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PARTS OF SPEECH

NOUN – person, place, thing, or idea / The (noun) smiled.
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Nouns can be common or proper

Common nouns: man, book, city, team
Examples:
1. Ali liked to read a book every night before he went to bed.
2. My favorite drink is soda.
3. In the country I live in, it is not legal to marry more than one person at a time.

Proper nouns: Justin, Lord of the Flies, New York, New York Giants
Examples:
1. Ali liked to read Harry Potter every night before he went to bed.
2. My favorite drink is Diet Coke.
3. In the United States, it is not legal to marry more than one person at a time.

Nouns can be concrete (things you can see or touch) or abstract (things you can’t see or touch)

Concrete nouns: dishes, desks, discs, doorknobs
Examples:
1. My book is in my locker.
2. The cat caught a mouse.
3. There's a man at the door.
4. The cake is cooling in the kitchen.
5. A new shoe store opened in the mall.

Abstract nouns: love, justice, guilt, anxiety
Examples:
1. We struck water at the depth of twenty feet.
2. There can be no peace in this world without justice.
3. Write down the details of the answer; for memory may fail.
4. I wish you get a good result for you deserve it.

Nouns can be subjects or objects

A subject noun names the person, place, thing or idea that is doing the action or is being talked
about.
 Our family loved spending afternoons in the park.

An object noun is used as the direct object, indirect object, or object of the preposition.
 We would often eat our lunch there.

A predicate noun follows a linking verb or a form of the be verb and repeats/renames the
subject.
 Our favorite game was football.

This is a problem. you. be. We can't all be heroes because somebody has to sit on the curb and clap as they go by. it we. o Personal pronouns – refers to specific people. several. or things  I. . anyone. which. The boys baked these scones themselves. each. I have nothing to declare except my genius. How much will you contribute? 2. 3. That is the one I left in the car. which. o Indefinite pronouns – do not substitute for specifics  everybody. that. I want to go home. Who told you to do that? 3. 3. few. 2. any. Shall I take those? o Intensive pronouns – a personal pronoun + self/selves  himself. nobody. whoever. Which dog won the race? o Demonstrative pronouns – identify or point to nouns  this. The book that won is a novel. where Examples: 1. Somebody must have seen the driver leave. both. either. such Examples: 1. she. o Relative pronouns – relate groups of words to nouns or other pronouns  who. 3. o Interrogative pronouns – introduce questions  who. but they weren't included. Everybody speaks. 4. they Examples: 1. ourselves Examples: 1. but some of us are looking at the stars. I bought some batteries. 2. that Examples: 1. 3. We are all in the gutter. 2. The man who first saw the comet reported it as a UFO. 3. She will do it herself. places. I saw the dog which ate the cake. none Examples: 1. 2. 2. He himself asked that question. PRONOUN – substitutes for nouns and function as nouns / Jess said the hat was __(pronoun)__. some. what. how.

 themselves. . Jack and Jill hate each other. her Examples: 1. may. did. it’s probably transitive o Intransitive verbs don’t pass the action on to a receiver o Linking verbs link subjects to word(s) that describe the subject  o Any form of the be verb (am. are. where. yourself. 2. 3. Verb Phrases consist of a main verb and a helping verb  Helping verbs = can. itself Examples: 1. was. would She had always been thinking of her future. or thing)/object  The receiver is the object I threw the pen. 3. place. 2.o Reflexive pronouns – same form as intensive but indicate that the sentence subject also receives the action of the verb. been) The answer is three. 3. They gave each other presents. had. what). could. might. were. do. will. one another Examples: 1. be.  HINT: if there are questions left (who. its. You/He/She/They/We __(intransitive verb)__ often. The dog bit itself. shall. o o o o Janie (verb)__ five miles. does. I/You/It (linking verb) happy. being. 2. have. should. They injured themselves. His view is that it's come to the end of its working life. Take her spoon and put it by your plate. o Possessive pronouns – show ownership  his. has. Let’s (transitive verb) it. is. your.  VERB – action or state of being. must. o Transitive verbs pass the action on to a receiver (person. Take her car to the party. The crayfish starting attacking one another. Are you talking to yourself? o Reciprocal pronouns – expresses a mutual action or relationship  each other.

and superlative. “Good” is an adj. Decker trained well. comparative. adjective.  o Positive Performing fleas train vigorously.  Compound: made up of more than one word Scar-faced Bronty is no scaredy-cat guard. 3. . telling me HOW Decker trained. ADVERB – modify/describes verbs. HINT: Many adverbs end in ly — particularly those that are used to express how an action is performed.) without  Comparative Jumping frogs train more vigorously than performing fleas. I anxiously await.  ADJECTIVE – modifies/describes a noun or pronoun. “Well” is an adv. He runs fast. 4. answers the questions WHAT KIND? HOW MANY? WHICH ONE? The (adjective) girl/boy is very (adjective). answers the question HOW? WHEN? WHERE? Or TO WHAT EXTENT? Examples: 1. (“More vigorously” modifies the verb “train” and compares how “frogs” train to how “fleas” train. I angrily shout. 2. describing her health. Well  “Good” is used only as an adjective  “Well” can be used as an adverb (many different meanings) or an adjective (only meaning “fit” or “healthy”) Her health was good. o Adverbs have 3 forms: positive. or other adverbs. (“Most vigorously” modifies the adjective “trained” and compares one “flea” to all other insects. (“Vigorously” modifies the verb “train” making any comparisons.) Good vs. Tara walks gracefully.)  Superlative Fido’s flea is the most vigorously trained insect in the world. but that cat is meaner. o 4 Types of Adjectives  Demonstrative: points out a particular noun This kitten is mean.

 Superlative: compares 3 or more nouns/pronouns Frozen yogurt is the lightest dessert of the five on this menu. before. nor. while. phrases. but.  CONJUNCTIONS – connects ideas or joins words. o Gives more information and explains things. Oh my gosh! Huh? Oh. when. Hey. Dude?  PREPOSITIONS – show position or direction. Indefinite: gives an approximate number/quantity Some cats enjoy having many mice around. “ (interjection)__. phrases/clauses. we lose visuals in writing as well as our orientation in time and space. Fred finished his math (conjunction) science.  Predicate: follows a linking verb and describes the subject A frustrated kitten is unpleasant and unpredictable. after. o o o o Connects words. although. exclamation point. Kate tossed a penny (preposition) the fountain. o Examples:  Ahhh! Oh. o Forms of Adjectives  Positive: describes noun/pronoun without comparing it to anything Frozen yogurt is a light dessert.  Comparative: compares 2 nouns/pronouns Frozen yogurt is a lighter dessert than ice cream. o Prepositions always exist in phrases  A prepositional phrase can be left out of a sentence and the sentence still makes sense. guess where I’m going next week?” o Shows intense emotion o Exists in single words or VERY short phrases. and sentences Allows us to say more without repetition Subordinate Conjunctions:  AAAWWUBBIS: as. Joe. o Usually set off with a comma. if. and. or period. until. or clauses. . man! Dude! Dude. since Coordinate:  FANBOYS: for. or. question mark. yet.  A prepositional phrase starts with a preposition  A phrase contains a subject or a verb – not both o Without prepositions. so  INTERJECTIONS – word or phrase used to express strong emotion or surprise. because. Explains relationships.

right) for a floor in a house for public transport for television. at to/till/unti  l till/until  by   Prepositions – Place (Position and Direction): English in at on by. building. to. on the table on the left on the first floor on the bus. at school. street. paper etc. on the radio Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car. .   I will be back by 6 o’clock. radio left or right of somebody or something Example         in the kitchen. in the world at the door. car. taxi picture. next. in a taxi in the picture. world meaning next to. by an object for table for events place where you are to do something typical (watch a film.Prepositions – Time: English Usage Example on  days of the week  on Monday in since         months / seasons time of day year after a certain period of time (when?) for night for weekend a certain point of time (when?) from a certain point of time (past till now)         in August / in winter in the morning in 2006 in an hour at night at the weekend at half past nine since 1980 for  over a certain period of time (past till now)  for 2 years ago  a certain time in the past  2 years ago before  earlier than a certain point of time  before 2004 to  telling the time  ten to six (5:50) past  telling the time  ten past six (6:10) marking the beginning and end of a period of time in the sense of how long something is going to last in the sense of at the latest up to a certain time  from Monday to/till Friday  He is on holiday until Friday. at the station at the table at a concert. town. country book. I had read five pages. on a plane on TV. at work         the picture on the wall London lies on the Thames. work) attached for a place with a river being on a surface for a certain side (left. study. in London in the book in the car. beside Usage                 room. at the party at the cinema. By 11 o'clock.

meaning what about  we were talking about you by on . lower than (or covered by) something else lower than something else but above ground  the bag is under the table  the fish are below the surface covered by something else meaning more than getting to the other side (also across) overcoming an obstacle higher than something else.under  below  over     above  across    through on the ground. on horseback get on the bus get in the car off  leaving a public transport vehicle  get off the train out of  leaving a car / Taxi  get out of the taxi by at    rise or fall of something travelling (other than walking or horseriding) for age    prices have risen by 10 percent by car. but not directly over it getting to the other side (also over) getting to the other side something with limits on top. by bus she learned Russian at 45 about  for topics. bottom and the sides movement to person or building movement to a place or country for bed enter a room / a building      put a jacket over your shirt over 16 years of age walk over the bridge climb over the wall a path above the lake    walk across the bridge swim across the lake drive through the tunnel     go to the cinema go to London / Ireland go to bed go into the kitchen / the house  go 5 steps towards the house  jump onto the table  a flower from the garden into     towards  onto  movement in the direction of something (but not directly to it) movement to the top of something from  in the sense of where from to Other important Prepositions: English Usage Example from  who gave it  a present from Jane of    who/what does it belong to what does it show who made it    a page of the book the picture of a palace a book by Mark Twain in    walking or riding on horseback entering a public transport vehicle entering a car / Taxi    on foot.

2. Shut the door. Should I call or email you? 4. 2. Examples: 1. 4. ends with an exclamation point. Would you prefer chocolate or vanilla ice cream? 3. I just won the bet! 4. tea. 3. 3. I don’t know what happened here!  IMPERATIVE – gives a command.KINDS OF SENTENCES  DECLARATIVE – makes a statement or gives information. My mom cooks food every day. Do you want coffee. My cousin is always noisy. or soda? . ends with a period. Go away! 4. Examples: 1. ends with a period or an exclamation point. Examples: 1. I simply adore you! 3. Go feed the cat.  EXCLAMATORY – expresses strong feeling. ends with a question mark. It's a secret. Examples: 1. I am studying my lesson. so don't tell anyone!  INTERROGATIVE – asks a question. I can’t figure this out! 2. How are you today? 2. I take a bath every day.

4. 5.” 2. 6. 7. Pedro has not returned from the store. “When it rained they went inside” consists of two clauses: “when it rained” and “they went inside. broken into thousands of pieces. 7. before the first test.  . because of her glittering smile. 3. PREDICATE – Predicate tells something about the subject. Our school cafeteria always smelled like stale cheese and dirty socks. My brother flew a helicopter in Iraq. Bobo has never driven before. smashing into a fence. Examples: 1. 5. Examples: 1. 2.  PHRASE – Group of words that doesn't give or make complete sense or meaning. The Johnsons have returned. We will try harder next time. leaving behind the dog. 10. Time flies. It may be one word or many words. 8. 6. Examples: 1. Hummingbirds sing with their tail feathers. 9. 3. CLAUSE – Group of words which forms part of a sentence and contains a subject and predicate. after the devastation. He was eating a bacon sandwich. We will try. 2. A clause is a collection of words that has a subject that is actively doing a verb. My mother took our dog to the vet for its shots. between ignorance and intelligence. . 4.

o.  INDEFINITE ARTICLES – a. or degree:  I felt a bit depressed. o Used to designate a natural phenomenon:  The nights get shorter in the summer. count and non-count nouns. e. o Used to indicate a noun that is unique:  Praise the Lord!  The Columbia River is near here. DEFINITE ARTICLE – the the— can be used before singular and plural.talkenglish. www. a book. i. o Used to indicate all the members of a family:  I invited the Bakers for dinner. u):  a stamp. amount. o Used to refer to a time period:  I was very naïve in the past.  The wind is blowing so hard.com .ARTICLES The words 'a'. e. an orange. i.  I like the clothes you gave me. a desk. a—used before singular count nouns beginning with consonants (other than a. o Used to indicate a noun that is definite or has been previously specified in the context:  Please close the door. 'an'.  This song was very popular in the 1980s. an—used before singular count nouns beginning with a vowel (a. o.  o Used before singular nouns that are unspecified:  a pencil  an orange o Used before number collectives and some numbers:  a dozen  a gallon o Used before a singular noun followed by a restrictive modifier:  a girl who was wearing a yellow hat o Used with nouns to form adverbial phrases of quantity. an issue.  This medicine was invented by the Smiths. 2. an elephant. and 'the' are special adjectives called articles. an 1. a cup. a TV. u) or vowel sound:  an apple.

EXAMPLES: The check (receiver) was cashed (verb) by Molly (agent) at the bank.  ACTIVE: John asked Teresa to dinner.  PASSIVE: The check was mailed late. The verb in passive voice takes a form of the verb “to be” and the past participle of the main verb.  When the agent is unknown  PASSIVE: The money was stolen last night. Passive Voice The voice in a sentence tells the reader whether the subject performs or receives the verb’s action.  ACTIVE: The batter strikes the ball with the bat. Choosing Passive Voice In general. the subject performs the action and the receiver takes the action of the verb. PASSIVE: Teresa was asked to dinner by John.  Active voice is direct. Active Voice In sentences with active voice. ACTIVE: I mailed the check late. However. The check (receiver) was cashed (verb) at the bank.  When your discipline wants writing appear objective and fact-based. the receiver of the verb’s action becomes the subject of the sentence. EXAMPLE: Molly (agent) cashed (verb) her check (receiver) at the bank. Scientists and business writing often use passive voice. ACTIVE: Voters elected the president three years ago.Active vs. PASSIVE: The ball is struck by the batter with the bat. .  Verbs in the active voice are more lively because they emphasize the agent of the action. (no agent) Choosing between Active and Passive Voice Choosing Active Voice Use active voice in most writing because it engages the reader more effectively than passive voice. ACTIVE: Someone stole the money last night. Passive Voice In passive sentences. passive voice may be used in the following cases:  When emphasizing the receiver is more important than emphasizing the agent of the action  PASSIVE: The president was elected three years ago. use passive voice sparingly.

 EXAMPLE: The ice cream cones from the store were eaten by the children. If the phrase is left in the wrong spot. ACTIVE The children … Step Number Two: Change the verb from a “to be” form to the appropriate active tense. PASSIVE The ice cream cones were eaten by the children.  INCORRECT: The children ate the ice cream. PASSIVE The ice cream cones were eaten by the children. The following steps show how to transform a sentence.  A Few Cautions  If your original sentence contains a modifying phrase or a phrase that describes a specific element in the sentence. INCORRECT: The children from the store ate the ice cream cones. ACTIVE The children ate the ice cream. PASSIVE The ice cream cones were eaten by the children. Eliminate the word by if necessary. ACTIVE The children ate … Step Number Three: Make the subject of the passive sentence the receiver of the active sentence. the sentence may be unclear. but Peter bought it. but it was bought by Peter.  Put the subject/agent of the active sentence into a by phrase or omit it. make sure you keep the phrase next to that element when you change from active to passive voice.Transforming Passive Sentences into Active Sentences You can transform passive voice to active voice by making the agent perform the verb. Step Number One: Make the agent in the by phrase the subject of the active sentence. (voice is consistent) . (describes the children) CORRECT: The children ate the ice cream cones from the store.    Make the receiver of the active sentence the subject of the passive voice sentence. Transforming Active Sentences into Passive Sentences You can change active voice sentences into passive voice by reversing the steps listed above. (describes ice cream cones)  Avoid shifting from active to passive voice in the same sentence because it can cause awkwardness and confusion. EXAMPLE: The ice cream cones (receiver) were eaten (verb) by the children (agent). (voice shifts) CORRECT: The children ate the ice cream.  Transform the verb into a form of to be plus the past participle of the main verb.