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7/3/13

Objective and Scope of


Unit 1
Understand the basics and scopes of Clinical Chemistry 1

Unit 1. Introduction to
Clinical Chemistry 1

Scope of Clinical Chemistry 1:


Lecture:
1. Overview
2. Importance
3. Role of Medical technologists
4. Definition of Terms
Laboratory:
1. Clinical Laboratory Apparatus and Supplies
2. Volume Measurement

Maria Ruth B. Pineda, Ph.D.


Department of Medical Technology
University of Santo Tomas
1

What is Clinical Chemistry?


Linkage among the knowledge of general chemistry, organic
chemistry, and biochemistry with an understanding of human
physiology

What is Clinical Chemistry?


Laboratory section that performs qualitative and
quantitative analyses of blood, urine, spinal fluid,
feces, calculi and other materials.

General chemistry
Organic chemistry

HUMAN
PHYSIOLOGY

Biochemistry

A division concerned with the analysis of body


fluids to yield timely, relevant, accurate and precise
information on the clinical status of the human
body.

Importance of
Clinical Chemistry

What is Clinical Chemistry?


Branch of medical science that involves the analysis of
biological materials, usually body fluids, to provide
diagnostic information on the state of the human body

Carbohydrates

Foundation of science that underlies biochemistry and


pathophysiology

Lipids

Proteins

Nucleic Acids

Organ Systems:
Heart
Liver
Kidneys
Lungs
Reproductive

Nervous
Endocrine
Muscles
Skeletal
Blood

Also known as:

Clinical Biochemistry and


Chemical Pathology

Human Diseases
MRBPINEDA UST

MRBPINEDA, RMT, MSMT UST

7/3/13

Role of Medical
Technologists
Deliver accurate and precise laboratory information
Provide reliable laboratory results

Patient diagnosis and treatment

No. 1 Priority: Patient

Definition of Terms
Accuracy: ability to determine the true and known
value of as substance
Biochemical Marker: any biochemical compound
that is sufficiently altered in a disease to serve as an
aid in diagnosing or predicting susceptibility to the
disease.
Blood borne: carried or transmitted by blood

Definition of Terms

Summary

Pathogen: causative agent of a disease


Precision: ability to reproduce the same results in
repeated analysis of the sample
Reliability: ability of an analytical procedure to
maintain its original accuracy, precision, specificity,
and sensitivity over an extended period of time

Clinical Chemistry measures biochemical


compounds to detect abnormalities on the levels of
such compounds.

1ENT

Abnormalities

PAT

Disease Diagnosis
Treatment to correct
the abnormalities

MRBPINEDA UST

10

Objectives and Scopes of


Unit 2

Unit 2. Laboratory
Mathematics
Maria Ruth B. Pineda, Ph.D.
Department of Medical Technology
University of Santo Tomas

Compute concentration of solutions using the different ways of expressing


concentration and using different units of measurement.

Apply the formula for computing concentrations in the preparation of reagents


necessary in laboratory testing.

Unit Conversions

Dilutions

Percent Solutions

Ratios

Normality

pH and pOH

Molarity

Significant figures

Molality

Scientific Notation
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MRBPINEDA, RMT, MSMT UST

7/3/13

Quantitative
Determination

What is a laboratory result?

Dependent on the type of determination

Qualitative Determination:
presence or absence of a certain
compound

Two parts: actual value and label

Presence of glucose in urine

Actual value: a number

Bilirubin detected in the brain

Label: a unit that defines the physical quantity or


dimension

Positive for tetrahydrocannabinol

Mass, length, time, volume, temperature,


concentration, activity, frequency, current

Quantitative Determination:
exact amount of the compound
present

405 umol/L of uric acid


9.0 mmol/L of glucose

High or low???
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14

Unit of measurement

SI Units

PART 1 BASIC PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF CLINICAL CHEMISTRY

TABLE 1-1 SI UNITS

Systeme International dUnites (SI units): 1960


Provides a uniform system or method of describing
physical quantities

Basic units

BASE QUANTITY

NAME

SYMBOL

Length

Meter

Mass

Kilogram

kg

Time

Second

Electric current

Ampere

Thermodynamic temperature

Kelvin

Amount of substance

Mole

mol

Luminous intensity

Candela

cd

Frequency

Hertz

Hz

Force

Newton

Celsius temperature

Degree Celsius

Catalytic activity

Katal

kat

SELECTED DERIVED

Derived units
Selected accepted non-SI units

SELECTED ACCEPTED NON-SI

Minute (time)

(60s)

min

Hour

(3,600s)

Day

(86,400s)

(1 dm3 ! 10"3 m3)

(0.1 nm ! 10"10 m)
16

Liter (volume)

MRBPINEDA UST

Angstrom

15

Prefixes used with SI units


FACTOR

PREFIX

SYMBOL

10-18

atto

10-15

femto

10-12

pico

10-9

nano

10-6

micro

10-3

milli

10-2

centi

10-1

deci

101

deka

da

102

hecto

103

kilo

106

mega

109

giga

1015

peta

1018

exa

Examples:
1. 1 millimeter = ________ m
2. 2 micromoles = _______ mol
3. 5 deciliter = __________ L
4. 2 milligram = _________ kg
5. 5 microliter = _________ L

17

MRBPINEDA, RMT, MSMT UST

The SI uses standard prefixes that, when added to a


given unit, can indicate decimal fractions of multiples of
that unit (Table 1-2). For example, 0.001 liter can be expressed using the prefix milli, becoming 1 milliliter,
which is then written as 1 mL. Note that the SI term for
mass is kilogram; it is the only basic unit that contains a
prefix as part of its naming convention. Generally, the
standard prefixes for mass use the term gram rather than
kilogram.
Reporting of laboratory results is often expressed in
terms of substance concentration (e.g., moles) or the
mass of a substance (e.g., mg/dL, g/dL, g/L, mEq/L, and
IU) rather than in SI units. These familiar and traditional units can cause confusion during interpretation.
It has been recommended that analytes be reported
using moles of solute per volume of solution (substance
concentration) and that the liter be used as the refer2
Length,
volume,
weight D,
conversions
ence volume.
Appendix
Conversion of Traditional
Units to SI Units for Common Clinical Chemistry
Analytes, lists both
reference
and SI units together
with
To
convert
into
the conversion factor from traditional to SI units for
Inches
common analytes.
As with other areasCentimeters
of industry, the
laboratory and the rest of medicine is moving toward
Centimeters
Inches
adopting universal standards promoted by the
InternationalYards
Organization for Standards,
often reMeters

TABLE 1-2 PREFIXES USED WITH SI UNITS


FACTOR

PREFIX

10"18

atto

10"15

femto

10"12

pico

10"9

nano

10"6

micro

10"3

milli

10"2

centi

10"1

deci

101

deka

da

102

hecto

103

kilo

104

mega

109

giga

tera

Basic clinical laboratory


conversions
1012

Multiply by

1015

2.54peta

1018

0.39exa

SYMBOL

P
E

0.91

Prefixes are used to indicate a subunit or multiple of a basic SI unit.

Meters

Yards

1.09

Gallons

Liters

3.78

Liters

Gallons

0.26

Fluid ounces

Milliliters

29.6

Milliliters

Fluid ounces

0.034

Ounces

Grams

28.4

Grams

Ounces

0.035

Pounds

Kilograms

Kilograms

Pounds

0.45
18

2.2

7/3/13

Basic clinical laboratory


conversions

Ways of expressing
concentration of solution

Temperature conversions

To convert

into

Use

Celsius (C)

Kelvin (K)

K = C +273

Celsius (C)

Fahrenheit (F)

F = (C x 1.8) + 32

Fahrenheit (F)

Celsius (C)

C = (F 32) x 0.556

As percent solution
As a molar (M) solution
As a normal (N) solution
As a molal (m) solution

MRBPINEDA UST

19

Percent Solution:
Weight/volume
%w/v

= _grams solute_ X 100


mL of solution

What is the concentration of a solution


prepared by mixing 2 milligrams of KCl
and 100 mL of distilled water?

MRBPINEDA UST

20

Percent Solution:
Weight/volume
What amount of NaCl is needed to make
800 mL of 0.85% solution?
Answer = 6.8 g

Answer = 0.002% or 2.0 x 10-3%


21

22

Percent Solution:
Weight/volume

Percent Solution:
Weight/volume

What amount of distilled water is needed


to make 1.5% of MgCl2 solution with 0.005
kg of salt.
Answer = 333.3 mL

You were asked to prepare agarose gel for


electrophoresis of DNA. Fifty milliliters of
2% gel is needed. How much agar is to be
dissolved? Also 3 uL of ethidium bromide
is added every 100 mL of agarose gel, how
much Ethidium bromide is needed?
Answer = 1.0 gram of agarose and
1.5 uL of Ethidium bromide

23

MRBPINEDA, RMT, MSMT UST

24

7/3/13

Percent solution:
volume/volume
%v/v

= _mL of solute__ X 100


mL of solution

What is the concentration of a solution with


2000 mL of liquid lidocaine dissolved in 5
liters of deionized water?

Percent solution:
volume/volume
Prepare 500 mL 40% alcohol from stock
absolute alcohol solution.
Answer = 200 mL stock absolute alcohol + 300
mL distilled water to make 500 mL solution

Answer = 28.57%

25

MRBPINEDA UST

Percent solution:
volume/volume

26

Percent Solution:
Weight/weight
%w/w

Prepare 0.05 L of 2% sulfuric acid.


Answer = 1 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid +
49 mL of distilled water.

= _grams solute_ X 100


grams solution

Determine the percent composition by mass of a


100 g salt solution which contains 20 g salt.
Answer: 20% NaCl solution

27

28

Percent Solution:
Weight/weight

Molar Solution or
Molarity
Number of moles expressed per 1 liter of solution

How much KCl in grams is needed to make


10% of a solution weighing 0.48 kg?
Answer: 48 grams of KCl

Moles = gram/molecular weight


Gram molecular weight of a substance dissolved to
a final volume of 1 liter solution

M =

grams of solute
MW x volume of solution (L)

29

MRBPINEDA, RMT, MSMT UST

MRBPINEDA UST

30

s to set up a

(Eq. 1-22)

nt solution is
sed as grams
mL of a 10%
ng approach.

0 ! 100 g

al amount)

(Eq. 1-23)

,000-mL volbration mark

hydrochloric

ing only those wanted in the final answer. To accomplish


this, it is important to remember what units are used to define each concentration term. It is key to understand the relationship among molarity (moles/liter), moles, and gmw.

7/3/13

Example
1-4PART 1 BASIC PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
22

How many grams are needed to make 1 L of a 2 M solution


Stepof3:HCl?
Set up the equation, cancel out like units, and
Because 500 mL is equal to 0.5 L, the final equation
Step
1: Which
units calculations:
are needed in the final answer?
perform
the appropriate
could be written by substituting 0.5 L for 500 mL, eliminating the need to include the 1,000 mL/L conversion
Answer:
Grams
per4.8
liter
(g/L).
36.5
g HCl
mol
HCl
mLor
!1L
Molar
Solution
!
! 250
factor in the equation. Molar Solution or
Step 2: Assess
terms
used
in
the
probmol other mass/volume
L
1,000 mL
B. What is the normality of a 0.5
M solution of H2SO4?
Molarity
Molarity
lem. In this case,
moles
are also needed for
" 43.8
g HCl
(Eq. the
1-27) calculaContinuing with the previous approach, the final equation: How many grams are equal to 1 mole? The gmw
ofis
tion
In a 250-mL volumetric flask, add 200 mL of reagent
HCl,
which
can
be
determined
from
the
periodic
table,
grams
are needed
make
1 Lthe
gradeHow
water.many
Add 43.8
g of HCl
and mix. to
Dilute
up to
0.5 mol H2SO4
1 Eq H2SO4
98 g H2SO4
!
!
will
beofequal
to
1 mole.
HCl,water.
the gmw is 36.5, so the
calibration
mark
with
reagent
grade
a 2M
solution
ofFor
HCl?
L What ismol
49
2SO4
2SO4
theHmolarity
ofgaHsolution
made
Although
there
various
equation
may
be are
written
asmethods to calculate labowhen water is added to 11 g CaCl to
0.5 mol H2SO4
1 Eq H2SO4
98 g H2SO4
2
ratory mathematical problems, this technique of cancel!
!
make
100
mL
of
solution?
L
49 g H2SO4
mol
H
SO
36.5
g
HCl
73
g
HCl
2
4
2
mol
ing like units can be used
in
most
clinical
chemistry
sit"
!
(Eq. 1-25)
uations, regardless
momol of whether Lthe problem requests
L
" 1 Eq/L " 1 N
(Eq. 1-32)
Answer = 1.0 M
larity, normality, or exchanging one concentration term
When
changing
molarity
into
normality
or
vice
versa,
the
out
like
units
should be
forCancel
another.
However,
is necessary
to final
recall
the interAnswer
= 73 units,
gitper
L and
of 2Mthe
HCl
is needed.
following
conversion
formula
may
be
applied:
relationship
between
all the
units in 73
the grams
expression.
grams
per liter.
In this
example,
HCl per liter is
M!V"N
(Eq. 1-33)
MRBPINEDA
31
32
needed
to UST
make up a 2 M solution
of HCl.

Normality

where V is the valence of the compound. Using this forNormality (N) is expressed as the number of equivalent
mula, Example 1-7.3 becomes
weights 1-5
per liter (Eq/L) or milliequivalents per milliliter
Example
(mEq/mL).
Equivalent
weight
is
equal
to
gmw
divided
by
0.5 M ! 2 " 1 N
(Eq. 1-34)
A solution of NaOH is contained within a Class A 1-L
the valence (V). Normality has often been used in acidvolumetric
flask filled to the calibration mark. The conbase calculations because an equivalent weight of a subExample 1-8
tent
label
reads
24togitsofcombining
NaOH. Determine
the admolarity.
stance
is also
equal
weight. Another
What is the molarity of a 2.5 N solution of HCl? This
Step
1: What
units
are ultimately
Answer: Moles
vantage
in using
equivalent
weight is needed?
that an equivalent
problem may be solved in several ways. One way is to use
weight
one substance is equal to the equivalent weight
the stepwise approach in which existing units are exper
literof(mol/L).
of
any
other
chemical.
changed for units needed. The equation is
Step 2: The units that exist are grams and 1 L. NaOH may

Molar Solution or
Molarity

Normal solution or
Normality

1 mol weight
HCl per 1 liter of
36ofggram
HCl equivalent
Number
be expressed as moles and grams. The gmw of NaOH is 2.5 Eq HCl
!
!
Example 1-7
L solution (Eq/L)
36 g HCl
1 Eq
calculated
to
equal
40
g/mol.
Rearrange
the
equation
so
Give the equivalent weight, in grams, for each substance
Equivalent
weightHCl
= molecular weight/valence
Prepare
of a 0.5and
M solution
of
that
grams
bemL
canceled
the remaining
units re" 2.5 mol/L
(Eq. 1-35)
listed
below.can400
NaCl.
flect
those
needed
in
the
answer,
which
are
mole/L.
The second approach is to use the normality-to-mo1. NaCl (gmw " 58 g, valence " 1)
=
grams
of solutenow becomes
Step 3:Answer
The equation
becomes
larity conversionN
formula.
The equation
= 11.6 g of NaCl is dissolved in
(Eq. 1-24)

L Class A volCl, mix, and


eagent grade
!

of moles per
per milliliter
ance is equal
to determine

58/1 " 58 g per equivalent weight

(Eq. 1-28)

36/1 " 36 g per equivalent weight

(Eq. 1-29)

400
distilled water
to make 0.5 M
24 mL
g NaOH
mol
1"1)
mol
2. HCl (gmw " 36, valence
"
! 0.6
solution
L of NaCl40 g NaOH
L

EW x volume of solution (L)

(Eq. 1-26)

M ! V " 2.5 N
V"1

2.5 N
performing the approM"
" 2.5 N
(Eq. 1-36)
1
priate calculations,
the
final
answer
of
0.6
M
or
0.6
mol/L
98/2 " 49 g per equivalent weight
(Eq. 1-30)
When the valence of a substance is 1, the molarity will
is derived.

out
units
and
3.By
H2canceling
SO4 (gmw "
98,like
valence
33" 2)

34

equal the normality. As previously mentioned, normality


A. What is the normality of a 500-mL solution that coneither equals or is greater than the molarity.
tains 7 g of H2SO4? The approach used to calculate moExample 1-6
larity could be used to solve this problem as well.
Specific Gravity
Make
upUnits
250 needed?
mL of aAnswer:
4.8 M Normality
solution of
HCl. as
Step 1:
expressed
Density is expressed as mass per unit volume. The speequivalents
liter (Eq/L).
Step
1: Unitsperneeded?
Answer: Grams (g).
cific gravity is the ratio of the density of a material when
Step 2:
2: Determine
Units you have?
Milliliters
and grams.
Step
the Answer:
gmw of
HCl (36.5
g), which
is
compared
to the density of water at a given temperature.
Now determine how they are related to equivalents per
The units for specific gravity are grams per milliliter.
needed
to calculate the molarity.
liter. (Hint: There are 49 g per equivalentsee Equation
Specific gravity is often used with very concentrated ma130 above.)
terials, such as commercial acids (e.g., sulfuric and hyStep What
3: Rearrange
the equation
that like
terms cancel
is the Normality
of aso500-mL
solution
that
drochloric acids).
If a solution contains 111 g CaCl2 per
containsEq/L.
7 g of
sulfuric
acid?
out, leaving
This
equation
is
The density of a concentrated acid can also be ex-

Normal solution or
Normality

liter, what is the normality?

7 g H2SO4
1 Eq
1,000 mL
!
!
500 mL
49 g H2SO4
1L
" 0.285 Eq/L " 0.285 N

(Eq. 1-31)

Answer: 0.285 Eq/L or 0.285 N

35

MRBPINEDA, RMT, MSMT UST

Normal solution or
Normality

pressed in terms of an assay or percent purity. The actual


concentration is equal to the specific gravity multiplied
Answer = 2 N CaCl2
by the assay or percent purity value (expressed
as a decimal) stated on the label of the container.

36

7/3/13
22

PART 1 BASIC PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF CLINICAL CHEMISTRY

Step 3: Set up the equation, cancel out like units, and


perform the appropriate calculations:

Molarity vs Normality

36.5 g HCl
4.8 mol HCl
!
! 250 mL ! 1 L
mol
L
1,000 mL
" 43.8
HCl than
(Eq. 1-27)
Normality is always equal
to org greater
Molarity

In a 250-mL volumetric flask, add 200 mL of reagent


grade water. Add 43.8 g of HCl and mix. Dilute up to the
calibration mark with reagent grade water.
Molarity is always equal to or less than Normality
Although there are various methods to calculate laboratory mathematical problems, this technique of canceling like units N
canbeM
used in most clinical chemistry situations, regardless
M ofNwhether the problem requests molarity, normality, or exchanging one concentration term
for another. However,
it is necessary to recall the interMRBPINEDA UST
37
relationship between all the units in the expression.

Because 500 mL is equal to 0.5 L, the final equation


could be written by substituting 0.5 L for 500 mL, eliminating the need to include the 1,000 mL/L conversion
factor in the equation.
B. What is the normality of a 0.5 M solution of H2SO4?
Continuing
with0.5
theM
previous
approach,
Convert
sulfuric
acid tothe
N. final equation is

Convert Molarity to
Normality

0.5 mol H2SO4


1 Eq H2SO4
98 g H2SO4
!
!
L
49 g H2SO4
mol H2SO4
0.5 mol H2SOAnswer:
1 Eq H2SO4
98 g H12N
SO4
4
!
!
L
49 g H2SO4
mol H2SO4
" 1 Eq/L " 1 N
(Eq. 1-32)
To simplify: multiply Molarity with the valence
When changing molarity into normality or vice versa, the
38
following conversion formula
may be applied:
M!V"N

Normality
Normality (N) is expressed as the number of equivalent
weights per liter (Eq/L) or milliequivalents per milliliter
(mEq/mL). Equivalent weight is equal to gmw divided by
the valence (V). Normality has often been used in acidbase calculations because an equivalent weight of a substance is also equal to its combining weight. Another advantage in using equivalent weight is that an equivalent
weight of one substance is equal to the equivalent weight
ofofany
other
Amount
solute
perchemical.
1 kg of solvent

Molal Solution or
Molality

mol/kg (or m)

Example 1-7

0.5 M ! 2 " 1 N
Example 1-8

58/1 " 58 g per equivalent weight

(Eq. 1-28)

39

mg/dL to milliequivalent

7 g H2SO4
1 Eq
1,000 mL
mg/dL X 10
! X valence
!
500 mL
49 g H2SO4
1L
MW

" 0.285 Eq/L " 0.285 N


MRBPINEDA UST

Other Conversions

41

MRBPINEDA, RMT, MSMT UST

(Eq. 1-31)

(Eq. 1-35)

M ! V " 2.5 N
V"1
40

M"
(Eq. 1-30)

36 g HCl

The second approach is to use the normality-to-molarity conversion formula. The equation now becomes

(Eq. 1-29)

A. What is the normality of a 500-mL solution that contains 7 g of H2SO4? The approach used to calculate molarity could be used to solve this problem as well.
Step 1: Units needed? Answer: Normality expressed as
equivalents per liter (Eq/L).
Step 2: Units you have? Answer: Milliliters and grams.
Now determine how they are related to equivalents per
In milliequivalent,
equivalent
weight
expressed in
liter. (Hint: There
are 49
g perisequivalentsee
Equation
milligrams
130 above.)
Step 3:mg/dL
Rearrange
the equation
that
like terms cancel
To convert
to milliequivalent
perso
liter
(mEq/
L) out, leaving Eq/L. This equation is

mEq/L =

1 Eq

" 2.5 =
mol/L
HCl
Answer
0.5 m

3. H2SO4 (gmw " 98, valence " 2)


98/2 " 49 g per equivalent weight

Molal Solution or
Molality

What is the molality of a solution of


2.5 Eq HCl
1 mol HCl
36 g HCl
!
10 g NaOH in!500 g water?

2. HCl (gmw " 36, valence "1)


36/1 " 36 g per equivalent weight

(Eq. 1-34)

What is the molarity of a 2.5 N solution of HCl? This


problem may be solved in several ways. One way is to use
the stepwise approach in which existing units are exchanged for units needed. The equation is

Give the equivalent weight, in grams, for each substance


listed
m =below.
grams of solute
MW
x kg"
of58
solvent
1. NaCl
(gmw
g, valence " 1)

(Eq. 1-33)

where V is the valence of the compound. Using this formula, Example 1-7.3 becomes

2.5 N
" 2.5 N
1

(Eq. 1-36)

When the valence of a substance is 1, the molarity will


equal the normality. As previously mentioned, normality
either equals or is greater than the molarity.

Specific Gravity

mg/dL to millimoles

Density is expressed as mass per unit volume. The specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a material when
compared to the density of water at a given temperature.
The units for specific gravity are grams per milliliter.
In millimoles, molecular weight expressed in
Specific
gravity is often used with very concentrated mamilligrams
terials, such as commercial acids (e.g., sulfuric and hy To convert
mg/dL to millimoles:
drochloric
acids).
The density of a concentrated acid can also be exmg/dL
X 10
pressed mmol/L
in terms of =
an assay
or percent
purity. The actual
concentration is equal to MW
the specific gravity multiplied
by the assay or percent purity value (expressed as a decimal) stated on the label of the container.
MRBPINEDA UST

Other Conversions

42

7/3/13

Basic concentration
conversions

What is the difference


between ratio and dilution?
ratio: volume of solute per volume of solvent

To convert

into

Use

%w/v

Molarity (M)

M = (%w/v x 10) / GMW

%w/v

Normality (N)

N = (%w/v x 10)/eq.wt.

mg/dL

mEq/L

mEq/L = (mg/dL x 10)/eq. wt.

Molarity (M)

Normality (N)

N = M x valence

dilution: volume of solute per volume of solution

A ratio of 1:100 vs a dilution of 1:100

43

44

Ratio and Dilution

Ratio and Dilution

Prepare 150 mL solution of sodium


hydroxide with a dilution of 1:20.

Prepare 200 mL solution of HCl


using the ratio of 1:20.

Answer: pipet 7.5 mL of NaOH and mix with


142.5 mL of distilled water.

Answer: pipet 10.0 mL of HCl and mix with


200 mL of distilled water.

45

46

Serial dilution

Specific Gravity, Density,


and Percent Purity

multiple progressive dilutions ranging from more


concentrated solutions to less concentrated solutions

Density: mass per unit volume


Specific gravity: density of a substance over density
of water at a given temperature (g/mL)
Actual concentration: specific gravity x percent
purity

47

MRBPINEDA, RMT, MSMT UST

MRBPINEDA UST

48

7/3/13

Specific Gravity, Density,


and Percent Purity
What is the actual weight of HCl whose label
reads specific gravity 1.3 with an assay value of
40%? What is the Molarity of the solution?

Answer:
Actual weight = 0.52 g/mL
Molarity = 14.86 M

pH and pOH
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
pH = pKa + log (A-/HA)
pH = log (1/H+)
pH = -log (H+)

pH + pOH = 14

49

50

Scientific Notation

Scientific Notation

Uses exponential method of expressing very large


and very small numbers

Positive exponents: when the decimal point has


been moved to the left

Numbers are expressed as a product of two


numbers: digit term and exponential term

Negative exponents: when the decimal point has


been moved to the right

Digit term: > or equal to 1 but < 10


Exponential term: written as a power of 10

MRBPINEDA UST

51

52

Significant Figures

Significant Figures

Minimum number of digits needed to express a


particular value in scientific notation without loss of
accuracy.

Examples:
1.1028.9 = _________
2.213 = ___________
3.0.000032 = _______
4.4000 = __________
MRBPINEDA UST

Examples:
214 = 2.14 X 102
0.115 = 1.15 X 10-1

53

MRBPINEDA, RMT, MSMT UST

1. All nonzero integers are significant figures.


2. Zeros used to locate decimal points are not
significant (0.0002; 0.002; 0.02 = 1 significant figure)
3. Zeros appearing between numbers are significant.
4. Zeros appearing at the end of a number with a
decimal are significant (18.80).
5. Zeros appearing at the end of a number without a
decimal may or may not be significant (180).
54

7/3/13

Significant Figures
Laboratory Application
1. Addition and Subtraction:
5.324 + 0.0031 = 5.3209 = 5.321
2. Multiplication and Division: product or quotient can
contain no more significant digits than the least
number of significant figures in the numbers involved
in the calculation

END OF UNIT 2
Quiz next meeting!
Bring calculator and periodic table of elements.

0.8832 X 1.5 = 1.32480 = 1.3


55

56

Objectives and Scopes of


Unit 3
Apply laboratory safety procedures and precautions in
the performance of laboratory measurements.

Unit 3. Laboratory Safety


Maria Ruth B. Pineda, Ph.D.
Department of Medical Technology
University of Santo Tomas

Lecture:
Laboratory:
1. Universal Precaution
1. Hand washing
2. Laboratory Hazards
2. Cleaning of glassware
2.1. Biological
3. Disinfection of working areas
2.2. Chemical
4. Laboratory waste management
2.3. Electrical
2.4. Fire
2.5. Radiation
2.6. Others
3. Safety equipment
4. Laboratory waste management:
Segregation, Storage,Treatment, and
Disposal

57

58

Examples of Prevention
Strategies

Hierarchy of Controls

Laboratory Hazard Prevention Strategies

Levels of dealing with laboratory hazards

Work practice controls (general procedures/policies that


mandate measures to reduce or eliminate exposure to
hazard)

1. Engineering controls
2. Administrative controls
3. Work practices

Engineering controls (safety features built into the overall


design of a product)

4. Personal protective equipment (PPE)


Personal protective equipment (PPE; barriers that physically
separate the user from a hazard)

59

MRBPINEDA, RMT, MSMT UST

MRBPINEDA UST

Hand washing after each patient contact


Cleaning surfaces with disinfectants
Avoiding unnecessary use of needles and sharps and not recapping
Red bag waste disposal
Immunization for hepatitis
Job rotation to minimize repetitive tasks
Orientation, training, and continuing education
No eating, drinking, or smoking in laboratory
Warning signage
Puncture-resistant containers for disposal and transport of needles and sharps
Safety needles that automatically retract after removal
Biohazard bags
Splash guards
Volatile liquid carriers
Centrifuge safety buckets
Biological safety cabinets and fume hoods
Mechanical pipetting devices
Computer wrist/arm pads
Sensor-controlled sinks or foot/knee/elbow-controlled faucets
Nonlatex gloves
Gowns and laboratory coats
Masks, including particulate respirators
Face shields
Protective eyewear (goggles, safety glasses)
Eyewash station
60 Chemical-resistant gloves; subzero (freezer) gloves; thermal gloves

TABLE 1-16

TABLE 1-17

Common Decontamination Agents

Chemical Hazard Communications Plan

Heat (250 C for 15 minutes)


Ethylene oxide (450500 mg/L @ 55 C60 C)
2% Glutaraldehyde
10% Hydrogen peroxide
10% Formalin
5.25% Hypochlorite (10% bleach)
Formaldehyde
Detergents
Phenols
Ultraviolet radiation
Ionizing radiation
Photo-oxidation

1. Develop written hazard communication program.


2. Maintain inventory of all chemicals with chemical and common names,
if appropriate.
3. Manufacturer must assess and supply information about chemical or
physical hazards (flammability, explosive, aerosol, flashpoint, etc.).
4. Employers must maintain Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) in English.
5. MSDS must list all ingredients of a substance greater than 1%, except
for known carcinogens if greater than 0.1%.
6. Employers must make MSDS available to employees upon request.
7. Employers must ensure that labels are not defaced or removed and must
post appropriate warnings.
8. Employers must provide information and training (right-to-know).
9. Employers must adhere to Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit, threshold limit, or other exposure limit
value.
10. Designate responsible person(s) for the program.

hazardous chemicals. To minimize the incidence of chemically related


occupational illnesses and injuries in the workplace, OSHA published its
Hazard Communication Standard (Federal Register 29CFR 1910.1200;

PART 1

TABLE 1-15

10

7/3/13

OSHA STANDARDS
Bloodborne pathogen standard
Formaldehyde standard
Laboratory standard
Hazard communication standard
Respiratory hazard
Air contaminants standard
01Arneson (F)-01

12/18/06

6:26 PM

Page 4

Personal protective equipment standard


61

MRBPINEDA UST

62
Chapter 1

OVERVIEW OF CLINICAL CHEMISTRY

Safety Regulations

material safety data sheet documents produced by the


manufacturer of the chemical
to provide safety information

In the clinical chemistry laboratory, local, state, and federal regulations, including
the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), provide guidelines for safe operation of testing processes. Regulations include guidelines for operating safety
equipment and identifying, handling, and storing chemical hazards. Table 11 outlines the types of safety equipment that may be necessary to operate a clinical
chemistry laboratory safely. Table 12 outlines proper identification of chemicals
within the laboratory through the use of material safety data sheet (MSDS) sys-

TABLE 1-1
Safety Equipment

Safety
Equipment

Equipment
Glasses or goggles
Work shields
Gloves
Coat or apron
FUME HOOD

Safety showers: deliver 30-50


gallons of water per minute at
20-50 psi
Other materials needed:
Fire blankets
Pipetting aids
Screw capped tubes
First aid supplies
gauze
band aid
alcohol
betadine
micropore
burn ointment
petroleum jelly
63

Fume Hoods

Ventilation system that operates


at 100120 ft/min at the sash;
system must be monitored regularly

Reduces the risk of inhaling caustic chemicals; respirators with


HEPA filters may be used when
fume hoods are not available

Explosion-proof
refrigerators
Compressed gas
storage
Storage cabinets

Refrigerators that can contain the Reduce the risk of unwanted


chemical reactions; reduce the
force of a chemical explosion
danger of injury from chemical
Reinforcement straps or chains
for storing compressed gas con- reactions
tainers vertically
Separate cabinets for storing:
Flammable solids
Organic acids
Oxidizers
Water-reactive substances

FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
Class A
Class B
Class C
Class ABC

Pressurized water
Carbon dioxide
Dry chemical
Dry chemical

Wood, paper, cloth fires


Flammable liquid, paint, oil fires
Electrical fires
All fires

SAFETY SHOWER

Drench-type safety shower

Remove chemical spills from


clothing, skin, or eyes

EYEWASHES

Fountain that can be used to


drench the eye with water

SPILL KITS

Commercial kits that may be


used to collect spills of specific
substances such as acids or
mercury

Restrict the spill to a localized


area; collect the spill in a safe
container for disposal

Fume Hood

Biosafety Cabinets

Expel noxious and hazardous


fumes from chemical reagents

Recirculates filtered air into the


laboratory

Suitable for chemicals and non


sterile work

Utilized to ensure sterility


of
Modern
infectious work

MRBPINEDA UST

Use

Unbreakable eye shields that sur- Protects exposed skin and clothes
that may be worn outside the
round the eye area
laboratory
Spatter protection for exposed
skin
Latex or vinyl cover for hands
Cover for clothes that will be
worn outside the laboratory

STORAGE UNITS

64

Chemical Fume Hoods


and Biosafety Cabinets

Description

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

fume hoods
have improved
containment
however, it is safer
to work with the
sash lowered

65

MRBPINEDA, RMT, MSMT UST

Obviously not what were looking for

Avoid Clutter, Do
not cover airfoil
MRBPINEDA UST

Put equipme
to rear of ho

66

11

7/3/13

Mechanism of BSC

Work 6 back into hood


Do not put head inside hood when contaminants are being
generated.
Do not use hood for storage or waste disposal
Keep sash closed as much as possible
Keep exhaust slots and airfoil clear of obstructions
Minimize foot traffic past face of hood
Keep lab doors closed
Use appropriate barricades if there is potential for
explosion
Do not modify or alter hood in any
Do not place electrical outlets or other sources of sparks
in hood when flammable substances are present

MRBPINEDA UST

67

Dont overcrowd the interior,


disrupting air flow.

Do not rest anything on front


grille, including arms.
Materials should be at least 4
inside the sash. Keep
contaminated materials to the
back of hood.

Do not modify original


hardware provided. Protect
the integrity of the BSC.
Contact EH&S to advise

Types of BSC
78

PART 1 BASIC PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF CLINICAL CHEMISTRY

TABLE 3-1 COMPARISON OF BIOLOGIC SAFETY CABINETS


CABINETS
FACE
VELOCITY
(IFPM)

AIRFLOW PATTERN

Class I,* open front

75

In at front; rear and top


through HEPA filter

No

2, 3

No

Class II Type A

75

70% Recirculated through


HEPA; exhaust through HEPA

No

2, 3

Yes

Type B1

100

30% Recirculated through


HEPA; exhaust via HEPA and
hard-ducted

Yes
(low levels/
volatility)

2, 3

Yes

Type B2

100

No recirculation; total exhaust


via HEPA and hard-ducted

Yes

2, 3

Yes

Type B3

100

Same as IIA, but plenums under


negative pressure to room
and exhaust air is ducted

Yes

2, 3

Yes

Class III

NA

Supply air inlets and exhaust


through 2 HEPA filters

Yes

3, 4

TYPE

BSC I: minimum inward flow; no product protection


BSC II: minimum inward flow; with product protection
BSC III: maximum product protection if laminar flow is included and with two HEPA filters

APPLICATIONS
RADIONUCLIDES/
TOXIC CHEMICALS

MRBPINEDA UST

BIOSAFETY
LEVEL(S)

PRODUCT
PROTECTION

70

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health. Biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories.
4th ed. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1999: Table 1, Comparison of Biological Safety Cabinets.
IFPM, Linear feet per minute
*Glove panels may be added and will increase face velocity to 150 Ifpm; gloves may be added with an inlet air pressure release that will allow
work with chemicals/radionuclides.

BIOLOGIC SAFETY

Nitrile gloves, for example, offer a wider range of compatibility with organic solvents than do latex gloves. Lab
coats, preferably with knit-cuffed sleeves, should be full
length and buttoned and made of liquid-resistant material. When performing manipulations prone to splash
hazards, the lab coat should be supplemented with an
impermeable apron and/or sleeve garters, constructed of
suitable material to guard against the substances. Proper
footwear is required; shoes constructed of porous materials, open-toed shoes, or sandals are considered ineffective against spilled hazardous liquids.
Respirators may be required for various procedures in
the clinical laboratory. Whether used for biologic or
chemical hazards, the correct type of respirator must be
used for the specific hazard. Respirators with highefficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters must be worn
when engineering controls are not feasible, such as when
working directly with patients with tuberculosis (TB) or
when performing procedures that may aerosolize specimens of patients with a suspected or confirmed case of
TB. Training, maintenance, and written protocol for use
of respirators are required according to the respiratory
protection standard.
Each employer must provide (at no charge) lab coats,
gloves, or other protective equipment to all employees
who may be exposed to biologic or chemical hazards. It
is the employers responsibility to clean and maintain all
PPE. All contaminated PPE must be removed and properly disposed of before leaving the laboratory.

General Considerations
All blood samples and other body fluids should be collected, transported, handled, and processed using strict
precautions. Gloves, gowns, and face protection must be
used if splashing or splattering is likely to occur.
Consistent and thorough hand washing is an essential
component of infection control.
Centrifugation of biologic specimens produces finely
dispersed aerosols that are a high-risk source of infection. Ideally, specimens should remain capped during
centrifugation. As an additional precaution, the use of a
centrifuge with an internal shield is recommended.

Negative pressure flexible


film isolator

Start Up

1. Turn off
ultraviolet light
as soon as you
enter the room.

2. Turn on all
blowers and
cabinet
illumination
lights.

3. Open sash to
appropriate
working level.

3. Allow five
minutes of
operation to
purge system;
check flow alarm
system audio and
visual alarm
function if so
equipped.

4. Decontaminate
readily accessible
interior surfaces
with a
disinfectant
appropriate for
the agents or
suspected agents
present.

Shut down

1. Decontaminate
and remove all
items from
interior work
area.

MRBPINEDA UST

2. Decontaminate
readily accessible
interior surfaces
with a
disinfectant
appropriate for
the agents or
suspected agents
present.

3. Allow five
minutes of
operation to
purge system.

71

MRBPINEDA, RMT, MSMT UST

4. Turn off
cabinet
illumination
lights and blower.
Close the sash.

5. Turn on
ultraviolet light.
If light is not
used, leave
blower on and
sash open

Spills

used in field
work where BSC
is not feasible/
appropriate to
install

MRBPINEDA UST

Any blood, body fluid, or other potentially infectious material spill must be cleaned up, and the area or equipment
must be disinfected immediately. Cleanup includes the
following recommendations:

Wear appropriate protective equipment.


Use mechanical devices to pick up broken glass or
other sharp objects.
Absorb the spill with paper towels, gauze pads, or
tissue.
Clean the spill site using a common aqueous detergent.
Disinfect the spill site using approved disinfectant or
10% bleach, using appropriate contact time.

72

12

7/3/13

Types of Hazards
Chemical Hazards

Chemical Hazards
Flammable/Combustible Chemicals:

Biological Hazards

Flammable: flashpoint below 37.8C

Physical Hazards

Combustible: flashpoint above 37.8C

Ergonomic hazards
Ionizing Radiation
Non-Ionizing Radiation
Noise

Corrosive Chemicals
Reactive Chemicals
Carcinogenic Chemicals

Electrical hazards

TABLE 1-15

Mechanical Hazards

Laboratory Hazard Prevention Strategies


MRBPINEDA UST

74

Work practice controls (general procedures/policies that


mandate measures to reduce or eliminate exposure to
hazard)

Biological Hazards
Biological Agents and
Toxins

Ingestion

Consumption of food

Inoculation

Mouth pipetting

Bloodborne pathogens

Tactile contamination

Research Animals

Inhalation of infectious
material

Sources:
Contact with patients, specimens of patients, supplies or materials, aerosol
materials, improperly processed blood products, inappropriate disposal of
waste products, expelling a spray from needles, centrifugation of infected
fluids, spills on laboratory counters, flaming inoculating loops
MRBPINEDA UST

What to avoid in the


laboratory?

Engineering controls (safety features built into the overall


design of a product)

75

Smoking
Applying cosmetics
Drinking fluids
Personal protective equipment (PPE; barriers that physically
Leaving
unprotected
any a hazard)
separate
the user from
skin, membranes, or
open cuts
MRBPINEDA UST

76

Ha
Cle
Av
Re
Im
Job
Or
No
Wa
Pu
Saf
Bio
Sp
Vo
Ce
Bio
Me
Co
Sen
No
Go
Ma
Fac
Pro
Eye
Ch

TABLE 1-16

Universal Precaution
Presumption that all human blood, tissue, and most
fluids are infectious for the transmission of human
immunodeficiency (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and other
blood borne pathogens
Safe handling and Preventive measures
Decontamination methods
Vaccination requirement
Post exposure medication, counseling, testing, and
prophylaxis
MRBPINEDA UST

77

MRBPINEDA, RMT, MSMT UST

Common Decontamination Agents


Heat (250 C for 15 minutes)
Ethylene oxide (450500 mg/L @ 55 C60 C)
2% Glutaraldehyde
10% Hydrogen peroxide
10% Formalin
5.25% Hypochlorite (10% bleach)
Formaldehyde
Detergents
Phenols
Ultraviolet radiation
Ionizing radiation
Photo-oxidation
MRBPINEDA UST

78

hazardous chemicals. To minimize the incidence of chemically related


occupational illnesses and injuries in the workplace, OSHA published its
Hazard Communication Standard (Federal Register 29CFR 1910.1200;
1983) and Chemical Hygiene Plan (Federal Register 29CFR 1910.1450;
1993), requiring the manufacturers of chemicals to evaluate the hazards of
13
the chemicals they produce and to develop hazard communication programs for employees and other users who are exposed to hazardous chemicals (Table 1-17). These OSHA standards are based on the premise that
employees have the right to know what chemical hazards they are potentially exposed to and what protective measures the employer needs to take

lo
f
m
p
n
p
t

7/3/13

Physical: Ergonomic
Hazards
Cumulative trauma disorders
injuries involving the musculoskeletal and/or
nervous system in response to long term repetitive
twisting, bending, lifting, or assuming static postures
for an extended period of time
constant or excessive repetitive actions, mechanical
pressure, vibrations, or compressive forces on the
arms, hands, wrists, neck, or back
human error by pushing beyond ones limits or when
productivity limits are set too high

MRBPINEDA UST

79

Physical: Ionizing
Radiation
generated through nuclear
reactions, by very high
temperature, via production
of high energy particles or
due to acceleration of
charged particles by
electromagnetic fields
Cosmic rays, x-rays, gamma
rays, beta particles, UV

MRBPINEDA UST

81

Cumulative trauma disorders


Carpal tunnel syndrome
Tendonitis
Tenosynovitis
Bursitis
Ganglion cyst

MRBPINEDA UST

80

Physical: Non-Ionizing
Radiation
Type of
electromagnetic
radiation that does
not carry enough
energy to ionize
atoms
Radiowaves,
microwaves,
infrared light, and
visible light
MRBPINEDA UST

82

Mechanical Hazards

Physical: Noise
Anything that has the
potential to cause hearing
loss

Centrifuge
Autoclave

Exposure to an equivalent
sound pressure level of
more than 85 dB over an
8-hour period workday

MRBPINEDA UST

Physical: Ergonomic
Hazards

Homogenizers
Glasswares

83

MRBPINEDA, RMT, MSMT UST

MRBPINEDA UST

84

14

liquids or electrical equipment.


Pressurized-water extinguishers, as well as foam and
multipurpose dry-chemical types, are used for Class A
fires. Multipurpose dry-chemical and carbon dioxide extinguishers are used for Class B and C fires. Halogenated
hydrocarbon extinguishers are particularly recommended for use with computer equipment. Class D fires
present special problems, and extinguishment is left to
trained firefighters using special dry-chemical extinguishers (Fig. 3-4). Personnel should know the location
and type of portable fire extinguisher near their work
area and know how to use an extinguisher before a fire
occurs. In the event of a fire, first evacuate all personnel,
patients, and visitors who are in immediate danger and
then activate the fire alarm, report the fire, and attempt
to extinguish the fire, if possible. Personnel should
work as a team to carry out emergency procedures. Fire

Compressed
Gases Hazards

CLASS OF FIRE

Cryogenic
Material Hazards

Fire Hazards

Fire

Fire

Explosion

Explosion

Asphyxiation

Asphyxiation

Mechanical injuries

Pressure build up

B: flammable liquids/
gases
C: energized electrical
equipment

Embrittlement of
materials

MRBPINEDA UST

85

86

Tetrahedron of fire

Uninhibited
reaction

OPERATION

ABC

Pressurized Water

Dry Chemical

PULL
PIN

A IM

Use these types of


extinguishers
Flammable
Liquid
Grease
Gasoline
Paints
Oils, etc.

NOZZLE

ABC

SQUEEZE

BC
Dry Chemical

TRIGGER

Carbon Dioxide

SWEEP

Class C Fires

Halon

Use this type of


agent
Flammable
metals
Magnesium

NOZZLE

ABC

BC

Metal X

Halon

Dry Chemical

Cover burning material


with extinguishing
agent (scoop, sprinkle)

FIGURE 3-4. Proper use of fire extinguishers. (Adapted with permission from the Clinical and Laboratory Safety
Department, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.)
MRBPINEDA UST

Electrical
Hazards

RT 1 BASIC PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF CLINICAL CHEMISTRY

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)


ired if the total amount of radioactive maa certain level. The laboratory safety offisult with the institutional safety officer
quirements.

7/3/13

Carbon Dioxide

Tissue damage

Use only explosion-proof equipment in hazardous


atmospheres.
Be particularly careful when operating high-voltage
equipment, such as electrophoresis apparatus.
Use only properly grounded equipment (three-prong
plug).
Check for frayed electrical cords.
Promptly report any malfunctions or equipment producing a tingle for repair.
Do not work on live electrical equipment.

TYPE OF EXTINGUISHER

Class D Fires

Class B Fires

Use these types of


extinguishers
Electrical
equipment
Motors
Switches

D: reactive metals

Class A Fires

Use these types of


extinguishers
Ordinary
Combustibles:
Wood, Paper,
Cloth, etc.

A: ordinary
combustible materials

ciated with the use of electrical appliances and equipment. Hazards of electrical energy can be direct and result
in death, shock, or burns. Indirect hazards can result in
fire or explosion. Therefore, there are many precautionary
procedures to follow when operating or working around
electrical equipment:

Electrical injuries:
1. Direct:
death, shock, or
burns

Fuel
Oxygen

otection

that only properly trained personnel work


opes and that users are monitored to ensure
mal permissible dose of radiation is not extion monitors must be evaluated regularly
ee of exposure for the laboratory employee.
be maintained for the length of employyears.

2. Indirect:
fire and explosion
Heat
FIGURE 3-3. Fire tetrahedron.

as a reaction chain in which 87


burning continues and even
accelerates. It is caused by the breakdown and recombination of the molecules from the material burning with
the oxygen in the atmosphere.
The fire triangle has been modified into a threedimensional pyramid known as the fire tetrahedron
(Fig. 3-3). This modification does not eliminate established procedures in dealing with a fire but does provide additional means by which fires may be prevented
or extinguished. A fire will extinguish if any of the
three basic elements (heat, air, or fuel) are removed.

MRBPINEDA UST

g Radiation

orms of radiation are also a concern in the


atory. Equipment often emits a variety of
of electromagnetic radiation that must be
nst through engineered shielding or use of
-3). These energies have varying biologic
ding on wavelength, power intensity, and
posure. Laboratorians must be knowledgethe hazards presented by their equipment
mselves and ancillary personnel.

88

Waste Management

Classification of Fires

Fires have been divided into four classes based on the nature of the combustible material and requirements for
extinguishment:

try of Fire

Collection, transport, processing or disposal,

lly a chemical reaction that involves the managing


Class A: ordinary
combustible of
solid
materials,
such as
and monitoring
waste
materials
n of a combustible material or fuel, with
paper, wood, plastic, and fabric
nt liberation of heat and light. In the cliniClass B: flammable liquids/gases and combustible petro Landfill
laboratory, all the elements essential for
leum products
are presentfuel, heat or ignition source,
Class C: energized electrical equipment
Incineration
ir). However, recent research suggests that
Class D: combustible/reactive metals, such as magnesium,
r is present. This factor has been classified
sodium, and potassium

Recycling/Resource recovery

End of Unit 3

Avoidance and reduction of waste

EXAMPLES OF NONIONIZING RADIATION IN CLINICAL LABORATORIES

um

MRBPINEDA UST

APPROXIMATE
WAVELENGTH

SOURCE EQUIPMENT EXAMPLE

PROTECTIVE MEASURES

1 cm!

Radiofrequency
coil in
ICPmass
MRBPINEDA
UST
spectrometer

Engineered
shielding and
89
posted pacemaker warning

3 m3 mm

Energy-beam microwave used to accelerate


tissue staining in histology-prep processes

Engineered shielding

750 nm0.3 cm

Heat lamps, lasers

Containment and
appropriate warning labels

400750 nm

General illumination and glare

Filters, diffusers, and


nonreflective surfaces

4400 nm

Germicidal lamps used in biologic safety

Eye and skin protection; UV

cabinets
warning labels
MRBPINEDA,
RMT, MSMT
UST

90

MRBPINEDA UST

15