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• ~640 pieces of muscles
• Working as antagonistic
pairs through a joint of the
skeletal system
• ~320 pairs

• How many types of muscle?—
Based on morphological and
functional differences.
• Skeletal muscle

• Cardiac muscle
• Smooth

forceful and usually under voluntary control.1. Their contraction is quick. . Skeletal Muscle – composed of bundles of very long cylindrical multinucleated cells that have cross – striations.

Also have cross – striations. Contraction is involuntary. vigorous and rhythmic. At sites of end to end contact are the intercalated disks. . Cardiac Muscle composed of elongated or branched individual cells that run parallel to each other.2.

. no cross – striations. Contraction is slow and involuntary. Smooth Muscle consists of collections of fusiform cells.3.

• How many types of skeletal muscle?—Based on color or oxidative capacity. . white (anaerobic). Three. pink or red (aerobic).

Why farmers prefer to plough the land with a cow instead of a pig? .

Beef Pork .

Marathon runner versus sprinter? .

Fast Muscle 3. fat and protein uses glucose. few oxidative enzymes no myoglobin darker pink oxidative enzymes low myoglobin dark red oxidative enzymes high myoglobin c) uses only glucose uses glucose.There are different types of muscle with different ATPase activity and differing speeds of contraction : 1. Fast Muscle 2. fat and protein d) easily fatigued lactic acid formed easily fatigued lactic acid formed long lasting little lactic acid e) Fast ATPase Intermediate ATPase Slow ATPase f) Tetanus tensions Tension Tension Tension time time time . Slow Muscle low oxidation high oxidation high oxidation a) very low mitochondria Many mitochondria Many mitochondria b) white or pink.

RED White .


com/watch?v=KG1JHW_q2VA .Skeletal muscle

• What constitute the thin filaments? • What is the function of the G-actin and F-actin? .

Z-line Binding site for myosin head Change position after binging with Ca++ .

• What constitute the thick filaments? • What is the function of the myosin head? .

M-line ATPase HMM S1 LMM HMM S2 .

• How do thick and thin filaments organized into functional units of skeletal muscle? • What is a sarcomere? .

Transmission of action potential Storage of Ca++ Sliding of filaments .

Sarcomeres – Thin and thick filaments overlap in two regions of each sarcomere – Each thick filament is surrounded by six thin filaments – Three-dimensional organization of thin and thick filaments is maintained by other proteins • Nebulin – Along length of thin filament • Titin – Keeps thick filament centered in sarcomere – Attaches thick filament to Z-disk .

Sarcomeres Figure 5.17 .

Three-Dimensional Structure of Sarcomere 6 thin: 1 thick Figure 5.18 .

• What are the advantages of having many units of short sarcomeres instead of one long units which covers the whole length of the muscle? .


? . thin filaments do not run straight through. but terminate.At Z – line.

Thin filament “Cocked” Thick filament ? .

Thin filament “Rotated” “Cocked” Thick filament ? .

Thin filament “Rotated” “Cocked” Thick filament ? .


•Why would the muscle exhibit constant volume contraction? Relaxed Z-line contracted .

how is skeletal muscle contraction controlled? .• Since skeletal muscle is voluntary.

binding site
binding site

• What is the role of calcium in muscle
• How does it work together with troponin
and affect tropomyocin?

Very high in Ca++
conc. at resting
Very low in Ca++
conc. at resting
depolarization, Ca++
channels open,
releasing Ca++ into


receptor )


• How does sliding occur between thick and thin filaments? .

Cocked position ready for binding .

sliding occurs .rotated position. .Video on control of muscle contraction http://www.

During shortening of the sarcomere. there are no changes in the lengths of the thick and thin filaments. .

Shortened Constant length Constant Constant length .

• What are the roles of ATP in muscle contraction? Link with this week’s practical. .

Structure of ATP The bonds between the phosphate groups of ATP are unstable and can be broken by hydrolysis. .

the actiomyosin complex will not dissociation—Rigor Mortis after death .If no ATP is available to bind to the myosin head.

what are the roles of ATP in the contraction and relaxation of skeletal muscle contraction? • • • • Myosin head conformational change Dissociation of actomyosin complex Active transport of Ca++ Maintenance of Na+ and K+ gradients Production of heat (shivering) .So.

What is the relationship between the degree of overlap between thick and thin filaments and the tension build up? .


Summary: Muscle structure and function .

and what is tetany (muscle cramp)? Reading assignment on muscle cramp:• What is a muscle twitch.htm .

The mechanical response of a muscle fiber to a single action potential is known as a twitch. .



.A maintained contraction in response to repetitive stimulation is known as a tetanus.

Ca++. K+.) • Inadequate blood supply (temp. dehydration. medical conditions.) . pregnancy. • Nerve compression (age. dehydration.Muscle cramp (tetany) • Mineral imbalance (Na+. Mg++.

Tetanus disease Clostridium tetani .

The details of muscle contraction: (8:50min).Connection between motor neuron and skeletal muscle: • What is a motor unit? • Is it good to have large motor units or small motor units? Neuromuscular junction and motor unit: .youtube.

Size of motor units—delicate or powerful movement? .

Some units are resting at all times. . Thus some motor units will be contracting while others are relaxing. Preventing fatigue of the muscle.The motor neurons to a given muscle fire in an asynchronous pattern. This asynchrony has the advantages of: 1.

2. If all were firing in synchrony. This type of movements is associated with certain diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and also the normal shivering responses to cold. movement would be jerky series of contractions and relaxations. Maintaining a nearly constant tension in the muscle. . Both inhibition of the subcortical centers in the dominated by local feed back loops from stretch receptors which tend to become synchronous and thus oscillatory.

What happens to your muscles as you aged? .

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• What happens to your muscles as you aged? Weaker and Weaker! Do exercise!!! .

as in weight lifting. its tension does not greatly increase. If one exercise. or by opposing antagonistic muscle to each other. thus enlarging and strengthening the gross muscle being exercised. This is called isometric exercise. It is said to be isotonic.EXERCISE AND MUSCLES Moderate exercise increases the diameter of muscle cells. for though a muscle does shorten during such exercise. If the exercise involves movement. the resulting contraction does not actually shorten the muscle. by pushing against an immovable object. .

• What is isometric contraction? • What is isotonic contraction? Note: isotonic exercise involves both isometric and isotonic contraction in a muscle. .

Antagonistic pair of muscles Red= contract Blue=relax .

Isotonic vs isometric contraction: Isotonic= constant tension Isotonic contraction Isometric= constant length Isometric contraction .


they do not normally increase in number. vigorous and continual exercise may lead to hypertrophy (i. • Thus. so that as they die they cannot be replaced (under normal circumstances). • Part of this decrease is no doubt due to minor injuries that occur in the course of a life time. However. increase in myofibril number).e. .• Although muscle fibers enlarge with body growth. the number of muscle cells in all muscles drastically decreases in old age. without exercise.

Muscle stem cells can help to repair major muscle injuries (would you consider doing stem cell research?) .

What is muscle soreness? How to deal with it? .


Skeletal muscles produce forces which need to work with the skeletal systems (bones and joints)! • What kind of lever system does the arm represent? • What is its mechanical advantage? Why? .

Types of levers Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 .

• Third type lever Advantage :You can touch your nose!!! • Disadvantage: Low mechanical advantage .

• What kind of lever system does other parts of the body have? • Any joint exhibit high mechanical advantage (MA)? .


youtube.Mechanical advantage High MA Low flexibility Low MA High flexibility .

Why can deer run faster than human? How to improve both mechanical advantage and flexibility? .


• Why would a person fall? • Where is the center of mass in your body? • Is it in a constant position? .



• How high can you jump? • What is the relationship between the center of mass and high jump? • How to improve the method of high jump? .

= center of mass .

Center of mass is outside the body .

An athlete use physics to break the world record in high jump! (Always think about application!!) .

End .