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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, is the common name for the country of Germany while governed by Adolf
Hitler and his National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) from 1933 to 1945. Third Reich (German: Drittes
Reich) denotes the Nazi state as a historical successor to the medieval Holy Roman Empire (962–1806) and to the
modern German Empire (1871–1918). Nazi Germany had two official names, the Deutsches Reich (German Reich),
from 1933 to 1943, when it became Großdeutsches Reich (Greater German Reich).
On 30 January 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany. Although he initially headed a coalition
government, he quickly eliminated his government partners. At this time the German national borders still were
those established in the peace Treaty of Versailles (1919), between Germany and the Allied Powers (United
Kingdom, France, the United States, Italy, Japan et alii.) at the end of the First World War (1914–18); to the north,
Germany was bounded by the North Sea, Denmark, and the Baltic Sea; to the east, it was divided into two and
bordered Lithuania, the Free City of Danzig, Poland, and Czechoslovakia; to the south, it bordered Austria and
Switzerland, and to the west, it touched France, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the Rhineland, and the
Saarland. These borders changed after Germany regained control of the Rhineland, Saarland and the Memelland and
annexed Austria, the Sudetenland and Bohemia and Moravia. Germany expanded into Greater Germany during the
Second World War, which began in 1939 after Germany invaded Poland, triggering the United Kingdom and France
to declare war on Germany.
During the war, Germany conquered and occupied most of Europe and Northern Africa. The Nazis persecuted and
murdered millions of Jews and other minorities in the Holocaust Final Solution. Despite its Axis alliance with other
nations, mainly Italy and Japan, by 1945 Germany had been defeated, and was occupied by four of the Allied powers
(France, Soviet Union, UK and US).

Nazi Germany arose in the wake of the national shame, embarrassment, anger, and resentment resulting from the
Treaty of Versailles (1919),[1] that dictated, to the vanquished Germans, responsibility for:
• Germany's acceptance of and admission to sole responsibility for causing World War I[2]
• The permanent loss of various territories and the demilitarization of other German territory[3]
• The payment by Germany of heavy reparations, in money and in kind, such payments being justified in the
Allied view by the War Guilt clause[4]
• Unilateral German disarmament and severe military restrictions[5]
Other conditions fostering the rise of the Third Reich include nationalism and Pan-Germanism, civil unrest attributed
to Marxist groups, the global Great Depression of the 1930s (consequent to the Wall Street Crash of 1929),
hyperinflation, the reaction against the counter-traditionalism and liberalism of the Weimar Republic, and the rise of
communism in Germany, i.e. the growth of the KPD (Communist Party of Germany). Many voters, seeking an outlet
for their frustrations, and an expression for their repudiation of parliamentary democracy, which appeared incapable
of keeping a government in power for more than a few months, began supporting far right-wing and far left-wing
political parties, opting for political extremists such as the Nazi Party, (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche
Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP, National Socialist German Workers' Party)[6]


Nazi Germany

The Nazis promised strong, authoritarian government in lieu of effete
parliamentary republicanism, civil peace, radical economic policy (including full
employment), restored national pride (principally by repudiating the Versailles
Treaty), and racial cleansing, partly implemented via the active suppression of
Jews and Marxists, all in name of national unity and solidarity, rather than the
partisan divisions of democracy, and the social class divisiveness of Marxism.
The Nazis promised national and cultural renewal based upon Völkisch
movement traditionalism, and proposed rearmament, repudiation of reparations,
and reclamation of territory lost to the Treaty of Versailles.

The Nazi Party claimed that through the Treaty, the Weimar Republic’s liberal
democracy, the traitorous “November criminals” had surrendered Germany's
national pride, by the inspiration and conniving of the Jews, whose goal was
Adolf Hitler, Chancellor of
Germany, January 1933.
national subversion and the poisoning of the German blood.[5] To establish that
interpretation of recent German history, the Nazi propaganda effectively used the
Dolchstoßlegende (“Dagger-stab in the Back Legend”) explaining the German military failure.
From 1925 to the 1930s, the German government evolved from a democracy to a de facto conservative–nationalist
authoritarian state under war hero-President Paul von Hindenburg, who disliked the liberal democracy of the Weimar
Republic, and wanted to make Germany into an authoritarian state.[7] The natural ally for establishing
authoritarianism was the German National People's Party (Deutschnationale Volkspartei, DNVP), "the Nationalists",
but, after 1929, with the German economy floundering, more radical and younger nationalists were attracted to the
revolutionary nature of the National Socialist Party, to challenge the rising popular support for communism.
Moreover, the middle-class political parties lost support as the voters aggregated to the left- and right- wings of the
German political spectrum, thus making majority government, in a parliamentary system, even more difficult.
In the federal election of 1928, when the economy had improved after the hyperinflation of the 1922–23 period, the
Nazis won only 12 seats. Two years later, in the federal election of 1930, months after the US stock market crash, the
Nazi Party won 107 seats, progressing from ninth-rated splinter group to second-largest parliamentary party in the
Reichstag. After the federal election of 1932, the Nazis were the largest party in the Reichstag, holding 230 seats.[8]
President Hindenburg was reluctant to confer substantial executive power to Adolf Hitler, but former chancellor
Franz von Papen and Hitler concorded an NSDAP–DNVP party alliance that would allow Hitler’s chancellorship,
subject to traditional-conservative control, for President Hindenburg to develop an authoritarian state. In the event,
Hitler consistently demanded to be appointed chancellor, in exchange for Hindenburg’s receiving any Nazi Party
support of the cabinets appointed under his authority.
On 30 January 1933, President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany, after
General Kurt von Schleicher’s failure to form a viable government (see Machtergreifung). Hitler pressured
Hindenburg through his son Oskar von Hindenburg, and via intrigue by former Chancellor Franz von Papen, former
leader of the Catholic Centre Party. By becoming the Vice Chancellor and keeping the Nazis a cabinet minority, von
Papen expected to be able to control Hitler. Although the Nazis had won the greatest share of the popular vote in the
two Reichstag general elections of 1932, they had no majority of their own, not even with the NSDAP–DNVP
alliance that started governing in 1933 by Presidential Decree, per Article 48 of the 1919 Weimar Constitution.[9]
The National Socialist treatment of the Jews in the early months of 1933 marked the first step in a longer-term
process of removing them from German society.[10] This plan was at the core of Adolf Hitler's "cultural

Nazi Germany


Consolidation of power
The new government quickly installed a totalitarian dictatorship to Germany with legal measures establishing a
co-ordinated central government, (see Gleichschaltung). On the night of 27 February 1933, the Reichstag building
was set afire, and the Dutch council communist Marinus van der Lubbe was found inside; he was arrested, charged
with arson, tried, and then decapitated. The fire immediately provoked the response of thousands of anarchists,
socialists, and communists throughout the Reich; describing said free-speech exercises as insurrection, the Nazis
imprisoned many to Dachau concentration camp. The public worried that the fire had been a signal meant to initiate
communist revolution in Germany, as in 1919, so the Nazis exploited the arson with the Reichstag Fire Decree (27
February 1933), rescinding most German civil liberties, including habeas corpus, to so suppress their opponents.
In March 1933, with the Enabling Act, voted 444–94 (the remaining Social Democrats), the Reichstag conferred
dictatorial (decree) powers to Chancellor Adolf Hitler; four years of political power authorizing him to deviate from
the Weimar Constitution; in the event, Germany officially became a single-party state on 14 July 1933. Forthwith,
throughout 1934, the Nazi Party ruthlessly eliminated all political opposition; the Enabling Act already had banned
the Communists (KPD), the Social Democrats (SPD) were banned in June, despite appeasing Hitler, and, in the
June–July period, the Nationalists (DNVP), the People's Party (DVP), and the German State Party (DStP) were
like-wise obliged to disband. Moreover, at the urging of Franz von Papen, the remaining Catholic Centre Party,
disbanded on 5 July 1933 after obtaining Nazi guarantees for Catholic religious education and youth groups. On 14
July 1933, Germany was officially declared a single-party state.
In establishing the Dritte Reich, the Nazi régime abolished the Weimar
Republic symbols, including the black-red-gold tricolour flag, and adopted
new and old imperial symbolism representing the dual nature of Germany’s
third empire. The previous, imperial black-white-red tricolour, mostly disused
by the Weimar Republic, was restored as one of Germany's two, official,
national flags; the second was the swastika flag of the Nazi party, which
became the national German flag in 1935. The national anthem remained
Deutschland über Alles (aka the Deutschlandlied, "Song of Germany"), but
only the first stanza was sung, immediately followed by the Nazi anthem
Horst-Wessel-Lied ("Horst Wessel Song"), accompanied by the Hitler salute.

Flag of the Weimar Republic, 1919–33

On 30 January 1934, Reich President and Chancellor Hitler formally
centralised government power to himself with the Gesetz über den Neuaufbau
des Reichs (Act to rebuild the Reich), by disbanding Länder (federal state)
parliaments, and transferring states’ rights and administration to the Berlin
central government. The centralization began soon after the March 1933
Flag of Nazi Germany, 1933–45, the
Enabling Act promulgation, when state governments were replaced with
Nazi Party flag
Reichsstatthalter (Reich governors). Local government also was deposed;
Reich governors appointed mayors of cities and towns with populaces of
fewer than 100,000; the Interior Minister appointed the mayors of cities with populaces greater than 100,000; and, in
the cases of Berlin and Hamburg (and Vienna after the Anschluss Österreichs in 1938), President and Chancellor
Adolf Hitler had personal discretion to appoint their mayors.
By spring of 1934, only the Reichswehr remained independent of government control; traditionally, it was separate
from the national government, a discrete political entity. The Nazi paramilitary Sturmabteilung (SA, "Storm
Detachment") had expected to assume command of the German military; the Reichswehr opposed SA Leader Ernst
Röhm’s ambition to subsume the Reichswehr to the SA. Moreover, Röhm also aimed to launch the "socialist
revolution" to complement the "nationalist revolution" occurred with the political ascendancy of Adolf Hitler to
German government. Röhm and the Sturmabteilung leaders wanted the regime to fulfill its campaign promise of
enacting socialist legislation for Aryan Germans.

and reinstalled Adolf Hitler as Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Reich Chancellor). courts martial killed 25. the Führer of Germany. and wanting to preserve good relations with them. Between 1933 and 1945. Many of these Germans were part of the government. fixed the Reichswehr’s position as the sole armed forces of the Reich.000 Germans. and because the SA leaders sought to first subsume the Reichswehr to the SA. the Reichswehr did not follow Hitler. or prison.Nazi Germany 4 At the risk of appearing to talk nonsense. when I declare that I shall remain in power! —Adolf Hitler to a British correspondent in Berlin. his SA cohort. Marxists.000 spies and informers. for political reasons".[13] [14] [15] "Tens of thousands of Germans were killed for one or another form of resistance.000 years! .000 soldiers by the Treaty of Versailles).000 German soldiers. the Nazi-controlled Reichstag consolidated the offices of Reichspräsident (Reich President) and Reichskanzler (Reich Chancellor). when I declared that one day I would govern Germany. and other political enemies lasted from 30 June to 2 July 1934."[16] . marginally or significantly. especially the Communists. The purges of Ernst Röhm. most Germans remained silently obedient. I tell you that the Nazi movement will go on for 1. Nürnberg. [11] Possessing only virtual absolute power without the Reichswehr. and the Führer’s imperial expansion promises guaranteed him military loyalty. They laugh now. just as foolishly. 15 years ago. in the government’s policies. textbooks were revised. March at Reichsparteitag. Hitler ordered the Schutzstaffel (SS) and the Gestapo to assassinate his political enemies both in and outside the Nazi Party with the "Night of the Long Knives". more than 3 million Germans had been in concentration camps. the Nazis established the Gestapo secret state police—independent of civil authority. Don’t forget how people laughed at me. and international socialists were imprisoned. teachers who opposed curricular Nazification were dismissed. June 1934 . The assassination of Ernst Röhm and the SA leaders. while involved. or re-written to promote the Pan-German racist fantasy of Großdeutschland (Greater Germany) to be established by the Nazi Herrenvolk. civil. partly because the (multi-million-man) Sturmabteilung was larger than the German Army (limited to 100. thereby were aware of anti-Nazi criticism and dissent. and then launch the Nazi socialist revolution. . left-wing Nazis. Happy with Nazi prosperity. and civil justice killed 40. Until Hindenburg’s death. a circumstance which enabled them to engage in subversion and conspiracy. or military service. while political opponents. "between 1933 and 1945.000 Germans. Sondergerichte (Nazi "special courts") killed 12. on 2 August 1934. and began introducing Nazism and Nazi symbolism to public and private German life. the Strasserist. . and certain politicians and industrialists (weary of SA political violence). 1935. to coerce popular obedience to the state. the Nazis ended the official NSDAP–DNVP government alliance.[12] In the event. Upon the death of Paul von Hindenburg. Hindenburg’s death facilitated changing the German soldiers’ oath of allegiance from the Reich of the German Constitution to personal fealty to Adolf Hitler. The Gestapo controlled the German populace with some 100. Furthermore.

but Poland fell quickly. World War II was underway. Hitler had hoped that rapid success in the . Shortly thereafter. However.000 troops were evacuated from Dunkirk and the surrounding beaches in May and June 1940. German and Axis allies' conquests (in blue) in Europe during World especially after the Soviets attacked Poland on 17 War II September. However. no other activity occurred. Hitler had learned that the Soviet Union was willing to sign a non-aggression pact with Germany and would support an attack on Poland. the war continued. However. on 24 August. Hitler called off the Battle of Britain strategic bombing campaign in favor of the long-planned invasion of the Soviet Union: Operation Barbarossa. More than 300. with the British refusing Hitler's offer of peace. the United Kingdom and France declared war on Germany. but the Germans de facto defeated these forces in the ensuing Norwegian campaign. Hitler's former deputy. two off-course German bombers accidentally bombed London – against Hitler's orders.[23] In response to the attack. The Battle of France ended with an overwhelming German victory. the Germans broke off diplomatic relations. The United Kingdom proceeded to bomb [17] [18] Wilhelmshaven.[21] [22] Germany and Britain continued to fight at sea and in the air. By contrast. attempted to negotiate terms of peace with the United Kingdom in an unofficial private meeting after crash-landing in Scotland. the United Kingdom "guaranteed" to defend Poland's territorial integrity and the Poles rejected a series of offers by Nazi Germany regarding both the Free City of Danzig and the Polish Corridor.[20] After the Altmark Incident off the coast of Norway and the discovery of the United Kingdom's plans to encircle Germany. the war became known as "the Phony War". the British bombed Berlin. On the eve of the invasion. Still. eventually. the British and French landed in Mid. Against the will of his advisors. Hitler hoped to break British morale and win peace. This safeguarded iron ore supplies from Sweden through coastal waters. British fisherman giving a hand to an Allied soldier while a Stuka's bomb explodes a few metres ahead. Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939 and two days later. which sent Hitler into a rage. Cuxhaven. Rudolf Hess. changing the course of the war. In May 1940. and the UK was bombed heavily during The Blitz. The year 1940 began with little more than the UK dropping propaganda leaflets over Prague and Vienna[19] but a German attack on the British High Seas fleet was followed by the British bombing the port city of Sylt. around the time that reports of controversy in the Free City of Danzig increased.[24] This change in targeting priority interfered with the Luftwaffe's objective of achieving the air superiority over Britain necessary for an invasion and allowed British air defenses to rebuild their strength and continue the fight. aside from battles at sea. Hitler ordered an attack on France through the Low Countries. the British refused to back down.and North Norway. Germany and its allies invaded the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941.Nazi Germany 5 World War II Conquest of Europe The "Danzig crisis" peaked in early 1939. Thus. Heligoland and other areas. Then. the Phony War ended. Hitler sent troops into Denmark and Norway. The German leader ordered attacks on British cities.

German U-Boats were more successful than surface raiders like Bismarck. attempting to break out into the Atlantic and raid supply ships heading for Britain. to the north. Moreover. the battlecruiser HMS Hood. Barbarossa began with great success.000 lives. the Germans and their allies were at the gates of Moscow. Not only was this a chance for Germany to strengthen its ties with Japan. in spite of orders to remain on the defensive. but after months of anti-German hysteria in the American media and Lend-Lease aid to Britain. to the depths of the ocean. the Germans launched the invasion of Yugoslavia to aid friendly forces and restore order in the midst of what was believed to be a British-supported coup. The goal of Germany's navy. The Allied victory in the Battle of the Atlantic was achieved at a huge cost: between 1939 and 1945. Moreover. pushed the British back across the desert and advanced into Egypt. Liechtenstein. Bismarck was sunk – but not before sending Britain's largest warship. after Germany declared war on the US. Under these circumstances. again to bail out the Italians. the Kriegsmarine. Furthermore.500 Allied ships were sunk (gross tonnage 14. material shortages in Britain failed to fall to their World War I levels. Supply trucks on their way to Leningrad on the Road of Life. four days after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. the Siege of Germany's policy of appeasement towards the US. was to cut off Britain's supply line. the British and their allies were developing the technology and strategies to neutralize it. By contrast. On 11 December 1941. Germany and her allies controlled almost all of mainland Europe. designed to keep the Leningrad claimed some 650. in spite of the submarines' early success in 1941 and 1942. Spain. This was followed by the Battle of Greece. was a burden to Germany's war effort. Vatican City and Monaco. Because of the diversions in North Africa and the Balkans. using U-Boats to attack ships without warning. troops had reached Leningrad and surrounded the city. By December 1941. and the Battle of Crete. the Afrika Korps regained lost Italian territory. US out of the war. Nazi Germany declared war on the United States. Andorra. even if they were bound for the United Kingdom or the Soviet Union.[25] Meanwhile. In 1942 alone. the Germans were not able to launch Barbarossa until late in June. the leaking of Rainbow Five and the foreboding content of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Pearl Harbor speech made it clear to Hitler that the US could not be kept neutral. however. Only Hitler worried that the German Army and its allies were not advancing into the Soviet Union fast enough. failed Italian ventures in North Africa and the Balkans concerned Hitler. However. one of the most famous naval battles in history took place. As the North African Campaign continued.[26] 6 . In April. Operation Barbarossa was supposed to begin earlier than it did. Germany had refrained from attacking American convoys. Sweden. In February 1941. with the exception of neutral Switzerland. 3.5 million) at a cost of 783 German U-Boats. Germany failed to make submarine production a top priority early on and by the time it did. with the German battleship Bismarck. men and material were diverted to create the "fortified Europe" that Hitler wanted before Germany focused its attention on the East. the German navy began unrestricted submarine warfare. the German Afrika Korps was sent to Libya to aid the Italians and hold the British Commonwealth forces from British-held Egypt.Nazi Germany Soviet Union would bring Britain to the negotiating table. Portugal. Nevertheless. Germany's largest and most powerful warship.

more than ten million people were put into forced labour. many Ukrainians. Yet the Germans and their fascist allies held a strong line. the Wannsee Conference.5 million Poles died as a result of warfare. the Battle of Stalingrad (17 July 1942 – 2 February 1943). After winning a major tank battle at Kursk-Orel in July 1943. or had no immediate Jewish ancestors. Allied victory In early 1942. The populaces of Nazi-occupied Soviet Russia who racially qualified as of the Aryan race. were not persecuted. France.Nazi Germany 7 Persecution and extermination campaigns The persecution of racial. fought for the Nazis. including homosexuals. An Einsatzgruppe D soldier shoots a Jew kneeling before a full mass grave. and often were recruited to the Waffen Schutzstaffel (Waffen-SS) divisions. That established the conditions for the definitive Nazi–Soviet confrontation. the Wehrmacht and allies remained on the defensive. Parallel to the Holocaust. In addition. redacted the plans for the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question" (Endlösung der Judenfrage). and other oppressed nationalities. were systematically killed. ethnic. the Red Army counter-attacked. Estimates indicate that. they would have deported some 51 million Slavs from Central and Eastern Europe. the Red Army progressed west. the Nazis executed the Generalplan Ost (General Plan East) for the conquest. where they remained isolated from the general populace. and. Field Marshal Rommel inspecting the Free India Legion.7 million Soviet civilians (including Jews) and 2. the Nazi regime meant to Germanize the racially acceptable volk of occupied eastern Europe. eventually. Thousands were shipped daily to extermination camps and concentration camps. Jews were required to wear a yellow badge in public. launched a major attack against the petroleum fields of the Caucasus and the Volga River in south Russia. headed by Reinhard Heydrich (direct subordinate of SS Chief Heinrich Himmler). and. ethnic cleansing.[27] The Nazis' aggressive war for Lebensraum (Living space) in eastern Europe was waged “to defend Western Civilization against the Bolshevism of subhumans”. and social minorities and "undesirables" continued in Germany and the occupied countries. the Wehrmacht were no longer immediately outside Moscow. wherein Germany and its allies were defeated. to Germany. and political prisoners. genocide. and exploitation of the populaces of the captured Soviet and Polish territories.[28] Because of the atrocities suffered under Stalin. 1944 . by winter’s end. In January 1942. in the spring. 1942. Slavs. Vinnitsa. forced labor or famine. henceforth. had the Nazis won the war. Ukraine. reprisals. From then until the end of the war some six million Jews and many others. Balts. most were kept in walled ghettos. From 1941. This genocide is called the Holocaust in English and the Shoah in Hebrew. some 13.

in the Battle of Berlin (16 April 1945 – 2 May 1945) the Red Army fought remnant German army forces. the Red Army was in Poland. and causing hardship for the survivors. without communications from Berlin. Meanwhile. the Afrika Korps failed to break through the line at First Battle of El Alamein (1–27 July 1942). the Wehrmacht and the Italian Army retreated to US soldiers cross the Franco–German Siegfried Tunisia. US and UK forces established the western front with the D-Day (6 June 1944) landings in Normandy.Nazi Germany In Libya. the Red Army was at Berlin. The caretaker government Dönitz established near the Danish border unsuccessfully sought a separate peace with the Western Allies.[30] In November 1942.[31] including approx. With Berlin under siege. in the underground Führerbunker. Two days later.000 civilians. exhibiting the signs of mental illness. Hitler and key Nazi staff lived in the armoured. US and UK forces had conquered most of west Germany and met the Red Army at Torgau on the Elbe on 26 April 1945. However. he began considering suicide. particularly at Anzio(22 January 1944 – 5 June 1944) and Cassino (17 January 1944 – 18 May 1944). in northern Germany. The war was the largest and most destructive in human history. among others. resulting in the destruction more than 160 cities and killing a total of more than 600. Hermann Göring sent Hitler an ultimatum. the Führer ordered Göring's immediate arrest. the Red Army surrounded Berlin. with 60 million dead across the world. France. Later. threatening to assume command of Nazi Germany in April if he received no reply—which he would interpret as Hitler incapacitated.[34] One of every four Soviet citizens was killed or 8 . and the Waffen-SS. the Führer neither relinquished power. but met fierce resistance. nor surrendered. Capitulation of German forces On 30 April 1945. a position Hitler abolished in his will. 6 million people who perished during the Holocaust. On 4–8 May 1945 most of the remaining German armed forces throughout Europe surrendered unconditionally (German Instrument of Surrender. and the campaign continued from mid-1943 to nearly the end of the war. having suffered repercussions from the Battle of Stalingrad. despite the losses of armies and lands. Beginning in 1942. 1945).[32] The Soviet Union lost around 27 million people during the war. leaving it incommunicado from Greater Germany. atrocity. West Prussia. underground Führerbunker while aboveground. in meeting with military commanders. Goebbels committed suicide in the Führerbunker a day after assuming office. leader of Nazi Germany became psychologically isolated and detached. and in East Prussia. the cities of Hamburg. as the Battle for Berlin raged and the city was being overrun by Soviet forces. and death. Hitler was succeeded by Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz as Reich's President and Dr. Hitler Youth. on 2 May 1945.[33] about half of all World War II casualties. Moreover. and despatched an aeroplane delivering the reply to Göring in Bavaria. No one was to replace Hitler as the Führer. Hitler responded violently. The Allies invaded Sicily and Italy next. fearing Communist persecution. Adolf Hitler. for control of the ruined capital city of Nazi Germany. Allied bombing of Germany increased. Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler began communicating with the Western Allies about peace negotiations. In spring of 1945. Joseph Goebbels as Reich Chancellor.[29] Contemporary estimates of Nazi German military dead is 5. razing.5 million. Upon receiving the ultimatum. After the successful Operation Bagration (22 June – 19 August 1944). Hitler committed suicide in his underground bunker. Cologne and Dresden. In June 1944. should Germany lose the war. This was the end of World War II in Europe. and Silesia the German populaces fled en masse. where they fought the Americans and the British in the Line Tunisia Campaign (17 November 1942 – 13 May 1943). In the event. ordering the Reichsführer’s arrest and execution. German General Helmuth Weidling unconditionally surrendered Berlin to the Soviet General Vasily Chuikov.

Elbing and Danzig were cleansed of their German populations and taken from Germany as well.g.[35] Towards the end of the war. and in 1952 West Germany joined the European Coal and Steel Community. In the 1960s. . The initial repressive occupation policy in Germany by the Western Allies was reversed after a few years when the Cold War made the Germans important as allies against communism. The US Army blows up the swastika atop the Nazi Party rally ground (Zeppelin field) in Nuremberg. A minority were sentenced to death and executed.[37] With the creation of the Allied Control Council on 5 July 1945. The territories east of the new border comprised East Prussia. Europe had more than 40 million refugees. Most casualty estimates of this expulsion range between one to two million dead. but also to a minor degree helped by economic aid (in the form of loans) through the Marshall Plan which was extended to also include West Germany. effectively reducing Germany in size by approximately 25% compared to its 1937 border. Virtually all Germans in Central Europe outside of the new eastern borders of Germany and Austria were subsequently. Auschwitz trials). were reversed. surviving Nazi leaders were put on trial by an Allied tribunal at Nuremberg for crimes against humanity. Many smaller and large cities such as Stettin. and 70% of the European industrial infrastructure was destroyed. while the Soviet zone became the communist East Germany (the German Democratic Republic. France took control of a large part of Germany's remaining coal deposits. two-thirds of Pomerania and parts of Brandenburg. but a number were jailed and then released by the mid-1950s due to poor health and old age. West Prussia. such as the Sudetenland. Treaties and Other International Acts Series. who died in Spandau Prison in 1987 while in permanent solitary confinement. Königsberg. Department of State. due to reparations paid to the Soviet Union and the effects of the centrally planned economy. 1520).S. affecting about 17 million ethnic Germans.. No.[36] the European economy had collapsed. over a period of several years. with the exception of Upper Silesia. the four Allied powers "assume[d] supreme authority with respect to Germany" (Declaration Regarding the Defeat of Germany. West Germany recovered economically by the 1960s. mainly due to the currency reform of 1948 which replaced the Reichsmark with the Deutsche Mark as legal tender. Breslau. with the notable exception of Rudolf Hess. and in addition subject to a peace settlement Germany's eastern border was shifted westwards to the Oder-Neisse line. The Fall of the Third Reich The Potsdam Conference in August 1945 created arrangements and an outline for a new government for the post-war Germany as well as war reparations and resettlement. halting rampant inflation. The French. excluding sections of Berlin). After the war. In 1955 the military occupation of West Germany was ended. expelled. in what was called the economic miracle (German term Wirtschaftswunder). Silesia. many of the less prominent leaders continued to live well into the 1980s and 1990s. All German annexations in Europe after 1937. Germany regained full sovereignty in 1991. U. East Germany recovered at a slower pace under communism until 1990.Nazi Germany 9 wounded in that war. Much of these areas were agricultural. US and British occupation zones later became West Germany (the Federal Republic of Germany). which was the second-largest center of German heavy industry. eventually leading to the influx of Gastarbeiter ("guest workers"). The Allied dismantling of West German industry was finally halted in 1951. some renewed efforts were made in West Germany to take those who were directly responsible for "crimes against humanity" to court (e. 1970s and 1980s. West German recovery was upheld thanks to fiscal policy and intense labour. However.

Nuremberg. Hans Frank. and in other parts of Europe. Many of those hanged praised Hitler in their last seconds of life. of 24 key Nazi officials—including Hermann Göring. Rudolf The prosecution’s principal defendant was Hess. In all non-fascist European countries there were legal purges to punish the members of the former Nazi and Fascist parties.Nazi Germany 10 The victorious Allies outlawed the Nazi Party. One of the organization’s first orders of business was establishing war crimes tribunals to try Nazi officials in the Nuremberg Trials. Albert Speer. the Nazi régime de facto replaced the administration of the Länder (constituent states) with gaus (regional districts) headed by governors answerable to the central Reich government in Berlin. 12 were sentenced to death by important surviving Third Reich official. Speer. before the Second World War.[38] [39] Geography Administration To consolidate Adolf Hitler’s control of Germany. The reorganization politically weakened Prussia. Ernst Kaltenbrunner. some have accused the Nuremberg Trials of being “victor’s justice”. first row ). (a formerly close confidant of Hitler's. Moreover. Hermann Göring (left. Bavaria. (a Third Reich cabinet minister who was in office before the advent of the Nazi regime). Those that remain are largely fringe movements. the economist Hjalmar Schacht. Konstantin von Neurath. sentenced to life in prison and stayed in Spandau prison until his death in 1987). resulting in the establishment of the United Nations (26 June 1945). because no like action was taken to punish the war crimes and crimes against humanity of the victors. despite having centralised and assumed the Gau governments. which had historically dominated German politics. held in the Nazis' (former) political stronghold. The end of Nazi Germany also saw the rise in unpopularity of related aggressive manifestations of nationalism in Germany such as Pan-Germanism and the Völkisch movement which had previously been significant political ideas there. and Julius Streicher. some of the former leaders found ways to accommodate themselves under the new circumstances. in 1935. who committed suicide by ingesting cyanide. Even there. and most of its symbols and emblems (including the swastika in most manifestations) throughout Germany and Austria. The first. some Nazis still retained Administrative regions of Greater German Reich in 1944. and a few officials evaded execution. and another minister who also served in the pre-Nazi government. Nuremberg Trials Nazi German war crimes and crimes against humanity revived internationalism in Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc. hanging. the most Many defendants were found guilty. however. (the state architect and later armaments minister who served 20 years despite his use of slave labour). . Hess. this prohibition remains in force. Karl Dönitz. major and trial was the Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal (IMT). Among them were Göring. its subsidiary organizations. Nonetheless.

Nazi Germany had conquered the Province of Bolzano-Bozen (South Tyrol) and Istria. the Dutch. Nazi-occupied Soviet Russia included the Reichskommissariat Ostland (encompassing the Baltic states. both as sources for Lebensraum and to unite all the Germanic inhabitants of Europe into one nation. Germany became the derived from the previous Military Administration of Belgium and North France Grossdeutsches Reich in 1943. and annexed before the war. with its own currency. eastern parts of Poland. Hitler announced that he wanted to do away with the "unnatural" division of the Nordic race into many different countries ("kleinstaatengerümpel"). so would its union with the rest of Germanic Europe create a Greater Germanic Reich (Grossgermanisches Reich). Regions and protectorates A 50 Korun note. Central Poland and Polish Galicia were governed by the protectorate General Government. and territories of Poland (Second Polish Republic). the Polish people were to be removed. conquered. Adolf Hitler and other leading Nazi politicians believed that the non-German Germanic peoples of Europe. Although outside of the Reich in a legal sense these were intended for eventual incorporation into it. Alsace-Lorraine. and Brussels of the Greater German Reich. and the Lithuanian territory of Memel (the Klaipėda region). The British however were expected to be accorded a higher status then other "Germanic" Europeans (who were to simply be absorbed into the Reich). The Greater Germanic Reich Beyond the territories directly annexed into Germany were the Reichskommissariate (Reich Commissariats). and Luxembourg was a wartime annexation in 1942. Wallonia. This policy stated that since the union with Austria had transformed Germany into a Greater German Reich (Grossdeutsches Reich). Hermann Göring was and remained the Reichsstatthalter (Reich state governor) and Minister–President of Prussia until 1945. This meant little in reality however as the majority of Belgium had already been liberated by the Allied forces at that point. the Third Reich ruled Bohemia and Moravia as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Danzig. like-wise. This subsequently happened in December 1944 when it was split into three new Reichsgaue: Flanders. and western parts of Belarus) and a Reichskommissariat Ukraine. subjugated. Eventually. and Ludwig Siebert remained as Minister–President of Bavaria. From 1939 to 1945. and seized Trieste after the (erstwhile Axis Ally) Italian Fascist government capitulated to the Allies. was also established to facilitate the area's intended annexation into Germany. Czech Silesia was incorporated to the province of Silesia. such as Austria. the currency of the German Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. and Poland proper then re-populated with 5 million Germans. In the years leading to war. there were the Reichskommissariat Niederlande (the Netherlands) and the Reichskommissariat Norwegen (Norway). administrative regions established in a number of occupied lands that were ruled by Nazi civilian administrators (Reichskommissars). Regions conquered after war’s start. such as the Scandinavians. the Czechoslovak Sudetenland. In June 1944 a Franco–Belgian Reichskommissariat A 42-pfennig postal stamp of Adolf Hitler (1944). although the Wehrmacht did make small gains in retaking Wallonia in the Ardennes offensive. In northern and western Europe. include Eupen-et-Malmédy. which had been parts of Austria-Hungary before 1919.Nazi Germany 11 leadership title to the different Länder. By late 1943. as partners in the Nazi's New Order . the Reich came to include areas with ethnic German populations. racially belonged to the superior Aryan Herrenvolk. and the Flemish. in addition to the Weimar Republic proper.

At war’s end. and the United States. per the Potsdam Conference (6 July–2 August 1945). President of the Reichsbank (1933) and Minister of Economics (1934). reducing the unemployment. the 100. the Soviet Union. and environs (nearly 25 per cent of pre-war German territory) were under Polish and Soviet administration. some have historians propose that the Reich was in debellation. who helped Reichskanzler Adolf Hitler implement Nazi redevelopment. formerly.[41] As Economics Minister. the colonist German populaces fled to Germany proper. and high government deficits. from Austria to Bohemia and Moravia (and other isolated regions) was the only area not occupied by the Allies. yet it was not capitalist enough to rely. and increasing government spending. were deficit-funded policy. and renamed as the Wehrmacht in 1936. this Keynesian economic policy was supplemented by the increased production demands of rearmament. national 20 Reichsmark note public works. the Allies expelled the German inhabitants.[41] at the start. 46 (20 May 1947). a small strip of land.[41] 12 . the greatest of any country during the Great Depression. the Allied Control Council disestablished Prussia with Law No. Post-war changes The de facto borders of the Reich changed long before its vanquishment in May 1945. as the Western Allies advanced eastwards. Third Reich economic policies were the brainchildren of the economist Dr. historian Richard Overy reports: “The German economy fell between two stools.Nazi Germany rather than subjects. Germany renounced claims to territories lost during the Second World War (1939–45). the extensive. by signing the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) and the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany (1990). Schacht was one of few ministers who took advantage of the administrative freedom allowed by the removal of the Reichsmark from the gold standard—to maintain low interest rates. the Nazi war economy was a mixed economy of free-market and central-planning practices. In 1947. their most pressing economic matter was a national unemployment rate of approximately 30 per cent. as the Red Army progressed westwards. Economy In keeping with the political syncretism of fascism. reindustrialization. inflating military budgets. The prewar German lands east of the Oder-Neisse line and Stettin.”[40] When the Nazis assumed German government. he had been Weimar Republic currency commissioner and Reichsbank president. France.000-soldier Reichswehr expanded to millions. Hitler professed an admiration for the British Empire and its people as proof of Aryan superiority in Mein Kampf. pending the final peace treaty Later. as America did. from France. It was not enough of a command economy to do what the Soviet system could do.[41] Eventually. on the recruitment of private enterprise. and rearmament of Germany. the United Kingdom. Upon its defeat. the Prussian lands east of the Oder-Neisse Line were divided and administered by Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast.[41] The consequence of Economics Minister Schacht’s administration was the extremely rapid unemployment-rate decline. established occupation zones. sundered for Polish and Soviet annexation. Hjalmar Schacht.

Adolf Hitler. steel mills. the increased burdens of the war. and the accidental aeroplane-crash death of Reichsminister Fritz Todt. fixing wages and prices (violators merited concentration-camp internment). however. In 1942. Government financing eventually dominated private investment. the Four Year Plan’s expiry was not until 1940. placed Albert Speer in economics ministry command. real wages in Germany dropped by roughly 25% between 1933 and 1938. as the government was . By 1938.[42] Trade unions were abolished. Heavy profit taxes limited self-financing companies. known as Gauleiters.[43] The right to quit also disappeared: Labour books were introduced in 1935. in the 1933–34 biennium. and required the consent of the previous employer in order to be hired for another job. automatic textile mills. who governed Gaue and Reichsgaue.[41] The Four-Year Plan is discussed in the German-expansion Hossbach Memorandum (5 November 1937) meeting-summary of Hitler and his military and foreign policy leaders planning aggressive war. Any high party/government official could take one of Hitler's comments and turn it into a new law. as well as collective bargaining and the right to strike. To supply the Third Reich economy with slaves. the proportion of private securities issued diminished from more than 50 per cent of the total. when Nazi Germany started the Second World War. all trying to gain favor with the Führer. to control the Reich economy.[45] Politics Through staffing of most government positions with Nazi Party members. Hermann Göring replaced Schacht as Minister of Economics. controlled with economic regulation concording a company’s functioning with the Reich’s national production requirements. by 1935 the German national government and the Nazi Party had become virtually one and the same. Nevertheless. Economics Minister Göring had established the Office of the Four Year Plan. stock dividends were restricted to six per cent on book capital. Strategic goals were to be achieved regardless of cost (as in Soviet economics): thus the rapid construction of synthetic-rubber factories. et cetera. and the largest companies (usually government contractors) mostly were exempted from paying taxes on profits—in practice. the Nazis abducted some 12 million people. and introduced the Four Year Plan that would establish German self-sufficiency for war—within four years—by curtailing foreign importations. from some 20 European countries. local and state governments lost all legislative power and answered administratively to Nazi Party leaders.[43] Polish-forced-workers’ badge OST-Arbeiter badge Nazi control of business retained a diminished investment profit-incentive. government control allowed “only the shell of private ownership” in the Third Reich economy. Government Nazi Germany was made up of various competing power structures. of which Hitler would casually either approve or disapprove. in September 1939. through the policy of Gleichschaltung. which required the large-scale employment of forced labourers.[44] In 1937. et cetera. Thus many existing laws were stricken and replaced with interpretations of what Hitler wanted. he then established a war economy in Nazi Germany. to approximately 10 per cent in the 1935–38 quadrennium. and the massive rearmament policy. almost led to full employment during the 1930s (statistics didn't include non-citizens or women). This became known as "working towards the Führer". approximately 75 per cent were Eastern European.Nazi Germany 13 While the strict state intervention into the economy.

and Armament (Fritz Todt. The process allowed the more unscrupulous and ambitious Nazis to get away with implementing the more radical and extreme elements of Hitler's ideology. Education. Hjalmar Schacht. and "structuralists". Historical opinion is divided between "intentionalists". Bavaria) Reich ministries • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Reich Foreign Ministry (Joachim von Ribbentrop) Reich Interior Ministry (Wilhelm Frick. This often made government very convoluted and divided. Cabinet and national authorities • • • • • Office of the Reich Chancellery (Hans Lammers) Office of the Party Chancellery (Martin Bormann) Office of the Presidential Chancellery (Otto Meissner) Privy Cabinet Council (Konstantin von Neurath) Chancellery of the Führer (Philip Bouhler) Reich offices • • • • • • • • Office of the Four-Year Plan (Hermann Göring) Office of the Reich Master Forester (Hermann Göring) Office of the Inspector for Highways Office of the President of the Reich Bank Reich Youth Office Reich Treasury Office General Inspector of the Reich Capital Office of the Councillor for the Capital of the Movement (Munich. Protected by Goebbels' extremely effective propaganda machine. who believe that the system evolved by itself and was a limitation on Hitler's supposedly totalitarian power. Hans Frank. co-operating body. which portrayed the government as a dedicated. Munitions. but a collection of individuals each trying to gain more power and influence through the Führer. and Public Instruction (Bernhard Rust) Reich Ministry for Ecclesiastical Affairs (Hanns Kerrl) Reich Transportation Ministry (Julius Dorpmüller) Reich Postal Ministry (Wilhelm Ohnesorge) Reich Ministry for Weapons. Arthur Seyss-Inquart) 14 . the dog-eat-dog competition and chaotic legislation was allowed to escalate.Nazi Germany not a coordinated. and in doing so win political favor. such as anti-Semitism. especially with Hitler's vague policy of creating similar posts with overlapping powers and authority. dutiful and efficient outfit. who believe that Hitler created this system as the only means of ensuring both the total loyalty and dedication of his supporters and the impossibility of a conspiracy. Albert Speer) Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories (Alfred Rosenberg) Reich Ministers without Portfolio (Konstantin von Neurath. Heinrich Himmler) Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda (Joseph Goebbels) Reich Ministry of Aviation (Hermann Göring) Reich Ministry of Finance (Lutz Schwerin von Krosigk) Reich Ministry of Justice (Otto Thierack) Reich Economics Ministry (Walther Funk) Reich Ministry for Nutrition and Agriculture (Richard Walther Darré) Reich Labour Ministry (Franz Seldte) Reich Ministry for Science.

or to acquire territories with German population like parts of Austria. however. These differences allowed the Italian monarchy to continue to exist and have some official powers. or Greater Germany. and believed that the incorporation of the Germanic people into one nation was a vital step towards their national success. both Hitler and Mussolini were called the "Leader" (Führer in German. The Nazis were also intent on creating a completely totalitarian state. The German concept of Lebensraum ("living space") or more specifically its need for an expanding German population was also claimed by the Nazi regime for territorial expansion. however. and both intended to create a dictatorial state.[47] Racialism and racism were important aspects of society within the Third Reich. Propaganda accredited the consolidation of Nazi ideals and successes of the regime to the regime's Führer ("Leader"). and both advocated a middle-way between capitalism and communism. and Spain. the Nazis determined that Eastern Europe would be settled with ethnic Germans. an important theme throughout German history. the Nazis never officially declared themselves fascists. democrats. The Nazis endorsed the concept of Großdeutschland. As a further extension of racial policy. The Nazis contended that all the great achievements in the past of the German nation and its people were associated with the ideals of National Socialism. communist. people were anxious over punishment or even death. were far more racially oriented than the fascists in Italy. if they displayed opposition to the Nazis. regarding the leftist-internationalist movement—as well as international market capitalism—as the work of "Conspiratorial Jewry". Jews and other opposition or minority groups. The goal was to create numerous counterweights in order to "balance out Germany's power". anti-communism and paramilitary forces.[46] The "logic" of keeping Germany small worked in the favor of its principal economic rivals. claiming National Socialism was an ideology unique to Germany. The party itself rejected the fascist label. The Nazis combined anti-Semitism with anti-Communist ideology. focuses on the issue of administration of Germanic regions in Northern and Central Europe. Portugal. Given the frustrations of the people (after World War I and during the Great Depression) it was easy for the SA to attract large numbers of alienated (and unemployed) youth and working class people for the party. use of mass rallies. unlike Italian fascists who while promoting a totalitarian state. However the Nazis copied much of their symbolism from the Fascists in Italy. The "German problem". the Nazi party's paramilitary force. and had been a driving force in the recreation of a Polish state. commonly known as corporatism.Nazi Germany State ideology National Socialism had some of the key ideological elements of fascism which originally developed in Italy under Benito Mussolini. Two important issues were administration of the Polish corridor and Danzig's incorporation into the Reich. who was portrayed as the genius behind the Nazi party's success and Germany's saviour. The SA "storm troopers" violently clashed with the Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) which created a climate of lawlessness and fear. Both ideologies involved the political use of militarism. that gave legitimacy and the support needed for the Third Reich to proceed to conquer long-lost territories with overwhelmingly non-German population like former Prussian gains in Poland that it lost to Russia in the 19th century. such as copying the Roman salute as the Nazi salute. both were anti-Communist. In the cities. The Nazis. Duce in Italian). as it is often referred to in English scholarship. both wanted an ideologically driven state. nationalism. Adolf Hitler. Those not fitting the racial standard were to be used as cheap labour force or deported eastward. even before the ideology officially existed. allowed a larger degree of private liberties for their citizens. the Sturmabteilung (SA) or "Storm Detachment" used acts of violence against leftists. It was the Nazis' passionate support of the Volk concept of Greater Germany that led to Germany's expansion. and the Slavic population who met the Nazi racial standard would be absorbed into the Reich. They referred to this so-called movement with terminology such 15 . To secure their ability to create a totalitarian state. both made use of uniformed paramilitaries devoted to the party (the SA in Germany and the Blackshirts in Italy). the Lebensraum program pertained to similar interests. The totalitarian nature of the Nazi party was one of its principal tenets.

but after the Munich Agreement and the reacquisition of Memel. but the result was the outbreak of World War II. tensions remained high because the Nazis wanted Austria to be incorporated into Germany. and Lebensraum. who were murdered in the Porajmos. various political opponents. Last-minute Polish-German diplomatic proceedings failed. and Galeazzo Ciano pictured before signing the Munich Agreement. Germany alleged that Polish operatives had attacked German positions. as German forces made no further advances but instead. However in early 1940. Benito Mussolini. Although Germany's relations with Italy improved with creation of the Rome-Berlin Axis. Italy began to gravitate towards Germany. backed by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. in which Hitler. Italy was opposed to this. internment. Christadelphians.000. the Nazis helped to promote Slovakian dissention and declaring that the country was no more. Germany had engaged in informal negotiations with Poland regarding the issue of territorial revision.[48] This platform manifested itself in the displacement.[27] and another 100. but had so much internal civil disruption Hitler wanted a more stable and powerful ally. both the Axis and Allies engaged in a propaganda campaign. Germany began to concern that the . seized control of the Czech part. Hitler used the Appeasement policies of Britain and France to his opportunistic advantage when he announced in March 1935 that he would conscript men into his army and create the Luftwaffe. His other concern was Italy. demanded that the German territories be ceded. and eventually the USA. Chamberlain took this to be a success in that it avoided a potential war with Germany. Fearing a second world war.5 million ethnic Poles that died as a result of warfare.000 being Roma. destroy Versailles. the Confessing Church and Freemasons. From 1939-1940. social outcasts. and refused aggressive foreign policies to satisfy the newly empowered Nazis. Hitler with (from left to right) Neville Chamberlain. both a direct violation of Versailles. and systematic extermination of an estimated 11 million to 12 million people in the midst of World War II. 2. as were France and Britain. as Germany had stopped supporting the German speaking population under Italy's control in Bolzano-Bozen (South Tyrol). Germany would proceed with no further territorial aims. and Germany invaded Poland as scheduled. However. Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia in September 1938 came about during talks with British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. For quite some time. re-unite lost German territories under the decrees of Versailles. religious dissidents such as Jehovah's Witnesses.000–1. the Molotov Pact was signed and Germany and the Soviet Union agreed to divide Poland along a mutually agreed set boundary. In August 1939. an Austrian-led Nazi coup took place in Austria and Germany sent in its troops. homosexuals. The invasion was put into effect on 1 September 1939. Chamberlain and Hitler came to an agreement when Hitler signed a piece of paper which said that with the annexation of the Sudetenland. genocide.Nazi Germany 16 as the "Jewish-Bolshevistic revolution of subhumans". Italy and Britain no longer had common interests and. whom under Mussolini had become a similarly fascist country. Germany and the Soviet Union began talks over planning an invasion of Poland. It is said that Hitler eventually wanted Britain as an ally with eventual wars with the USSR. Britain and France sought a policy of appeasement towards Germany. Édouard Daladier. Poland refused to allow the annexation of the Free City of Danzig.[49] Foreign relations Foreign relations between Germany and the rest of Europe were riddled with political manuevres and opportunistic decisions. freethinkers. the Nazis became increasingly vocal. forced labor or famine. as Allied forces refused to accept Germany's claims on Poland and blamed Germany for the conflict. Other victims of Nazi persecution included communists. His foreign policies were designed to test the nerve of Britain and France so he could see what else he was able to get away with. reprisals. annexing the country. the so-called "Phony War" occurred. Hitler aims upon coming to power was threefold. roughly half of them being Jews targeted in what is historically remembered as the Holocaust (Shoah). In 1938.

From 1941 to the end of the war. In spite of Hitler's earlier view of inferiority of all Slavs. Most human rights of the constitution of the Weimar Republic were disabled by several Reichsgesetze ("Reich's laws"). the Allies would be dangerously close to German territory. the Volksgerichtshof ("people's court") was established in 1934. Not included in this numbers are the death sentences from 20 July 1944-April 1945. Adolf Hitler visits Francisco Franco at Hendaye As the fortunes of war changed.Nazi Germany 17 British intended to stop trade between Sweden and Germany by bringing Norway into an alliance against Germany. met in Hendaye to discuss Spain entering the war. but significant changes within the judicial codes occurred. On October 23. This was the last major foreign policy delivered. The German occupation authorities set up occupation and colonial authorities called Reichskommissariats such as Reichskommissariat Ostland and Reichskommissariat Ukraine. he supported Mussolini's agenda of creating a fascist puppet state of Croatia. but didn't come into reality until the end of World War II. The Nazi party was the only legal political party in Germany. The Slavic populations were to be destroyed along with Jews there to make way for German colonists. After sweeping through the Low Countries and occupying northern France. Germany's invasion of Yugoslavia resulted in that state's splintering. Germany invaded Denmark and Norway ending the Phony War (leapfrogging the British invasion troops bound towards Norway by just 24 hours). Law Most of the judicial structures and legal codes of the Weimar Republic remained in use during the Third Reich. Croatia was led by the extreme nationalist Ante Pavelić a long-time Croatian exile in Rome.375 death sentences were spoken by the court. Spain would send Volunteer soldiers to fight for Germany but against the Soviet Union. Franco asked too much from Hitler. From 1934-September 1944. In 1941.000. only dealing with cases of political importance. Germany was forced to occupy Italy when Mussolini was thrown out as Prime Minister by Italy's king in 1943. with Norway in Allied hands. The Plan to pass a Volksstrafgesetzbuch ("people's code of criminal justice") arose soon after 1933. all other political parties were banned. Germany engaged in war with the Soviet Union in its attempt to create the Nazi colonial goal of Lebensraum "living space" for German citizens. as well as significant changes in court rulings. Several minorities such as the Jews. German forces rescued Mussolini and instructed him to establish a fascist regime in Italy called the Italian Social Republic.the dictator of Spain. which are estimated at 2. The Ustashe were allowed to persecute Serbs. The remainder of the war saw the decline of German power and desperate attempts by Nazi officials such as Heinrich Himmler to negotiate a peace with the western Allies against the wishes of Hitler. while Germany contributed to that goal in German-occupied Serbia. opposition politicians and prisoners of war were deprived of most of their rights and responsibilities. whose Ustashe movement formed a government in modern-day Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. As a new type of court. Germany allowed French nationalist and war hero Philippe Petain to form a fascist regime in southern France known as the "French State" but more commonly referred to as Vichy France named after its capital in Vichy. who headed the court from August 1942-February 1945. a total of 5. . called the Independent State of Croatia. Its most prominent jurist was Roland Freisler. 1940 Adolf Hitler and Francisco Franco. In response. Even though Spain would remain neutral during WWII Spain and Nazi Germany would remain allies during the war.

plans to isolate and eventually eliminate Jews completely in Germany began with the construction of ghettos. or part of other minority groups. Jewish. which specifically targeted Jewish businesses.[50] The Nazi Party pursued its racial and social policies through persecution and killing of those considered social undesirables or "enemies of the Reich". with the government seizing any property they left behind. Most Jews employed by Germans lost their jobs at this time.000 German Jews of Polish descent back to Poland. a decision which led to the assassination of Ernst vom Rath by Herschel Grynszpan. Coupled with traditional war fighting methods such as encirclements and the "battle of annihilation". Romani (also known as Gypsies). which was. In the 1930s. Racial policy The effects of Nazi social policy in Germany was divided between those considered to be "Aryan" and those considered "non-Aryan". Jehovah's Witnesses. de facto. The Nazis also undertook programs targeting "weak" or "unfit" people.2 million. a German Jew living in France. Notably. the euphemism was used because the numerous broken windows made the streets look as if covered with crystals. as well as giving financial assistance to Aryan German families who bore children. By the time the Nuremberg Laws were passed in 1935."[52] In the years following the Nazi rise to power. which were being taken by unemployed Germans.Nazi Germany Military The military of the Third Reich – the Wehrmacht – was the name of the unified armed forces of Germany from 1935-1945 with Heer (Army). concentration camps. Jewish shops 1938. many Jews were encouraged to leave the country and did so. Jews were stripped of their German citizenship and denied government employment. The German Army furthered concepts pioneered during the First World War. The event was vandalized.000 Jews had left Germany. Kriegsmarine (Navy). called Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass. The total number of soldiers who served in the Wehrmacht during its existence from 1935-1945 is believed to approach 18. such as the T-4 Euthanasia Program. an end to official stigmatization toward Aryan children who were born from parents outside of marriage. This provided the pretext for a pogrom the Nazi Party incited against the Jews on 9 November The aftermath of Kristallnacht. Especially targeted were minority groups such as Jews. including state opposition to the use of tobacco. killing tens of thousands of disabled and sick Germans in an effort to "maintain the purity of the 18 . the government attempted to send 17. For "Aryan" Germans.[51] people with mental or physical disabilities and homosexuals. combining Ground and Air Force assets into combined arms teams. the German military managed many lightning quick victories in the first year of the Second World War. literally "Crystal Night"). which Heinrich Himmler officially described as "the first concentration camp for political prisoners. a fourth branch of the Wehrmacht). more than 200. and labour camps which began with the 1933 construction of the Dachau concentration camp. a number of social policies put through by the regime to benefit them were advanced for the time. By September 1939. prompting foreign journalists to create a new word for what they witnessed: Blitzkrieg. Luftwaffe (Air Force) and a military organization Waffen-SS (military branch of the Schutzstaffel.

[58] Had the Germans won the war.[62] In 1942. Poles along with other Slavic people like the Russians.[60] Naked Soviet POWs in Mauthausen concentration camp. Germans would be settled in an extended "living space" of the 1000-Year Empire.8 million Red Army POWs.000 individuals labeled as having hereditary defects. under the "Big Plan". The Nazis rationalized that the (Aryan) Germans had a biological right to displace. as discussed the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question". Czechs and anyone else who was not an "Aryan" according to the contemporary Nazi race terminology to be Untermenschen ("subhumans"). The techniques of mass killing developed in these efforts would later be used in the Holocaust. Ukrainians.[59] At the outset of World War II. a number of ideas appeared on how to answer the "Jewish Question". pregnant with mainly SS men's children. Another component of the Nazi programme of creating racial purity was the Lebensborn. This included offering SS families support services (including the adoption of racially pure children into suitable SS families) and accommodating racially valuable women. at the Wannsee Conference.[57] the Nazis wanted to exterminate some 30 million Slavs. Between June 1941 and January 1942. Under a law passed in 1933. Concentration camps like Auschwitz were converted and used gas chambers to kill as many Jews as . Lager Nordhausen concentration camp To the Nazis. Hans Frank. as well as some of the Balts. beyond the Ural Mountains and into Siberia.the plan to starve tens of millions of Slavs in order to ensure steady food supplies for the German people and troops.[54] [55] After the war. Barkley. eliminate and enslave inferiors. One method was a mass forced deportation of Jews. in care homes in Germany and throughout Occupied Europe. The programme was aimed at encouraging German soldiers—mainly SS—to reproduce. Nazi officials decided to eliminate the Jews altogether. Lebensborn also expanded to encompass the placing of racially pure children forcibly seized from occupied countries—such as Poland—with German families. whom they viewed as [53] "subhuman".[56] In the longer term. Herbert Backe was one of the orchestrators of the Hunger Plan .[62] The idea of continuing deportations to occupied Poland was rejected by the governor. this proposal was supported by Himmler and was discussed by Hitler and Italian dictator Benito Mussolini but was later dismissed as impractical in 1942. Senator Alben W. they would have undertaken the largest genocide in history. Adolf Eichmann suggested that Jews be forced to emigrate to Palestine. of the General Government of occupied Poland as Frank refused to accept any more deportations of Jews to the territory which already had large numbers of Jews. Generalplan Ost foresaw the eventual expulsion of more than 50 million non-Germanized Slavs of Eastern Europe through forced migration.Nazi Germany 19 German Master race" (German: Herrenvolk) as described by Nazi propagandists. the Nazis killed an estimated 2. the German authority in the General Government in occupied Poland ordered that all Jews face compulsory labour and that those who were physically incapable such as women and children were to be confined to ghettos. or "Fountain of Life" programme founded in 1936. In their place. a member of the US Congressional Nazi crimes committee visiting Buchenwald concentration camp shortly after its liberation. the Nazi regime carried out the compulsory sterilization of over 400. ranging from mental illness to alcoholism. Romani people. The Nazis considered Jews.[61] Franz Rademacher made the proposal that Jews be deported to Madagascar.

which was designed to be an automobile that every German citizen would be able to afford.[66] [67] Nazi Germany had arguably the most powerful anti-tobacco movement in the world. a number of concentration camps had been liberated by Allied forces and they found the survivors to be severely malnourished. to vacation trips and traveling cinemas—were all made a part of the "Strength through Joy" (Kraft durch Freude. German research on the dangers of tobacco was silenced after the war. According to the research of Robert N. as it was designed to be an inexpensive automobile which every German citizen could be able to purchase. lung cancer. Heavily focused on was the idea of a national German community.[64] All university professors were required to be a member of the National Socialist Association of University Lecturers in order to be able to be employed as professors. later known as the Volkswagen ("People's Car"). The German asbestos-cancer research was later used by American lawyers doing battle against the Johns-Manville Corporation. e. which made it the first freeway system in the world. Another national project undertaken was the construction of the Autobahn. To aid the fostering of a feeling of community. a number of architectural projects were undertaken. The government urged German doctors to counsel patients against tobacco use.g. German pioneering research on experimental epidemiology led to the 1939 paper by Franz H.[63] Anti-Semitic policy led to the expulsion of Jewish teachers and professors and officials from the education system. Proctor for his book The Nazi War on Cancer. . In addition to this. KdF) program. the German people's labour and entertainment experiences—from festivals. By 1945. The Allies also found evidence that the Nazis were profiteering from the mass murder of Jews not only by confiscating their property and personal valuables but also by extracting gold fillings from the bodies of some Jews held in concentration camps. geography and especially physical fitness. With the outbreak of the Second World War the car was converted into a military vehicle and civilian production was stopped. Also crucial to the building of loyalty and comradeship was the implementation of the National Labour Service and the Hitler Youth Organization. Müller. as occupational illnesses eligible for compensation. population policy.[65] Social Welfare Recent research by academics such as Götz Aly has emphasized the role of the extensive Nazi social welfare programs that focused on providing employment for German citizens and insuring a minimal living standard for German citizens. Commonly known then and afterwards named the Volkswagen ("People's Car"). Anti-tobacco research received a strong backing from the government. and German scientists proved that cigarette smoke could cause cancer. with compulsory membership. and the dangers of tobacco had to be rediscovered by American and English scientists in the early 1950s. culture. with a medical consensus arising in the early 1960s. and the 1943 paper by Eberhard Schairer and Erich Schöniger which convincingly demonstrated that tobacco smoking was a main culprit in lung cancer.. Social Policy Education Education under the Nazi regime focused on racial biology.Nazi Germany 20 possible. and in 1943—as the first nation in the world to offer such a benefit—Germany recognized the diseases caused by asbestos. KdF created the KdF-wagen. Health Advertisement for state-engineered Kdf-Wagen. German scientists also proved that asbestos was a health hazard.

In 1933. Examples are aviatrix Hanna Reitsch and film director Leni Riefenstahl. the Bund Deutscher Mädel (BDM. employing carnal favours as a means of getting a full day's work from foreign labourers. with soldiers. The Nazi regime promoted a liberal code of conduct as regards sexual matters. from 1943 abortionists faced the death penalty.[50] "Some farm wives in Württemberg had already begun using sex as a commodity.[68] The expectation even applied to Aryan women married to Jewish men—a necessary ingredient in the 1943 Rosenstrasse protest in which 1800 German women (joined by 4200 relatives) obliged the Nazi state to release their Jewish husbands.[65] Female enrollment in secondary schools dropped from 437. Such organizations included the Jungmädel ("Young Girls") section of the Hitler Youth for girls from the age 10 to 14. Despite the somewhat official restrictions. the Nazis differed greatly from the restrictive stances on women's role in society. lead and mercury were removed from consumer products. and greatly due to the effects of the war. had a left-wing agenda (compared to Communism) and was bad for both women and men. claiming that it was Jewish-led.[50] Promiscuity increased greatly as the war progressed. but instead called for women to stay at home. which shrank from approximately 128. An example of the way in which Nazi doctrines differed from practice is that.000 women being enrolled in 1933 to 51. and were sympathetic to women bearing children out of wedlock.[65] However with the requirement of men to be enlisted into the German armed forces during the war.[50] Married women were often involved in multiple affairs simultaneously. her family.". who instructed women that their primary role in society was to bear children and that women should be subservient to men.000 in 1938. and her home. some women forged highly visible. water supplies were cleaned up.[71] Display of contraceptives was not allowed and Hitler himself described contraception as 21 . as well as officially praised. Hitler appointed Gertrud Scholtz-Klink as the Reich Women's Leader. "German Girls' League") for young women from 14 to 18. and women were urged to undergo regular screenings for breast cancer. once saying "the mission of woman is to minister in the home and in her profession to the needs of life from the first to last moment of man's existence. Simultaneously with calling for women to leave work outside the home.[50] The collapse of 19th century morals in Germany accelerated during the Third Reich.[66] [67] Women's rights The Nazis opposed women's feminist movement. with unmarried soldiers often involved intimately with several women simultaneously.[70] Abortion was heavily penalized in Nazi Germany unless on the grounds of "racial health". Pregnancy (including repercussions on established marriages) often resulted when fetching members of the Bund Deutscher Mädel were assigned to duties which juxtaposed them with tempted men.000 in 1937. The Nazi regime advocated a patriarchal society in which German women would recognize the "world is her husband. her children."[68] Hitler claimed that women taking vital jobs away from men during the Great Depression was economically bad for families in that women were paid only 66 percent of what men earned. women made up half of the enrollment in the education system by 1944.Nazi Germany As part of the general public-health campaign in Nazi Germany.[65] Organizations were made for the indoctrination of Nazi values to German women. achievements.[68] Hitler never considered endorsing the idea of raising women's wages to avoid such a scenario again. the regime called for women to be actively supportive of the state regarding women's affairs. On the issue of sexual affairs regarding women."[50] Marriage or sexual relations between a person considered “Aryan” and one that was not were classified as Rassenschande were forbidden and under penalty (people found guilty could face concentration camp.000 in 1926 to 205.[69] The number of women allowed to enroll in universities dropped drastically under the Nazi regime. boys' and girls' camps of the Hitlerjugend associations were needlessly placed close together as if to make it happen. partly due to the Nazis. The Nazi regime discouraged women from seeking higher education in secondary schools. civilians or slave labourers. while non-Aryans death penalty). universities and colleges. whilst sexual relationships among campers was explicitly forbidden.

[82] Although enacting various laws for animal protection. a science journal at that time. and species protection and animal welfare were significant issues in the regime. as parts of its influences pre-dated the Nazi rise to power. In one notable example. zoos and wildlife.[79] Heinrich Himmler made efforts to ban the hunting of animals. huge crowds stood in line to view a special display of "degenerate art" in Munich. there were many animal experiments during the Nazi regime. as degradation of womanhood. The visual arts were strictly monitored and traditional.[80] Göring was an animal lover and conservationist. Modern abstract art and avant-garde art was removed from museums and put on special display as "degenerate art". Expressionism. and obedience. Fauvism.[73] [74] In practice. Literature written by Jewish. the regime enacted the "Reich Nature Protection Act".[77] [78] Many NSDAP leaders including Adolf Hitler and Hermann Göring were supporters of animal protection. motherhood and love. Several Nazis were environmentalists (notably Rudolf Hess).Nazi Germany "violation of nature. militarism. Cubism. focusing on exemplifying Germanic themes.[83] The Nazi regime disbanded several unofficial organizations advocating environmentalism and animal protection. Art forms considered to be degenerate included Dada. where it was to be ridiculed. The most infamous destruction of literature was the book burnings by German students in 1933. The art and culture that came to define the Weimar Republic years was repressed. The concept of the Dauerwald (best translated as the "perpetual forest") which included concepts such as forest management and protection was promoted and efforts were also made to curb air pollution. on 31 March 1937. and Surrealism. According to Pfugers Archiv für die Gesamte Physiologie (Pfugers Archive for the Total Physiology). such as the Friends of Nature. heroism. New Objectivity.[81] The current animal welfare laws in Germany are more or less modification of the laws introduced by the National Socialist regime. or authors opposed to the Nazis was destroyed by the regime.[76] In 1933 the regime enacted a stringent animal-protection law. Impressionism. While not a purely Nazi piece of legislation. there was a lack of enforcement. 22 . Animal protection policy The Nazis had elements which were supportive of animal rights.[84] Culture The regime sought to restore traditional values in German culture." [72] Environmentalism In 1935.[75] and took several measures to ensure their protection. the enacted laws and policies met resistance from various ministries that sought to undermine them. power. racial purity. strength. other non-Aryans. and from the priority that the war-effort took to environmental protection. it nevertheless reflected Nazi ideology.

documenting the 1936 Summer Olympics. the introduction of Agfacolor film production being a notable example. Various Roman buildings were examined by state architect Albert Speer for architectural designs for state buildings. Also to be constructed was a Triumphal arch several times larger than that found in Paris. Both films. Entertainment also became increasingly important in the later years of World War II when the German Nazi propaganda poster: cinema provided a distraction from Allied bombing and a string of "Danzig is German". as their aesthetic merit is inseparable from their propagandizing of Nationalsocialism ideals. wartime romance and patriotic propaganda. Technical and aesthetic achievement could also be turned to the specific ends of the Greater German Reich. Nazis burned works considered "un-German" in Berlin which included books by Jewish authors. German defeats. a comic musical which was one of the earliest German films in colour.[85] This style stood out in stark contrast and opposition to newer.[87] Despite the emigration of many film-makers and the political restrictions. was a gigantic version of the Pantheon in Rome. most spectacularly in the work of Leni Riefenstahl. which was also based upon a classical styling. and Wiener Blut (1942). Cinema and media The majority of German films of the period were intended principally as works of entertainment. The importance of the cinema as a tool of the state. one major area of the arts. had to make up for the missing foreign films (above all American productions).[87] . Frauen sind doch bessere Diplomaten (1941).Nazi Germany Despite the official attempt to forge a pure Germanic culture. Riefenstahl's Triumph of the Will (1935). under Hitler's personal guidance. a style based on architecture of ancient Rome. and more popular architecture styles of the time such as Art Deco. pioneered techniques of camera movement and editing that have influenced many later films. the most expensive film of the era. for the shooting of which tens of thousands of soldiers were diverted from their military positions to appear as extras. documenting the Nuremberg Rally (1934). and Olympia (1938). and other works which did not align with Nazi ideology. 23 In 1933. both for its propaganda value and its ability to keep the populace entertained. Speer constructed huge and imposing structures such as in the Nazi party rally grounds in Nuremberg and the new Reich Chancellery building in Berlin. more liberal. architecture. the adaptation of a Johann Strauß comic operetta. particularly Triumph of the Will. Many of the designs for Germania were impractical to construct because of their size and the marshy soil underneath Berlin. was neoclassical. but never built. the German film industry was not without technical and aesthetic innovations. can be seen in the filming history of Veit Harlan's Kolberg (1945). remain highly controversial. In both 1943 and 1944 cinema admissions in Germany exceeded a billion. One design that was pursued. which was to be the "world capital" (Welthauptstadt). The import of foreign films was legally restricted after 1936 and the German industry.[86] and the biggest box office hits of the war years were Die große Liebe (1942) and Wunschkonzert (1941). called the Volkshalle to be the semi-religious centre of Nazism in a renamed Berlin called Germania. political opponents. which was effectively nationalised in 1937. materials that were to be used for construction were diverted to the war effort. which both combine elements of the musical.

I think the writers showed bad taste in criticizing the man of the hour in Germany. • Karl Dietrich Bracher. New York: Monthly Review Press. including the one after Jesse Owens won his four medals. Compulsory Sterilization. Watts. The president didn't even send me a telegram. The 1936 Olympics was meant to display to the world the Aryan superiority of Germany to other nations. • Gisela Bock "Racism and Sexism in Nazi Germany: Motherhood. 1984. and had refused to shake his hand. However. and met with German winners outside the stadium afterwards. 1984. ISBN 0-8090-9326-X. The Third Reich: A New History. Hitler did not attend any of the medal presentations which followed. and medals of Nazi Germany Sino-German cooperation (1911–1941) Vergangenheitsbewältigung Further reading • William Sheridan Allen. and I waved back at him. who left the medal ceremonies after awarding a German and a Finn medal. [88] [89] See also • • • • • • • • • • Collaboration with the Axis Powers during World War II German Resistance Glossary of German military terms Glossary of Nazi Germany List of Nazi Party leaders and officials Nazi architecture Nazi songs Orders. one common belief of Hitler snubbing African-American athlete Jesse Owens has recently been discovered to be technically incorrect—it was African-American athlete Cornelius Cooper Johnson who was believed to have been snubbed by Hitler. Two major displays of Nazi German art and culture were at the 1936 Summer Olympics and at the German pavilion at the 1937 International Exposition in Paris. Olympic Stadium (photo by Josef Jindřich German athletes were carefully chosen not only for strength but for Šechtl). and Effects of National Socialism. Toronto: F. and the State" from When Biology Became Destiny: Women in Weimar and Nazi Germany edited by Renate Bridenthal. 2002. Standard scholarly history. ISBN 0-531-09935-0. 1922–1945 by New York . 1918–1945." He also stated: "Hitler didn't snub me — it was FDR who snubbed me. Atina Grossmann. New York. and Marion Kaplan. The Origins. the Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen (NSRL). The German Dictatorship. The Nazi Seizure of Power : the Experience Of A Single German Town. Aryan appearance." Hitler was criticized for this and the Olympic committee officials insisted that he greet each and every medalist.Nazi Germany Sports Established in 1934. (sometimes also known under the acronym NSRBL) was the umbrella organization for sports during the Third Reich. or none at all. Structure. Praeger 1970. • Michael Burleigh. Owens recounted: "When I passed the Chancellor he arose. Hitler claimed it was not a snub. decorations. 24 . but that he had official business to attend to which caused him to depart. waved his hand at me. On reports that Hitler had deliberately avoided acknowledging his victories.

1981. ISBN 0-691-03198-3. UK: Blackwell Publishers. 2005. 1971. Inside Nazi Germany: Conformity.Nazi Germany • Martin Broszat. The Third Reich London: G. The Cult of Art in Nazi Germany. • Heinz Höhne. ISBN 0-7509-3781-5. February 1989. : Harvard University Press. Stanford: Stanford University Press. German National Socialism. The Third Reich in Power 2005 ISBN 1-59420-074-2. ISBN 0-906336-00-7 25 .Y. 1961. The Third Reich: The Essential Readings. ISBN 0-393-04800-4. The German Opposition to Hitler: An Assessment Longwood Pr Ltd: London 1948. Cambridge. • Frank McDonough. The Nazi Conscience. Calif. London: Penguin Books. scholarly history • Paul Garson. Martin's Press. 4th ed. translated by Janet Lloyd. • Andreas Hillgruber Germany and the two World Wars. N. ISBN 0-8147-7950-6. • Guido Knopp. 2006. Mass. • Ian Kershaw. • Claudia Koonz. Shirer. Mothers In The Fatherland: Women. 1998. The Coming of the Third Reich. 2000. 2003. The Order of the Death's Head: The Story of Hitler's SS. ISBN 0-582-49200-9. London: Focal Point Publications. 1970 ISBN 0-85496-119-4. ed. London: Jonathan Cape. Academy Chicago Publishers • Richard Grunberger. London: Longman. Hitler's War. Norton & Co. Santa Barbara. standard scholarly history to 1933 • Richard J. 1985. Evans. ISBN 978-0-670-03826-8. Class and Status in Nazi Germany. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-340-76028-1 • Claudia Koonz. ISBN 1-872197-10-8. 1999. • William L. • Roger Moorhouse. • Alfred Sohn-Rethel. ISBN 0-7134-5217-X. Garden City. 1981 ISBN 0-674-35321-8. 1978. 2004. New York: St. Translated by Richard Barry. 1966. Killing Hitler.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.: Clio Press. 1987. Economy and Class Structure of German Fascism. ISBN 0-671-72868-7 • David Schoenbaum Hitler’s Social Revolution. 2006. ISBN 0-8047-4327-4. ISBN 0-14-100975-6. ISBN 0-19-503492-9. • Detlev Peukert. From Weimar to Auschwitz Princeton. 2003. Pearson Longman. London: Arnold. The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation. Allen & Unwin. Mass. • David Irving.: Princeton University Press. • Hans Mommsen. 1933-1939. Cambridge. Oxford. “Domestic Crisis” and War in 1939" pages 200–240 from Past and Present. CSE Bks. Opposition and Racism in Everyday Life. London. • Martin Broszat. 1984 ISBN 0-04-943033-5. New York: Oxford University Press. New York : New York University Press. • Eric Michaud. 1966. W. London: Batsford. • Anthony Read. The Hitler State: The Foundation and Development Of The Internal Structure Of The Third Reich. Number 122. German Big Business and the Rise of Hitler. 1991. ISBN 0-631-20700-7. Sutton Publishing. N. 1963. Album of the Damned: Snapshots from the Third Reich 2008 ISBN 978-0-89733-576-8. Hitler and the Rise of The Nazi Party. A Social History of the Third Reich 1974 ISBN 0-14-013675-4. • Christian Leitz. • Adam Tooze. • Henry Ashby Turner. The Wages of Destruction: The Making and the Breaking of the Nazi Economy. the Family. Evans. • Klaus Hildebrand. Hitler's Henchmen. 1919–1945 translated from the German by Kurt Rosenbaum and Inge Pauli Boehm. translated by Mary Fischer. ISBN 0-224-07121-1. • Richard J. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. and Nazi Politics. W. 1987. ISBN 0-312-54933-4. Doubleday. Hiden.J.. The Devils Disciples. • Richard Overy & Timothy Mason "Debate: Germany. • Hans Rothfels. Translated by John W. 1993. • The Nazi Elite edited by Ronald Smelser and Rainer Zitelmann. 2003.

 100–104. org. archive. . org. with mandatory lengthy terms of enlistment to prevent the establishment of reserves.9171. The Coming of the Third Reich (New York: Penguin Books.TIME" (http:/ / www. [2] This was the notorious Article 231. External links • • • • • • Wikimedia Atlas of Germany Germany [90] at the Open Directory Project The Rise of the Nazis and Beginning of Persecution of the Jews [91] . A History of Us: War. html). [6] The letters Nati. Anthony Read .com. Karl-Wilhelm Maurer." World Politics.217 [16] Peter Hoffmann "The History of the German Nationalsozialist are pronounced much like "Nazi" in English. pp. Oxford UP. The Divided Nation: A History of Germany.1952" (http:/ / www1. No. including the prohibition of any submarines. for example Sozis for Sozialisten and Kitas for Kindertagesstätte ("day care centers"). Retrieved 2009-09-16. html). Infanterie-division. 14. 1934-1945"‎ (1988).885838. A military air force was likewise forbidden. 01. "The German Resistance Movement".000 men. scguard. was party to the Treaty of Trianon. Norton & Co. 1940 (1940-04-01). W. htm). Joy (1995). Rafmuseum. [20] Monday. uk/ milestones-of-flight/ british_military/ 1940. ISBN 0-19-509514-6. com/ museum/ ww23940. "Hitler's Nazi state: the years of dictatorial rule. New York: Oxford University Press. p. time. de/ cuxhaven_1231. 1934 [12] "The Devils Disciples". was demilitarized: Germany was forbidden to have troops or military installations there. [10] Richard Evans. Retrieved 2009-09-16. 421. further referenced to G Almond. July 2. html) on 2008-01-03. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0. pp409–527. Scguard. 425. The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. Retrieved 2009-09-16. The General Staff was to be dissolved along with certain military colleges. Apr. de/ kultur/ geschichte/ helgolandchronik2.00. Munich: Sudwest Verlag GmbH & co. a separate treaty distinct from St. The Nazis’ plurality diminished from 230 seats to 196 seats after the federal election of November 1932. ISBN 0-393-04800-4 [13] Henry Maitles NEVER AGAIN!: A review of David Goldhagen. [4] Article 231 of Versailles stipulated that Germany bore sole responsibility for the outbreak of the war.122 (1994) ISBN 0-521-41459-8 [15] Otis C. p. cfm). Retrieved 2010-08-22. scguard. The Nemesis of Power: The German Army in Politics 1918–1945. Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press 26 .00. [9] Hakim. the so-called War Guilt Clause [3] All of Germany's foreign colonies were forfeited. 1918-1990. Hitlers Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust" (http:/ / pubs. . time. [14] David Clay. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0. html). socialistreviewindex.Kultur . (http:/ / books. [11] GERMANY: Second Revolution? (http:/ / www. . however. [22] Quester. • Christian Zenter and Friedemann Bedurftig. [21] "SC Military Museum" (http:/ / web. 2003). google.754321. Archived from the original (http:/ / .About the Holocaust .9171. rafmuseum. [19] "British Military Aviation in 1940 . 1963). 441. Mitchell.xiii [17] CuHaven Online (http:/ / www. bordering France. Hungary and Austria were both formed as republics after the dissolution of the Habsburg's Austrian-Hungarian empire. de/ books?id=OL3AvYS68TwC& pg=PA14& dq=bomben+ cuxhaven+ 1939& lr=& ei=AiniSfHZAoOIzQT6x_Ap) [18] "NDR Online . which was aligned with Germany during the war via the then-extant Austrian-Hungarian empire. [7] Mary Fulbrook. another principal belligerent aligned with Germany. This type of syllabic shortening of words is common in German. TIME<!. W. php) see also: Die Hessisch-thüringische 251. [5] Germany would be limited to an army of 100.Geschichte. pp.Part 1" (http:/ / www. Limits were placed on the navy in the form of the size and types of ships permitted. "Contending with Hitler: Varieties of German Resistance in the Third Reich". Current History 10 (1946). 2003. uk/ isj77/ maitles. com/ museum/ ww23940. 3 (Apr. org/ web/ 20080103191658/ http:/ / www. Tanks were forbidden. "IN THE AIR: Raid on Sylt . 15. 1933-1945"p. 1992. 2005 ISBN 1-4039-1812-0. KG. Hungary. TIME Magazine.. Vol.. The part of Germany known as the Rhineland. before Hitler became Chancellor of Germany.Chronik Helgolands 1914 .Yad Vashem The Third Reich [92] Third Reich in Ruins (Photos) [93] Lebendiges Museum Online [94] (In German) References [1] The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919) concluded the Allies' peace with Austria.George "Bargaining and Bombing During World War II in Europe. 45 [8] The Nazi Party did not achieve a parliamentary majority. html). Peace and all that Jazz.Nazi Germany • Sir John Wheeler-Bennett. Germain and Versailles. ndr. Palgrave Macmillan: London: 1953. cuxhaven.

berkeley. php?lang=en& ModuleId=10005143)". W. " Transitional Justice (http:/ / plato. ISBN 0814798071. Save Our Environment (http:/ / books. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny:sbornik statei. [49] Katz. . p. stanford. nationalarchives. neu. 1945-1948". [37] " Who benefits from global violence and war: uncovering a destructive system (http:/ / books. stm). uk/ index. htm). mazal. NYU Part One. Münchner Neueste Nachrichten. guardian. Translation: "The Munich Chief of Police. htm)." 27 . "The Historical Roots of a Special Relationship: Austro-German Relations Between Hegemony and Equality". Retrieved 2009-09-16.berkeley. Voldemar.2. neu. edu/ ~jobrien/ reference/ ob62. BBC News. Smith (1994). Nathan Associates Inc. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2009 Edition) Section 1. php?lang=en& ModuleId=10005394). [40] Richard Overy. 82–83. [30] Schrijvers. p. Journal of Social History 34. html). . google. Greenwood Publishing Group. edu/ TCEH/ Slouch_Purge15. "Forced Labour under Third Reich . Peter (2001). [52] "Ein Konzentrationslager für politische Gefangene" (http:/ / www. ess.136.neu. . and John C. [50] Perry Biddiscombe "Dangerous Liaisons: The Anti-Fraternization Movement in the US Occupation Zones of Germany and Austria. Retrieved 2007-08-15. Geoffrey A.uwe. Retrieved 2009-09-16. [32] " The Holocaust (http:/ / www. Nir. Sankt-Peterburg 1995 ISBN 5-86789-023-6 [28] "Hitler's War. com/ books?id=CDMVMqDvp4QC& pg=PA242& dq& hl=en#v=onepage& q=& f=false)".. edu/ TCEH/ Slouch_Purge15. jjay. [33] " Rulers and victims: the Russians in the Soviet Union (http:/ / books. php?title=Chronological_Summary_of_Royal_Air_Force_Bomber_Command_Operations) – Your Archives [25] " Siege of Leningrad (Soviet history) (http:/ / www. Kenneth.British Bombing Strategy in World War Two" (http:/ / www. . uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 4530565. [35] " The World's Wasted Wealth 2: Save Our Wealth. edu/ holocaust/ Hitlers_Plans. Stephen A. . Jennifer Achord Rountree (2008). and on the other hand these people cannot be released because attempts have shown that they persist in their efforts to agitate and organize as soon as they are released. uk/ world/ 2003/ oct/ 22/ worlddispatch. Hitler's Plans for Eastern Europe" (http:/ / www. [29] " Germany's forgotten victims (http:/ / www. Stephen A. ushmm. Bradford DeLong – University of California at Berkeley and NBER(February 1997)" (http:/ / econ161. org/ wlc/ article. [42] "econ161. . Retrieved 10 April 2010. Retrieved 2009-09-16. p. html). BBC. 2" (http:/ / www. p. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0. Economic History Review. [46] Bischof. ed. google. . berkeley. as in the long run it is not possible to keep individual functionaries in the state prisons without overburdening these prisons. org/ archive/ DACHPHO/ Dach02. berkeley. Marc Pilisuk. "Forced Labour under Third Reich . Encyclopædia Britannica. ac. has issued the following press announcement: On Wednesday the first concentration camp is to be opened in Dachau with an accommodation for 5000 persons.204. Guardian. [48] "ess. ISBN 027599435X [38] Eisikovits. htm). Himmler. germany)". J.J. uwe. com/ books?id=c9bMfZBI8-sC& pg=PA204& dq& hl=en#v=onepage& q=& f=false)". The Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. co. p. dac. October 22. nathaninc. Nathan Associates Retrieved 2007-04-20. pdf) (PDF). time. Dac. Harvard University Press. Beyer.920455-2. The Crash of Ruin: American Combat Soldiers in Europe during World War II (http:/ / books. edu/ TCEH/ Slouch_Purge15. htm). Nazis and Soviets. Schneider. vol. Random House.1 Victor's Justice [39] (Estonian) Pinn. 2003. [31] "World War II: Combatants and Casualties (1937–1945)" (http:/ / web. [26] "Introduction" U-Boat Operations of the Second World War—Vol 1 by Wynn. 1998.. Why the allies won. org/ wlc/ article. com/ nathan2/ files/ ccLibraryFiles/ FILENAME/ 000000000073/ Forced Labour Under the Third Reich. uk/ genocide/ ssnur1. edu/ archives/ spr2009/ entries/ justice-transitional)". pp. [41] "Slouching Towards Utopia?: The Economic History of the Twentieth Century – XV. Beyer. 531. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 205. 2. com/ ?id=VjpxBM1_OYIC& pg=PA84& lpg=PA84& dq=dead+ german+ soldiers+ during+ wwii). .edu. com/ books?id=r9kNZrmG0E8C& pg=PA136& dq& hl=en#v=onepage& q=& f=false)". [44] Peter Temin (November 1991). 83–86. 1 [27] The Russian Academy of Science Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. . Retrieved 2008-06-30. pdf) (PDF). 1998 p. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Jews and Freemasons in Europe". Hosking (2006). gov. ISBN 978-0-02-897166-7 OCLC" (http:/ / www. ISBN 0962442321 [36] " REFUGEES: Save Us! Save Us! (http:/ / www. html). 1993 [47] "Hitler's Plan" (http:/ / www. San Francisco: Westview Press. Harald von Riekhoff and Hanspeter Neuhold. 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co. ISBN 0199566801. Behrman House. Problems & Perspectives of Interpretation. Glowm. Environment. Noel Castree (1998).) (2005). 538–49. in less than eight months" of 1941-42. Cato Institute.8 million young. 2006. and Nation in the Third Reich" (http:/ / www. pp. The Nazi Dictatorship. New York: Oxford University Press. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0495572713 [58] Dan Stone (2010). Problems & Perspectives of Interpretation. [67] Review of "The Nazi War on Cancer" (http:/ / findarticles. 2003. Proctor. 118.65. H-Net Reviews. 111. [63] Pauley. The Nazi War on Cancer. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (Touchstone Edition) (New York: Simon & Schuster. Problems & Perspectives of Interpretation."2. The Nazi Dictatorship. html). 28 . Ray Greek. html?p=glowm. pp. 111. pp. com/ index. Remaking Reality: Nature at the Millenium. 476–85. google. Pp. Ian. 4th edition. p92. 290) . "mainly by starvation . Cengage Learning. Sacred Cows and Golden Geese: The Human Cost of Experiments on Animals. P. Hitler's Willing Executioners (p. Stig Förster. Aug 2001 by Ian Dowbiggin [68] "spartacus. 207–208 [74] Review of Franz-Josef Brueggemeier. uk/ GERwomen. Viking.—they were invariably of the plainer type and usually unmarried—lecture their young charges on the moral and patriotic duty of bearing children for Hitler's Reich—within wedlock if possible. 254 typifies the Shirer narrative: I listened to women leaders of the B. bmj. . "How Green Were the Nazis?: Nature. January 2007. Hanauske-Abel. Inc. pp. Pp. Dimensions: A Journal of Holocaust Studies. ISBN 0826414028. BMJ 1996. [61] Kershaw. 2007. [64] Pauley. com/ books?id=zKodTjtvRvEC& pg=PA212& dq& hl=en#v=onepage& q=& f=false)". ISBN 0415144930. Retrieved 2009-09-16. Routledge. hanover. Hanover College Department of History [56] Tooze. glowm. [59] Roger Chickering. ISBN 1566394414. Retrieved 2007-08-15. org/ Braun/ dim_14_1_nazi_med. google.. edu/ holocaust/ Hitlers_Plans. 2000.. 1800-2000. Bruce F. jhu. 1990). The following quotation from p. [77] Hartmut M. Poland 1943 (http:/ / history. The Wages of Destruction. 2003. 248–256).schoolnet. Jean Swingle Greek (2002). asp) Robert N. 119 [70] For a more elaborate discussion.M. P. Adam. [81] Seymour Rossel (1992). cml/ section_view& articleid=375#r88). p90. fi/ index. 1933-1945. esp.132. [71] http:/ /" (http:/ / www. pp. schoolnet. Bernd Greiner. 119. spartacus. " Histories of the Holocaust (http:/ / books. php?494). htm). healthy Soviet POWs" killed by the Germans. 1olsen.C. pp. but without it if necessary. 2003. edu/ courses/ excerpts/ 111him. [80] Martin Kitchen (2006). com/ books?id=uqvgYtJHGSMC& pg=PA132& dq& hl=en#v=onepage& q=& f=false)".. com/ books?id=T205AAAAIAAJ& pg=PA382& lpg=PA382& dq=germany+ abortion+ death+ penalty& source=bl& ots=nQMCJDEN0w& sig=Xfm-Vxwh0RhTXF-spSpNDl9vEM8& hl=en& ei=w1guSsuPJoP6_AaBj6W4Cg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=3 Abortion By Malcolm Potts. DeGregori (2002). and Nation in the Third Reich (review)" (http:/ / muse. ISBN 0521834325 [60] Kershaw. The Nazi Dictatorship. cgi?path=163701165517304) Wilko Graf von Hardenberg. google.D. " A world at total war: global conflict and the politics of destruction. ISBN 0691070512. neu. p153. co. 118 [65] Pauley. [62] Kershaw. Environment. 111. htm). was stopped" and the Germans "began to use them as laborers" (emphasis added).Nazi Germany [53] Daniel Goldhagen. Cambridge University Press. eds. . p. Illinois. H-Environment. Not a slippery slope or sudden subversion: German medicine and National Socialism in 1933 (http:/ / www. 2003. Peter Diggory. dac. The Holocaust: The World and the Jews. pp. pp. Stalin and Mussolini: Totalitarianism in the Twentieth Century. ISBN 1405100400. October. section titled "Education in the Third Reich" (pp. html) Technology and Culture – Volume 48. 1453–1463 (7 December) [78] "kaltio. p132. [82] Bruce Braun. and the Environment. Number 1. [69] Pauley. [54] Hitler's Plans for Eastern Europe (http:/ / www. edu/ login?uri=/ journals/ technology_and_culture/ v048/ 48. [79] Robert Proctor (1999). adl. [sic] [83] C.. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qa3686/ is_200108/ ai_n8961328) Canadian Journal of History. Clinton Sanders (1996). D. p. USA: Harlan Davidson Inc. p79. Shirer. p. . ISBN 1930865317. Oxford University Press.212. p278. A History of Modern Germany. [75] Thomas R. pp. google. Food Safety. Marc Cioc. ISBN 0-671-72868-7. ISBN 0-670-03826-1 [57] William J. Bountiful Harvest:" (http:/ / www. Hitler. Temple University Press. [73] JONATHAN OLSEN "How Green Were the Nazis? Nature. Blackwell Publishing. Regarding Animals. pp. com/ books?id=evVPoSwqrG4C& pg=PA65& dq& hl=en#v=onepage& q=& f=false)". Princeton University Press. German Historical Institute (Washington. Wheeling. Duiker (2009). " Contemporary World History (http:/ / books. and Thomas Zeller. before "the decimation of Soviet POWs . 4th edition. kaltio. h-net. Retrieved 2007-08-15. p. Ian. Pp. 2nd Edition. 4th edition. Pp. 1937-1945 (http:/ / books. 2000. 254–256. Ian. Selections from: "Poland under Nazi Occupation". John Peel at Google Books [72] "History of Contraception" (http:/ / www. org/ reviews/ showrev. [66] Nazi Medicine and Public Health Policy (http:/ / www. [76] Arnold Arluke. pp. 2000. by Janusz Gumkowkski and Kazimierz Leszczynski [55] Heinrich Himmler Speech before SS Group Leaders Posen. ISBN 0874415268. see William L. com/ cgi/ content/ full/ 313/ 7070/ 1453#R101).

com/ index. [90] http:/ / www. ISBN 0826412890. Pp. dhm. [85] Scobie. Ironically. org/ Regional/ Europe/ Germany/ [91] http:/ / www1. com/ index. 1990. axishistory. de/ media_content/ 610. about. Hitler's State Architecture: The Impact of Classical Antiquity. p41. [86] Kinobesuche in Deutschland 1925 bis 2004 (http:/ / www. thirdreichruins. com/ library/ blgermyth10. htm [94] http:/ / www. Jesse Owens and the Olympics Myth of 1936 (http:/ / hnn. 92.Nazi Germany [84] Boria Sax (2000). dmoz. 44–46. us/ articles/ 571. Alexander. asp?WT. Scapegoats. org/ yv/ en/ holocaust/ about/ 01/ persecution. Adolf Hitler. c_id=wiki [92] http:/ / www. de/ lemo/ html/ nazi/ index. ISBN 0-271-00691-9. pp. Lies and Cherished Myths of American History. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. V [87] Cinema of Germany#1933-1945 Film industry in the Third Reich [88] Hyde Flippo.about. pdf) Spitzenorganisation der Filmwirtschaft e. html) 13 February 2002 from History News Network (article excerpted from Rick Shenkman's Legends. htm) German Myth 10 from German. php?id=31 [93] http:/ / www. Continuum International Publishing Group. Publisher: William Morrow & Co. html 29 . it was US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt who declined to invite Owens to the White House or to congratulate him in any way. and the Holocaust. See "Getting to Know the Racial Views of Our Past Presidents: What about FDR?" Journal of Blacks in Higher Education 38 (2002– [89] Rick Shenkman. Animals in the Third Reich: Pets. Winter). 1st ed edition (November 1988) ISBN 0-688-06580-5). spio. The 1936 Berlin Olympics: Hitler and Jesse Owens (http:/ / german. yadvashem.

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