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# METU

AC Circuits
Alternating Current (AC) Circuits

by
Prof. Dr. Osman SEVAOLU
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 1

AC Circuits

METU

Definition

## Direct Current (DC) is a current with a

constant time characteristics

Current, I

R1= 5 Ohms
+
Vs=600 V

R2= 5 Ohms

Current (Amp)

Switch
80

60

40

I = 60 A
DC (Constant) Current

20

0
1

Time (Sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 2

AC Circuits

METU

## What is Alternating Current (AC) ?

Definition
Alternating Current (AC) is a current with
time varying characteristics
Non - Sinusoidal AC
Current (Amp)

Current (Amp)

Sinusoidal AC
10

0

/2

3/2

5,0

4,0

3,0

2,0

1,0

- 10
0,0
0,0

1,0

2,0

3,0

4,0

5,0

6,0

t (sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 3

AC Circuits

METU

## Basic Parameters of a Sinusoidal Waveform

Sinusoidal Voltage

Definition
Sinusoidal voltage is a voltage
with waveform as shown on the
RHS
^
V(t) = V sin ( wt + )
where
V(t) is the voltage waveform,
^

## V is the peak value (amplitude),

w is the angular frequency,
is the phase shift, i.e. angle of the
voltage at t = 0, (phase angle)

Voltage (Volt)
312
300
200

Phase angle
Amplitude

100
0

/2

3/2

w =2f
f = 50 Hz
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 4

AC Circuits

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Voltage Waveform
V (Volts)
25
20
15

## Peak Value = 21,2 V

10
5
0
-5

Time (msec)

10

15

20

-10
-15
-20
-25
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 5

AC Circuits

METU

## Basic Parameters of a Sinusoidal Waveform

Period and Frequency

I (Amp)

V (Volts)

25
20
15
10
5
0
-5

Time (msec)
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

-10
-15
-20
-25

## Frequency = 1 / T = 1 / 0.020 = 50 Hertz

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 6

AC Circuits

METU

## AC (Alternating Current) Circuit

Positive half cycle

## Negative half cycle

I (Amp)

I (Amp)

25

I(t)

25

25

20

20

20

15

15

15

10

10

10

V(t) +

5
0

0,005

0,01 0,015

-5

0
0

-10
-15
-20
-25

Time (Sec)

0,005

-5

-5

-10

-10

-15

-15

-20

-20

-25

-25

I(t)

V(t) +
0,01

0,015

0,02

Time (Sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 7

AC Circuits

METU

## Elements of AC Circuits: Capacitor

Definition
Capacitor is a device that can store
electrical charge

Positive conductor
Insulating Layer
Negative conductor

## The simplest configuration consists of

two parallel conducting plates
separated by an insulating layer

## Insulating Layer provides dielectricity

(prevents current flow) between
positive and negative conductors

Symbolic
representation
_

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 8

AC Circuits

METU

Capacitance
Definition

Small Capacitance

Large Capacitance

C1 < C2

Capacitance = C2
+

Capacitance = C1
+

## Storage capacity of a capacitor is

called capacitance

__

## Water (hydroulic) example

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 9

AC Circuits

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Capacitor-Practical Configuration
Geometry

## Capacitor plates are packaged in a roll

form in order to have smaller size
_
_

Alminum cover

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 10

AC Circuits

METU

Capacitor-Practical Configuration
Geometry
Capacitor cylinders are then
connected in parallel in bank form

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 11

AC Circuits

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Capacitor-Practical Configuration
Geometry
Capacitor banks
Control relay

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 12

AC Circuits

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Capacitor-Practical Configuration
Geometry
Single and three-phase capacitor
banks

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 13

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AC Circuits
MV (Medium Voltage) Shunt Capacitor Banks

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 14

METU

AC Circuits
MV (Medium Voltage) Shunt Capacitor Banks

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 15

METU

AC Circuits
MV (Medium Voltage) Shunt Capacitor Banks

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 16

METU

AC Circuits
Electronic Capacitors in a Motherboard

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 17

AC Circuits

METU

Basic Relation

## Charge stored in a capacitor is

proportional to the voltage V
applied

+
_

Symbolic Representation
+

## 1 Farad is the capacitance with a

charge of 1 Coulomb at a voltage 1 Volt
between the plates

or
Q=CV
where, Q is charge stored (Coulombs),
V is voltage (Volts),

Capacitance C
+

## Charge stored in a capacitor is

proportional to the capacitance C,

Voltage Source V

Basic Principle

Q = 1 Coulomb

1 Volt

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 18

AC Circuits

METU

## Voltage - Current Relation for a Capacitor

Definition

I(t)

The relation;

Q(t) = C V(t)
or differentiating both sides with respect to time

## may be written in time domain as;

V(t)
_

Q=CV

dQ(t)/dt = C dV(t)/dt
or remembering that
dQ(t)/dt = I(t)
Hence,
I(t) = C dV(t) / dt
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 19

AC Circuits

METU

## The above equation may be integrated

with respect to time, yielding the
following Voltage - Current Relation for a
Capacitor

## where V(0) is the initial voltage across

the capacitor, representing the initial
voltage due to the initial charge stored in
the capacitor

I(t)

Switch

## Switch is turned on at: t = 0 sec

V(t)

C
Vc (0)

Definition

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 20

AC Circuits

METU

Example - 1

I(t)

Problem

## where is known as the time constant of the

circuit and given as

## = 10 -6 sec = 1.0 sec

C = 0.1 F

V(t)

V(t) = 5 (1 - e-t/ )

## Calculate the time waveform of the current flowing

in the circuit shown on the RHS by assuming that
the capacitor is charged by the exponential
voltage V(t) shown in the figure

V(t) = 5 (1 - e-t/ )
5,0
4,0
3,0
2,0
1,0

## Vmax = Maximum voltage that can be reached = 5 Volts

Qmax = C x Vmax = Maximum charge that can be stored

0,0

0,0

1,0

2,0

3,0

4,0

5,0

6,0

t (sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 21

AC Circuits

METU

Example - 1
I(t)

Solution

V(t) = 5 (1 - e-t/ )

5,0
4,0

I(t) = C dV(t)/dt

V(t)

I(t) = C d V(t) / dt
= C d 5(1 e -t/ )/dt
= 0.1 x 10-6 ( 5 / ) x e -t/
= 0.1 x 10-6 x 5 x 106 x e -t/
= 0.5 x e -t/ Ampers

3,0
2,0
1,0

Hence,

V(t) = 5 (1 - e-t/ )

0,0

0,0

1,0

2,0

3,0

4,0

1,0

2,0

3,0

4,0

I(t)

5,0

6,0

5,0

6,0

t (sec)

0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0,0

0,0

t (sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 22

METU

AC Circuits
Example - 1

I(t)

V(t)

C = 0.1 F

## Charge stored in the capacitor starts from

zero and gradually increases to its final
value

## Calculate the time waveform of the charge

stored in the capacitor in the same circuit

Q(t)
5x10-7

Q(t) = C x V(t)
= 0.1 x 10 -6 x 5 (1 - e-t/ )
= 5 x 10-7 x (1 - e-t/ ) Coulombs

4x10-7
3x10-7
2x10-7
1x10-7
0,0
0,0

1,0

2,0

3,0

4,0

5,0

6,0

t (sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 23

AC Circuits

METU

Example - 2

## Current source shown in the circuit on

the RHS provides a 10 mA constant
current within the time interval;

## Switch is turned on at: t = 0 sec,

off at: t = 1.0 sec.
Switch
I(t) (mA)

I(t)

t [0, 1]

## Determine the voltage across the

capacitor within the time interval;

12,0

## Capacitor is initially charged to 2 Volts

voltage

14,0

I(t)

10,0
8,0

Problem

6,0
4,0
2,0
0,0

t [0, 1]

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1,0

1,2

t (sec)

C = 1000 F

Vc(0) = 2 Volts

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 24

AC Circuits

METU

Example - 2
I(t) (mA)

Solution

I(t)

14,0
12,0

expressed as

I(t)

0

= 10 t + 2 Volts

8,0

4,0
2,0

where,

10,0

6,0

## V(t) = (1/C) I(t)dt + V(0)

V(0) = 2 Volts
is the initial voltage across the
capacitor
t [0, 1]
Hence;
1

0,0

C = 1000 F
Vc(0) = 2 Volts

0,0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1,0

1,2

t (sec)

V(t) (Volts)
14,0
12,0
10,0
8,0
6,0
4,0
2,0
0,0

0,0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1,0

1,2

t (sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 25

AC Circuits

METU

R-C Circuits

## Solve the RC circuit shown on the RHS

for current I(t) flowing in the circuit when
the switch is closed at t = 0

## Switch is turned on at: t = 0 sec

Switch

I(t)

Solution
V(t) = R I(t) + VC(t)
= R I(t) + (1/C) I(t)dt + V(0)

V(0)=V0
C

^
V(t) = V sinwt

Problem

or

## d/dt I(t) + (1/RC) I(t) = (1/R) dV(t) / dt

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 26

AC Circuits

METU

## Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation

Solution
Solve the resulting first order ordinary differential equation (ODE)

^
V(t) = V sinwt

V(0)=V0
C

^

## dI(t) / dt + (1/RC) I(t) = (V/R) w cos ( wt + )

V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )

dV( t ) / dt = ^
V w cos wt
Voltage (Volt)

312
300
200

Amplitude

100
0

/2

2
3/2

Phase angle

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 27

AC Circuits

METU

## Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation

Solution
Solve the resulting first order ordinary differential equation (ODE)
^

^
V(t) = V sinwt

^
(t) dI(t)/dt + I(t) (1/RC)(t) = (t) ( V/R ) w cos ( wt + )
^
(t) dI(t)/dt + I(t) d/dt (t) = ( V/R ) (t) w cos ( wt + )
^
d/dt [(t) I(t)]
= ( V/R ) (t) w cos ( wt + )
^
d/dt [(t) I(t)] dt
= ( V/R ) (t) w cos ( wt + ) dt + I(0)
^
(t) I(t)
= ( V/R ) (t) w cos ( wt + ) dt + I(0)
^
I(t)
= I (t) -1 (t) w cos(wt + ) dt + (t)-1I(0)

## dI(t) / dt + (1/RC) I(t) = (V/R) w cos ( wt + )

Define an integration factor (t) = e t / RC
Multiply both sides of the above ODE by this factor;

V(0)=V0
C

V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )

dV( t ) / dt = ^
V w cos wt
Voltage (Volt)

312
300
200

Amplitude

100
0

/2

2
3/2

Phase angle

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 28

AC Circuits

METU

## Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation

Solution (Continued)

Switch

I(t)

## I(t) = I e - t/RC e t/RC w cos (wt + ) dt + e - t/RC I(0)

=Ie

- t/RC

e t/RC

cos (wt + ) dt + e

- t/RC

I(0)

^
V(t) = V sinwt

## w sinwt + (1/RC) coswt

---------------------------------(1/RC)2 + w 2

V(0)=V0
C

## Subsituting the integration factor (t) = e t/RC into

the above solution;

V( t ) = V sin wt

## Taken from the book : Calculus and Analytic Geometry,

Thomas,Addison Wesley, Third Ed. 1965, pp. 369

dV( t ) / dt = V w cos wt

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 29

AC Circuits

METU

## Subsituting the above term into the solution;

w sinwt + (1/RC) coswt
^ - t/RC
t/RC
I(t) = I e
we
---------------------------------- + e - t/RC I(0)
(1/RC)2 + w 2

^
I
I(t) = ------------------- ( sinwt + (1/wRC) coswt ) + e - t/RC I(0)
(1/wRC)2 + 1

Switch

I(t)
R

## ^ 2 sinwt + (1/wRC) coswt

I(t) = I w ----------------------------------- + e - t/RC I(0)
(1/RC)2 + w 2

## Switch is turned on at: t = 0 sec

^
V(t) = V sinwt

V(0)=V0
C

Solution (Continued)

V( t ) = V sin wt

dV( t ) / dt = V w cos wt

Transient Term

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 30

AC Circuits

METU

## Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation

Numerical Example

## Switch is turned on at: t = 0 sec

I(t)
R
+
^
V(t) = V sinwt

V(0)=V0
C

^
I
I(t) = ------------------- ( sinwt + (1/wRC) coswt ) + e - t/RC I(0)
(1/wRC)2 + 1

Switch

## Now assume that the parameters of the circuit on

the RHS are as follows;
V(t) = 312 sin wt Volts
R = 10 Ohms

V( t ) = V sin wt

Transient Term

dV( t ) / dt = V w cos wt

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 31

AC Circuits

METU

## Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation

25

Numerical Example

20

^
I
I(t) = ------------------- ( sinwt + (1/wRC) coswt ) + e - t/RC I(0)
(1/wRC)2 + 1

15

10

Transient Term

0
25

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

40

20

30

15
20

10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-20

10
0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

-10
-20
-30

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 32

AC Circuits

METU

## Solution for DC Voltage Source - Two Simple Rules

Rule - 1

I(0) = ( V V0 ) / R

-

R=2
C =1000 F
V(0)=V0

## The current waveform will then be;

I(t) = I() + [ I(0) - I() ] e -t/

uncharged capacitor
acts effectively as a
short circuit,
i.e. V0 = 0

R
+

V = VDC-V0

VDC

I(t)

## Then the initial value of current will be;

I(0) = ( VDC V0 ) / R

I(0)

SC

## A capacitor acts as a DC voltage source

initially due to its initial charge

## = RC = Time Constant: The time required a for

capacitor to reach 63 % of its full charge
= 2 x 1000 F = 2 x 1000 x 10-6 = 0.002 sec

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 33

AC Circuits

METU

Rule - 2

I() = 0

## A capacitor acts as an open circuit finally

to a DC voltage (or current)

I() = 0

R=2
VDC

I(t)
+

C =1000 F

VDC +
I() = 0

OC

V(0)=V0

## The current waveform will then be;

I(t) = I() + [ I(0) - I() ] e -t/

## = RC = Time Constant: The time required for

a capacitor to reach 63 % of its full charge
= 2 x 1000 F = 2 x 1000 x 10-6 = 0.002 sec

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 34

AC Circuits

METU

Solution

I() = 0

## The initial value of current will be;

I(0) = ( VDC V0 ) / R

VDC

I(t)
+

## Substituting the above expressions into

the current expression

R=2

C =1000 F
V(0)=V0

I(t) (Amp)
24.0
20.0
16.0

## The current waveform will then be;

I(t) = I() + [ I(0) - I() ] e -t/
I(t) = [( VDC V0 ) / R ] e -t/

12.0

## % 63 of the initial value

8.0
4.0
0

0,002

0,004

0,006

0,008

0,01

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 35

AC Circuits

METU

## Meaning of Time Constant

Definition
Time constant of a electric circuit is
the duration for the current to get
reduced by 63 % of its initial value
Time constant of an RC circuit is
simply expressed as:
= RC

The Effect of
5
4

3

## % 63 of the inital value

2
1

0
0

0,5

1,5

2,5

3,5

4,5

5,5

t (sec)

2
2 > 1

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 36

AC Circuits

METU

Example

R= 2 Ohm

Problem

V() = VS = 24 Volts
The voltage waveform will then be;

V(t) (Volts)

## Capacitor will behave as a DC source at the

beginning and as OC at the end, hence;
V(0) = V0 = 6 Volts

+ VDC= 24 Volts

## Find the voltage waveform across the 1 mF

capacitor shown on the RHS, when it has an
initial charge of 6 Volts and charged by a 24
Volts DC voltage source through a wire with 2
Ohm resistance

I(t)
V(0)=V0 = 6 V
C = 1 mF

24.0
20.0
16.0
12.0

8.0
4.0
0

0,002

0,004

0,006

0,008

0,01

t (sec)

## for a capacitor to reach 63 % of full charge

= 2 x 1000 F = 2 x 0.001 = 0.002 sec

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 37

AC Circuits

METU

## Energy Stored in a Capacitor

Problem
Calculate the instantaneous energy
stored in a capacitor with a capacitance
C and an instantaneous voltage VC(t)

Example
A 10 F capacitor fully charged with a 12
Volts DC voltage stores an energy;
(1/2) 10 x 10-6 x 122 = 720 x 10-6 Joule
I(t)

## P(t) = VC(t) I(t)

WC(t) = P(t) dt

= C VC(t) dVC(t)

V(t)

= VC(t) C dVC(t) / dt dt

Vc(t)

= VC(t) I(t) dt

or
WC(t) = (1/2) C VC2(t)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 38

AC Circuits

METU

Example
^

I(t)

V( t ) = V sin wt
Voltage (Volts)

312

^
V (t) = V sin wt

/2

3/2

- 312

## WC(t) = (1/2) C VC2(t)

^
Wc(t) = (1/2) 10 x 10-6 V 2 sin 2 wt
= 0,000005 x 3122 sin2 wt
= 0,4867 sin2 wt
= 0,4867 ( cos 2x )

0,6

C = 10 F

Wc(t)

0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2

sin2

cos2

wt = 1
wt = 1 ( 1 + cos2wt ) / 2
= cos2wt

## Mean of Wc(t) > 0

0,1
0

/2

3/2

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 39

## Find the instantaneous energy in the

capacitor for the voltage shown in the
figure

Problem

AC Circuits

METU

## Series Connected Capacitances

Series connected capacitances
V1(t) =
V2(t) =
+
----------- =
V (t) =
=

(1/C1) I(t)dt
(1/C2) I(t)dt
+
---------------------[ (1/C1 ) + (1/C2) ] I(t)dt
(1/Ctot ) I(t)dt

Hence,
Ctot

1
= ---------------------(1/C1 ) + (1/C2 )

## Series connected capacitances

are combined in the same way as
for shunt connected resistances

I(t)
C1

V1 (t)

V(t)
C2

V2 (t)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 40

AC Circuits

METU

## Series and Shunt Connected Capacitances

Shunt connected capacitances
I1(t)
I2(t)
+
----------I (t)

=
=
=
=
=

C1 d V(t) / dt
C2 d V(t) / dt
+
---------------------------(C1 + C2) d V(t) / dt
d V(t) / dt
Ctot

## Shunt connected capacitances are

I(t)

+
V(t)

Vc(t)

I1

I2

C1

C2

Where,
C tot = C1 + C2
is the total capacitance
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 41

AC Circuits

METU

Inductance
Definition

Coil

Core

Toroidal Coil

Toroidal Core

Inductance is a winding or
coil of wire around a core
Core may be either insulator
or a ferromagnetic material

Symbolic representation

_
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 42

AC Circuits

METU

Definition

## Ferriet core inductor has a

toroidal ferrit core inside
Ferrite core
Toroidal coil

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 43

METU

AC Circuits
Air Core Inductor

Configuration

## Air core inductor has no core inside

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 44

AC Circuits

METU

Basic Relation

## Voltage across an inductor is

proportional to the rate of change of
current

## 1 Henry is a value of inductance defined as

1 Henry = 1 Volt x 1 second / 1 Amp

I(t)

+ V(t)

V(t) = L d I(t) / dt
where, V(t) is the voltage across the
inductance,
I(t) is the current flowing
through,
L is the inductance (Henry)

Inductance L

## Voltage Source V(t)

Definition

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 45

AC Circuits

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Current in an Inductance
Definition

## Voltage Source V(t)

The equation;

Inductance L

I(t)

V(t) = L d I(t) / dt
can be written in inverse form as
where I(0) is the current initially flowing
in the inductor

## I(t) = (1/L) V(t)dt + I(0)

+
V(t)

_
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 46

AC Circuits

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Current in an Inductance
I (Amp)Voltage Waveforms
Phase Shift between Current and
V (Volts), I (Amp)

## I(t) = (1/L) V(t) dt

= (1/L) Vmax sin wt dt
= - (Vmax / wL) coswt
= - Imax coswt

25
20
15
10

I(t)

5
0

V(t)

+ Inductance

Vmax
Imax
0.005

0.010

0.015

0.020

-5
-10
-15
-20
-25

Time (Sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 47

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AC Circuits
Series and Shunt Connected Inductors

## Series connected inductors are added

V1(t) =
L1 d I(t) / dt
L2 d I(t) / dt
V2(t) =
+
----------- +-------------------------V(t) = (L1 + L2) d I(t) / dt
d I(t) / dt
= L tot
where
L tot = L1 + L2
is the total inductance

## Series connected inductances

I(t)

+
V1 (t)

L1

+
V(t)

+
L2

V2 (t)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 48

AC Circuits

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## Series and Shunt Connected Inductors

Shunt connected inductances are
combined in the same way as for shunt
connected resistances
I1(t) = (1/L1) V(t)dt

I(t)

## I2(t) = (1/L2) V(t)dt

+
+
--------------------------I(t)

V(t)

Vc(t)

I1

I2

L1

L2

## = [ (1/L1 ) + (1/L2) ] V(t)dt

= (1/Ltot )

V(t)dt

Hence,

Ltot

1
= ---------------------(1/L1 ) + (1/L2 )

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 49

AC Circuits

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Example - 3
Problem

t < 1 ms
1 t 5 ms
5 t 9 ms
9 t 13 ms
t 13 ms

## Calculate the voltage across the 10 mH

inductor with the current shown in the figure
on the RHS
I(t) = 0
I(t) = 1/((5-1)x10-3) (t 10-3)
I(t) = 1
I(t) = -1/((5-1) x 10-3) (t 12 x 10-3)
V(t) = 0

I(t)

I(t)

L = 10 mH

I(t) (Amp)
1,0

0,5

0,0
0,0

2,0

4,0

6,0

8,0

10,0

12,0

14,0

t (msec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 50

AC Circuits

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Example - 3

I(t)

Solution
V(t) = L d I(t) / dt

I(t)

L = 10 mH

## Differentiating the current waveform and

multiplying by L (L = 10-2 H);
V(t) = 0
V(t) = 0.01x 1/((5-1)x10-3) = 2.5 V
V(t) = 0
V(t) = 0.01x (-1)/((5-1) x 10-3) = -2.5 V
V(t) = 0

t < 1 ms
1 t 5 ms
5 t 9 ms
9 t 13 ms
t 13 ms

V(t) (Volts)
2,5

0,0

-2,5
0,0

2,0

4,0

6,0

8,0

10,0

12,0

14,0

t (msec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 51

AC Circuits

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Example - 4

I(t)

Problem
Assume that the inductor shown on the RHS
is connected to a voltage source of the form
shown in the figure
Find out the inductor current waveform
assuming that the initial current in the
inductor is zero
V(t) = 0
V(t) = -10 V
V(t) = 0

t<0s
0t1s
t 1s

V(t)

L = 10 mH

V(t) (mV)
0,0

-10
0,0

0,5

1,0

t (sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 52

AC Circuits

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Example - 4

I(t)

Solution
I(t) = (1/L) V(t) dt + I(0)

V(t)

L = 10 mH

## I(t) = (1/L) V(t) dt + I(0)

= 1/(10 x 10-3) V(t) dt
I(t) = 0
t<0s
I(t) = 1/(10x10-3) x V(t) dt = 100 x V(t) dt
= 100 x (-10 x 10-3) t = - t
0t1s
I(t) = -1 A t 1 s

I(t) (A)
0,0

-1
0,0

0,5

1,0

t (sec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 53

AC Circuits

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Problem
I(t)

VL(t)

L
_

## Calculate the instantaneous energy

stored in an inductor with an inductance
L and an instantaneous voltage VL(t)

I(t)

WL(t) = P(t) dt
= VL(t) I(t) dt
= I(t) L dI(t) / dt dt
= L I(t) dI(t)

or
WL(t) = L I2(t)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 54

AC Circuits

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Example 5
I(t)

Problem
Find the instantaneous energy in the
inductor for the current shown in the figure
t < 1 ms
1 t 5 ms
5 t 9 ms
9 t 13 ms
t 13 ms

I (t) = 0
I (t) = 1/(4x10-3) (t-10-3) Amp
I (t) = 1 Amp
I (t) = 1/(4x10-3) (t - 13x 10-3) Amp
I (t) = 0

V(t)

L = 10 mH
I(t) (Amp)
1,0

0,5

0,0
0,0

2,0

4,0

6,0

8,0

10,0

12,0

14,0

t (msec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 55

AC Circuits

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Example 5

I(t)

Solution

WL(t) = L I2(t)

V(t)

## By using the above formula

W(t) = 0 Joule
W(t) = 312.5 (t-10-3)2 Joules
W(t) = 0.01 /2 x 12 = 0.005 Joules
W(t) = 312.5 (t-13x10-3)2 Joules
W(t) = 0

t < 1 ms
1 t 5 ms
5 t 9 ms
9 t 13 ms
t 13 ms

L = 10 mH

W(t) (Joule)
0,006
0,005
0,004
0,003
0,002
0,001
0,0

2,0

4,0

6,0

8,0

10,0

12,0

14,0

t (msec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 56

AC Circuits

METU

R-L Circuits

## Solve the R-L circuit shown on the RHS

which consists of a resistance in series
with an inductance for current waveform
when the switch is turned on at time:
t = 0 sec
Writing down KVL for the circuit
V(t) = R I(t) + L dI(t) / dt
or
dI(t) / dt + (R/L) I(t) = (1/L) V(t)

Switch

I(t)
+

Solution

V(t)

I(0)=I0
L

Problem

## A first order ordinary differential equation

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 57

AC Circuits

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R

Solution
I(t)

I(0)=I0

V(t)

## dI(t) / dt + (R/L) I(t) = (1/L) V sin ( wt + )

^

V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )
Voltage (Volt)

312
300
200

Amplitude

100
0

/2

2
3/2

Phase angle

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 58

METU

AC Circuits

R

Solution
I(t)

## Solve the resulting first order ordinary differential equation (ODE)

^

^
(t) dI(t)/dt + I(t) (1/RC)(t) = (t) ( V / L ) sin ( wt + )
^
(t) dI(t)/dt + I(t) d/dt (t) = ( V / L ) (t) sin ( wt + )
^
d/dt [(t) I(t)]
= ( V / L ) (t) sin ( wt + )
^
d/dt [(t) I(t)] dt
= ( V / L ) (t) sin ( wt + ) dt + I(0)
^
(t) I(t)
= ( V / L ) (t) sin ( wt + ) dt + I(0)
^
I(t)
= I (t) -1 (t) sin (wt + ) dt + (t)-1I(0)

I(0)=I0

V(t)

## Define an integration factor (t) = e t R/L

Multiply both sides of the above ODE by this factor;

V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )

Voltage (Volt)

312
300
200

Amplitude

100
0

/2

2
3/2

Phase angle

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 59

AC Circuits

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## Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation

Solution (Continued)
Subsituting the integration factor (t) = e t R/L into
the above solution;

Switch

I(t)

V(t)

t R/L

sin wt dt =

e t R/L

## (R/L) sinwt - w coswt

---------------------------------(R/L)2 + w 2

## Taken from the book : Calculus and Analytic Geometry,

Thomas,Addison Wesley, Third Ed. 1965, pp. 369

## Let = 0 (for simplicity)

I(0)=I0

V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 60

AC Circuits

METU

## Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation

Solution (Continued)
Subsituting the above term into the solution;
^ t R/L t R/L (R/L) sinwt - w coswt
I(t) = I e
e
---------------------------------- + e t R/L I(0)
(R/L)2 + w 2

R
I(t)
+

I(0)=I0

V(t)

^
I
I(t) = ------------------- ( sinwt - (wL/R) coswt ) + e t R/L I(0)
(wL/R)2 + 1

Switch

## ^ (R/L) sinwt - w coswt

I(t) = I ----------------------------------- + e t R/L I(0)
(R/L)2 + w 2

## Switch is turned on at: t = 0 sec

V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )

Transient Term

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 61

AC Circuits

METU

## Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation

Numerical Example

## Switch is turned on at: t = 0 sec

R
I(t)
+

V(t)

I(0)=I0
L

^
I
I(t) = ------------------- ( sinwt - (wL/R) coswt ) + e t R/L I(0)
(wL/R)2 + 1

Switch

## Now assume that the parameters of the circuit on

the RHS are as follows;
V(t) = 312 sin wt Volts
R = 1 Ohms
L = 10 milli Henry

V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )

Transient Term

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 62

AC Circuits

METU

## Solution of the resulting First Order Ordinary Differential Equation

25

Numerical Example

20

^^
I
I(t) = ------------------- ( sinwt - (wL/R) coswt ) + e t R/L I(0)
(wL/R)2 + 1

15

10

Transient Term

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

250
200

400

150

300

100
200

50
0
-50
-100

100
0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4
0
-100

-150
-200
-250

-200
-300

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 63

AC Circuits

METU

## Solution for DC Voltage - Two Simple Rules

I(0) = 0

Rule - 1

I(0) = (1 / L) V(t) dt = I0 = 0
-

L=0.002 H

VDC

I(t)

## An inductor with no initial current acts as

an open circuit to a DC voltage source
initially

R=1

(OC)

I(0) = 0

R
I(0) = 0

+
VDC

## The current waveform will then be;

I(t) = I() + [I(0) - I()] e -t/

OC

## = L / R = Time Constant: The time required for

an inductor to reach 63 % of full current
= 1 x 2 mH = 1 x 0.002 = 0.002 Sec

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 64

AC Circuits

METU

I() = V / R

Rule - 2

R=1

(SC)

I(t)
L=0.002 H

VDC

## An inductor acts as a short circuit to a

DC current (or voltage) finally

I() = V / R
VDC

I()

SC

## The current waveform will then be;

I(t) = I() + [I(0) - I()] e -t/

## = L / R = Time Constant: The time required for

an inductor to reach 63 % of full current
= 1 x 2 mH = 1 x 0.002 = 0.002 Sec

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 65

METU

AC Circuits
Definition of the Time Constant:

R = 1 Ohms

## The current waveform will then be;

I(t) = I() + [I(0) - I()] e -t/

I(t)

L = 2mH

V= 24 Volts

## = L / R = Time Constant: The time required for

an inductor to reach 63 % of full current
= 1 x 2 mH = 1x 0.002 H = 0.002 Sec

I(t) (Amps)

_
24.0
20.0
16.0
12.0

% 63 of peak (24 V)

8.0
4.0
0

0,002

0,004

0,006

0,008

0,01

t (sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 66

AC Circuits

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Example - 6

R = 1 Ohms

Problem

L = 2mH

V= 24 Volts

I(t) (Amps)

## Inductor will be SC at the end, hence;

I() = V / R = 24 / 1 = 24 Amps

## Find the current waveform in the 2 mH

inductor shown on the RHS when it has an
initial current of 6 Amps and connected to a
24 Volt DC voltage source through a wire with
1 Ohm resistance
Inductor has 6 Amp initial current;
I(0) = I0 = 6 Amp

I(t)

24.0
20.0
16.0

I()

12.0
8.0

## The current waveform will then be;

I(t) = I() + [I(0) - I()] e t /
I(t) = 24 + (6 - 24) e-t / 0.002 = 24 - 18 e-t / 0.002 Amps

I(0)

4.0
0

0,002

0,004

0,006

0,008

0,01

t (sec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 67

AC Circuits

METU

Example - 7
+

V= 24 V

## Solve the circuit shown on the RHS for

current waveform flowing in the inductor

R2 = 5 Ohms

_
R1 = 10 Ohms
A

A
+

L = 0.4 H

V= 24 V R2 = 5 Ohms

## Kill the voltage source, and find Req.

R eq = 10 // 5
= 10 x 5 /(10 + 5)
= 10 / 3 Ohms

L = 0.4 H

I(t)

Solution
First take out the branch containing inductor,
and derive the Thevenin Equivalent of the LHS
circuit seen from the terminals A and B

A
+

Problem

R1 = 10 Ohms

B
A

R1 = 10 Ohms

R2 = 5 Ohms
L = 0.4 H

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 68

AC Circuits

METU

Example 7 (Continued)
R1 = 10 Ohms

Solution (Continued)
Open circuit terminals A B and find VAB

+
VA-B (t)

V= 24 V R2 = 5 Ohms

V = 24 V x R2 / ( R1 + R2)
= 24 x 5 / 15 = 24 / 3
=8V

## Form the resulting Thevenin equivalent

Circuit,
Connect the inductance to the resulting
Thevenin equivalent circuit,
Solve the resulting circuit by using the
straightforward method described in
Example 6

R eq= 10 // 5 = 10 x 5 /(10+5)
= 10/3 Ohms

B
A

A
L = 0.4 H

V= 24 / 3 = 8 V

R eq= 10 // 5 = 10 x 5 /(10+5)
= 10/3 Ohms

A
L = 0.4 H

V= 24 / 3 = 8 V

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 69

AC Circuits

METU

R-L-C Circuits
Problem

V(0)=V0

_
R

+

V(t)

## dV(t)/dt = R dI(t)/dt + Ld2I(t)/dt2 +(1/C)I(t)

or
d2I(t)/dt2 + (R/L)dI(t)/dt + (1/LC) I(t) = (1/L) dV(t)/dt

V(t)

Solution
V(t) = R I(t) + VL(t) + VC(t)
= R I(t) + L dI(t)/dt + (1/C) I(t)dt + V(0)
Differentiating both sides wrt time once;

I(t)

## Solve the following circuit which consists of a

resistance, an inductance and a capacitance
connected in series for current waveform

L I(0)=I0

## A second order ordinary differential equation

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 70

AC Circuits

METU

Initial Conditions
Differential Equation

## d2I(t)/dt2 + (R/L)dI(t)/dt + (1/LC) I(t) = (1/L) dV(t)/dt

Initial Conditions
_

VC(0) = VC0
IL(0) = IL0

## The first initial condition may now be written as,

or
d/dt IL(0)= IL(0) =(1/L) [ V(0) VC(0) R IL(0) ] 2

V(t)
_

I(t)

I(0) = I0

V(0)=V0
C

## Two initial conditions are needed for solution

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 71

AC Circuits

METU

Example
R=2
I(t)

C = 2.494 mF

## Solve the R-L-C circuit with the given parameters

shown on the RHS for current I(t)

V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

## Writing down KVL for the circuit shown on the

RHS the following ODE is obtained
d2I(t)/dt2 + (R/L)dI(t)/dt + (1/LC) I(t) = (1/L) dV(t)/dt
1 / (LC) = 401

## d2I(t)/dt2 + (2/1) dI(t)/dt + 401 I(t) = (1/1) dV(t)/dt

d2I(t)/dt2 + 2 dI(t)/dt + 401 I(t) = d/dt (10 e-4t ) = - 400 e-4t
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 72

R-L-C Circuit

L=1H

AC Circuits

METU

Solution
R=2

R-L-C Circuit

I(t)

C = 2.494 mF

## First, obtain the homogeneous equation

by setting the RHS function to zero

L=1H

V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

## Then, solve the characteristic equation

s2 + 2 s + 401 = 0
c = 401

s1, s2 = ( - b
= -1

b=2

a =1

j 20

b2 -4 x a x c ) / (2 a)
Eigenvalues of the differential equation

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 73

AC Circuits

METU

Solution

R=2

L=1H

R-L-C Circuit
I(t)
C = 2.494 mF
V(t) = 100 e- 4 t
_

I(t) = k1 e s1 t + k2 e s2 t
= k1 e (-1 j20 ) t + k2 e (-1 + j20 ) t
= k1 e - t x e j20 t + k2 e - t x e
= e - t (k1 e j20 t + k2 e j20 t )

## Then, the solution becomes

j20 t

= e - t [ k1 (cos 20 t j sin 20 t )
= + k2 (cos 20 t + j sin 20 t ) ]

Eulers Identity

e j = cos + j sin
= 20 t

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 74

AC Circuits

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Eulers Identity
Definition

Graphical Representaion

e j = cos + j sin
^
sin

1.0

e j = cos + j sin
= cos2 + sin2
=1

x2 + y2 = z2

cos

z = x2 + y2

EE
EE 209
209 Fundamentals
Fundamentals of
of Electrical
Electrical and
and Electronics
Electronics Engineering,
Engineering, Prof.
Prof. Dr.
Dr. O.
O. SEVAOLU,
SEVAOLU, Page
Page 75
75

AC Circuits

METU

Solution

R=2

R-L-C Circuit

I(t)
+

## = e [ k1 (cos 20t j sin 20t )

=+
k2 (cos 20t + j sin 20t ) ]
= e - t [ (k1 + k2 ) cos 20t + (k2 k1 ) sin 20t ]
B

V(t) = 100 e- 4 t
_

-t

C = 2.494 mF

L=1H

## Hence, the sinusoidal solution (decaying

sinusoidal term) becomes;
I(t) = e - t ( A cos 20t + B sin 20t )
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 76

AC Circuits

METU

Solution
R=2

Nonhomogeneous Term
(Transient Term)

I(t)
+

C = 2.494 mF

V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

## Definition of the Nonhomogeneous Term

General form of the nonhomogeneous (transient)
term in the solution may be expressed as
In(t) = c e 4 t
where, In(t) is the nonhomogeneous term in the solution,
c is an unknown coefficient to be determined
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 77

## Now the nonhomogeneous (transient) term in the

solution is to be determined

L=1H

AC Circuits

METU

Solution

R=2

Nonhomogeneous Term
(Transient Term)

I(t)
+

C = 2.494 mF
V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

In(t) = c e 4 t

## to the given differential equation;

d2I(t)/dt2 + 2 dI(t)/dt + 401 I(t) = - 400 e-4t
and solve it for the unknown coefficient c
d2(ce 4 t)/dt2 + 2 d(ce 4 t)/dt + 401 ce 4 t = -400 e-4t
16c e 4 t + 2c(-4 e 4 t ) + 401 c e 4 t = - 40 e-4 t

L=1H

## These terms cancel

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 78

AC Circuits

METU

Solution
Transient Term

## d2(ce 4 t)/dt2 + 2 d(ce 4 t)/dt + 401 ce 4 t = -400 e-4t

16c e 4 t + 2c(-4 e 4 t ) + 401 c e 4 t = - 40 e-4 t

R=2

16 c - 8 c + 401 c = - 400

L=1H
I(t)
C = 2.494 mF

+
V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

## Transient term then becomes;

In(t) = - 0.97799 e 4 t
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 79

## 409 c = - 400 or c = - 400 / 409 = - 0.97799

AC Circuits
Solution

R=2

Complete Solution

I(t)
+

C = 2.494 mF
V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

Transient Term

## Complete solution is the summation of

homogeneous (decaying sinusoidal) and
nonhomogeneous (transient) terms

L=1H

## Decaying sinosoidal Term

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 80

METU

AC Circuits

METU

Solution

R=2

Coefficients

I(t)
C = 2.494 mF

## I(t) = - 0.97799 e 4 t + e - t ( A cos 2t + B sin 2t )

L=1H

V(t) = 100 e- 4 t
_

Transient Term

## The above solution must satisfy the given

initial conditions;

## IL (0) = IL0 = 32.5 A

VC(0) = VC0 = 22 Volts

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 81

AC Circuits

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Solution
Determination of the Unknown
Coefficients

## IL (0) = IL0 = 32.5 A

VC(0) = VC0 = 22 Volts

## Substitute the given initial conditions into

the complete solution equation and solve for
the unknown coefficients A and B;
I(t) = - 0.97799 e 4 t + e - t ( A cos 2t + B sin 2t )
Transient Term

L=1H
I(t)

+
V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

C = 2.494 mF

## Decaying sinosoidal Term

R=2

_
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 82

AC Circuits

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Solution
Determination of the Unknown
Coefficients

## IL (0) = IL0 = 32.5 A

VC(0) = VC0 = 22 Volts

## Substitute the given initial conditions into the

complete solution equation and solve for the
unknown coefficients A and B;
IL(t) = - 0.97799 e 4 t + e - t ( A cos 20t + B sin 20t )

L=1
H
I L(t)

V(t) = 100

e- 4 t

C = 2.494 mF

A = 0.97799
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 83

## IL(0) = - 0.97799 e 0 + e 0 ( A cos 0 + B sin 0 )

= - 0.97799 + A = 0

R=2

AC Circuits

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Solution
Determination of the Unknown
Coefficients

## IL (0) = IL0 = 32.5 A

VC(0) = VC0 = 22 Volts

## IL(t) = - 0.97799 e 4 t + e - t ( A cos 20t + B sin 20t )

0

L=1H
I L(t)

+
V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

C = 2.494 mF

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 84

## d/dt IL(0) = IL(0) = (1/L) [ V(0) VC(0) R IL(0) ]

= (1/1) (100 22 2 * 32.5)
= 13 Amp/sec

R=2

V(0) = 100 e- 4 t
= 100 e- 4 x 0
= 100

AC Circuits
Solution

R=2

Coefficients
e-t

## d/dt IL(t) = 0.97799 x 4

(A cos 20t +B sin 20t )
+ e - t ( -20 A sin 20 t + 20 B cos 20t )

I L(t)
+
V(t) = 100

e- 4 t

C = 2.494 mF

## d/dt IL(0) = 0.97799 x 4 e 0 - e 0 (A cos 0 + B sin 0 )

+ e 0 (-20 A sin 0 + 20 B cos 0 ) = 13
= 0.97799 x 4 A + 20B = 13
= 0.97799 x 4 0.97799 + 20B = 13

## B = (13 - 3 x 0.9799) / 20 = 0.5033

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 85

e4t

L=1H

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AC Circuits

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Solution Terms
General form of the Solution
IL(t) = - 0.9799 e 4 t + e - t ( 0.97799 cos 20t + 0.5033 sin 20t )
Transient Term

## Decaying sinosoidal Term

R=2

L=1H
I(t)
C = 2.494 mF

+
V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

_
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 86

AC Circuits

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Solution Terms
Transient Term
IL(t) = - 0.9799 e 4 t + e - t ( 0.97799 cos 20t + 0.5033 sin 20t )
Transient Term
0,00

0,0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1,0

1,2

1,4

1,6

R=2

L=1H

-0,20

I(t)

-0,40

C = 2.494 mF
V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

-0,80
-1,00
-1,20

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 87

-0,60

AC Circuits

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Solution Terms
Sinusoidal Terms
IL(t) = - 0.9799 e 4 t + e - t ( 0.97799 cos 20t + 0.5033 sin 20t )
R=2

L=1H

Sinosoidal Terms

1,20

I(t)
C = 2.494 mF

0,80

V(t) = 100 e- 4 t
0,40

_
0

0,00

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8

0,9

-0,40

-0,80

-1,20

## 0.9779 cos 20t + 0.5033sin 20t

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 88

AC Circuits

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Solution Terms
Exponentially Decaying Sinusoidal Term
IL(t) = - 0.9799 e 4 t + e - t ( 0.97799 cos 20t + 0.5033 sin 20t )
1,20

e -t

0,80

R=2

L=1H

0,40
0

1,5

2,5

3,5

I(t)
+

C = 2.494 mF

-0,40

0,5

V(t) = 100 e- 4 t
_

-0,80
-1,20

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 89

AC Circuits

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Solution Terms
Overall Solution
IL(t) = - 0.9799 e 4 t + e - t ( 0.97799 cos 20t + 0.5033 sin 20t )
0,80
0,40

R=2
0,5

0,0

1,0

1,5

2,0

2,5

3,0

3,5

L=1H

4,0

I(t)
+

C = 2.494 mF

-0,40

V(t) = 100 e- 4 t

-1,20

-1,60

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 90

-0,80

AC Circuits

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## The Concept of RMS Value

Definition: RMS (Root Mean Square)

IDC

## RMS value of an AC current is the value of DC

current that would dissipate the same amount
of power as the AC current on a resistance R

## Justification is based on the principle of

equating the currents calculated in both cases.
First, calculate the power dissipated (lost as
heat) in the resistance R in the DC circuit
shown on the RHS

+
VDC

VR
_

Justification

VR = R x IDC
P = VR x IDC
= R x IDC2
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 91

AC Circuits

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## The Concept of RMS Value

RMS (Root Mean Square)

2,5

## Now, calculate the power dissipated (lost

as heat) in the resistance R in the AC
circuit shown on the RHS

2,0
1,5

V (t) = I(t) x R
P (t) = V(t) x I(t)
= R I(t)2 = R (Vmax / R sin wt )2

1,0
0,5

= R (I max sin wt )2

0
0

I(t)

V(t) +

Imax
V(t) = Vmax sin wt

V(t)

/2

3/2

-0,5

+
R

-1,0

## I 2(t) = (Imax sin wt )2

-1,5
-2,0

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 92

AC Circuits

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## The Concept of RMS Value

Problem
Let us now calculate the average of P(t)
Pavg

= (1/T) P(t) dt

= (1/T) R I(t)2 dt
= R (1/T) I(t)2 dt
= R Irms2
where I(t)rms = ((1/T) I(t)2 dt)1/2

2,5

2,0

1,5

1,0
0

## I2(t) = ( Imax sin wt )2

/2

3/2

0,5

0

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 93

AC Circuits

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## Definition of RMS Value

Problem
RMS value of an AC current is the value
of DC current that would dissipate the
same amount of power as AC current on
a resistance R
Pavg = R IDC2

## I2(t) = ( Imax sin wt )2

2,5

2,0

Pavg = R I(t)rms2

1,5

1,0

I(t)

IDC

VR

V(t) +

VR(t)

/2

3/2

0,5

R
0

VDC

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 94

AC Circuits

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## RMS Value of a Sinusoidal Waveform

RMS value of a sinusoidal waveform may
be expressed as 0.7071 multiple of the
peak value of the waveform as follows;
I (t) = I max sin wt
Irms = ((1/T) I(t)2 dt)1/2
= ((1/T) (I max sin wt)2 dt)1/2
= ((1/T) (Imax2 sin2 wt dt )1/2
= ((1/T) Imax2 (1 cos2wt) dt )1/2
= ((1/T) Imax2 ( dt cos2wt dt ))1/2
= ((1/T) Imax2( T / 2 x 0 ))1/2
= ((1/T) T Imax2 / 2 )1/2
= ( Imax2 / 2 )1/2
= Imax / 2 = I max x 0.7071

sin2 wt = 1 cos2 wt
= 1 (1 + cos 2wt) / 2
= 1 cos 2wt
= cos2wt
Current (Amp)
2,0
1,5
1,0
0,5
0

/2

3/2

-0,5
-1,0
-1,5
-2,0

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 95

AC Circuits

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Problem
Calculate the RMS value of the
sinusoidal voltage waveform shown on
the RHS
21/2

Vrms = Vmax /
= V max x 0.7071
= 312 x 0,7071 = 220 Volts

Voltage (Volts)

312
220

0

/2

3/2

- 312

## Domestic rms voltage level in Turkey

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 96

AC Circuits

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Example - 8
Problem
Calculate the RMS value of a the voltage
waveform shown on the RHS
I(t)

V(t)

Voltage (Volts)

## Vrms = ( 1/T ) V(t)2 dt

= 4 Volts

0.3

+ (-4)2 dt)

Voltage2 (Volts)

( 1/0.3) ( 4 dt

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

Time (msec)

-4

_
Vrms = ( 1/T ) V(t)2 dt
Vrms =

-2

VR(t)

0.1

32
24
16
8

V2(t) = 16

0.1

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

Time (msec)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 97

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AC Circuits