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AC Circuits
Alternating Current (AC) Circuits

by
Prof. Dr. Osman SEVAOLU
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 1

AC Circuits

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What is Direct Current (DC) ?


Definition

Switch is turned on at: t = 1 sec

Direct Current (DC) is a current with a


constant time characteristics

Current, I

R1= 5 Ohms
+
Vs=600 V

R2= 5 Ohms

Current (Amp)

Switch
80

60

40

I = 60 A
DC (Constant) Current

20

0
1

Time (Sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 2

AC Circuits

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What is Alternating Current (AC) ?


Definition
Alternating Current (AC) is a current with
time varying characteristics
Non - Sinusoidal AC
Current (Amp)

Current (Amp)

Sinusoidal AC
10

Angle (Radians)
0

/2

3/2

5,0

4,0

3,0

2,0

1,0

- 10
0,0
0,0

1,0

2,0

3,0

4,0

5,0

6,0

t (sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 3

AC Circuits

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Basic Parameters of a Sinusoidal Waveform


Sinusoidal Voltage

Definition
Sinusoidal voltage is a voltage
with waveform as shown on the
RHS
^
V(t) = V sin ( wt + )
where
V(t) is the voltage waveform,
^

V is the peak value (amplitude),


w is the angular frequency,
is the phase shift, i.e. angle of the
voltage at t = 0, (phase angle)

Voltage (Volt)
312
300
200

Phase angle
Amplitude

100
Angle (Radians)
0

/2

3/2

w =2f
f = 50 Hz
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 4

AC Circuits

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Basic Parameters of a Sinusoidal Waveform


Voltage Waveform
V (Volts)
25
20
15

Peak Value = 21,2 V

10
5
0
-5

Time (msec)

10

15

20

-10
-15
-20
-25
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 5

AC Circuits

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Basic Parameters of a Sinusoidal Waveform


Period and Frequency

I (Amp)

V (Volts)

25
20
15
10
5
0
-5

Time (msec)
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

-10
-15
-20
-25

Period = T = 20 msec = 360 o

Frequency = 1 / T = 1 / 0.020 = 50 Hertz

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 6

AC Circuits

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AC (Alternating Current) Circuit


Positive half cycle

Negative half cycle

I (Amp)

I (Amp)

25

I(t)

25

25

20

20

20

15

15

15

10

10

10

V(t) +

5
0

0,005

0,01 0,015

-5

Load

0
0

-10
-15
-20
-25

Time (Sec)

0,005

-5

-5

-10

-10

-15

-15

-20

-20

-25

-25

I(t)

V(t) +
0,01

0,015

0,02

Time (Sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 7

Load

AC Circuits

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Elements of AC Circuits: Capacitor


Definition
Capacitor is a device that can store
electrical charge

Positive conductor
Insulating Layer
Negative conductor

The simplest configuration consists of


two parallel conducting plates
separated by an insulating layer

Insulating Layer provides dielectricity


(prevents current flow) between
positive and negative conductors

Symbolic
representation
_

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 8

AC Circuits

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Capacitance
Definition

Small Capacitance

Large Capacitance

Capacitors store electrical charge


C1 < C2

Capacitance = C2
+

Capacitance = C1
+

Storage capacity of a capacitor is


called capacitance

__

Water (hydroulic) example

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 9

AC Circuits

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Capacitor-Practical Configuration
Geometry

Capacitor plates are packaged in a roll


form in order to have smaller size
_
_

Alminum cover

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 10

AC Circuits

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Capacitor-Practical Configuration
Geometry
Capacitor cylinders are then
connected in parallel in bank form

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 11

AC Circuits

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Capacitor-Practical Configuration
Geometry
Capacitor banks
Control relay

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 12

AC Circuits

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Capacitor-Practical Configuration
Geometry
Single and three-phase capacitor
banks

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 13

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AC Circuits
MV (Medium Voltage) Shunt Capacitor Banks

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 14

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AC Circuits
MV (Medium Voltage) Shunt Capacitor Banks

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 15

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AC Circuits
MV (Medium Voltage) Shunt Capacitor Banks

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 16

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AC Circuits
Electronic Capacitors in a Motherboard

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 17

AC Circuits

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Basic Relation

Charge stored in a capacitor is


proportional to the voltage V
applied

+
_

Symbolic Representation
+

1 Farad is the capacitance with a


charge of 1 Coulomb at a voltage 1 Volt
between the plates

or
Q=CV
where, Q is charge stored (Coulombs),
V is voltage (Volts),
C is capacitance (Farads)

Capacitance C
+

Charge stored in a capacitor is


proportional to the capacitance C,

Voltage Source V

C = 1 Farad

Basic Principle

Q = 1 Coulomb

1 Volt

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 18

AC Circuits

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Voltage - Current Relation for a Capacitor


Definition

I(t)

The relation;

Q(t) = C V(t)
or differentiating both sides with respect to time

may be written in time domain as;

V(t)
_

Q=CV

dQ(t)/dt = C dV(t)/dt
or remembering that
dQ(t)/dt = I(t)
Hence,
I(t) = C dV(t) / dt
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 19

AC Circuits

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Voltage - Current Relation for a Capacitor

The above equation may be integrated


with respect to time, yielding the
following Voltage - Current Relation for a
Capacitor

where V(0) is the initial voltage across


the capacitor, representing the initial
voltage due to the initial charge stored in
the capacitor

I(t)

Switch

V(t) = (1/C) I(t)dt + V(0)

Switch is turned on at: t = 0 sec

V(t)

C
Vc (0)

Definition

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 20

AC Circuits

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Example - 1

I(t)

Problem

where is known as the time constant of the


circuit and given as

= 10 -6 sec = 1.0 sec

C = 0.1 F

V(t)

V(t) = 5 (1 - e-t/ )

Calculate the time waveform of the current flowing


in the circuit shown on the RHS by assuming that
the capacitor is charged by the exponential
voltage V(t) shown in the figure

V(t) = 5 (1 - e-t/ )
5,0
4,0
3,0
2,0
1,0

Vmax = Maximum voltage that can be reached = 5 Volts


Qmax = C x Vmax = Maximum charge that can be stored

0,0

0,0

1,0

2,0

3,0

4,0

5,0

6,0

t (sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 21

AC Circuits

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Example - 1
I(t)

Solution

V(t) = 5 (1 - e-t/ )

5,0
4,0

I(t) = C dV(t)/dt

V(t)

I(t) = C d V(t) / dt
= C d 5(1 e -t/ )/dt
= 0.1 x 10-6 ( 5 / ) x e -t/
= 0.1 x 10-6 x 5 x 106 x e -t/
= 0.5 x e -t/ Ampers

3,0
2,0
1,0

Hence,

V(t) = 5 (1 - e-t/ )

0,0

0,0

1,0

2,0

3,0

4,0

1,0

2,0

3,0

4,0

I(t)

5,0

6,0

5,0

6,0

t (sec)

0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0,0

0,0

t (sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 22

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AC Circuits
Example - 1

Charge Stored in a Capacitor

Qmax = C x Vmax = Maximum charge that can be stored


I(t)

V(t)

C = 0.1 F

Charge stored in the capacitor starts from


zero and gradually increases to its final
value

Calculate the time waveform of the charge


stored in the capacitor in the same circuit

Q(t)
5x10-7

Q(t) = C x V(t)
= 0.1 x 10 -6 x 5 (1 - e-t/ )
= 5 x 10-7 x (1 - e-t/ ) Coulombs

4x10-7
3x10-7
2x10-7
1x10-7
0,0
0,0

1,0

2,0

3,0

4,0

5,0

6,0

t (sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 23

AC Circuits

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Example - 2

Current source shown in the circuit on


the RHS provides a 10 mA constant
current within the time interval;

Switch is turned on at: t = 0 sec,


off at: t = 1.0 sec.
Switch
I(t) (mA)

I(t)

t [0, 1]

Determine the voltage across the


capacitor within the time interval;

12,0

Capacitor is initially charged to 2 Volts


voltage

14,0

I(t)

10,0
8,0

Problem

6,0
4,0
2,0
0,0

t [0, 1]

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1,0

1,2

t (sec)

C = 1000 F

Vc(0) = 2 Volts

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 24

AC Circuits

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Example - 2
I(t) (mA)

Solution

I(t)

14,0
12,0

Voltage across the capacitance is


expressed as

I(t)

V(t) = (1/10-3) 10-2 dt + 2


0

= 10 t + 2 Volts

8,0

4,0
2,0

where,

V(t) = (1/C) I(t)dt + 2

10,0

6,0

V(t) = (1/C) I(t)dt + V(0)


V(0) = 2 Volts
is the initial voltage across the
capacitor
t [0, 1]
Hence;
1

0,0

C = 1000 F
Vc(0) = 2 Volts

0,0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1,0

1,2

t (sec)

V(t) (Volts)
14,0
12,0
10,0
8,0
6,0
4,0
2,0
0,0

0,0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1,0

1,2

t (sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 25

AC Circuits

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R-C Circuits

Solve the RC circuit shown on the RHS


for current I(t) flowing in the circuit when
the switch is closed at t = 0

Switch is turned on at: t = 0 sec


Switch

I(t)

Solution
V(t) = R I(t) + VC(t)
= R I(t) + (1/C) I(t)dt + V(0)

Writing down KVL for the circuit

V(0)=V0
C

^
V(t) = V sinwt

Problem

Differentiating both sides wrt time once;


or

dV(t) / dt = R dI(t) / dt + (1/C) I(t)

A first order ordinary differential equation

d/dt I(t) + (1/RC) I(t) = (1/R) dV(t) / dt

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 26

AC Circuits

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Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation

Solution
Solve the resulting first order ordinary differential equation (ODE)

dI(t) / dt + (1/RC) I(t) = (1/R) dV(t) / dt

^
V(t) = V sinwt

V(0)=V0
C

dI(t) / dt + (1/RC) I(t) = (1/R) d/dt (V sin ( wt + ))


^

dI(t) / dt + (1/RC) I(t) = (V/R) w cos ( wt + )

V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )

dV( t ) / dt = ^
V w cos wt
Voltage (Volt)

312
300
200

Amplitude

100
0

/2

Angle (Radians)
2
3/2

Phase angle

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 27

AC Circuits

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Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation

Solution
Solve the resulting first order ordinary differential equation (ODE)
^

^
V(t) = V sinwt

^
(t) dI(t)/dt + I(t) (1/RC)(t) = (t) ( V/R ) w cos ( wt + )
^
(t) dI(t)/dt + I(t) d/dt (t) = ( V/R ) (t) w cos ( wt + )
^
d/dt [(t) I(t)]
= ( V/R ) (t) w cos ( wt + )
^
d/dt [(t) I(t)] dt
= ( V/R ) (t) w cos ( wt + ) dt + I(0)
^
(t) I(t)
= ( V/R ) (t) w cos ( wt + ) dt + I(0)
^
I(t)
= I (t) -1 (t) w cos(wt + ) dt + (t)-1I(0)

dI(t) / dt + (1/RC) I(t) = (V/R) w cos ( wt + )


Define an integration factor (t) = e t / RC
Multiply both sides of the above ODE by this factor;

V(0)=V0
C

V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )

dV( t ) / dt = ^
V w cos wt
Voltage (Volt)

312
300
200

Amplitude

100
0

/2

Angle (Radians)
2
3/2

Phase angle

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 28

AC Circuits

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Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation

Solution (Continued)

Switch is turned on at: t = 0 sec


Switch

I(t)

I(t) = I e - t/RC e t/RC w cos (wt + ) dt + e - t/RC I(0)


=Ie

- t/RC

e t/RC

cos (wt + ) dt + e

- t/RC

I(0)

^
V(t) = V sinwt

Let = 0 (for simplicity)

e t/RC cos wt dt = e t/RC

w sinwt + (1/RC) coswt


---------------------------------(1/RC)2 + w 2

V(0)=V0
C

Subsituting the integration factor (t) = e t/RC into


the above solution;

V( t ) = V sin wt

Taken from the book : Calculus and Analytic Geometry,


Thomas,Addison Wesley, Third Ed. 1965, pp. 369

dV( t ) / dt = V w cos wt

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 29

AC Circuits

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Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation

Subsituting the above term into the solution;


w sinwt + (1/RC) coswt
^ - t/RC
t/RC
I(t) = I e
we
---------------------------------- + e - t/RC I(0)
(1/RC)2 + w 2

^
I
I(t) = ------------------- ( sinwt + (1/wRC) coswt ) + e - t/RC I(0)
(1/wRC)2 + 1

Switch

I(t)
R

^ 2 sinwt + (1/wRC) coswt


I(t) = I w ----------------------------------- + e - t/RC I(0)
(1/RC)2 + w 2

Switch is turned on at: t = 0 sec

^
V(t) = V sinwt

V(0)=V0
C

Solution (Continued)

V( t ) = V sin wt

dV( t ) / dt = V w cos wt
Steady-State Term

Transient Term

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 30

AC Circuits

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Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation

Numerical Example

Switch is turned on at: t = 0 sec


I(t)
R
+
^
V(t) = V sinwt

V(0)=V0
C

^
I
I(t) = ------------------- ( sinwt + (1/wRC) coswt ) + e - t/RC I(0)
(1/wRC)2 + 1

Switch

Now assume that the parameters of the circuit on


the RHS are as follows;
V(t) = 312 sin wt Volts
R = 10 Ohms
C = 10 Farads

V( t ) = V sin wt

Steady-State Term

Transient Term

dV( t ) / dt = V w cos wt

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 31

AC Circuits

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Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation


25

Numerical Example

20

^
I
I(t) = ------------------- ( sinwt + (1/wRC) coswt ) + e - t/RC I(0)
(1/wRC)2 + 1

15

10

Transient Term

Steady-State Term

0
25

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

40

20

30

15
20

10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-20

10
0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

-10
-20
-30

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 32

AC Circuits

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Solution for DC Voltage Source - Two Simple Rules

Rule - 1

I(0) = ( V V0 ) / R

V(t) = (1 / C) I(t)dt = V(0) = V0


-

R=2
C =1000 F
V(0)=V0

The current waveform will then be;


I(t) = I() + [ I(0) - I() ] e -t/

Please note that an


uncharged capacitor
acts effectively as a
short circuit,
i.e. V0 = 0

R
+

V = VDC-V0

VDC

I(t)

Then the initial value of current will be;


I(0) = ( VDC V0 ) / R

I(0)

SC

A capacitor acts as a DC voltage source


initially due to its initial charge

= RC = Time Constant: The time required a for


capacitor to reach 63 % of its full charge
= 2 x 1000 F = 2 x 1000 x 10-6 = 0.002 sec

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 33

AC Circuits

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Solution for DC Voltage Source - Two Simple Rules

Rule - 2

I() = 0

A capacitor acts as an open circuit finally


to a DC voltage (or current)

Then the final value of current will be;


I() = 0

I(t) = C d/dt V(t) = C d/dt (constant) = 0 (OC)


R=2
VDC

I(t)
+

C =1000 F

VDC +
I() = 0

OC

V(0)=V0

The current waveform will then be;


I(t) = I() + [ I(0) - I() ] e -t/

= RC = Time Constant: The time required for


a capacitor to reach 63 % of its full charge
= 2 x 1000 F = 2 x 1000 x 10-6 = 0.002 sec

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 34

AC Circuits

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Solution for DC Voltage Source - Two Simple Rules

Solution

The final value of current will be;


I() = 0

The initial value of current will be;


I(0) = ( VDC V0 ) / R

VDC

I(t)
+

Substituting the above expressions into


the current expression

R=2

C =1000 F
V(0)=V0

I(t) (Amp)
24.0
20.0
16.0

The current waveform will then be;


I(t) = I() + [ I(0) - I() ] e -t/
I(t) = [( VDC V0 ) / R ] e -t/

12.0

% 63 of the initial value

8.0
4.0
0

0,002

0,004

0,006

0,008

0,01

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 35

AC Circuits

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Meaning of Time Constant

Definition
Time constant of a electric circuit is
the duration for the current to get
reduced by 63 % of its initial value
Time constant of an RC circuit is
simply expressed as:
= RC

The Effect of
5
4

% 63 of the initial value


3

% 63 of the inital value

2
1

0
0

0,5

1,5

2,5

3,5

4,5

5,5

t (sec)

2
2 > 1

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 36

AC Circuits

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Example

R= 2 Ohm

Problem

V() = VS = 24 Volts
The voltage waveform will then be;

V(t) (Volts)

Capacitor will behave as a DC source at the


beginning and as OC at the end, hence;
V(0) = V0 = 6 Volts

+ VDC= 24 Volts

Find the voltage waveform across the 1 mF


capacitor shown on the RHS, when it has an
initial charge of 6 Volts and charged by a 24
Volts DC voltage source through a wire with 2
Ohm resistance

I(t)
V(0)=V0 = 6 V
C = 1 mF

24.0
20.0
16.0
12.0

% 63 of the final value

8.0
4.0
0

0,002

0,004

0,006

0,008

0,01

t (sec)

V(t) = V() + [V(0) - V()] e -t/

= RC = Time Constant: The time required

V(t) = 24 + ( 6 24 ) e-t/0.002 = 24 -18 e-t/0.002 Volts

for a capacitor to reach 63 % of full charge


= 2 x 1000 F = 2 x 0.001 = 0.002 sec

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 37

AC Circuits

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Energy Stored in a Capacitor


Problem
Calculate the instantaneous energy
stored in a capacitor with a capacitance
C and an instantaneous voltage VC(t)

Example
A 10 F capacitor fully charged with a 12
Volts DC voltage stores an energy;
(1/2) 10 x 10-6 x 122 = 720 x 10-6 Joule
I(t)

P(t) = VC(t) I(t)


WC(t) = P(t) dt

= C VC(t) dVC(t)

V(t)

= VC(t) C dVC(t) / dt dt

Vc(t)

= VC(t) I(t) dt

or
WC(t) = (1/2) C VC2(t)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 38

AC Circuits

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Example
^

I(t)

V( t ) = V sin wt
Voltage (Volts)

312

Angle (Radians)

^
V (t) = V sin wt

/2

3/2

V(t) = 312 sin wt

- 312

WC(t) = (1/2) C VC2(t)


^
Wc(t) = (1/2) 10 x 10-6 V 2 sin 2 wt
= 0,000005 x 3122 sin2 wt
= 0,4867 sin2 wt
= 0,4867 ( cos 2x )

0,6

C = 10 F

Wc(t)

0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2

sin2

cos2

wt = 1
wt = 1 ( 1 + cos2wt ) / 2
= cos2wt

Mean of Wc(t) > 0

0,1
Angle (Radians)
0

/2

3/2

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 39

Find the instantaneous energy in the


capacitor for the voltage shown in the
figure

Problem

AC Circuits

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Series Connected Capacitances


Series connected capacitances
V1(t) =
V2(t) =
+
----------- =
V (t) =
=

(1/C1) I(t)dt
(1/C2) I(t)dt
+
---------------------[ (1/C1 ) + (1/C2) ] I(t)dt
(1/Ctot ) I(t)dt

Hence,
Ctot

1
= ---------------------(1/C1 ) + (1/C2 )

Series connected capacitances


are combined in the same way as
for shunt connected resistances

I(t)
C1

V1 (t)

V(t)
C2

V2 (t)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 40

AC Circuits

METU

Series and Shunt Connected Capacitances


Shunt connected capacitances
I1(t)
I2(t)
+
----------I (t)

=
=
=
=
=

C1 d V(t) / dt
C2 d V(t) / dt
+
---------------------------(C1 + C2) d V(t) / dt
d V(t) / dt
Ctot

Shunt connected capacitances are


simply added
I(t)

+
V(t)

Vc(t)

I1

I2

C1

C2

Where,
C tot = C1 + C2
is the total capacitance
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 41

AC Circuits

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Inductance
Definition

Coil

Core

Toroidal Coil

Toroidal Core

Inductance is a winding or
coil of wire around a core
Core may be either insulator
or a ferromagnetic material

Symbolic representation

_
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 42

AC Circuits

METU

Ferrite Core Toroidal Inductor


Definition

Ferriet core inductor has a


toroidal ferrit core inside
Ferrite core
Toroidal coil

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 43

METU

AC Circuits
Air Core Inductor

Configuration

Air core inductor has no core inside

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 44

AC Circuits

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Basic Relation

Voltage across an inductor is


proportional to the rate of change of
current

1 Henry is a value of inductance defined as


1 Henry = 1 Volt x 1 second / 1 Amp

I(t)

+ V(t)

V(t) = L d I(t) / dt
where, V(t) is the voltage across the
inductance,
I(t) is the current flowing
through,
L is the inductance (Henry)

Inductance L

Voltage Source V(t)

Definition

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 45

AC Circuits

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Current in an Inductance
Definition

Voltage Source V(t)

The equation;

Inductance L

I(t)

V(t) = L d I(t) / dt
can be written in inverse form as
where I(0) is the current initially flowing
in the inductor

I(t) = (1/L) V(t)dt + I(0)

+
V(t)

_
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 46

AC Circuits

METU

Current in an Inductance
I (Amp)Voltage Waveforms
Phase Shift between Current and
V (Volts), I (Amp)

I(t) = (1/L) V(t) dt


= (1/L) Vmax sin wt dt
= - (Vmax / wL) coswt
= - Imax coswt

25
20
15
10

I(t)

5
0

V(t)

+ Inductance

Vmax
Imax
0.005

0.010

0.015

0.020

-5
-10
-15
-20
-25

Time (Sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 47

METU

AC Circuits
Series and Shunt Connected Inductors

Series connected inductors are added


V1(t) =
L1 d I(t) / dt
L2 d I(t) / dt
V2(t) =
+
----------- +-------------------------V(t) = (L1 + L2) d I(t) / dt
d I(t) / dt
= L tot
where
L tot = L1 + L2
is the total inductance

Series connected inductances


I(t)

+
V1 (t)

L1

+
V(t)

+
L2

V2 (t)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 48

AC Circuits

METU

Series and Shunt Connected Inductors


Shunt connected inductances are
combined in the same way as for shunt
connected resistances
I1(t) = (1/L1) V(t)dt

I(t)

I2(t) = (1/L2) V(t)dt


+
+
--------------------------I(t)

Shunt connected inductances

V(t)

Vc(t)

I1

I2

L1

L2

= [ (1/L1 ) + (1/L2) ] V(t)dt


= (1/Ltot )

V(t)dt

Hence,

Ltot

1
= ---------------------(1/L1 ) + (1/L2 )

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 49

AC Circuits

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Example - 3
Problem

t < 1 ms
1 t 5 ms
5 t 9 ms
9 t 13 ms
t 13 ms

Calculate the voltage across the 10 mH


inductor with the current shown in the figure
on the RHS
I(t) = 0
I(t) = 1/((5-1)x10-3) (t 10-3)
I(t) = 1
I(t) = -1/((5-1) x 10-3) (t 12 x 10-3)
V(t) = 0

I(t)

I(t)

L = 10 mH

I(t) (Amp)
1,0

0,5

0,0
0,0

2,0

4,0

6,0

8,0

10,0

12,0

14,0

t (msec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 50

AC Circuits

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Example - 3

I(t)

Solution
V(t) = L d I(t) / dt

I(t)

L = 10 mH

Differentiating the current waveform and


multiplying by L (L = 10-2 H);
V(t) = 0
V(t) = 0.01x 1/((5-1)x10-3) = 2.5 V
V(t) = 0
V(t) = 0.01x (-1)/((5-1) x 10-3) = -2.5 V
V(t) = 0

t < 1 ms
1 t 5 ms
5 t 9 ms
9 t 13 ms
t 13 ms

V(t) (Volts)
2,5

0,0

-2,5
0,0

2,0

4,0

6,0

8,0

10,0

12,0

14,0

t (msec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 51

AC Circuits

METU

Example - 4

I(t)

Problem
Assume that the inductor shown on the RHS
is connected to a voltage source of the form
shown in the figure
Find out the inductor current waveform
assuming that the initial current in the
inductor is zero
V(t) = 0
V(t) = -10 V
V(t) = 0

t<0s
0t1s
t 1s

V(t)

L = 10 mH

V(t) (mV)
0,0

-10
0,0

0,5

1,0

t (sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 52

AC Circuits

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Example - 4

I(t)

Solution
I(t) = (1/L) V(t) dt + I(0)

V(t)

L = 10 mH

Integrating the voltage expression;

I(t) = (1/L) V(t) dt + I(0)


= 1/(10 x 10-3) V(t) dt
I(t) = 0
t<0s
I(t) = 1/(10x10-3) x V(t) dt = 100 x V(t) dt
= 100 x (-10 x 10-3) t = - t
0t1s
I(t) = -1 A t 1 s

I(t) (A)
0,0

-1
0,0

0,5

1,0

t (sec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 53

AC Circuits

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Energy Stored in an Inductor


Problem
I(t)

VL(t)

L
_

P(t) = VL(t) I(t)

Calculate the instantaneous energy


stored in an inductor with an inductance
L and an instantaneous voltage VL(t)

I(t)

WL(t) = P(t) dt
= VL(t) I(t) dt
= I(t) L dI(t) / dt dt
= L I(t) dI(t)

or
WL(t) = L I2(t)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 54

AC Circuits

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Example 5
I(t)

Problem
Find the instantaneous energy in the
inductor for the current shown in the figure
t < 1 ms
1 t 5 ms
5 t 9 ms
9 t 13 ms
t 13 ms

I (t) = 0
I (t) = 1/(4x10-3) (t-10-3) Amp
I (t) = 1 Amp
I (t) = 1/(4x10-3) (t - 13x 10-3) Amp
I (t) = 0

V(t)

L = 10 mH
I(t) (Amp)
1,0

0,5

0,0
0,0

2,0

4,0

6,0

8,0

10,0

12,0

14,0

t (msec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 55

AC Circuits

METU

Example 5

I(t)

Solution

WL(t) = L I2(t)

V(t)

By using the above formula


W(t) = 0 Joule
W(t) = 312.5 (t-10-3)2 Joules
W(t) = 0.01 /2 x 12 = 0.005 Joules
W(t) = 312.5 (t-13x10-3)2 Joules
W(t) = 0

t < 1 ms
1 t 5 ms
5 t 9 ms
9 t 13 ms
t 13 ms

L = 10 mH

W(t) (Joule)
0,006
0,005
0,004
0,003
0,002
0,001
0,0

2,0

4,0

6,0

8,0

10,0

12,0

14,0

t (msec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 56

AC Circuits

METU

R-L Circuits

Solve the R-L circuit shown on the RHS


which consists of a resistance in series
with an inductance for current waveform
when the switch is turned on at time:
t = 0 sec
Writing down KVL for the circuit
V(t) = R I(t) + L dI(t) / dt
or
dI(t) / dt + (R/L) I(t) = (1/L) V(t)

Switch

I(t)
+

Solution

Switch is turned on at: t = 0 sec

V(t)

I(0)=I0
L

Problem

A first order ordinary differential equation

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 57

AC Circuits

METU

Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation


R

Solution
I(t)

Solve the resulting first order ordinary differential equation (ODE)

I(0)=I0

V(t)

dI(t) / dt + (R/L) I(t) = (1/L) V(t)

dI(t) / dt + (R/L) I(t) = (1/L) V sin ( wt + )


^

V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )
Voltage (Volt)

312
300
200

Amplitude

100
0

/2

Angle (Radians)
2
3/2

Phase angle

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 58

METU

AC Circuits

Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation


R

Solution
I(t)

Solve the resulting first order ordinary differential equation (ODE)


^

^
(t) dI(t)/dt + I(t) (1/RC)(t) = (t) ( V / L ) sin ( wt + )
^
(t) dI(t)/dt + I(t) d/dt (t) = ( V / L ) (t) sin ( wt + )
^
d/dt [(t) I(t)]
= ( V / L ) (t) sin ( wt + )
^
d/dt [(t) I(t)] dt
= ( V / L ) (t) sin ( wt + ) dt + I(0)
^
(t) I(t)
= ( V / L ) (t) sin ( wt + ) dt + I(0)
^
I(t)
= I (t) -1 (t) sin (wt + ) dt + (t)-1I(0)

I(0)=I0

V(t)

dI(t) / dt + (R/L) I(t) = (V/L) sin ( wt + )

Define an integration factor (t) = e t R/L


Multiply both sides of the above ODE by this factor;

V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )

Voltage (Volt)

312
300
200

Amplitude

100
0

/2

Angle (Radians)
2
3/2

Phase angle

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 59

AC Circuits

METU

Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation

Solution (Continued)
Subsituting the integration factor (t) = e t R/L into
the above solution;

Switch is turned on at: t = 0 sec


Switch

I(t)

I(t) = I e t R/L e t R/L sin (wt + ) dt + e t R/L I(0)

V(t)

t R/L

sin wt dt =

e t R/L

(R/L) sinwt - w coswt


---------------------------------(R/L)2 + w 2

Taken from the book : Calculus and Analytic Geometry,


Thomas,Addison Wesley, Third Ed. 1965, pp. 369

Let = 0 (for simplicity)

I(0)=I0

V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 60

AC Circuits

METU

Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation

Solution (Continued)
Subsituting the above term into the solution;
^ t R/L t R/L (R/L) sinwt - w coswt
I(t) = I e
e
---------------------------------- + e t R/L I(0)
(R/L)2 + w 2

R
I(t)
+

I(0)=I0

V(t)

^
I
I(t) = ------------------- ( sinwt - (wL/R) coswt ) + e t R/L I(0)
(wL/R)2 + 1

Steady-State Term

Switch

^ (R/L) sinwt - w coswt


I(t) = I ----------------------------------- + e t R/L I(0)
(R/L)2 + w 2

Switch is turned on at: t = 0 sec

V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )

Transient Term

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 61

AC Circuits

METU

Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation

Numerical Example

Switch is turned on at: t = 0 sec

Steady-State Term

R
I(t)
+

V(t)

I(0)=I0
L

^
I
I(t) = ------------------- ( sinwt - (wL/R) coswt ) + e t R/L I(0)
(wL/R)2 + 1

Switch

Now assume that the parameters of the circuit on


the RHS are as follows;
V(t) = 312 sin wt Volts
R = 1 Ohms
L = 10 milli Henry

V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )

Transient Term

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 62

AC Circuits

METU

Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation


25

Numerical Example

20

^^
I
I(t) = ------------------- ( sinwt - (wL/R) coswt ) + e t R/L I(0)
(wL/R)2 + 1

15

10

Transient Term

Steady-State Term

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

250
200

400

150

300

100
200

50
0
-50
-100

100
0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4
0
-100

-150
-200
-250

-200
-300

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 63

AC Circuits

METU

Solution for DC Voltage - Two Simple Rules


I(0) = 0

Rule - 1

I(0) = (1 / L) V(t) dt = I0 = 0
-

L=0.002 H

VDC

I(t)

An inductor with no initial current acts as


an open circuit to a DC voltage source
initially

R=1

(OC)

Then, the initial value of current will be;


I(0) = 0

R
I(0) = 0

+
VDC

The current waveform will then be;


I(t) = I() + [I(0) - I()] e -t/

OC

= L / R = Time Constant: The time required for


an inductor to reach 63 % of full current
= 1 x 2 mH = 1 x 0.002 = 0.002 Sec

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 64

AC Circuits

METU

Solution for DC Voltage - Two Simple Rules


I() = V / R

Rule - 2

R=1

(SC)

I(t)
L=0.002 H

VDC

V(t) = L d/dt I(t) = L d/dt (ct) = 0

An inductor acts as a short circuit to a


DC current (or voltage) finally

Then, the final value of current will be;

I() = V / R
VDC

I()

SC

The current waveform will then be;


I(t) = I() + [I(0) - I()] e -t/

= L / R = Time Constant: The time required for


an inductor to reach 63 % of full current
= 1 x 2 mH = 1 x 0.002 = 0.002 Sec

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 65

METU

AC Circuits
Definition of the Time Constant:

R = 1 Ohms

The current waveform will then be;


I(t) = I() + [I(0) - I()] e -t/

I(t)

L = 2mH

V= 24 Volts

= L / R = Time Constant: The time required for


an inductor to reach 63 % of full current
= 1 x 2 mH = 1x 0.002 H = 0.002 Sec

I(t) (Amps)

_
24.0
20.0
16.0
12.0

% 63 of peak (24 V)

8.0
4.0
0

0,002

0,004

0,006

0,008

0,01

t (sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 66

AC Circuits

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Example - 6

R = 1 Ohms

Problem

L = 2mH

V= 24 Volts

I(t) (Amps)

Inductor will be SC at the end, hence;


I() = V / R = 24 / 1 = 24 Amps

Find the current waveform in the 2 mH


inductor shown on the RHS when it has an
initial current of 6 Amps and connected to a
24 Volt DC voltage source through a wire with
1 Ohm resistance
Inductor has 6 Amp initial current;
I(0) = I0 = 6 Amp

I(t)

24.0
20.0
16.0

I()

12.0
8.0

The current waveform will then be;


I(t) = I() + [I(0) - I()] e t /
I(t) = 24 + (6 - 24) e-t / 0.002 = 24 - 18 e-t / 0.002 Amps

I(0)

4.0
0

0,002

0,004

0,006

0,008

0,01

t (sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 67

AC Circuits

METU

Example - 7
+

V= 24 V

Solve the circuit shown on the RHS for


current waveform flowing in the inductor

R2 = 5 Ohms

_
R1 = 10 Ohms
A

A
+

L = 0.4 H

V= 24 V R2 = 5 Ohms

Kill the voltage source, and find Req.


R eq = 10 // 5
= 10 x 5 /(10 + 5)
= 10 / 3 Ohms

L = 0.4 H

I(t)

Solution
First take out the branch containing inductor,
and derive the Thevenin Equivalent of the LHS
circuit seen from the terminals A and B

A
+

Problem

R1 = 10 Ohms

B
A

R1 = 10 Ohms

R2 = 5 Ohms
L = 0.4 H

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 68

AC Circuits

METU

Example 7 (Continued)
R1 = 10 Ohms

Solution (Continued)
Open circuit terminals A B and find VAB

+
VA-B (t)

V= 24 V R2 = 5 Ohms

V = 24 V x R2 / ( R1 + R2)
= 24 x 5 / 15 = 24 / 3
=8V

Form the resulting Thevenin equivalent


Circuit,
Connect the inductance to the resulting
Thevenin equivalent circuit,
Solve the resulting circuit by using the
straightforward method described in
Example 6

R eq= 10 // 5 = 10 x 5 /(10+5)
= 10/3 Ohms

B
A

A
L = 0.4 H

V= 24 / 3 = 8 V

R eq= 10 // 5 = 10 x 5 /(10+5)
= 10/3 Ohms

A
L = 0.4 H

V= 24 / 3 = 8 V

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 69

AC Circuits

METU

R-L-C Circuits
Problem

V(0)=V0

_
R

Writing down KVL for the circuit;


+

V(t)

dV(t)/dt = R dI(t)/dt + Ld2I(t)/dt2 +(1/C)I(t)


or
d2I(t)/dt2 + (R/L)dI(t)/dt + (1/LC) I(t) = (1/L) dV(t)/dt

V(t)

Solution
V(t) = R I(t) + VL(t) + VC(t)
= R I(t) + L dI(t)/dt + (1/C) I(t)dt + V(0)
Differentiating both sides wrt time once;

I(t)

Solve the following circuit which consists of a


resistance, an inductance and a capacitance
connected in series for current waveform

L I(0)=I0

A second order ordinary differential equation

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 70

AC Circuits

METU

Initial Conditions
Differential Equation

d2I(t)/dt2 + (R/L)dI(t)/dt + (1/LC) I(t) = (1/L) dV(t)/dt

Initial Conditions
_

VC(0) = VC0
IL(0) = IL0

The first initial condition may now be written as,

or
d/dt IL(0)= IL(0) =(1/L) [ V(0) VC(0) R IL(0) ] 2

V(t)
_

= V(0) L d/dt IL(0) R IL(0)

I(t)

I(0) = I0

VC(0) = V(0) VL(0) VR(0)

V(0)=V0
C

Two initial conditions are needed for solution

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 71

AC Circuits

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Example
R=2
I(t)

C = 2.494 mF

Solve the R-L-C circuit with the given parameters


shown on the RHS for current I(t)

V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

Writing down KVL for the circuit shown on the


RHS the following ODE is obtained
d2I(t)/dt2 + (R/L)dI(t)/dt + (1/LC) I(t) = (1/L) dV(t)/dt
1 / (LC) = 401

d2I(t)/dt2 + (2/1) dI(t)/dt + 401 I(t) = (1/1) dV(t)/dt


d2I(t)/dt2 + 2 dI(t)/dt + 401 I(t) = d/dt (10 e-4t ) = - 400 e-4t
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 72

R-L-C Circuit

L=1H

AC Circuits

METU

Solution
R=2

R-L-C Circuit

I(t)

C = 2.494 mF

First, obtain the homogeneous equation


by setting the RHS function to zero

L=1H

V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

d2I(t)/dt2 + 2 dI(t)/dt + 401 I(t) = 0

Then, solve the characteristic equation


s2 + 2 s + 401 = 0
c = 401

s1, s2 = ( - b
= -1

b=2

a =1

j 20

b2 -4 x a x c ) / (2 a)
Eigenvalues of the differential equation

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 73

AC Circuits

METU

Solution

R=2

L=1H

R-L-C Circuit
I(t)
C = 2.494 mF
V(t) = 100 e- 4 t
_

I(t) = k1 e s1 t + k2 e s2 t
= k1 e (-1 j20 ) t + k2 e (-1 + j20 ) t
= k1 e - t x e j20 t + k2 e - t x e
= e - t (k1 e j20 t + k2 e j20 t )

Then, the solution becomes

j20 t

= e - t [ k1 (cos 20 t j sin 20 t )
= + k2 (cos 20 t + j sin 20 t ) ]

Eulers Identity

e j = cos + j sin
= 20 t

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 74

AC Circuits

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Eulers Identity
Definition

Graphical Representaion

e j = cos + j sin
^
sin

1.0

e j = cos + j sin
= cos2 + sin2
=1

x2 + y2 = z2

cos

z = x2 + y2

EE
EE 209
209 Fundamentals
Fundamentals of
of Electrical
Electrical and
and Electronics
Electronics Engineering,
Engineering, Prof.
Prof. Dr.
Dr. O.
O. SEVAOLU,
SEVAOLU, Page
Page 75
75

AC Circuits

METU

Solution

R=2

R-L-C Circuit

I(t)
+

= e [ k1 (cos 20t j sin 20t )


=+
k2 (cos 20t + j sin 20t ) ]
= e - t [ (k1 + k2 ) cos 20t + (k2 k1 ) sin 20t ]
B

V(t) = 100 e- 4 t
_

-t

C = 2.494 mF

Rearranging the solution terms

L=1H

Unknown coefficients to determined

Hence, the sinusoidal solution (decaying


sinusoidal term) becomes;
I(t) = e - t ( A cos 20t + B sin 20t )
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 76

AC Circuits

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Solution
R=2

Nonhomogeneous Term
(Transient Term)

I(t)
+

C = 2.494 mF

V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

Definition of the Nonhomogeneous Term


General form of the nonhomogeneous (transient)
term in the solution may be expressed as
In(t) = c e 4 t
where, In(t) is the nonhomogeneous term in the solution,
c is an unknown coefficient to be determined
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 77

Now the nonhomogeneous (transient) term in the


solution is to be determined

L=1H

AC Circuits

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Solution

R=2

Nonhomogeneous Term
(Transient Term)

I(t)
+

C = 2.494 mF
V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

In(t) = c e 4 t

to the given differential equation;


d2I(t)/dt2 + 2 dI(t)/dt + 401 I(t) = - 400 e-4t
and solve it for the unknown coefficient c
d2(ce 4 t)/dt2 + 2 d(ce 4 t)/dt + 401 ce 4 t = -400 e-4t
16c e 4 t + 2c(-4 e 4 t ) + 401 c e 4 t = - 40 e-4 t

Substitute the nonhomogeneous solution;

L=1H

These terms cancel

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 78

AC Circuits

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Solution
Transient Term

These terms cancel

d2(ce 4 t)/dt2 + 2 d(ce 4 t)/dt + 401 ce 4 t = -400 e-4t


16c e 4 t + 2c(-4 e 4 t ) + 401 c e 4 t = - 40 e-4 t

R=2

16 c - 8 c + 401 c = - 400

L=1H
I(t)
C = 2.494 mF

+
V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

Transient term then becomes;


In(t) = - 0.97799 e 4 t
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 79

409 c = - 400 or c = - 400 / 409 = - 0.97799

AC Circuits
Solution

R=2

Complete Solution

I(t)
+

C = 2.494 mF
V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

I(t) = -0.97799 e 4 t + e - t ( A cos 20t +B sin 20t )


Transient Term

Complete solution is the summation of


homogeneous (decaying sinusoidal) and
nonhomogeneous (transient) terms

L=1H

Decaying sinosoidal Term

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 80

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AC Circuits

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Solution

R=2

Determination of the Unknown


Coefficients

I(t)
C = 2.494 mF

I(t) = - 0.97799 e 4 t + e - t ( A cos 2t + B sin 2t )

L=1H

V(t) = 100 e- 4 t
_

Transient Term

Decaying sinosoidal Term

The above solution must satisfy the given


initial conditions;

IL (0) = IL0 = 32.5 A


VC(0) = VC0 = 22 Volts

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 81

AC Circuits

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Solution
Determination of the Unknown
Coefficients

IL (0) = IL0 = 32.5 A


VC(0) = VC0 = 22 Volts

Substitute the given initial conditions into


the complete solution equation and solve for
the unknown coefficients A and B;
I(t) = - 0.97799 e 4 t + e - t ( A cos 2t + B sin 2t )
Transient Term

L=1H
I(t)

+
V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

C = 2.494 mF

Decaying sinosoidal Term

R=2

_
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 82

AC Circuits

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Solution
Determination of the Unknown
Coefficients

IL (0) = IL0 = 32.5 A


VC(0) = VC0 = 22 Volts

Substitute the given initial conditions into the


complete solution equation and solve for the
unknown coefficients A and B;
IL(t) = - 0.97799 e 4 t + e - t ( A cos 20t + B sin 20t )

L=1
H
I L(t)

V(t) = 100

e- 4 t

C = 2.494 mF

A = 0.97799
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 83

IL(0) = - 0.97799 e 0 + e 0 ( A cos 0 + B sin 0 )


= - 0.97799 + A = 0

R=2

AC Circuits

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Solution
Determination of the Unknown
Coefficients

IL (0) = IL0 = 32.5 A


VC(0) = VC0 = 22 Volts

IL(t) = - 0.97799 e 4 t + e - t ( A cos 20t + B sin 20t )


0

L=1H
I L(t)

+
V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

C = 2.494 mF

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 84

d/dt IL(0) = IL(0) = (1/L) [ V(0) VC(0) R IL(0) ]


= (1/1) (100 22 2 * 32.5)
= 13 Amp/sec

R=2

V(0) = 100 e- 4 t
= 100 e- 4 x 0
= 100

AC Circuits
Solution

R=2

Determination of the Unknown


Coefficients
e-t

d/dt IL(t) = 0.97799 x 4


(A cos 20t +B sin 20t )
+ e - t ( -20 A sin 20 t + 20 B cos 20t )

I L(t)
+
V(t) = 100

e- 4 t

C = 2.494 mF

d/dt IL(0) = 0.97799 x 4 e 0 - e 0 (A cos 0 + B sin 0 )


+ e 0 (-20 A sin 0 + 20 B cos 0 ) = 13
= 0.97799 x 4 A + 20B = 13
= 0.97799 x 4 0.97799 + 20B = 13

B = (13 - 3 x 0.9799) / 20 = 0.5033


EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 85

e4t

L=1H

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AC Circuits

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Solution Terms
General form of the Solution
IL(t) = - 0.9799 e 4 t + e - t ( 0.97799 cos 20t + 0.5033 sin 20t )
Transient Term

Decaying sinosoidal Term


R=2

L=1H
I(t)
C = 2.494 mF

+
V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

_
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 86

AC Circuits

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Solution Terms
Transient Term
IL(t) = - 0.9799 e 4 t + e - t ( 0.97799 cos 20t + 0.5033 sin 20t )
Transient Term
0,00

0,0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1,0

1,2

1,4

1,6

R=2

L=1H

-0,20

I(t)

-0,40

C = 2.494 mF
V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

-0,80
-1,00
-1,20

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 87

-0,60

AC Circuits

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Solution Terms
Sinusoidal Terms
IL(t) = - 0.9799 e 4 t + e - t ( 0.97799 cos 20t + 0.5033 sin 20t )
R=2

L=1H

Sinosoidal Terms

1,20

I(t)
C = 2.494 mF

0,80

V(t) = 100 e- 4 t
0,40

_
0

0,00

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8

0,9

-0,40

0.9779 cos 20t

-0,80

0.5033 sin 20t

-1,20

0.9779 cos 20t + 0.5033sin 20t

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 88

AC Circuits

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Solution Terms
Exponentially Decaying Sinusoidal Term
IL(t) = - 0.9799 e 4 t + e - t ( 0.97799 cos 20t + 0.5033 sin 20t )
1,20

e -t

0,80

R=2

L=1H

0,40
0

1,5

2,5

3,5

I(t)
+

C = 2.494 mF

-0,40

0,5

V(t) = 100 e- 4 t
_

-0,80
-1,20

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 89

AC Circuits

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Solution Terms
Overall Solution
IL(t) = - 0.9799 e 4 t + e - t ( 0.97799 cos 20t + 0.5033 sin 20t )
0,80
0,40

R=2
0,5

0,0

1,0

1,5

2,0

2,5

3,0

3,5

L=1H

4,0

I(t)
+

C = 2.494 mF

-0,40

V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

-1,20

-1,60

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 90

-0,80

AC Circuits

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The Concept of RMS Value


Definition: RMS (Root Mean Square)

IDC

RMS value of an AC current is the value of DC


current that would dissipate the same amount
of power as the AC current on a resistance R

Justification is based on the principle of


equating the currents calculated in both cases.
First, calculate the power dissipated (lost as
heat) in the resistance R in the DC circuit
shown on the RHS

+
VDC

VR
_

Justification

VR = R x IDC
P = VR x IDC
= R x IDC2
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 91

AC Circuits

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The Concept of RMS Value


RMS (Root Mean Square)

I(t) = Imax sin wt


2,5

Now, calculate the power dissipated (lost


as heat) in the resistance R in the AC
circuit shown on the RHS

2,0
1,5

V (t) = I(t) x R
P (t) = V(t) x I(t)
= R I(t)2 = R (Vmax / R sin wt )2

1,0
0,5
Angle (Radians)

= R (I max sin wt )2

0
0

I(t)

V(t) +

Imax
V(t) = Vmax sin wt

V(t)

/2

3/2

-0,5

+
R

-1,0

I(t) = (Vmax / R) sin wt

I 2(t) = (Imax sin wt )2

-1,5
-2,0

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 92

AC Circuits

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The Concept of RMS Value


Problem
Let us now calculate the average of P(t)
Pavg

= (1/T) P(t) dt

= (1/T) R I(t)2 dt
= R (1/T) I(t)2 dt
= R Irms2
where I(t)rms = ((1/T) I(t)2 dt)1/2

2,5

2,0

1,5

1,0
0

I(t)rms = ( 1/T ) I(t)2 dt

Irms = ( 1/T ) I(t)2 dt

I2(t) = ( Imax sin wt )2

/2

3/2

0,5

0
Angle (Radians)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 93

AC Circuits

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Definition of RMS Value


Problem
RMS value of an AC current is the value
of DC current that would dissipate the
same amount of power as AC current on
a resistance R
Pavg = R IDC2

Irms = ( 1/T ) I(t)2 dt

I2(t) = ( Imax sin wt )2


2,5

2,0

Pavg = R I(t)rms2

1,5

1,0

I(t)

IDC

VR

V(t) +

VR(t)

/2

3/2

0,5

R
0

VDC

Angle (Radians)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 94

AC Circuits

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RMS Value of a Sinusoidal Waveform


RMS value of a sinusoidal waveform may
be expressed as 0.7071 multiple of the
peak value of the waveform as follows;
I (t) = I max sin wt
Irms = ((1/T) I(t)2 dt)1/2
= ((1/T) (I max sin wt)2 dt)1/2
= ((1/T) (Imax2 sin2 wt dt )1/2
= ((1/T) Imax2 (1 cos2wt) dt )1/2
= ((1/T) Imax2 ( dt cos2wt dt ))1/2
= ((1/T) Imax2( T / 2 x 0 ))1/2
= ((1/T) T Imax2 / 2 )1/2
= ( Imax2 / 2 )1/2
= Imax / 2 = I max x 0.7071

sin2 wt = 1 cos2 wt
= 1 (1 + cos 2wt) / 2
= 1 cos 2wt
= cos2wt
Current (Amp)
2,0
1,5
1,0
0,5
0

Angle (Radians)

/2

3/2

-0,5
-1,0
-1,5
-2,0

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 95

AC Circuits

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Problem
Calculate the RMS value of the
sinusoidal voltage waveform shown on
the RHS
21/2

Vrms = Vmax /
= V max x 0.7071
= 312 x 0,7071 = 220 Volts

Voltage (Volts)

RMS Value of a Sinusoidal Waveform


312
220

Vrms = 220 Volts


Angle (Radians)
0

/2

3/2

- 312

Domestic rms voltage level in Turkey

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 96

AC Circuits

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Example - 8
Problem
Calculate the RMS value of a the voltage
waveform shown on the RHS
I(t)

V(t)

Voltage (Volts)

Vrms = ( 1/T ) V(t)2 dt

= 4 Volts

0.3

+ (-4)2 dt)

Voltage2 (Volts)

( 1/0.3) ( 4 dt

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

Time (msec)

-4

_
Vrms = ( 1/T ) V(t)2 dt
Vrms =

-2

VR(t)

0.1

32
24
16
8

V2(t) = 16

0.1

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

Time (msec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 97

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AC Circuits

Any Questions Please ?

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 98