AC Circuits
Alternating Current (AC) Circuits
by
Prof. Dr. Osman SEVAOLU
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 1
AC Circuits
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Current, I
R1= 5 Ohms
+
Vs=600 V
R2= 5 Ohms
Current (Amp)
Switch
80
60
40
I = 60 A
DC (Constant) Current
20
0
1
Time (Sec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 2
AC Circuits
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Current (Amp)
Sinusoidal AC
10
Angle (Radians)
0
/2
3/2
5,0
4,0
3,0
2,0
1,0
 10
0,0
0,0
1,0
2,0
3,0
4,0
5,0
6,0
t (sec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 3
AC Circuits
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Definition
Sinusoidal voltage is a voltage
with waveform as shown on the
RHS
^
V(t) = V sin ( wt + )
where
V(t) is the voltage waveform,
^
Voltage (Volt)
312
300
200
Phase angle
Amplitude
100
Angle (Radians)
0
/2
3/2
w =2f
f = 50 Hz
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 4
AC Circuits
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10
5
0
5
Time (msec)
10
15
20
10
15
20
25
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 5
AC Circuits
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I (Amp)
V (Volts)
25
20
15
10
5
0
5
Time (msec)
0
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
10
15
20
25
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 6
AC Circuits
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I (Amp)
I (Amp)
25
I(t)
25
25
20
20
20
15
15
15
10
10
10
V(t) +
5
0
0,005
0,01 0,015
5
Load
0
0
10
15
20
25
Time (Sec)
0,005
5
5
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
I(t)
V(t) +
0,01
0,015
0,02
Time (Sec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 7
Load
AC Circuits
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Positive conductor
Insulating Layer
Negative conductor
Symbolic
representation
_
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 8
AC Circuits
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Capacitance
Definition
Small Capacitance
Large Capacitance
Capacitance = C2
+
Capacitance = C1
+
__
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 9
AC Circuits
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CapacitorPractical Configuration
Geometry
Alminum cover
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 10
AC Circuits
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CapacitorPractical Configuration
Geometry
Capacitor cylinders are then
connected in parallel in bank form
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 11
AC Circuits
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CapacitorPractical Configuration
Geometry
Capacitor banks
Control relay
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 12
AC Circuits
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CapacitorPractical Configuration
Geometry
Single and threephase capacitor
banks
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 13
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AC Circuits
MV (Medium Voltage) Shunt Capacitor Banks
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 14
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AC Circuits
MV (Medium Voltage) Shunt Capacitor Banks
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 15
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AC Circuits
MV (Medium Voltage) Shunt Capacitor Banks
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 16
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AC Circuits
Electronic Capacitors in a Motherboard
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 17
AC Circuits
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Basic Relation
+
_
Symbolic Representation
+
or
Q=CV
where, Q is charge stored (Coulombs),
V is voltage (Volts),
C is capacitance (Farads)
Capacitance C
+
Voltage Source V
C = 1 Farad
Basic Principle
Q = 1 Coulomb
1 Volt
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 18
AC Circuits
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I(t)
The relation;
Q(t) = C V(t)
or differentiating both sides with respect to time
V(t)
_
Q=CV
dQ(t)/dt = C dV(t)/dt
or remembering that
dQ(t)/dt = I(t)
Hence,
I(t) = C dV(t) / dt
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 19
AC Circuits
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I(t)
Switch
V(t)
C
Vc (0)
Definition
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 20
AC Circuits
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Example  1
I(t)
Problem
C = 0.1 F
V(t)
V(t) = 5 (1  et/ )
V(t) = 5 (1  et/ )
5,0
4,0
3,0
2,0
1,0
0,0
0,0
1,0
2,0
3,0
4,0
5,0
6,0
t (sec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 21
AC Circuits
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Example  1
I(t)
Solution
V(t) = 5 (1  et/ )
5,0
4,0
I(t) = C dV(t)/dt
V(t)
I(t) = C d V(t) / dt
= C d 5(1 e t/ )/dt
= 0.1 x 106 ( 5 / ) x e t/
= 0.1 x 106 x 5 x 106 x e t/
= 0.5 x e t/ Ampers
3,0
2,0
1,0
Hence,
V(t) = 5 (1  et/ )
0,0
0,0
1,0
2,0
3,0
4,0
1,0
2,0
3,0
4,0
I(t)
5,0
6,0
5,0
6,0
t (sec)
0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0,0
0,0
t (sec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 22
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AC Circuits
Example  1
V(t)
C = 0.1 F
Q(t)
5x107
Q(t) = C x V(t)
= 0.1 x 10 6 x 5 (1  et/ )
= 5 x 107 x (1  et/ ) Coulombs
4x107
3x107
2x107
1x107
0,0
0,0
1,0
2,0
3,0
4,0
5,0
6,0
t (sec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 23
AC Circuits
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Example  2
I(t)
t [0, 1]
12,0
14,0
I(t)
10,0
8,0
Problem
6,0
4,0
2,0
0,0
t [0, 1]
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
1,2
t (sec)
C = 1000 F
Vc(0) = 2 Volts
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 24
AC Circuits
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Example  2
I(t) (mA)
Solution
I(t)
14,0
12,0
I(t)
= 10 t + 2 Volts
8,0
4,0
2,0
where,
10,0
6,0
0,0
C = 1000 F
Vc(0) = 2 Volts
0,0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
1,2
t (sec)
V(t) (Volts)
14,0
12,0
10,0
8,0
6,0
4,0
2,0
0,0
0,0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
1,2
t (sec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 25
AC Circuits
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RC Circuits
I(t)
Solution
V(t) = R I(t) + VC(t)
= R I(t) + (1/C) I(t)dt + V(0)
V(0)=V0
C
^
V(t) = V sinwt
Problem
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 26
AC Circuits
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Solution
Solve the resulting first order ordinary differential equation (ODE)
^
V(t) = V sinwt
V(0)=V0
C
V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )
dV( t ) / dt = ^
V w cos wt
Voltage (Volt)
312
300
200
Amplitude
100
0
/2
Angle (Radians)
2
3/2
Phase angle
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 27
AC Circuits
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Solution
Solve the resulting first order ordinary differential equation (ODE)
^
^
V(t) = V sinwt
^
(t) dI(t)/dt + I(t) (1/RC)(t) = (t) ( V/R ) w cos ( wt + )
^
(t) dI(t)/dt + I(t) d/dt (t) = ( V/R ) (t) w cos ( wt + )
^
d/dt [(t) I(t)]
= ( V/R ) (t) w cos ( wt + )
^
d/dt [(t) I(t)] dt
= ( V/R ) (t) w cos ( wt + ) dt + I(0)
^
(t) I(t)
= ( V/R ) (t) w cos ( wt + ) dt + I(0)
^
I(t)
= I (t) 1 (t) w cos(wt + ) dt + (t)1I(0)
V(0)=V0
C
V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )
dV( t ) / dt = ^
V w cos wt
Voltage (Volt)
312
300
200
Amplitude
100
0
/2
Angle (Radians)
2
3/2
Phase angle
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 28
AC Circuits
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Solution (Continued)
I(t)
 t/RC
e t/RC
cos (wt + ) dt + e
 t/RC
I(0)
^
V(t) = V sinwt
V(0)=V0
C
V( t ) = V sin wt
dV( t ) / dt = V w cos wt
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 29
AC Circuits
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^
I
I(t) =  ( sinwt + (1/wRC) coswt ) + e  t/RC I(0)
(1/wRC)2 + 1
Switch
I(t)
R
^
V(t) = V sinwt
V(0)=V0
C
Solution (Continued)
V( t ) = V sin wt
dV( t ) / dt = V w cos wt
SteadyState Term
Transient Term
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 30
AC Circuits
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Numerical Example
V(0)=V0
C
^
I
I(t) =  ( sinwt + (1/wRC) coswt ) + e  t/RC I(0)
(1/wRC)2 + 1
Switch
V( t ) = V sin wt
SteadyState Term
Transient Term
dV( t ) / dt = V w cos wt
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 31
AC Circuits
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Numerical Example
20
^
I
I(t) =  ( sinwt + (1/wRC) coswt ) + e  t/RC I(0)
(1/wRC)2 + 1
15
10
Transient Term
SteadyState Term
0
25
0.5
1.5
2.5
3.5
40
20
30
15
20
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
20
10
0.5
1.5
2.5
3.5
0.5
1.5
2.5
3.5
10
20
30
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 32
AC Circuits
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Rule  1
I(0) = ( V V0 ) / R
R=2
C =1000 F
V(0)=V0
R
+
V = VDCV0
VDC
I(t)
I(0)
SC
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 33
AC Circuits
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Rule  2
I() = 0
I(t)
+
C =1000 F
VDC +
I() = 0
OC
V(0)=V0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 34
AC Circuits
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Solution
VDC
I(t)
+
R=2
C =1000 F
V(0)=V0
I(t) (Amp)
24.0
20.0
16.0
12.0
8.0
4.0
0
0,002
0,004
0,006
0,008
0,01
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 35
AC Circuits
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Definition
Time constant of a electric circuit is
the duration for the current to get
reduced by 63 % of its initial value
Time constant of an RC circuit is
simply expressed as:
= RC
The Effect of
5
4
2
1
0
0
0,5
1,5
2,5
3,5
4,5
5,5
t (sec)
2
2 > 1
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 36
AC Circuits
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Example
R= 2 Ohm
Problem
V() = VS = 24 Volts
The voltage waveform will then be;
V(t) (Volts)
+ VDC= 24 Volts
I(t)
V(0)=V0 = 6 V
C = 1 mF
24.0
20.0
16.0
12.0
8.0
4.0
0
0,002
0,004
0,006
0,008
0,01
t (sec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 37
AC Circuits
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Example
A 10 F capacitor fully charged with a 12
Volts DC voltage stores an energy;
(1/2) 10 x 106 x 122 = 720 x 106 Joule
I(t)
= C VC(t) dVC(t)
V(t)
= VC(t) C dVC(t) / dt dt
Vc(t)
= VC(t) I(t) dt
or
WC(t) = (1/2) C VC2(t)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 38
AC Circuits
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Example
^
I(t)
V( t ) = V sin wt
Voltage (Volts)
312
Angle (Radians)
^
V (t) = V sin wt
/2
3/2
 312
0,6
C = 10 F
Wc(t)
0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
sin2
cos2
wt = 1
wt = 1 ( 1 + cos2wt ) / 2
= cos2wt
0,1
Angle (Radians)
0
/2
3/2
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 39
Problem
AC Circuits
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(1/C1) I(t)dt
(1/C2) I(t)dt
+
[ (1/C1 ) + (1/C2) ] I(t)dt
(1/Ctot ) I(t)dt
Hence,
Ctot
1
= (1/C1 ) + (1/C2 )
I(t)
C1
V1 (t)
V(t)
C2
V2 (t)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 40
AC Circuits
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=
=
=
=
=
C1 d V(t) / dt
C2 d V(t) / dt
+
(C1 + C2) d V(t) / dt
d V(t) / dt
Ctot
+
V(t)
Vc(t)
I1
I2
C1
C2
Where,
C tot = C1 + C2
is the total capacitance
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 41
AC Circuits
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Inductance
Definition
Coil
Core
Toroidal Coil
Toroidal Core
Inductance is a winding or
coil of wire around a core
Core may be either insulator
or a ferromagnetic material
Symbolic representation
_
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 42
AC Circuits
METU
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 43
METU
AC Circuits
Air Core Inductor
Configuration
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 44
AC Circuits
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Basic Relation
I(t)
+ V(t)
V(t) = L d I(t) / dt
where, V(t) is the voltage across the
inductance,
I(t) is the current flowing
through,
L is the inductance (Henry)
Inductance L
Definition
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 45
AC Circuits
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Current in an Inductance
Definition
The equation;
Inductance L
I(t)
V(t) = L d I(t) / dt
can be written in inverse form as
where I(0) is the current initially flowing
in the inductor
+
V(t)
_
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 46
AC Circuits
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Current in an Inductance
I (Amp)Voltage Waveforms
Phase Shift between Current and
V (Volts), I (Amp)
25
20
15
10
I(t)
5
0
V(t)
+ Inductance
Vmax
Imax
0.005
0.010
0.015
0.020
5
10
15
20
25
Time (Sec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 47
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AC Circuits
Series and Shunt Connected Inductors
+
V1 (t)
L1
+
V(t)
+
L2
V2 (t)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 48
AC Circuits
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I(t)
V(t)
Vc(t)
I1
I2
L1
L2
V(t)dt
Hence,
Ltot
1
= (1/L1 ) + (1/L2 )
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 49
AC Circuits
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Example  3
Problem
t < 1 ms
1 t 5 ms
5 t 9 ms
9 t 13 ms
t 13 ms
I(t)
I(t)
L = 10 mH
I(t) (Amp)
1,0
0,5
0,0
0,0
2,0
4,0
6,0
8,0
10,0
12,0
14,0
t (msec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 50
AC Circuits
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Example  3
I(t)
Solution
V(t) = L d I(t) / dt
I(t)
L = 10 mH
t < 1 ms
1 t 5 ms
5 t 9 ms
9 t 13 ms
t 13 ms
V(t) (Volts)
2,5
0,0
2,5
0,0
2,0
4,0
6,0
8,0
10,0
12,0
14,0
t (msec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 51
AC Circuits
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Example  4
I(t)
Problem
Assume that the inductor shown on the RHS
is connected to a voltage source of the form
shown in the figure
Find out the inductor current waveform
assuming that the initial current in the
inductor is zero
V(t) = 0
V(t) = 10 V
V(t) = 0
t<0s
0t1s
t 1s
V(t)
L = 10 mH
V(t) (mV)
0,0
10
0,0
0,5
1,0
t (sec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 52
AC Circuits
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Example  4
I(t)
Solution
I(t) = (1/L) V(t) dt + I(0)
V(t)
L = 10 mH
I(t) (A)
0,0
1
0,0
0,5
1,0
t (sec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 53
AC Circuits
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VL(t)
L
_
I(t)
WL(t) = P(t) dt
= VL(t) I(t) dt
= I(t) L dI(t) / dt dt
= L I(t) dI(t)
or
WL(t) = L I2(t)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 54
AC Circuits
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Example 5
I(t)
Problem
Find the instantaneous energy in the
inductor for the current shown in the figure
t < 1 ms
1 t 5 ms
5 t 9 ms
9 t 13 ms
t 13 ms
I (t) = 0
I (t) = 1/(4x103) (t103) Amp
I (t) = 1 Amp
I (t) = 1/(4x103) (t  13x 103) Amp
I (t) = 0
V(t)
L = 10 mH
I(t) (Amp)
1,0
0,5
0,0
0,0
2,0
4,0
6,0
8,0
10,0
12,0
14,0
t (msec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 55
AC Circuits
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Example 5
I(t)
Solution
WL(t) = L I2(t)
V(t)
t < 1 ms
1 t 5 ms
5 t 9 ms
9 t 13 ms
t 13 ms
L = 10 mH
W(t) (Joule)
0,006
0,005
0,004
0,003
0,002
0,001
0,0
2,0
4,0
6,0
8,0
10,0
12,0
14,0
t (msec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 56
AC Circuits
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RL Circuits
Switch
I(t)
+
Solution
V(t)
I(0)=I0
L
Problem
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 57
AC Circuits
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Solution
I(t)
I(0)=I0
V(t)
V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )
Voltage (Volt)
312
300
200
Amplitude
100
0
/2
Angle (Radians)
2
3/2
Phase angle
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 58
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AC Circuits
Solution
I(t)
^
(t) dI(t)/dt + I(t) (1/RC)(t) = (t) ( V / L ) sin ( wt + )
^
(t) dI(t)/dt + I(t) d/dt (t) = ( V / L ) (t) sin ( wt + )
^
d/dt [(t) I(t)]
= ( V / L ) (t) sin ( wt + )
^
d/dt [(t) I(t)] dt
= ( V / L ) (t) sin ( wt + ) dt + I(0)
^
(t) I(t)
= ( V / L ) (t) sin ( wt + ) dt + I(0)
^
I(t)
= I (t) 1 (t) sin (wt + ) dt + (t)1I(0)
I(0)=I0
V(t)
V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )
Voltage (Volt)
312
300
200
Amplitude
100
0
/2
Angle (Radians)
2
3/2
Phase angle
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 59
AC Circuits
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Solution (Continued)
Subsituting the integration factor (t) = e t R/L into
the above solution;
I(t)
V(t)
t R/L
sin wt dt =
e t R/L
I(0)=I0
V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 60
AC Circuits
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Solution (Continued)
Subsituting the above term into the solution;
^ t R/L t R/L (R/L) sinwt  w coswt
I(t) = I e
e
 + e t R/L I(0)
(R/L)2 + w 2
R
I(t)
+
I(0)=I0
V(t)
^
I
I(t) =  ( sinwt  (wL/R) coswt ) + e t R/L I(0)
(wL/R)2 + 1
SteadyState Term
Switch
V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )
Transient Term
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 61
AC Circuits
METU
Numerical Example
SteadyState Term
R
I(t)
+
V(t)
I(0)=I0
L
^
I
I(t) =  ( sinwt  (wL/R) coswt ) + e t R/L I(0)
(wL/R)2 + 1
Switch
V( t ) = V sin ( wt + )
Transient Term
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 62
AC Circuits
METU
Numerical Example
20
^^
I
I(t) =  ( sinwt  (wL/R) coswt ) + e t R/L I(0)
(wL/R)2 + 1
15
10
Transient Term
SteadyState Term
0.5
1.5
2.5
3.5
0.5
1.5
2.5
3.5
250
200
400
150
300
100
200
50
0
50
100
100
0.5
1.5
2.5
3.5
4
0
100
150
200
250
200
300
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 63
AC Circuits
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Rule  1
I(0) = (1 / L) V(t) dt = I0 = 0

L=0.002 H
VDC
I(t)
R=1
(OC)
R
I(0) = 0
+
VDC
OC
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 64
AC Circuits
METU
Rule  2
R=1
(SC)
I(t)
L=0.002 H
VDC
I() = V / R
VDC
I()
SC
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 65
METU
AC Circuits
Definition of the Time Constant:
R = 1 Ohms
I(t)
L = 2mH
V= 24 Volts
I(t) (Amps)
_
24.0
20.0
16.0
12.0
% 63 of peak (24 V)
8.0
4.0
0
0,002
0,004
0,006
0,008
0,01
t (sec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 66
AC Circuits
METU
Example  6
R = 1 Ohms
Problem
L = 2mH
V= 24 Volts
I(t) (Amps)
I(t)
24.0
20.0
16.0
I()
12.0
8.0
I(0)
4.0
0
0,002
0,004
0,006
0,008
0,01
t (sec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 67
AC Circuits
METU
Example  7
+
V= 24 V
R2 = 5 Ohms
_
R1 = 10 Ohms
A
A
+
L = 0.4 H
V= 24 V R2 = 5 Ohms
L = 0.4 H
I(t)
Solution
First take out the branch containing inductor,
and derive the Thevenin Equivalent of the LHS
circuit seen from the terminals A and B
A
+
Problem
R1 = 10 Ohms
B
A
R1 = 10 Ohms
R2 = 5 Ohms
L = 0.4 H
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 68
AC Circuits
METU
Example 7 (Continued)
R1 = 10 Ohms
Solution (Continued)
Open circuit terminals A B and find VAB
+
VAB (t)
V= 24 V R2 = 5 Ohms
V = 24 V x R2 / ( R1 + R2)
= 24 x 5 / 15 = 24 / 3
=8V
R eq= 10 // 5 = 10 x 5 /(10+5)
= 10/3 Ohms
B
A
A
L = 0.4 H
V= 24 / 3 = 8 V
R eq= 10 // 5 = 10 x 5 /(10+5)
= 10/3 Ohms
A
L = 0.4 H
V= 24 / 3 = 8 V
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 69
AC Circuits
METU
RLC Circuits
Problem
V(0)=V0
_
R
V(t)
V(t)
Solution
V(t) = R I(t) + VL(t) + VC(t)
= R I(t) + L dI(t)/dt + (1/C) I(t)dt + V(0)
Differentiating both sides wrt time once;
I(t)
L I(0)=I0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 70
AC Circuits
METU
Initial Conditions
Differential Equation
Initial Conditions
_
VC(0) = VC0
IL(0) = IL0
or
d/dt IL(0)= IL(0) =(1/L) [ V(0) VC(0) R IL(0) ] 2
V(t)
_
I(t)
I(0) = I0
V(0)=V0
C
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 71
AC Circuits
METU
Example
R=2
I(t)
C = 2.494 mF
V(t) = 100 e 4 t
RLC Circuit
L=1H
AC Circuits
METU
Solution
R=2
RLC Circuit
I(t)
C = 2.494 mF
L=1H
V(t) = 100 e 4 t
s1, s2 = (  b
= 1
b=2
a =1
j 20
b2 4 x a x c ) / (2 a)
Eigenvalues of the differential equation
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 73
AC Circuits
METU
Solution
R=2
L=1H
RLC Circuit
I(t)
C = 2.494 mF
V(t) = 100 e 4 t
_
I(t) = k1 e s1 t + k2 e s2 t
= k1 e (1 j20 ) t + k2 e (1 + j20 ) t
= k1 e  t x e j20 t + k2 e  t x e
= e  t (k1 e j20 t + k2 e j20 t )
j20 t
= e  t [ k1 (cos 20 t j sin 20 t )
= + k2 (cos 20 t + j sin 20 t ) ]
Eulers Identity
e j = cos + j sin
= 20 t
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 74
AC Circuits
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Eulers Identity
Definition
Graphical Representaion
e j = cos + j sin
^
sin
1.0
e j = cos + j sin
= cos2 + sin2
=1
x2 + y2 = z2
cos
z = x2 + y2
EE
EE 209
209 Fundamentals
Fundamentals of
of Electrical
Electrical and
and Electronics
Electronics Engineering,
Engineering, Prof.
Prof. Dr.
Dr. O.
O. SEVAOLU,
SEVAOLU, Page
Page 75
75
AC Circuits
METU
Solution
R=2
RLC Circuit
I(t)
+
V(t) = 100 e 4 t
_
t
C = 2.494 mF
L=1H
AC Circuits
METU
Solution
R=2
Nonhomogeneous Term
(Transient Term)
I(t)
+
C = 2.494 mF
V(t) = 100 e 4 t
L=1H
AC Circuits
METU
Solution
R=2
Nonhomogeneous Term
(Transient Term)
I(t)
+
C = 2.494 mF
V(t) = 100 e 4 t
In(t) = c e 4 t
L=1H
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 78
AC Circuits
METU
Solution
Transient Term
R=2
16 c  8 c + 401 c =  400
L=1H
I(t)
C = 2.494 mF
+
V(t) = 100 e 4 t
AC Circuits
Solution
R=2
Complete Solution
I(t)
+
C = 2.494 mF
V(t) = 100 e 4 t
L=1H
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 80
METU
AC Circuits
METU
Solution
R=2
I(t)
C = 2.494 mF
L=1H
V(t) = 100 e 4 t
_
Transient Term
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 81
AC Circuits
METU
Solution
Determination of the Unknown
Coefficients
L=1H
I(t)
+
V(t) = 100 e 4 t
C = 2.494 mF
R=2
_
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 82
AC Circuits
METU
Solution
Determination of the Unknown
Coefficients
L=1
H
I L(t)
V(t) = 100
e 4 t
C = 2.494 mF
A = 0.97799
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 83
R=2
AC Circuits
METU
Solution
Determination of the Unknown
Coefficients
L=1H
I L(t)
+
V(t) = 100 e 4 t
C = 2.494 mF
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 84
R=2
V(0) = 100 e 4 t
= 100 e 4 x 0
= 100
AC Circuits
Solution
R=2
I L(t)
+
V(t) = 100
e 4 t
C = 2.494 mF
e4t
L=1H
METU
AC Circuits
METU
Solution Terms
General form of the Solution
IL(t) =  0.9799 e 4 t + e  t ( 0.97799 cos 20t + 0.5033 sin 20t )
Transient Term
L=1H
I(t)
C = 2.494 mF
+
V(t) = 100 e 4 t
_
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 86
AC Circuits
METU
Solution Terms
Transient Term
IL(t) =  0.9799 e 4 t + e  t ( 0.97799 cos 20t + 0.5033 sin 20t )
Transient Term
0,00
0,0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
1,2
1,4
1,6
R=2
L=1H
0,20
I(t)
0,40
C = 2.494 mF
V(t) = 100 e 4 t
0,80
1,00
1,20
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 87
0,60
AC Circuits
METU
Solution Terms
Sinusoidal Terms
IL(t) =  0.9799 e 4 t + e  t ( 0.97799 cos 20t + 0.5033 sin 20t )
R=2
L=1H
Sinosoidal Terms
1,20
I(t)
C = 2.494 mF
0,80
V(t) = 100 e 4 t
0,40
_
0
0,00
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
0,40
0,80
1,20
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 88
AC Circuits
METU
Solution Terms
Exponentially Decaying Sinusoidal Term
IL(t) =  0.9799 e 4 t + e  t ( 0.97799 cos 20t + 0.5033 sin 20t )
1,20
e t
0,80
R=2
L=1H
0,40
0
1,5
2,5
3,5
I(t)
+
C = 2.494 mF
0,40
0,5
V(t) = 100 e 4 t
_
0,80
1,20
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 89
AC Circuits
METU
Solution Terms
Overall Solution
IL(t) =  0.9799 e 4 t + e  t ( 0.97799 cos 20t + 0.5033 sin 20t )
0,80
0,40
R=2
0,5
0,0
1,0
1,5
2,0
2,5
3,0
3,5
L=1H
4,0
I(t)
+
C = 2.494 mF
0,40
V(t) = 100 e 4 t
1,20
1,60
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 90
0,80
AC Circuits
METU
IDC
+
VDC
VR
_
Justification
VR = R x IDC
P = VR x IDC
= R x IDC2
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 91
AC Circuits
METU
2,0
1,5
V (t) = I(t) x R
P (t) = V(t) x I(t)
= R I(t)2 = R (Vmax / R sin wt )2
1,0
0,5
Angle (Radians)
= R (I max sin wt )2
0
0
I(t)
V(t) +
Imax
V(t) = Vmax sin wt
V(t)
/2
3/2
0,5
+
R
1,0
1,5
2,0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 92
AC Circuits
METU
= (1/T) P(t) dt
= (1/T) R I(t)2 dt
= R (1/T) I(t)2 dt
= R Irms2
where I(t)rms = ((1/T) I(t)2 dt)1/2
2,5
2,0
1,5
1,0
0
/2
3/2
0,5
0
Angle (Radians)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 93
AC Circuits
METU
2,0
Pavg = R I(t)rms2
1,5
1,0
I(t)
IDC
VR
V(t) +
VR(t)
/2
3/2
0,5
R
0
VDC
Angle (Radians)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 94
AC Circuits
METU
sin2 wt = 1 cos2 wt
= 1 (1 + cos 2wt) / 2
= 1 cos 2wt
= cos2wt
Current (Amp)
2,0
1,5
1,0
0,5
0
Angle (Radians)
/2
3/2
0,5
1,0
1,5
2,0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 95
AC Circuits
METU
Problem
Calculate the RMS value of the
sinusoidal voltage waveform shown on
the RHS
21/2
Vrms = Vmax /
= V max x 0.7071
= 312 x 0,7071 = 220 Volts
Voltage (Volts)
/2
3/2
 312
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 96
AC Circuits
METU
Example  8
Problem
Calculate the RMS value of a the voltage
waveform shown on the RHS
I(t)
V(t)
Voltage (Volts)
= 4 Volts
0.3
+ (4)2 dt)
Voltage2 (Volts)
( 1/0.3) ( 4 dt
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
Time (msec)
4
_
Vrms = ( 1/T ) V(t)2 dt
Vrms =
2
VR(t)
0.1
32
24
16
8
V2(t) = 16
0.1
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
Time (msec)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 97
METU
AC Circuits
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 98