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Surface and Coatings Technology 123 (2000) 8491

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Current Industrial Practices

Performance of MoS /metal composite coatings used for dry


2
machining and other industrial applications k
N.M Renevier a, *, N. Lobiondo b, V.C Fox a, D.G Teer a, J. Hampshire a
a Teer Coatings Ltd., 290293 Hartlebury Trading Estate, Hartlebury, Worcestershire DY10 4JB, UK
b Multi-Arc Inc, 1598 East Lincoln, Madison Heights, MI 48071, USA
Received 13 April 1999; received in revised form 21 July 1999

Abstract
As previously reported (Fox et al., Proc. PSE Conf., Garmisch Partenkirchen, 1418 September, 1998), the properties of
MoS coatings can be improved by the co-deposition of a small amount of titanium. These MoS /Ti coatings, known as
2
2
MoST@ produced by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering, are harder, much more wear resistant and less sensitive to
atmospheric water vapour. These coatings have given excellent industrial results for a wide range of cutting and forming
applications. Two forms of these MoS /titanium composite coatings have been developed: MoS /titanium composite ( low titanium,
2
2
10 at%) and MoS /titanium composite (high titanium, 20 at%).
2
The MoS /titanium composite ( low titanium) exhibits a coating hardness of 500 HV, a coefficient of friction of 0.02 during
2
100 N applied load reciprocating wear testing, and a low wear rate, while the MoS /titanium composite (high titanium) exhibits
2
a coating hardness similar to that of TiN, a coefficient of friction of 0.04 during 100 N applied load reciprocating wear testing,
and an extremely low wear rate.
The choice of coatings is dependent upon the application. Recent industrial performance data related to the characteristics of
these MoS /titanium composite (high titanium) self-lubricant coatings, which are utilised now in large-scale production, are
2
presented. 2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Cutting; Forming; Low friction; MoS ; Solid lubricant; Unbalanced magnetron
2

1. Introduction
There is currently an increase in demand for dry
machining [2]. Over the last century, the production
engineer has required higher production rates and has
often had to machine new materials of higher strength.
Metallurgists have responded with new cutting, forming
tools and components with improved performance.
The development of tool material from carbon tool
steel, high-speed steel, carbides, ceramics and nitrides,
together with techniques of applying wear-resistant coatings, has allowed cutting, forming tools or components
k
Paper presented at the 26th International Conference on
Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films, April 1215, 1999, San Diego,
CA, USA
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +44-1299-251-399;
fax: +44-1299-250-171.
E-mail address: renevier.nathalie@teercoatings.co.uk
(N.M Renevier)

to be used at increased cutting or forming speed with


increased lifetimes.
This has forced machine tool manufacturers to
develop their machines so as to be capable of making
full use of the new tool materials through increased
metal removal, forming rates and improved
productivity.
New materials have been developed, particularly in
the aerospace, automotive and medical industries, and
these new alloys are often more difficult to machine. So,
although these materials may be lighter, stronger and
more wear resistant, they suffer from poor machinability,
thus creating unfavourable conditions on the cutting or
edge of the tool which leads to a reduction in tool life
and in some cases premature tool failure.
Although thin hard films were introduced into the
cutting and forming tools market in the 1960s to arrest
or slow down the diffusion wear in carbide tools, the
real impact in the high-speed steel tool area has taken

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N.M Renevier et al. / Surface and Coatings Technology 123 (2000) 8491

place over the last decade, particularly with developments in the physical deposition (PVD) process.
Whilst the major successes in coatings for industrial
applications are titanium nitride ( TiN ), titanium carbide
( TiC ), titanium carbonitride ( TiCN ), titanium aluminium nitride ( TiAlN ), these coatings are not totally
successful for all applications for several reasons [3],
where a total systems approach needs to be employed
in surface engineering.
For centuries, liquid lubricants were used to limit the
contact pressure and facilitate sliding. Contact is inevitable, and lubricants are used to reduce the temperature
produced by friction. But, in many cases the presence
of liquid is not recommended or forbidden for contamination reasons. Effects are particularly important in
vacuum or at high temperature, for food, medical apparatus, or the nuclear industry.
Lubrication costs are often high and therefore
uneconomic. An additional problem with liquid lubricant is the efficient distribution of the lubricant on the
required surface.
Dry machining can appear a risky solution to this
problem, as users are reluctant to damage their tools
under dry conditions. However, the risks of damage to
the tools by using solid lubricants in place of liquid
lubricants are minimal. This is because, in effect the solid
lubricant coating creates a third component within the
system, which gives some advantages of a liquid lubricant.
In some cases the use of a solid lubricant deposited
where a traditional lubricant cannot perform allows an
increase in the performance of tools and components.
In future, solid lubrication may be imposed by legislation (for example for environmental protection) and
also for cost savings (as the treatment of used lubricants
is very expensive).
MoS coatings have been proposed for the improve2
ment in the performance of cutting tools, and such
coatings have been shown to give significant improvements [4].
At Teer Coatings core strategies of innovation and
continuous improvement are being used to address these
preoccupations. Hence, two new complementary types
of coating were developed, known as MoST@ [1,5] and
Graphit-iC@ [6,7]. As previously reported [1], MoST@
coatings are MoS /titanium composite coatings formed
2
by co-deposition of small amounts of titanium in a
MoS based matrix. MoS /titanium composite coatings,
2
2
produced by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering, are harder, much more wear resistant and less
sensitive to atmospheric water vapour than MoS . These
2
coatings have given excellent industrial results in a wide
range of cutting and forming applications. The properties are dependent on the titanium content. Two successful forms of the range of MoST@ coatings have been
developed: MoS /titanium composite ( low titanium)
2
and MoS /titanium composite (high titanium).
2
The MoS /titanium composite ( low titanium) exhibits
2

85

a coating hardness of 500 HV, a coefficient of friction


of 0.02 during 100 N applied load reciprocating wear
testing, and a low wear rate, while the MoS /titanium
2
composite (high titanium) exhibits a coating hardness
similar to that of TiN, a coefficient of friction of 0.04
during 100 N applied load reciprocating wear testing,
and an extremely low wear rate.
Recent industrial performance data related to the
characteristics of these MoS /titanium composite (high
2
titanium) self-lubricant coatings are reported in the
range of cutting, forming tools and components, which
are utilised today in large-scale production.

2. Background
MoS coatings are often deposited using RF sputter2
ing [811], producing MoS coatings with a duplex
2
structure consisting of a dense, coherent film of about
100 nm followed by a loose, columnar, powdery film
which is easily removed [12]. Most of these coatings
were suitable only in vacuum and at 0% humidity.
DC magnetron sputtering is used for the deposition
of MoS coatings in this study. The quality of the
2
coatings is improved by applying a negative potential
to the substrates so that the growing film is bombarded
by energetic ions, densifying the structure and improving
adhesion. Unbalancing the magnetic field of the magnetron [13] increases the intensity of the bombardment and
further improvements are achieved by using a multimagnetron system in which unbalanced magnetrons are
used in the closed field arrangement [13,14]. Unlike RF
techniques, such methods give dense, coherent coatings.
MoS properties degrade when in humid air, causing
2
an increase in friction coefficient and a decrease in
lifetime. To reduce the water vapour content in the
vacuum chamber a titanium target was sputtered during
ion cleaning of the substrates prior to deposition to
produce a gettering effect. The titanium was then used
to deposit an interlayer which led to an improvement in
coating adhesion (critical load above 120 N ). A natural
progression of this work led to incorporation of titanium
into the coating itself, resulting in improved friction (m
of 0.020.1 at 40% humidity) and wear properties.
These MoS /metal composite coatings were hard (1000
2
2000 HV ) and also less sensitive to water vapour than
pure MoS coatings.
2
Properties of the original MoS /metal composite
2
coating [MoS /titanium composite ( low titanium,
2
10 at% and high titanium, 20 at%)] have been previously
reported [15]. These coatings are not only suitable in
vacuum and at 0% humidity, but also up to 50%
humidity, allowing terrestrial uses. These MoS compos2
ite coatings have been tested in a variety of industrial
applications, showing excellent results for a wide range
of cutting, forming and component applications. This
paper reports industrial results from MoS /titanium
2
composite (high titanium, 20 at%) coating.

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N.M Renevier et al. / Surface and Coatings Technology 123 (2000) 8491

A resume of laboratory test results using microhardness and nanohardness testing, scratch adhesion testing,
pin on disc and reciprocating friction and wear tests is
presented in an attempt to be au fait with the tribological
properties. The structures of the coatings have been
extensively studied by a variety of techniques, including
optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy
( TEM ), X-ray diffraction ( XRD) and scanning electron
microscopy (SEM ) and a summary of this work is
reported to understand the structure of such complex
coatings.
2.1. Deposition system
MoS /titanium composite coatings were deposited by
2
DC magnetron sputtering using standard Teer
CFUBMSIP equipment [16 ] (Fig. 1). The magnetrons
within the coating chamber were arranged so that three
MoS targets and one titanium target were used and the
2
substrates rotated between the targets. The amount of
metal content was controlled by the power applied to
the targets.
To reduce the water vapour content in the vacuum
chamber a titanium target was sputtered, under argon
during ion cleaning of the substrates prior to deposition
to produce a gettering effect. The titanium target was
then used to deposit a 100 nm interlayer, which led to
an improvement in coating adhesion. Titanium was used
as an interlayer to improve the load bearing capacity
and the adherence properties.
This step is followed by a second interlayer by
sputtering from two MoS targets and the titanium
2
target simultaneously, the power to the titanium target
is gradually reduced. This layer consists of a 200 nm
mixed MoS /titanium in a multilayer structure.
2
The main bulk of the coatings of about 800 nm,
known as MoST@ coatings in the case of titanium

(a)

addition, are not multilayer coatings (as previously


described [1]).
The titanium target is switched off at the end of the
process to produce a 50 nm pure MoS coating for
2
coloration.
2.2. Laboratory testing and results
2.2.1. Scratch testing
Scratch testing on the MoS /titanium composite coat2
ings has produced results showing that the coatings
undergo no failure up to a load of 120 N [15] using a
0.2 mm Rockwell diamond tip. Optical examination of
the coatings after scratch testing has confirmed this result.
2.2.2. Pin on disc testing
As was observed in the previous study on the
MoS /titanium composite (high titanium) coating [15],
2
as the load increases the friction coefficient decreases
and the wear rate increases. The specific wear rate for
the MoS /titanium composite (high titanium) coating
2
has been calculated at around 41017 m3(Nm)1 after
1 h test performed at 80 N in dry conditions (40%
relative humidity) with a linear speed of 200 mm/s
(477 rpm, 8 mm diameter) and a 5 mm diameter WC-4%
Co ball showing a 0.06 coefficient of friction. Preliminary
results from pin on disc testing (5 N and 10 N ) at 350C
have indicated that no loss in properties is evident up
to this temperature compared to those obtained at room
temperature.
2.2.3. Reciprocating wear testing
At 41% humidity and under a 100 N load using the
same ball characteristics, the coating survives for 9999
cycles, the limit of the test. The friction coefficient is
0.043 and the wear after 9999 cycles is 0.5 mm. In order
to demonstrate the differences between MoS and
2

(b)

Fig. 1. (a) Schematic representation and (b) general view of a four magnetron coating chamber configured with closed field unbalanced magnetron
sputter ion plating (CFUBMSIP).

N.M Renevier et al. / Surface and Coatings Technology 123 (2000) 8491

87

These results were confirmed by extensive nanoindentation tests on the MoS /titanium composite (high
2
titanium) coating, confirming the Fischerscope
measurements.
2.3. Coating analysis

(a)

(b)
Fig. 2. Results of (a) MoS and (b) MoST coatings tested at 40%
2
humidity, under water and under oil. Number of cycles, coefficient of
friction, track width and wear rate are reported.

MoS /titanium composite coatings, the MoS /titanium


2
2
composite (high titanium) coating was tested under
water at a load of 100 N where the coating survived for
3000 cycles with a friction coefficient ranging from 0.03
at the start of the test to 0.05 just before failure of the
coating (32 cycles for pure MoS coatings). The
2
MoS /titanium composite was also tested under oil
2
where the coating survived for 10 000 cycles with a
friction coefficient characteristic of the oil rather than
the coatings (155 cycles for pure MoS ). Tested under
2
oil at low load ( less than 10 N, with the same ball
characteristics), the coating presents no failure and the
wear is lower than in dry conditions. Results are reported
in Fig. 2.
2.2.4. Nanoindentation and microindentation
Dynamic hardness measurements were performed
with a Fischerscope Dynamic Hardness Tester at 4 mN
load. The test gave a spread of results depending on the
titanium concentration in different coatings, but all of
the tests gave a value for coating hardness of above
15 GPa with values ranging up to 21 GPa (4 GPa for
pure MoS ). Youngs modulus of 138 GPa has been
2
recorded, much higher than typical values for pure
MoS coatings (around 70 GPa).
2

2.3.1. Chemical composition


Auger electron spectroscopy (AES ) analysis was performed to determine the composition [17]. Sputtered
neutral mass spectroscopy (SNMS) analysis and
Rutherford backscattering (RBS) have failed to detect
any multilayers, more details will be presented in
Ref. [17].
2.3.2. XRD
XRD measurements were performed at Birmingham
University using Phillips equipment with a Cu Ka line
source (0.154046 nm and 0.154439 nm) and a goniometer PW3020. Measurements were reported only between
10 and 60 because of the very weak intensities of the
peak after 60. Analysis of MoS /titanium composite
2
coatings by XRD [17] (Fig. 3) revealed only a very
broad band pattern indicating a structure consisting of
quasi-amorphous, highly strained MoS (Fig. 3). For
2
comparison, XRD analysis was performed on pure
titanium and pure MoS coatings. Several peaks were
2
evident for the MoS coating, indicating that the coating
2
is at least partly crystalline. None of these peaks occur
on analysis of the MoS /titanium composite coating,
2
and so it would appear that the addition of Ti to the
coating is inhibiting the formation of crystalline MoS .
2
The pure MoS coating is crystalline and the strongest
2
peak was found in the (002) plane compared with the
(103) plane. On addition of metal, in this example
titanium, the peak corresponding to the (002) plane
disappears progressively and at the same time the band

Fig. 3. X-Ray diffraction pattern showing (a) pure MoS , (b)


2
MoST@, (c) MoS +titanium multilayer, (d) pure titanium.
2

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N.M Renevier et al. / Surface and Coatings Technology 123 (2000) 8491

corresponding to the (103) plane appears stronger than


previously. The broad diffraction lines are shifted to
lower diffraction angles as the metal content is increased.
The corresponding lattice parameter enhancement is consistent with an expansion of the lattice as the metal
content increases. Only at high metal concentrations was
it possible to detect the titanium peak of the (002) plane.
2.3.3. TEM
Extensive TEM analysis of the MoS /titanium com2
posite coating has been carried out at Birmingham
University and Northumbria University. TEM crosssections showing MoS /titanium composite coating are
2
presented in Ref. [17].
2.3.4. SEM
A fractograph of a SEM cross-section of MoS /
2
titanium composite coating on top of a TiN coating is
shown in Fig. 4. The coating was deposited onto tool steel
substrate. From the fractograph it can be seen that the
coating is dense, compact, non-columnar and adherent.

3. Industrial testing results and discussion


A large number of industrial results have been
obtained for the MoS /titanium composite coating
2
showing very big improvements for many applications
in comparison with conventional hard coatings. Better
results were obtained when MoS /titanium composite
2
coating is supported by a hard coating; the exact reasons
are unknown, but some investigations are under way.
The following results are the most recent.
3.1. Cutting tools applications
3.1.1. Drilling in dry and lubricated conditions
Drilling tests were carried out. High-speed steel M6
tap drills have been coated with TiN, TiCN ( low carbon
content), TiAlN (high aluminium content), TiN+MoS /
2

Fig. 4. Fractograph of TiN+MoST coating on tool steel substrate.

Fig. 5. Number of cutting holes produced (a) at 10 m/min in dry conditions, (b) at 20 m/min in dry conditions, (c) at 20 m/min lubricated
with an oil mixture. TiCN (1): low carbon content, TiAlN: high aluminium content, TiCN+MoST: TiCN with low carbon content.

titanium composite and TiCN ( low carbon content)+


MoS /titanium composite. These tap drills were tested
2
under dry conditions and lubricated (mixed oil and watersoluble by 20%) to drill 5.5 mm through holes into AISI
400 stainless steel (11.7 mm thick, HRB 6070). These
tests were performed at 10 m/min (corresponding to
530 rpm) and at 20 m/min (corresponding to 1061 rpm).
The number of holes produced was as recorded.
Use of MoS /titanium composite ( Fig. 5) in dry
2
conditions on the top of hard coatings such as TiN and
TiCN has increased the number of holes produced by
twice in the case of TiN and by 4.14.8 times for TiCN.
Unfortunately TiAlN coating, usually good for dry
machining, was not successful for this application compared with the other coatings.
The use of MoS /titanium composite under mixed
2
oil on top of a TiCN hard coating was improved by 2.4
times the lifetime of the drill.
The poor result obtained for the TiN+MoST running
under mixed oil (water-soluble) is puzzling and will be
reinvestigated.
3.1.2. End milling applications
Carbide end mills 12 mm4 mm25 mm have been
coated with TiCN and TiCN+MoS /titanium compos2
ite and were tested by The Institute of Advanced
Manufacturing Sciences Inc. for Multi-Arc Inc.
These end mills were tested under dry conditions and
lubricated ( Trim Sol: mixed oil and water-soluble by
5%) at a cutting speed of 150 m/min and a feed rate of
0.04 mm/turn onto AISI 304 stainless steel. The cutting
depth was 4 mm, while the radial depth cut was 3 mm
and the axial depth cut was 5 mm. Average milling
force, tool wear and surface finishing were recorded.
It has also been observed that MoS /titanium com2
posite (Fig. 6) coatings running in dry conditions deposited on top of a TiCN hard coating offer an increase in

N.M Renevier et al. / Surface and Coatings Technology 123 (2000) 8491

89

The uncoated ejector pins produced 2000 shots before


failure of the pins occurred, using the MoS /titanium
2
composite coating on the pins increased the number of
shots produced to 100 000 shots. This is a 50 times
improvement and a big cost saving is reported.
3.2.2. Perforation and piercing applications

(a)

(b)

Fig. 6. Average resultant force (a) and surface finishing (b) while end
milling AISI 304 stainless steel using TiCN (using coolant) and
TiCN+MoST (dry and using coolant) coated inserts.

milling distance and a reduction in average milling force


during the test and also an improvement in surface
finish as compared with the TiCN coatings alone. Both
effects increase the productivity and the quality of the
final product.
However, MoS /titanium composite (Fig. 6) coating
2
deposited on top of a TiCN hard coating and running
under mixed oil has not increased the end mill distance
or the average milling force compared with the TiCN
coating alone. This seems to show the limit of the
coating under mixed lubricated (oil water-soluble) conditions. The water content in the lubricant is probably
too high; it should be remembered that MoS /titanium
2
composite is a MoS based coating, which is dramati2
cally affected by water during use.

3.2.2.1. Test 1 Rapid wear occurred when AISI D2


punches (6062 HRC ) were used for the perforating
application. Punches were coated with the MoS /tita2
nium composite coating and compared with the previously sprayed MoS coating and uncoated punches
2
used by the company.
The application for which the punches were tested was
to perforate 1.2 mm thick 409 stainless plate for filters
without lubricant, running at 250 pressings per minute.
Previously the company had used a sprayed MoS
2
coating which enabled the punches to last for 1 day
(around 80 000 pressings) without lubricant. With this
sprayed coating the punch needed two to four regrinds
to survive for 1 day, after which the punch was unable
to function. With MoS /titanium composite coating, the
2
punches were still performing after 320 000 pressings (4
days) without the need for regrinding. The company
reported a big cost saving by using the MoS /titanium
2
composite coated punches.
3.2.2.2. Test 2 Punches made from AISI M2 steel were
coated with the MoS /titanium composite and
2
TiCN+MoS /titanium composite coatings. TiCN coat2
ing was deposited by arc evaporation (33.5 mm) and
MoS /titanium composite by magnetron sputtering
2
(1.2 mm). The application for which the punches were
tested was to pierce 1.2 mm thick AISI 409 stainless
plate for filters without lubricant, running at 250 pressings per minute.
Results are shown in Fig. 7. In the piercing application, an uncoated tool was able to pierce 5000 parts
before tool failure. The use of a TiCN coating increased

3.2. Forming applications


3.2.1. Coating ejector pins
The surface of ejector pins used for plastic moulds
was coated with the MoS /titanium composite coating.
2
The exact conditions used during the process are
unknown, but the results obtained represent comparative tests to the uncoated one. The number of shots
performed with uncoated and coated pins was recorded.

Fig. 7. Results of MoST@ piercing application on AISI D2 steel.

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N.M Renevier et al. / Surface and Coatings Technology 123 (2000) 8491

the number of parts to 6000, and depositing


MoS /titanium composite on top of TiCN further
2
increased the number of parts to 27 000.
3.2.2.3. Test 3 PS4 (CPM@ M4 of Dayton Progress
Corporation, USA) (6163 HRC ) punches were coated
with MoS /titanium composite (1.2 mm) on top of TiCN
2
(33.5 mm of TiCN produced by arc evaporation) coating and used to perforate 12 mm HSLA steel with watersoluble lubricant (20%).
Results are shown in Fig. 8. In the piercing application, an uncoated tool was able to pierce 15 000 parts
before tool failure. The use of a TiCN coating increased
the number of parts to 50 000, and depositing
MoS /titanium composite on top of TiCN further
2
increased the number of parts to 200 000.

Fig. 9. Results of MoST@ punching application on AISI M2 steel.

3.2.3. Fine blanking stainless steel


Results have been reported of punches coated with
MoS /titanium composite on top of a TiCN coating.
2
The punches were made from AISI M2 steel (64 HRC )
and were coated with 3 to 3.5 mm of TiCN by arc
evaporation followed by 1.2 mm of MoS /titanium
2
composite.
3.2.3.1. Test 1 The punches were tested on fine blanking 409 stainless steel without lubricant.
In this application the number of parts produced
with TiCN coatings increased from 3000 to 12 000 parts
with the addition of MoS /titanium composite on top
2
of TiCN coatings (Fig. 9).
3.2.3.2. Test 2 The punches were tested on fine blanking 403 stainless steel with a water-soluble lubricant
(20% water).
In this application the number of parts produced
with TiCN coatings increased from 220 000 to 600 000
parts with the addition of MoS /titanium composite on
2
the top ( Fig. 10).

Fig. 10. Number of parts produced with MoST@ in lubricated conditions (water-soluble 20%).

3.2.4. Drawing stainless steel applications


Results have been reported of tools coated with
MoS /titanium composite on top of a CrN coating. The
2
tools were made from AISI M2 steel (64 HRC ) and
were coated with 3 to 3.5 mm of TiCN by arc evaporation
followed by 1.2 mm of MoS /titanium composite. The
2
application for which the tools were tested was to draw
0.5 mm thick AISI 430 stainless steel under chlorinated
oil used as lubricant.
Results are shown in Fig. 11. In the piercing application, an uncoated tool was able to pierce 15 000 parts
before tool failure. The use of a CrN coating increased
the number of parts to 50 000, and depositing
MoS /titanium composite on top of CrN further
2
increased the number of parts to 100 000.

4. Conclusions and recommendations

Fig. 8. Number of parts produced with MoST@ in lubricated conditions (water-soluble 20%).

Results show that product performance and surface


finish of cutting and productivity of forming can be
improved by using a solid lubricant such as
MoS /titanium composite coatings.
2

N.M Renevier et al. / Surface and Coatings Technology 123 (2000) 8491

91

hard thin film characteristics, as is evident from numerous publications reported elsewhere. A hard coating
under MoS /titanium composite seems to be the best
2
choice. The exact reasons are unknown, but the improvement is probably associated with the additional support
offered by the hard coating.
MoS /titanium composite is a good candidate for a
2
clean world process, and gives greater productivity in
machining, forming and for components. MoS /
2
titanium composite coating has great potential for success in dry machining, but the reduced wear resistance
under oil is a limitation, which needs further study.
Fig. 11. Number of parts produced with MoST@ in lubricated
conditions.

It is important to establish the failure mechanisms


and failure mode in a metal-cutting or metal/plasticforming or component situation in order to apply the
MoS /titanium composite coatings effectively on top of
2
a hard coating. Design and substrate materials play an
important role, which will be studied later (combination
of tool design, manufacturing quality and appropriate
coating such as MoS /titanium composite deposited on
2
a hard thin film in an attempt to improve tool performance life).
Hard coatings such as TiN, TiCN, TiAlN may increase
tool performance (for example cutting speed) and lifetime
by arresting or slowing down certain types of wear.
However, these coatings retain a high coefficient of
friction and require lubricant. When cutting speeds are
increased, the effects of liquid lubricants are reduced.
Furthermore, reductions in friction result in decreased
cutting force and tool temperatures, which reduces resistance to adhesion or local welding which may improve
the quality of the product by replacing traditional lubricant by a solid lubricant such as MoS /titanium compos2
ite. Under most rubbing conditions MoS /titanium
2
composite coatings have a much lower wear rate than
traditional hard coatings. They also have very low friction
which allows the component to be used at high speed,
lowering the frictional forces and the temperature.
In cold forming applications use of the
MoS /titanium composite coating has allowed us to
2
reduce the load applied during the process, which has
also resulted in a decrease in energy consumption.
A big cost saving has been reported using
MoS /titanium composite coatings, in particular in
2
mould industries.
MoS /titanium composite coatings, in contrast to
2
most other coatings, have allowed either the elimination
or reduction of the lubricant quantity used; this big cost
saving is because many tools used for forming require
the old oil to be cleaned off before they can be used
again. Work in dry conditions reduces this requirement.
Considerable attention has previously been given to

Acknowledgements
The authors would like to express their gratitude to
the Department of Trade and Industry of the United
Kingdom for their support through a SPUR award in
the financing of this project. The authors would also
like to thank the following people and companies. Dr.
R. Gilmore of ISPRA (Italy), Dr. V Rigato of Thin
Films (Italy), Nachi Fujikoshi Steel Corporation
(Japan), Adachi New Industrial Company Ltd. (Japan),
Third Millenium Ltd. ( UK ) and Dayton Progress
Corporation ( USA).

References
[1] V.C. Fox, N.M. Renevier, D.G. Teer, J. Hampshire, V. Rigato,
Proc. PSE Conf., Garmisch Partenkirchen, 1418 September,
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