE/GE port backup.
Figure 5-7 shows the IP networking based on data network. FE/GE ports on the RNC serve the
IP transport.
Figure 5-7 IP networking based on data network

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The RNC accesses the router through the FE/GE port on the FG2a or GOUa board and
communicates with the NodeBs through IP, Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), or Virtual
Private Network (VPN).
NOTE

MPLS and VPN help guarantee security of the IP transport.

IP Networking Based on Hybrid IP Transport


In this networking mode, the PEUa and FG2a/GOUa boards of the RNC serve as the Iub interface
boards and support PEUa board backup, FG2a/GOUa board backup, and FE/GE port backup.
Figure 5-8 shows the IP networking based on hybrid IP transport. E1/T1 ports and FE/GE ports
on the RNC serve the hybrid IP transport.
Figure 5-8 IP networking based on hybrid IP transport

The RNC and the NodeB in this networking mode communicate with each other through
different transport networks, which carry different types of data. The networks are described as
follows:
l

The PDH or SDH network transmits data of real-time services with high QoS requirements
on the Iub interface. The data can be NBAP signaling, RRC control signaling, and voice
services. The NodeB obtains timing signals through the PDH or SDH network.

The data network transmits data of services with low QoS requirements. The data can be
HSDPA data, HSUPA data, or R99 background service data.

Advantages of the Networking


l

IP-based access features lower cost than ATM-based access.

IP networking provides high bandwidth to meet the requirements of high-speed data


services, such as HSDPA and HSUPA.

For data services, transport in IP over E1/T1 mode features higher efficiency than transport
in ATM over E1/T1 mode.

IP transport leads the development of transport technologies.

5.1.4 ATM/IP-Based Networking on the Iub Interface


In ATM/IP-based networking on the Iub interface, the RNC and the NodeB communicate based
on the ATM/IP dual stack, that is, based on the ATM and IP protocol stacks at the same time.
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With the development of data services, especially with the introduction of High Speed Downlink
Packet Access (HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), the Iub interface has
an increasing demand for the bandwidth. A pure ATM network is expensive to operate. IP
transport saves the transmission cost but provides a lower guarantee of QoS than ATM transport
does. Therefore, the ATM/IP dual stack is introduced. Services with different QoS requirements
are transmitted on different types of network.

Description of the Networking


The ATM/IPbased Iub interface allows hybrid transport of services that have different QoS
requirements. High-QoS services, such as voice services, streaming services, and the signaling,
are transmitted on the ATM network. Low-QoS services, such as HSDPA and HSUPA services,
are transmitted on the IP network.
Figure 5-9 shows the ATM/IPbased networking on the Iub interface.
Figure 5-9 ATM/IP-based networking on the Iub interface

To support this networking mode, the RNC is configured with both ATM and IP interface boards.
l

The ATM interface board connects to the ATM network through the E1/T1/channelized
STM-1 port.

The IP interface board connects to the IP network through the FE/GE/STM-1 port.

The NodeB is connected to the ATM and IP networks through its ATM and IP interface boards
respectively.

Advantages of the Networking


l

The ATM network guarantees the QoS.

The IP network reduces the transmission cost and meets the requirement of high-speed data
services for high bandwidth on the Iub interface.

Disadvantages of the Networking


The ATM/IP-based networking requires maintenance of both ATM and IP networks. This
increases the difficulty in and the cost for network maintenance to a certain extent.
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5.1.5 Satellite-Based Networking on the Iub Interface


In satellite-based networking on the Iub interface, the RNC and the NodeB communicate through
the satellite.

Scenario of the Networking


Usually, the RNC and the NodeB communicate with each other through a land-based transport
system, such as a PDH, SDH, MSTP, microwave, ATM, or IP network. On coastal islands or in
remote, sparsely-populated, or uninhibited areas, no land-based transport system is available,
and it is difficult to deploy such a system. In such a situation, to enable the RNC to communicate
with remote NodeBs, satellite-based transmission applies.

Description of the Networking


Figure 5-10 shows the satellite-based networking on the Iub interface.
Figure 5-10 Satellite-based networking on the Iub interface

The satellite transport network between the RNC and the NodeBs consists of the communications
satellite and the earth stations. The RNC should be equipped with an earth station. The same is
true for each NodeB.

5-10

The communications satellite usually refers to a geosynchronous satellite.

The earth station can be a large- or small-scaled station.

A large-scaled earth station, such as a large-scaled national or international


communication station, uses the large-aperture antenna to transmit high-speed data. A
large-scaled earth station causes a high cost. User data should be converged on the earth
station through terrestrial communication networks before satellite communication.

A small-scaled earth station, such as a Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT), uses the
small-aperture antenna. The equipment features low cost and easy deployment.
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NOTE

The interface between an earth station and the RNC or NodeB should comply with the ITU-T G.703
recommendations.

Satellite Transmission Bands


Satellite transmission usually uses the C or Ku band. Table 5-1 describes the frequency ranges
and features of the two bands.
Table 5-1 Satellite transmission bands
Band

Frequency Range

3.7 GHz to 4.2 GHz

Small atmospheric absorption loss

5.925 GHz to 6.425 GHz

Little sensitivity to rainfall

Sensitive to interference from terrestrial


intra-band microwave communication

Large antenna aperture

Ku

Description

11.7 GHz to 12.2 GHz

Sensitive to rainfall, snowfall, and fogs

14 GHz to 14.5 GHz

Sensitive to few intra-band interference


sources

Flexible application zones

Small antenna aperture

Advantages of the Networking


l

This networking features wide coverage and easy deployment. It is insensitive to


topographic changes. The satellite receiver can be built almost anywhere on the earth.

The mobility is satisfactory. This networking can quickly satisfy the deployment demand
in special areas or emergency communication scenarios.

Bandwidth adjustment is flexible.

Disadvantages of the Networking


l

The cost for building a satellite communication system and leasing satellite links is high.

The transmission quality is sensitive to climatic and environmental changes. Errors in


transmission may lead to degradation of voice or data service quality or sharp decline of
transmission efficiency.

Compared with terrestrial transmission, satellite transmission has a high loopback delay of
500 ms to 700 ms. A high delay may result in call failure.

5.1.6 2G/3G Concurrent Transmission and Networking


In 2G/3G concurrent transmission, the 2G and 3G information share transmission resources.
This topic describes the networking for such transmission.
The fractional and timeslot cross connection functions provided by the AEUa board enable the
RNC to share E1/T1 transmission resources with the 2G equipment.
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Fractional Function
The fractional function converts ATM cells transmitted in the RNC to timeslot signals that are
transmitted through idle E1/T1 timeslots. One E1 frame has 32 timeslots numbered from 0 to
31. All the timeslots except timeslot 0 are available for service data transmission. One T1 frame
has 24 timeslots numbered from 1 to 24. All the timeslots are available for service data
transmission. The RNC should negotiate with the peer equipment about which timeslots carry
the ATM cells.
The fractional function consists of fractional ATM and fractional IMA. In fractional ATM mode,
multiple idle timeslots can be selected to carry data. In fractional IMA mode, multiple fractional
IMA links are logically bound to a group and each fractional IMA link uses the same quantity
of idle timeslots to carry data.

Timeslot Cross Connection


Timeslot cross connection provides transfer connections between 2G and 3G equipment. Thus,
the 2G and 3G data transmission share E1/T1 transmission resources. The networking modes
for 2G/3G concurrent transmission vary with the types of timeslot cross connection equipment.

Fractional-Based Networking with Timeslot Cross Connection on 2G Equipment


To allow 2G/3G concurrent transmission in this networking mode, the 3G equipment (RNC and
NodeB) provides the fractional function and the 2G equipment (BSC and BTS) provides the
timeslot cross connection function. Figure 5-11 shows the networking.
Figure 5-11 Fractional-based networking with timeslot cross connection on 2G equipment

The 3G equipment connects to the 2G equipment through the E1/T1 link. The 2G equipment
cross-connects the timeslots on the 3G E1/T1 link to the idle timeslots on the 2G E1/T1 link, so
as to enable 2G/3G concurrent transmission.

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Fractional-Based Networking with Timeslot Cross Connection on 3G Equipment


To allow 2G/3G concurrent transmission in this networking mode, the 3G equipment (RNC and
NodeB) provides the fractional and timeslot cross connection functions. Figure 5-12 shows the
networking.
Figure 5-12 Fractional-based networking with timeslot cross connection on 3G equipment

The 2G equipment connects to the 3G equipment through the E1/T1 link. The 3G equipment
cross-connects the timeslots on the 2G E1/T1 link to the idle timeslots on the 3G E1/T1 link, so
as to enable 2G/3G concurrent transmission.

Fractional-Based Networking with Timeslot Cross Connection on External


Equipment
To allow 2G/3G concurrent transmission in this networking mode, the 3G equipment (RNC and
NodeB) provides the fractional function and the external equipment provides the timeslot cross
connection function. Figure 5-13 shows the networking.

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Figure 5-13 Fractional-based networking with timeslot cross connection on external equipment

The 3G equipment and the 2G equipment connect to the Digital Cross-connect equipment (DXC)
through the E1/T1 links. The DXC cross-connects the 2G and 3G E1/T1 timeslots to the timeslots
on one E1/T1 link, so as to enable 2G/3G concurrent transmission.

5.2 Transport and Networking on the Iu/Iur Interface


This describes the interface boards and network solutions applicable to data transmission
between the RNC and the CN or neighboring RNC.
5.2.1 Interface Boards for the Iu or Iur Interface
The Iu and Iur interfaces support ATM transport and IP transport. Different types of interface
board are applicable to different modes of data transmission.
5.2.2 Networking Differences in 3GPP Protocol Releases
The networking on the Iu-CS interface varies with the CS domain equipment in the Core Network
(CN) as specified by 3GPP R99 and R4/R5/R6.
5.2.3 ATM-Based Networking on the Iu or Iur Interface
In ATM-based networking on the Iu or Iur interface, the RNC and the CN or neighboring RNC
communicate based on the ATM protocol stack.
5.2.4 IP-Based Networking on the Iu/Iur Interface
In IP-based networking on the Iu or Iur interface, the RNC and the CN or neighboring RNC
communicate based on the IP protocol stack.

5.2.1 Interface Boards for the Iu or Iur Interface


The Iu and Iur interfaces support ATM transport and IP transport. Different types of interface
board are applicable to different modes of data transmission.

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ATM-Based Iu/Iur Interface Boards


When ATM transport applies to the Iu/Iur interface, the UOIa board (UOI_ATM) is
recommended to be used as the interface board.

IP-Based Iu/Iur Interface Boards


The following types of board are available for the IP-based Iu-CS or Iur interface:
l

FG2a board

GOUa board

UOIa board (UOI_IP)


NOTE

Based on the traffic, the Iu-CS and Iur interfaces usually use the FG2a, GOUa, or UOIa board that supports
high traffic, and the Iub interface uses the PEUa or POUa board that supports low traffic.

When IP transport applies to the Iu-PS interface, the FG2a, GOUa, or UOIa board (UOI_IP) is
recommended to be used as the interface board.

5.2.2 Networking Differences in 3GPP Protocol Releases


The networking on the Iu-CS interface varies with the CS domain equipment in the Core Network
(CN) as specified by 3GPP R99 and R4/R5/R6.

Release 99
As specified by 3GPP R99, the CS domain of the CN adopts the sole MSC to process CS control
plane and user plane data. The RNC directly connects to the MSC over the Iu-CS interface, as
shown in Figure 5-14.
Figure 5-14 Iu-CS networking in R99

Releases 4/5/6
As specified by 3GPP R4/R5/R6, the CS domain of the CN adopts the MSC server and the MGW
to process CS control plane and user plane data respectively.
l

The MSC server performs the control function. It mainly processes RANAP signaling on
the Iu-CS control plane.

The MGW performs the bearer function. It mainly processes user plane data and ALCAP
signaling on the Iu-CS interface.

The only signaling communication between the RNC and the MSC server requires a low
bandwidth. Therefore, no direct connection between the RNC and the MSC server exists in
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common cases. Instead, they communicate through the signaling forwarding at the MGW, as
shown in Figure 5-15.
Figure 5-15 Iu-CS networking in R4/R5/R6

5.2.3 ATM-Based Networking on the Iu or Iur Interface


In ATM-based networking on the Iu or Iur interface, the RNC and the CN or neighboring RNC
communicate based on the ATM protocol stack.

Scenario of the Networking


The RNC and the CN or neighboring RNC can communicate with each other through the existing
SDH or ATM network.

Networking Based on SDH with MSP Backup Between Optical Ports


In this networking mode, the UOIa board (UOI_ATM) of the RNC serves as the Iu/Iur interface
board. The RNC accesses the SDH network through the unchannelized STM-1 optical port on
the UOIa board.
Figure 5-16 shows the networking based on SDH with MSP backup between optical ports.

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Figure 5-16 Networking based on SDH with MSP backup between optical ports

In this networking mode, each Iu-CS, Iu-PS, or Iur interface requires a pair of STM-1 optical
cables for MSP 1+1 or MSP 1:1 backup. In a case other than direct connection between the RNC
and the MSC or SGSN, the section-specific MSP backup at the RNC protects only the optical
channels between the RNC and the ADM, instead of all those between the RNC and the MSC
or SGSN.

Networking Based on SDH with Load Sharing Between Optical Ports


In this networking mode, the UOIa board (UOI_ATM) of the RNC serves as the Iu/Iur interface
board. The RNC accesses the SDH network through the unchannelized STM-1 optical port on
the UOIa board.
Figure 5-17 shows the networking based on SDH with load sharing between optical ports.

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Figure 5-17 Networking based on SDH with load sharing between optical ports

In this networking mode, the two UOIa boards for the Iu or Iur interface are not configured for
backup. The Iu/Iur control plane PVCs are shared by two optical ports on different UOIa boards.
The same is true for the Iu/Iur user plane PVCs. Thus, the two optical ports share the load. If
one of the optical ports is faulty, it is isolated and the services carried on it are disrupted. Then
the traffic on the Iu or Iur interface reduces by half.

Networking Based on SDH with STM-1 Shared by Iu and Iur


In this networking mode, the UOIa board (UOI_ATM) of the RNC serves as the Iu/Iur interface
board. The RNC accesses the SDH network through the unchannelized STM-1 optical port on
the UOIa board.
Figure 5-18 shows the networking based on SDH with STM-1 shared by Iu and Iur.

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Figure 5-18 Networking based on SDH with STM-1 shared by Iu and Iur

Usually, the traffic on the Iur interface is low. Therefore, when the RNC is connected to a number
of neighboring RNCs over Iur interfaces where traffic is low, the Iu and Iur interfaces can share
an STM-1 transmission resource to transmit data before the MGW separates the Iu PVC from
the Iur PVC by using VC or VP switching.

Networking Based on ATM


In this networking mode, the UOIa board (UOI_ATM) of the RNC serves as the Iu/Iur interface
board. The RNC accesses the ATM network through the unchannelized STM-1 optical port on
the UOIa.
Figure 5-19 shows the networking based on ATM.

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Figure 5-19 Networking based on ATM

In this networking mode, each Iu-CS, Iu-PS, or Iur interface requires a pair of STM-1 optical
cables for MSP 1+1 or MSP 1:1 backup. The MSP backup is section-specific. The RNC adopts
MSP backup to protect only the optical channels between the RNC and the ATM switch instead
of all those between the RNC and the MSC or SGSN. In the case of direct connection on the IuCS or Iu-PS interface, however, the MSP backup at the RNC protects all the connections between
the RNC and the MSC or SGSN.
NOTE

STM-1 sharing between the Iu and Iur interfaces is applicable to the ATM-based networking. In this
case, the Iu and Iur interfaces share a pair of STM-1 optical cables to transmit data before the ATM
switch separates the Iu PVC from the Iur PVC by using VC or VP switching.

Load sharing is also applicable to the ATM-based networking. This networking mode is similar to the
SDH-based networking with load sharing between optical ports.

Advantages of the Networking


The advantages of each type of networking are as follows:
l

Networking based on SDH with MSP backup between optical ports


The transmission backup provided by this network solution helps guarantee high
transmission reliability.

Networking based on SDH with load sharing between optical ports


This network solution saves the optical ports and cables that serve the data transmission
between the RNC and the ADM, thus improving the optical resource utilization.

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In the case of a large number of Iur interfaces, if each Iur interface occupies one STM-1
port, the demand for transmission resources is high and the resource utilization is low. The
SDH-based networking with STM-1 shared by Iu and Iur is resource-effective.
l

Networking based on ATM


The Iu, Iur, and Iub interfaces can share a port or board for data transmission, thus saving
the transmission resources and improving the resource utilization.

Disadvantages of the Networking


The disadvantages of each type of networking are as follows:
l

Networking based on SDH with MSP backup between optical ports


For transmission backup, this network solution requires a double share of optical port and
cable resources.

Networking based on SDH with load sharing between optical ports


This network solution does not provide transmission backup, thus failing to achieve high
transmission reliability. If an optical port or cable is faulty, the ongoing services carried on
the faulty part are disrupted.

Networking based on SDH with STM-1 shared by Iu and Iur


This network solution requires VC/VP switching at the MGW, thus increasing the load of
the MGW.

Networking based on ATM


ATM equipment has a high cost and ATM networks take a shrinking share. It is not
recommended that extra ATM networks be built for Iu and Iur transmission.

5.2.4 IP-Based Networking on the Iu/Iur Interface


In IP-based networking on the Iu or Iur interface, the RNC and the CN or neighboring RNC
communicate based on the IP protocol stack.

Scenario of the Networking


The RNC and the CN or neighboring RNC can communicate with each other through the IP
network.

Single-Homing Layer 3 Networking


In this networking mode, the FG2a or GOUa board of the RNC serves as the Iu or Iur interface
board and supports board backup and FE/GE port backup.
Figure 5-20 shows the single-homing layer 3 networking. FE/GE ports on the RNC serve the
IP transport.

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Figure 5-20 Single-homing layer 3 networking

In this networking mode, the FE/GE ports of the RNC are configured for backup. The active
and standby FE/GE ports of the RNC connect to the Provider Edge (PE), which further connects
to the data network. The active and standby FE/GE ports of the RNC share one IP address, that
is, IP1-1. The PE configures the active and standby ports of the RNC in one VLAN and uses
one interface IP address of the VLAN, that is, IP1-0.
NOTE

The GE optical ports on the GOUa board are applicable to the scenario where the RNC is far away from
the PE, and the FE/GE electrical ports on the FG2a board are applicable when the distance between the
RNC and the PE is within 100 meters.

Dual-Homing Layer 3 Networking


In this networking mode, the FG2a or GOUa board of the RNC serves as the Iu or Iur interface
board and supports board backup and FE/GE port backup.
Figure 5-21 shows the dual-homing layer 3 networking. FE/GE ports on the RNC serve the IP
transport.

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Figure 5-21 Dual-homing layer 3 networking

In this networking mode, the FE/GE ports of the RNC are configured for backup. The active
and standby FE/GE ports of the RNC connect to two PEs, which further connect to the data
network. Complying with the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP), the two PEs provide
redundancy-based protection for the data transmitted from the RNC. One PE connects to the
other through two GE ports. Link Aggregation (LAG) is applied to the interconnection links
between the PEs to increase the bandwidth and reliability of the links. The active and standby
FE/GE ports of the RNC share one IP address, that is, IP1-1. The PEs configure the active and
standby ports of the RNC in one VLAN and use one virtual VRRP IP address, that is, IP1-0.
NOTE

The GE optical ports on the GOUa board are applicable to the scenario where the RNC is far away from
the PE, and the FE/GE electrical ports on the FG2a board are applicable when the distance between the
RNC and the PE is within 100 meters.

Direct Connection with Load Sharing


In this networking mode, the FG2a or GOUa board of the RNC serves as the Iu or Iur interface
board, which directly connects to the MGW, SGSN, or neighboring RNC.
Figure 5-22 shows the direct connection with load sharing. FE/GE ports on the RNC serve the
IP transport.
Figure 5-22 Direct connection with load sharing

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When the RNC and the MGW, SGSN, or neighboring RNC are located in the same equipment
room, direct connection through FE/GE ports is applicable to the Iu or Iur interface. This network
solution does not involve any extra transport network or equipment. In this networking mode,
the FG2a or GOUa boards can work in board backup mode, and the FE/GE ports work in load
sharing mode to carry services.

Networking Based on SDH with MSP Backup Between Optical Ports


In this networking mode, the UOIa board (UOI_IP) of the RNC serves as the Iu/Iur interface
board. The RNC accesses the SDH network through the unchannelized STM-1 optical port on
the UOIa board.
Figure 5-23 shows the networking based on SDH with MSP backup between optical ports.
Figure 5-23 Networking based on SDH with MSP backup between optical ports

In this networking mode, each Iu-CS, Iu-PS, or Iur interface requires a pair of STM-1 optical
cables for MSP 1+1 or MSP 1:1 backup. In a case other than direct connection between the RNC
and the MSC or SGSN, the section-specific MSP backup at the RNC protects only the optical
channels between the RNC and the ADM, instead of all those between the RNC and the MSC
or SGSN.

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Networking Based on SDH with Load Sharing Between Optical Ports


In this networking mode, the UOIa board (UOI_IP) of the RNC serves as the Iu/Iur interface
board. The RNC accesses the SDH network through the unchannelized STM-1 optical port on
the UOIa board.
Figure 5-24 shows the networking based on SDH with load sharing between optical ports.
Figure 5-24 Networking based on SDH with load sharing between optical ports

In this networking mode, the two UOIa boards for the Iu or Iur interface are not configured for
backup. The two optical ports share the load. If one of the optical ports is faulty, it is isolated
and the services carried on it are disrupted. Then the traffic on the Iu or Iur interface reduces by
half.

Networking Based on SDH with STM-1 Shared by Iu and Iur


In this networking mode, the UOIa board (UOI_IP) of the RNC serves as the Iu/Iur interface
board. The RNC accesses the SDH network through the unchannelized STM-1 optical port on
the UOIa board.
Figure 5-25 shows the networking based on SDH with STM-1 shared by Iu and Iur.

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Figure 5-25 Networking based on SDH with STM-1 shared by Iu and Iur

Usually, the traffic on the Iur interface is low. Therefore, when the RNC is connected to a number
of neighboring RNCs over Iur interfaces where traffic is low, the Iu and Iur interfaces can share
an STM-1 transmission resource.

Advantages of the Networking


The advantages of each type of networking are as follows:
l

Single-homing layer 3 networking


This network solution provides redundancy-based protection for FE/GE links. The single
PE saves networking cost.

Dual-homing layer 3 networking


This network solution provides redundancy-based protection not only for FE/GE links but
also for PE devices.

Direct connection with load sharing


This network solution does not require any LAN switch or router, thus featuring low
networking cost and high transmission reliability.

Networking based on SDH with MSP backup between optical ports


The transmission backup provided by this network solution helps guarantee high
transmission reliability.

Networking based on SDH with load sharing between optical ports


This network solution saves the optical ports and cables that serve the data transmission
between the RNC and the ADM, thus improving the optical resource utilization.

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In the case of a large number of Iur interfaces, if each Iur interface occupies one STM-1
port, the demand for transmission resources is high and the resource utilization is low. The
SDH-based networking with STM-1 shared by Iu and Iur is resource-effective.

Disadvantages of the Networking


The disadvantages of each type of networking are as follows:
l

Single-homing layer 3 networking


The single PE cannot provide PE-level protection.

Dual-homing layer 3 networking


The dual PEs cause a high networking cost.

Direct connection with load sharing


This network solution does not provide redundancy for data transmission. A port failure
will lead to the decline of transmission capacity.

Networking based on SDH with MSP backup between optical ports


For transmission backup, this network solution requires a double share of optical port and
cable resources.

Networking based on SDH with load sharing between optical ports


This network solution does not provide transmission backup, thus failing to achieve high
transmission reliability. If an optical port or cable is faulty, the ongoing services carried on
the faulty part are disrupted.

Networking based on SDH with STM-1 shared by Iu and Iur


This network solution increases the load of the MGW.

5.3 Transport and Networking on the Iu-BC Interface


This part describes the interface boards and network solutions applicable to data transmission
between the RNC and the CBC.
5.3.1 Interface Boards for the Iu-BC Interface
The Iu-BC interface supports ATM transport and IP transport. Different types of interface board
are applicable to different modes of data transmission.
5.3.2 ATM-Based Networking on the Iu-BC Interface
In ATM-based networking on the Iu-BC interface, the RNC and the CBC communicate based
on the ATM protocol stack.
5.3.3 IP-Based Networking on the Iu-BC Interface
In IP-based networking on the Iu-BC interface, the RNC and the CBC communicate based on
the IP protocol stack.

5.3.1 Interface Boards for the Iu-BC Interface


The Iu-BC interface supports ATM transport and IP transport. Different types of interface board
are applicable to different modes of data transmission.

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ATM-Based Iu-BC Interface Boards


When applied with ATM transport, the Iu-BC interface shares the interface board UOIa
(UOI_ATM) with the Iu-PS interface.

IP-Based Iu-BC Interface Boards


The following types of board are available for the IP-based Iu-BC interface:
l

FG2a board

GOUa board

UOIa board (UOI_IP)

5.3.2 ATM-Based Networking on the Iu-BC Interface


In ATM-based networking on the Iu-BC interface, the RNC and the CBC communicate based
on the ATM protocol stack.

Scenario of the Networking


The RNC and the CBC can communicate with each other through the SDH network.

Description of the Networking


In this networking mode, the UOIa board (UOI_ATM) of the RNC serves as the Iu-BC interface
board and supports board backup and MSP 1+1 or MSP 1:1 optical port backup.
Figure 5-26 shows the ATM-based networking on the Iu-BC interface. Unchannelized STM-1
optical ports on the RNC serve the ATM transport.
Figure 5-26 ATM-based networking on the Iu-BC interface

In this networking mode, the RNC is connected to the CBC through the SGSN. On the Iu-BC
interface, usually only the FE port on the CBC server is connected to the SGSN, and an IPoA
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PVC is configured between the RNC and the SGSN. The SGSN performs route forwarding
between the IPoA PVC and the FE link. When ATM transport is applied to the Iu-PS interface,
this network solution makes efficient use of the physical transmission resources on the Iu-PS
interface.

5.3.3 IP-Based Networking on the Iu-BC Interface


In IP-based networking on the Iu-BC interface, the RNC and the CBC communicate based on
the IP protocol stack.

Scenario of the Networking


The RNC and the CBC can communicate with each other through the data network.

IP Networking Based on Data Network


In this networking mode, the FG2a or GOUa board of the RNC serves as the Iu-BC interface
board and supports board backup and FE/GE port backup.
Figure 5-27 shows the IP networking based on the data network. FE/GE ports on the RNC serve
the IP transport.
Figure 5-27 IP networking based on data network

When IP transport based on the data network is applied to the Iu interface, the RNC and the CBC
can be directly connected to the IP network, which provides connections on the Iu-BC interface.
Physically, an Iu-BC interface can share an FE/GE port at the RNC with an Iu interface, because
of the low traffic on the Iu-BC interface. For details about the physical connections for IP
transport on the Iu interface, refer to 5.2.4 IP-Based Networking on the Iu/Iur Interface.

5.4 RNC OM Networking


The RNC OM networking provides operation and maintenance for the RNC and NodeB.
Figure 5-28 shows the RNC OM networking.

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Figure 5-28 RNC OM networking

As shown in Figure 5-28, either local or remote maintenance is applicable to the RNC and
NodeB. Local maintenance is performed on the LMT, and remote maintenance is performed
through the OM network. The RNC-NodeB OM channel is configurable. Through the OM
channel, remote maintenance of the NodeB can be performed on the Network Management
System (NMS), M2000, or NodeB LMT.

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RNC Parts Reliability

About This Chapter


The RNC guarantees its operation reliability by means of board redundancy and port redundancy.
6.1 Concepts Related to RNC Parts Reliability
The concepts related to RNC parts reliability are RNC board backup types, RNC port backup
types, resource pool, port trunking, and port load sharing.
6.2 RNC Board Redundancy
RNC board redundancy is of two types: board backup and resource pool.
6.3 RNC Port Redundancy
RNC port redundancy is of three types: port backup, port load sharing, and port trunking.

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6.1 Concepts Related to RNC Parts Reliability


The concepts related to RNC parts reliability are RNC board backup types, RNC port backup
types, resource pool, port trunking, and port load sharing.
6.1.1 RNC Backup Types
RNC backup consists of board backup and port backup.
6.1.2 Resource Pool
In resource pool mode, the resource nodes with the same characteristics work as a resource pool.
The resources in this pool are allocated and managed according to the negotiation on the
capabilities and status of each resource node.
6.1.3 Port Trunking
Port trunking enables multiple physical ports to be grouped into one logical port. This technology
helps enhance reliability of data transmission.
6.1.4 Load Sharing Between FE/GE Ports
When load sharing is implemented between FE/GE ports, the RNC distributes the data streams
that have the same destination to different physical ports, so that the ports can share the load.

6.1.1 RNC Backup Types


RNC backup consists of board backup and port backup.

Board Backup
When two boards work in backup mode, one board is active and the other is standby. Services
can be processed by either the active board only or both the active and standby boards. If the
active board is faulty, the RNC automatically switches over the active and standby boards.

Port Backup
When two ports work in backup mode, one port is active and the other is standby. Services can
be transmitted through either the active port only or both the active and standby ports. If the
active port is faulty, the RNC automatically switches over the active and standby ports.

6.1.2 Resource Pool


In resource pool mode, the resource nodes with the same characteristics work as a resource pool.
The resources in this pool are allocated and managed according to the negotiation on the
capabilities and status of each resource node.
In resource pool mode, the RNC allocates the services accessing the resource pool to
corresponding resource nodes and provides appropriate service resources.

6.1.3 Port Trunking


Port trunking enables multiple physical ports to be grouped into one logical port. This technology
helps enhance reliability of data transmission.
Port trunking works in trunk groups. Multiple physical links form a trunk group. If a physical
link in the trunk group becomes unavailable, the data carried on the faulty link is transmitted on
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other links in the trunk group. Thus, the link failure does not disrupt proper communication
between both ends of the trunk group.
The traffic on the trunk group can reach a maximum of the total traffic on all the physical links
in the trunk group. Port trunking helps enhance transmission reliability and increase transmission
bandwidth.

6.1.4 Load Sharing Between FE/GE Ports


When load sharing is implemented between FE/GE ports, the RNC distributes the data streams
that have the same destination to different physical ports, so that the ports can share the load.
The FE/GE ports working in load sharing mode have an independent IP address for each, so that
each port can receive and transmit data packets. If a port is faulty, the RNC stops distributing
data to the faulty port and transfers the data to other ports.

6.2 RNC Board Redundancy


RNC board redundancy is of two types: board backup and resource pool.
6.2.1 Backup of OMUa Boards
When the RNC is configured with two OMUa boards, the two boards work in active/standby
mode.
6.2.2 Backup of SCUa Boards
The RNC is configured with two SCUa boards in the RSS subrack and each RBS subrack. The
two boards work in active/standby mode.
6.2.3 Backup of SPUa Boards
When two SPUa boards are configured in active/standby slots in a subrack of the RNC, the two
boards work in active/standby mode.
6.2.4 Backup of GCUa/GCGa Boards
The RNC is configured with two GCUa/GCGa boards in the RSS subrack. The two boards work
in active/standby mode.
6.2.5 Backup of AEUa Boards
When two AEUa boards are configured in active/standby slots in a subrack of the RNC, the two
boards can be set to work in active/standby mode.
6.2.6 Backup of PEUa Boards
When two PEUa boards are configured in active/standby slots in a subrack of the RNC, the two
boards can be set to work in active/standby mode.
6.2.7 Backup of AOUa Boards
When two AOUa boards are configured in active/standby slots in a subrack of the RNC, the two
boards can be set to work in board and port backup mode.
6.2.8 Backup of POUa Boards
When two POUa boards are configured in active/standby slots in a subrack of the RNC, the two
boards can be set to work in board and port backup mode.
6.2.9 Backup of UOIa Boards
When two UOIa boards are configured in active/standby slots in a subrack of the RNC, the two
boards can be set to work in board and port backup mode.
6.2.10 Backup of FG2a/GOUa Boards
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When two FG2a/GOUa boards are configured in active/standby slots in a subrack of the RNC,
the two boards can be set to work in one of the following two modes: board backup with no port
backup and board backup with port backup.
6.2.11 Resource Pool of DPUb Boards
The DPUb boards of the RNC and the Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) of each DPUb work in
resource pool mode.

6.2.1 Backup of OMUa Boards


When the RNC is configured with two OMUa boards, the two boards work in active/standby
mode.

Description of the Backup


When the OMUa boards work in backup mode, one OMUa is active and the other is standby.
The active board processes services, and the standby board synchronizes its data with that on
the active board in real time.

Switchover Modes
l

Automatic switchover: The active and standby OMUa boards can be switched over
automatically.

Manual switchover: You can use the SWP BAM command to forcibly switch over the
active and standby OMUa boards.

Prerequisites for Switchover


l

Automatic switchover: can be triggered only when a certain condition is fulfilled. Such a
condition can be one of the following:

The standby OMUa fails to detect the heartbeat information of the active OMUa for 5
minutes in succession.

The active OMUa fails to detect the virtual IP address for 3 minutes in succession, but
the standby OMUa works properly.

Both the active and standby OMUa boards work properly for one period, and no
switchover occurs during the period.
NOTE

The default period for automatic switchover between the active and standby OMUa boards is 90
days. You can also use the SET ASWPARA command to set the period for automatic switchover.
l

Manual switchover: can be performed only when the standby OMUa works properly and
the status of data synchronization between the active and standby OMUa boards is
Normal.
NOTE

You can also use the DSP BAM command to query the status of data synchronization between the
active and standby OMUa boards.

Switchover Process
When the active and standby OMUa boards are switched over, the active OMUa becomes
standby, and the other OMUa becomes active.
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Impact of Switchover on the System


The switchover between the active and standby OMUa boards takes about 1 minute. The data
synchronization after the switchover takes about 2 minutes. During the switchover, the
communication between the OM terminal and the host boards is interrupted for about 1 or 2
minutes. Then, you cannot perform operation and maintenance on the RNC. The switchover,
however, does not affect ongoing services of the RNC.

6.2.2 Backup of SCUa Boards


The RNC is configured with two SCUa boards in the RSS subrack and each RBS subrack. The
two boards work in active/standby mode.

Description of the Backup


The SCUa processes the data on the switching plane and the control plane. When the SCUa
boards work in backup mode, one SCUa is active and the other is standby. The standby board
synchronizes its data with that on the active board in real time. Control plane data is processed
by the active SCUa, and switching plane data is processed by both the active and standby SCUa
boards.

Switchover Modes
l

Automatic switchover: The active and standby SCUa boards can be switched over
automatically.

Manual switchover: You can use the SWP BRD command to forcibly switch over the active
and standby SCUa boards.

Prerequisites for Switchover


The active and standby SCUa boards can be switched over only when one of the following
conditions is fulfilled:
l

The active SCUa is reset, but the standby SCUa works properly.

The active SCUa is faulty, but the standby SCUa works properly.

The clock source of the active SCUa is faulty, but that of the standby SCUa works properly.

Switchover Process
When the active and standby SCUa boards are switched over, the active SCUa becomes standby
after being reset, and the other SCUa becomes active.

Impact of Switchover on the System


The switchover between the active and standby SCUa boards does not affect ongoing services.

6.2.3 Backup of SPUa Boards


When two SPUa boards are configured in active/standby slots in a subrack of the RNC, the two
boards work in active/standby mode.
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Description of the Backup


When the SPUa boards work in backup mode, one SPUa is active and the other is standby. The
active board processes services, and the standby board synchronizes its data with that on the
active board in real time.

Switchover Modes
l

Automatic switchover: The active and standby SPUa boards can be switched over
automatically.

Manual switchover: You can use the SWP BRD command to forcibly switch over the active
and standby SPUa boards.

Prerequisites for Switchover


The active and standby SPUa boards can be switched over only when one of the following
conditions is fulfilled:
l

The active SPUa is reset, but the standby SPUa works properly.

The active SPUa is faulty, but the standby SPUa works properly.

Switchover Process
When the active and standby SPUa boards are switched over, the active SPUa becomes standby
after being reset, and the other SPUa becomes active.

Impact of Switchover on the System


The switchover between the active and standby SPUa boards does not affect ongoing services.

6.2.4 Backup of GCUa/GCGa Boards


The RNC is configured with two GCUa/GCGa boards in the RSS subrack. The two boards work
in active/standby mode.

Description of the Backup


When the GCUa/GCGa boards work in backup mode, one GCUa/GCGa is active and the other
is standby. The active board processes services, and the standby board synchronizes its data with
that on the active board in real time.

Switchover Modes
l

Automatic switchover: The active and standby GCUa/GCGa boards can be switched over
automatically.

Manual switchover: You can use the SWP BRD command to forcibly switch over the active
and standby GCUa/GCGa boards.

Prerequisites for Switchover


The active and standby GCUa/GCGa boards can be switched over only when one of the following
conditions is fulfilled:
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The active GCUa/GCGa is reset, but the standby GCUa/GCGa works properly.

The active GCUa/GCGa is faulty, but the standby GCUa/GCGa works properly.

The clock source of the active GCUa/GCGa is faulty, but that of the standby GCUa/GCGa
works properly.
NOTE

The active and standby GCGa boards can be switched over also when the GPS card of the active GCGa is
faulty but that of the standby GCGa works properly.

Switchover Process
When the active and standby GCUa/GCGa boards are switched over, the active GCUa/GCGa
becomes standby after being reset, and the other GCUa/GCGa becomes active.

Impact of Switchover on the System


The switchover between the active and standby GCUa/GCGa boards does not affect ongoing
services.

6.2.5 Backup of AEUa Boards


When two AEUa boards are configured in active/standby slots in a subrack of the RNC, the two
boards can be set to work in active/standby mode.

Description of the Backup


When the AEUa boards are set to work in backup mode, one AEUa is active and the other is
standby. The standby board synchronizes its data with that on the active board in real time. The
active and standby boards are connected to their peers through Y-shaped E1/T1 cables. Only the
E1/T1 ports on the active board receive, transmit, and process data.
During the addition of a board through the ADD BRD command, the backup of the AEUa boards
is configurable.

Switchover Modes
You can use the SWP BRD command to forcibly switch over the active and standby AEUa
boards.

Prerequisites for Switchover


The active and standby AEUa boards can be switched over only when one of the following
conditions is fulfilled:
l

The active AEUa is reset, but the standby AEUa works properly.

The active AEUa is faulty, but the standby AEUa works properly.

Switchover Process
When the active and standby AEUa boards are switched over, the active AEUa becomes standby
after being reset, and the other AEUa becomes active.
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Impact of Switchover on the System


The switchover between the active and standby AEUa boards slightly affects the data
transmission on IMA links but does not interrupt ongoing services.

6.2.6 Backup of PEUa Boards


When two PEUa boards are configured in active/standby slots in a subrack of the RNC, the two
boards can be set to work in active/standby mode.

Description of the Backup


When the PEUa boards are set to work in backup mode, one PEUa is active and the other is
standby. The standby board synchronizes its data with that on the active board in real time. The
active and standby boards are connected to their peers through Y-shaped E1/T1 cables. Only the
E1/T1 ports on the active board receive, transmit, and process data.
During the addition of a board through the ADD BRD command, the backup of the PEUa boards
is configurable.

Switchover Modes
You can use the SWP BRD command to forcibly switch over the active and standby PEUa
boards.

Prerequisites for Switchover


The active and standby PEUa boards can be switched over only when one of the following
conditions is fulfilled:
l

The active PEUa is reset, but the standby PEUa works properly.

The active PEUa is faulty, but the standby PEUa works properly.

Switchover Process
When the active and standby PEUa boards are switched over, the active PEUa becomes standby
after being reset, and the other PEUa becomes active.

Impact of Switchover on the System


The switchover between the active and standby PEUa boards slightly affects the data
transmission on PPP/MLPPP links but does not interrupt ongoing services.

6.2.7 Backup of AOUa Boards


When two AOUa boards are configured in active/standby slots in a subrack of the RNC, the two
boards can be set to work in board and port backup mode.

Description of the Backup


When the AOUa boards are set to work in backup mode, one AOUa is active and the other is
standby. The standby board synchronizes its data with that on the active board in real time. MSP
1:1 applies to the backup between the optical ports. Services are processed by the board where
the active port is located. Active ports, however, may be located on both the active and standby
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boards, because the switchover between the optical ports on the active/standby boards does not
affect the active/standby relationship between the boards. In that case, both the active and
standby boards can process services. For details about the backup of AOUa optical ports, refer
to 6.3.1 Backup of AOUa Optical Ports.
During the addition of a board through the ADD BRD command, the backup of the AOUa boards
is configurable. If Backup is set to YES, the backup mode of the AOUa boards is board and
port backup mode. Therefore, the backup mode of the optical ports does not need to be set again.

Switchover Modes
l

Automatic switchover: The active and standby AOUa boards can be switched over
automatically.

Manual switchover: You can use the SWP BRD command to forcibly switch over the active
and standby AOUa boards.

Prerequisites for Switchover


The active and standby AOUa boards can be switched over only when one of the following
conditions is fulfilled:
l

The active AOUa is reset, but the standby AOUa works properly.

The active AOUa is faulty, but the standby AOUa works properly.

Switchover Process
When the active and standby AOUa boards are switched over, the active AOUa becomes standby
after being reset, and the other AOUa becomes active.
NOTE

After the active and standby boards are switched over, the RNC performs active/standby arbitration on the
ports, based on the strategy specified by the MSP protocol.

Impact of Switchover on the System


The switchover between the active and standby AOUa boards slightly affects the data
transmission on IMA links but does not interrupt ongoing services.

6.2.8 Backup of POUa Boards


When two POUa boards are configured in active/standby slots in a subrack of the RNC, the two
boards can be set to work in board and port backup mode.

Description of the Backup


When the POUa boards are set to work in backup mode, one POUa is active and the other is
standby. The standby board synchronizes its data with that on the active board in real time.
Optical ports on the POUa boards work in MSP 1:1 or MSP 1+1 mode. Services are processed
by the board where the active port is located. Active ports, however, may be located on both the
active and standby boards, because the switchover between the optical ports on the active/
standby boards does not affect the active/standby relationship between the boards. In that case,
both the active and standby boards can process services. For details about the backup of POUa
optical ports, refer to 6.3.2 Backup of POUa Optical Ports.
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During the addition of a board through the ADD BRD command, the backup of the POUa boards
is configurable. If Backup is set to YES, the backup mode of the POUa boards is board and
port backup mode. Therefore, the backup mode of the optical ports does not need to be set again.

Switchover Modes
l

Automatic switchover: The active and standby POUa boards can be switched over
automatically.

Manual switchover: You can use the SWP BRD command to forcibly switch over the active
and standby POUa boards.

Prerequisites for Switchover


The active and standby POUa boards can be switched over only when one of the following
conditions is fulfilled:
l

The active POUa is reset, but the standby POUa works properly.

The active POUa is faulty, but the standby POUa works properly.

Switchover Process
When the active and standby POUa boards are switched over, the active POUa becomes standby
after being reset, and the other POUa becomes active.
NOTE

After the active and standby boards are switched over, the RNC performs active/standby arbitration on the
ports, based on the strategy specified by the MSP protocol.

Impact of Switchover on the System


The switchover between the active and standby POUa boards slightly affects the data
transmission but does not interrupt ongoing services.

6.2.9 Backup of UOIa Boards


When two UOIa boards are configured in active/standby slots in a subrack of the RNC, the two
boards can be set to work in board and port backup mode.

Description of the Backup


When the UOIa boards are set to work in backup mode, one UOIa is active and the other is
standby. The standby board synchronizes its data with that on the active board in real time. MSP
1:1 or MSP 1+1 applies to the backup between the optical ports. Services are processed by the
board where the active port is located. Active ports, however, may be located on both the active
and standby boards, because the switchover between the optical ports on the active/standby
boards does not affect the active/standby relationship between the boards. In that case, both the
active and standby boards can process services. For details about the backup of UOIa optical
ports, refer to 6.3.3 Backup of UOIa Optical Ports.
During the addition of a board through the ADD BRD command, the backup of the UOIa boards
is configurable. If Backup is set to YES, the backup mode of the UOIa boards is board and port
backup mode. Therefore, the backup mode of the optical ports does not need to be set again.
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Switchover Modes
l

Automatic switchover: The active and standby UOIa boards can be switched over
automatically.

Manual switchover: You can use the SWP BRD command to forcibly switch over the active
and standby UOIa boards.

Prerequisites for Switchover


The active and standby UOIa boards can be switched over only when one of the following
conditions is fulfilled:
l

The active UOIa is reset, but the standby UOIa works properly.

The active UOIa is faulty, but the standby UOIa works properly.

Switchover Process
When the active and standby UOIa boards are switched over, the active UOIa becomes standby
after being reset, and the other UOIa becomes active.
NOTE

After the active and standby boards are switched over, the RNC performs active/standby arbitration on the
ports, based on the strategy specified by the MSP protocol.

Impact of Switchover on the System


When the traffic carried on the optical ports of the UOIa boards is high, the switchover between
the active and standby UOIa boards slightly affects the data transmission but does not interrupt
ongoing services.

6.2.10 Backup of FG2a/GOUa Boards


When two FG2a/GOUa boards are configured in active/standby slots in a subrack of the RNC,
the two boards can be set to work in one of the following two modes: board backup with no port
backup and board backup with port backup.

Description of the Backup


When the FG2a/GOUa boards are set to work in backup mode, one FG2a/GOUa is active and
the other is standby. The standby board synchronizes its data with that on the active board in
real time.
During the addition of a board through the ADD BRD command, the backup of the FG2a/GOUa
boards is configurable. If Backup is set to YES, the backup mode of the FG2a/GOUa boards is
board backup while no port backup mode.
When FG2a/GOUa boards work in board backup mode, you can use the ADD
ETHREDPORT command to set the backup of FE/GE ports. For details about backup of FE/
GE ports, refer to 6.3.4 Backup of FE/GE Ports.

Switchover Modes
l

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Automatic switchover: The active and standby FG2a/GOUa boards can be switched over
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l

Manual switchover: You can use the SWP BRD command to forcibly switch over the active
and standby FG2a/GOUa boards.

Prerequisites for Switchover


The active and standby FG2a/GOUa boards can be switched over only when one of the following
conditions is fulfilled:
l

The active FG2a/GOUa is reset, but the standby FG2a/GOUa works properly.

The active FG2a/GOUa is faulty, but the standby FG2a/GOUa works properly.

Switchover Process
When the active and standby FG2a/GOUa boards are switched over, the active FG2a/GOUa
becomes standby after being reset, and the other FG2a/GOUa becomes active.
NOTE

When the FG2a/GOUa boards work in board and port backup mode, after the active/standby switchover,
the RNC performs active/standby arbitration on the ports and re-sets the port load sharing strategy.

Impact of Switchover on the System


l

When the FG2a/GOUa boards work in board backup while no port backup mode, the
switchover between the active and standby boards does not affect ongoing services.

When the FG2a/GOUa boards work in board and port backup mode, the switchover
between the active and standby boards slightly affects the data transmission but does not
interrupt ongoing services.

6.2.11 Resource Pool of DPUb Boards


The DPUb boards of the RNC and the Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) of each DPUb work in
resource pool mode.

Board Resource Pool


All the DPUb boards in a subrack work as a resource pool. The RNC can appropriately schedule
and allocate resources for the associated services between the boards.

DSP Resource Pool


All the DSPs on the DPUb boards in a subrack work as a resource pool. The states of the DSPs
are managed by the Main Processing Unit (MPU) subsystem in the controlling SPUa board. The
MPU subsystem can appropriately schedule and allocate resources for the associated services
between the DSPs.

6.3 RNC Port Redundancy


RNC port redundancy is of three types: port backup, port load sharing, and port trunking.
6.3.1 Backup of AOUa Optical Ports
When the AOUa boards work in board backup mode, the corresponding optical ports on the
active and standby AOUa boards, such as optical ports 0 on the boards, can be configured for
MSP 1:1 backup.
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6.3.2 Backup of POUa Optical Ports


When the POUa boards work in board backup mode, the corresponding optical ports on the
active and standby POUa boards, such as optical ports 0 on the boards, can be configured for
MSP 1:1 or MSP 1+1 backup.
6.3.3 Backup of UOIa Optical Ports
When the UOIa boards work in board backup mode, the corresponding optical ports on the active
and standby UOIa boards, such as optical ports 0 on the boards, can be configured for MSP 1:1
or MSP 1+1 backup.
6.3.4 Backup of FE/GE Ports
When the FG2a/GOUa boards work in board backup mode, the corresponding FE/GE ports on
the active and standby boards, such as ports 0 on the boards, can be configured for backup.
6.3.5 Load Sharing on FE/GE Ports
Load sharing is applicable to the FE/GE ports on the FG2a/GOUa boards.
6.3.6 Port Trunking of GE Ports
Port trunking is applicable to the GE ports on the SCUa boards.

6.3.1 Backup of AOUa Optical Ports


When the AOUa boards work in board backup mode, the corresponding optical ports on the
active and standby AOUa boards, such as optical ports 0 on the boards, can be configured for
MSP 1:1 backup.

Description of the Backup


When the AOUa optical ports work in MSP 1:1 backup mode, one optical port is active and the
other is standby. The active optical port is responsible for transceiving data.

Switchover Modes
l

Automatic switchover: The active and standby AOUa optical ports can be switched over
automatically.

Manual switchover: You can use the SET MSPCMD command to forcibly switch over
the active and standby AOUa optical ports.

Prerequisites for Switchover


The active and standby AOUa optical ports can be switched over only when one of the following
conditions is fulfilled:
l

The active optical port is faulty, but the standby optical port works properly.

The optical transmission device of the active optical port is faulty, but that of the standby
optical port works properly.

The active AOUa is faulty, but the standby AOUa works properly.

The active and standby optical ports at the peer end are switched over. (This may trigger
the switchover of the active and standby optical ports at the local end.)

The board where the active optical port is located is reset.

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Switchover Process
When the active and standby AOUa optical ports are switched over, the active optical port
becomes standby after its data transceiver switch is set to off, and the other optical port becomes
active after its data transceiver switch is set to on.

Impact of Switchover on the System


When the traffic carried on the optical port is high, the switchover between the active and standby
optical ports slightly affects the data transmission but does not interrupt ongoing services.

6.3.2 Backup of POUa Optical Ports


When the POUa boards work in board backup mode, the corresponding optical ports on the
active and standby POUa boards, such as optical ports 0 on the boards, can be configured for
MSP 1:1 or MSP 1+1 backup.

Description of the Backup


When the POUa optical ports work in MSP 1:1 backup mode, one optical port is active and the
other is standby. The active optical port is responsible for transceiving data.
When the POUa optical ports work in MSP 1+1 backup mode, one optical port is active and the
other is standby. Both the active and standby optical ports transmit data, but only the active
optical port receives data.
The SET MSP command is available for setting the attributes for MSP backup.

Switchover Modes
l

Automatic switchover: The active and standby POUa optical ports can be switched over
automatically.

Manual switchover: You can use the SET MSPCMD command to forcibly switch over
the active and standby POUa optical ports.

Prerequisites for Switchover


The active and standby POUa optical ports can be switched over only when one of the following
conditions is fulfilled:
l

The active optical port is faulty, but the standby optical port works properly.

The optical transmission device of the active optical port is faulty, but that of the standby
optical port works properly.

The active POUa is faulty, but the standby POUa works properly.

The active and standby optical ports at the peer end are switched over. (This may trigger
the switchover of the active and standby optical ports at the local end.)

The board where the active optical port is located is reset.

Switchover Process
When the active and standby POUa optical ports are switched over, the active optical port
becomes standby after its data receiver switch is set to off, and the other optical port becomes
active after its data receiver switch is set to on.
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Impact of Switchover on the System


When the traffic carried on the optical port is high, the switchover between the active and standby
optical ports slightly affects the data transmission but does not interrupt ongoing services.

6.3.3 Backup of UOIa Optical Ports


When the UOIa boards work in board backup mode, the corresponding optical ports on the active
and standby UOIa boards, such as optical ports 0 on the boards, can be configured for MSP 1:1
or MSP 1+1 backup.

Description of the Backup


When the UOIa optical ports work in MSP 1:1 backup mode, one optical port is active and the
other is standby. The active optical port is responsible for transceiving data.
When the UOIa optical ports work in MSP 1+1 backup mode, one optical port is active and the
other is standby. Both the active and standby optical ports transmit data, but only the active
optical port receives data.
The SET MSP command is available for setting the attributes for MSP backup.

Switchover Modes
l

Automatic switchover: The active and standby UOIa optical ports can be switched over
automatically.

Manual switchover: You can use the SET MSPCMD command to forcibly switch over
the active and standby UOIa optical ports.

Prerequisites for Switchover


The active and standby UOIa optical ports can be switched over only when one of the following
conditions is fulfilled:
l

The active optical port is faulty, but the standby optical port works properly.

The optical transmission device of the active optical port is faulty, but that of the standby
optical port works properly.

The active UOIa is faulty, but the standby UOIa works properly.

The active and standby optical ports at the peer end are switched over. (This may trigger
the switchover of the active and standby optical ports at the local end.)

The board where the active optical port is located is reset.

Switchover Process
When the active and standby UOIa optical ports are switched over, the active optical port
becomes standby after its data receiver switch is set to off, and the other optical port becomes
active after its data receiver switch is set to on.

Impact of Switchover on the System


When the traffic carried on the optical port is high, the switchover between the active and standby
optical ports slightly affects the data transmission but does not interrupt ongoing services.
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6.3.4 Backup of FE/GE Ports


When the FG2a/GOUa boards work in board backup mode, the corresponding FE/GE ports on
the active and standby boards, such as ports 0 on the boards, can be configured for backup.

Description of the Backup


When the FE/GE ports work in backup mode, one port is active and the other is standby. The
active port is responsible for transceiving data.
When the FG2a/GOUa boards work in board backup mode, you must use the ADD
ETHREDPORT command to configure the corresponding FE/GE ports on the active and
standby boards, such as ports 0 on the boards, for backup.

Switchover Modes
l

Automatic switchover: The active and standby ports on the FG2a/GOUa boards can be
switched over automatically.

Manual switchover: You can use the SWP ETHPORT command to forcibly switch over
the active and standby ports on the FG2a/GOUa boards.

Prerequisites for Switchover


The active and standby ports on the FG2a/GOUa boards can be switched over only when one
of the following conditions is fulfilled:
l

The active port is faulty, but the standby port works properly.

The active FG2a/GOUa is faulty, but the standby FG2a/GOUa works properly.

The board where the active port is located is reset.

Switchover Process
When the active and standby ports on the FG2a/GOUa boards are switched over, the active port
becomes standby after its data transceiver switch is set to off, and the other port becomes active
after its data transceiver switch is set to on.

Impact of Switchover on the System


When the traffic carried on the port is high, the switchover between the active and standby ports
slightly affects the data transmission but does not interrupt ongoing services.

6.3.5 Load Sharing on FE/GE Ports


Load sharing is applicable to the FE/GE ports on the FG2a/GOUa boards.

Prerequisites
The RNC supports load sharing between FE/GE ports that are located either on the same board
or on active and standby boards.

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NOTE

The RNC does not support load sharing between FE/GE ports that are located on different boards
between whom there is no active/standby relationship.

The RNC does not support load sharing between active and standby ports.

Working Principles
Load sharing between FE/GE ports on the FG2a/GOUa boards is user-specific. The data of a
type of user is carried on one FE/GE port, and that of another type of user is carried on another
FE/GE port.
NOTE

The data of one user is transmitted through one FE/GE port, instead of being shared by ports.

Application Scenario
Load sharing between FE/GE ports of the RNC is applicable to layer 3 networking between the
RNC and other NEs, instead of layer 2 networking. To implement load sharing, the data towards
the same IP address must be transmitted from multiple ports. This requires different IP routes.
For example, load sharing between two FE/GE ports requires two IP routes that have the same
destination IP address, address mask and priority, but different next hops.
NOTE

An IP route can be configured through the ADD IPRT command.

The RNC supports load sharing between a maximum of three FE/GE ports.

Benefits
l

The data traffic is shared by the ports to avoid the occurrence where some ports are busy
while others are idle.

Load sharing enhances reliability of data transmission.

6.3.6 Port Trunking of GE Ports


Port trunking is applicable to the GE ports on the SCUa boards.

Application of Port Trunking in the RNC


Port trunking is applied to the switching subsystem of the RNC.
l

In a subrack of the RNC, the ports serving the communication between the SCUa and the
other boards work as a trunk group to enable port trunking.

The ports serving the communication between the SCUa boards in the RSS and the SCUa
boards in an RBS work as a trunk group to enable port trunking.

In a trunk group, the bandwidth is evenly allocated to the GE ports, thus fulfilling load
balancing.

If a GE link in a trunk group is faulty, the data stream on the link is automatically switched
over.

If the SCUa or a service board is faulty, no associated switchover occurs.

Benefits

Issue 01 (2009-02-10)

Huawei Proprietary and Confidential


Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

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