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Wind Turbine Design

Project
AE5 Design Small Scale Wind Turbine
for Home Electricity Generation
March 2013
By
Maheemal K.B. (0923688)
Kalinga Ellawala (0628552)
Bhavdeep Pancholi (0906043)
Mishkath Harees (0806420)

Abstract
Wind Turbines are one the oldest known method used to extract energy from the natural sources
(wind in this case). With the changing weather and wind speed, it is not possible to produce high
constant power from the wind turbine but a small scale wind turbine can be used to power small
appliances at home, e.g. fridge. This project looks into thetechnical and marketing aspects for an
innovative design of a small scale wind turbine designed for supplying home electricity. The report
includes content on design, enhancement, power management, manufacturing methods, cost
analysis & marketing issues; processes which are considered for creating new patent and putting into
development.

Acknowledgement (BP)
We would like to express our gratitude to all those who gave us the possibility to complete this
design project. We would like to thank Brunel School of Design & Engineering and all the professors
involved in this module for giving us permission to commence this project in the first instance, to do
the necessary research work and to use departmental data and knowledge.
We also like to take this opportunity to thank our project supervisor Dr. A. Gatto whose help,
suggestions and encouragement helped us stretch our ideas further then our own imaginations.

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Table of Contents
Abstract ................................................................................................................................................... 0
Acknowledgement (BP) ........................................................................................................................... 1
1

Introduction (BP) ............................................................................................................................. 0


1.1

Aim .......................................................................................................................................... 0

1.2

Design Brief ............................................................................................................................. 0

Current Designs (KE) ........................................................................................................................ 1


2.1

Energy ball V200 ...................................................................................................................... 1

2.2

Honeywell WT6500 Wind Turbine .......................................................................................... 1

2.3

Hannevind 2.2 kW ................................................................................................................... 2

2.4

Windon 2 kW ........................................................................................................................... 2

2.5

Bergey Excel............................................................................................................................. 3

2.6

Southwest Windpower Skystream 3.7 .................................................................................... 3

2.7

Windsave WS500..................................................................................................................... 3

2.8

Renewable Devices Swift ...................................................................................................... 4

The Wind (BP) .................................................................................................................................. 4


3.1

Geographical Analysis.............................................................................................................. 4

3.2

UK Historical Data.................................................................................................................... 6

The Wind & the Blades .................................................................................................................... 7


4.1

Wind power calculations ......................................................................................................... 7

4.2

The Blades ............................................................................................................................... 9

4.2.1

Number of Blades ............................................................................................................ 9

4.2.2

Aerofoil & Load................................................................................................................ 9

4.2.3

Materials........................................................................................................................ 12

4.2.4

Wind Speed ................................................................................................................... 12

4.2.5

Angle of Attack .............................................................................................................. 13

4.3

Power Extracted .................................................................................................................... 13

4.4

Acoustics & Insulation ........................................................................................................... 13

Generator (KE) ............................................................................................................................... 14


5.1

AC & DC Generator ................................................................................................................ 14

5.2

Induction Generator .............................................................................................................. 15

5.3

Generator types .................................................................................................................... 15

5.3.1

Synchronous Generator (SG) ......................................................................................... 15

5.3.2

Permanent magnet synchronous Generator (PMSG) ................................................... 15

5.3.3

Switched reluctance generator (SRG) ........................................................................... 16

5.4

Permanent magnet generators ............................................................................................. 16

5.4.1

The magnetic flux orientation (Radial Flux or Axial Flux) .............................................. 17

5.4.2

Longitudinal or Transversal (Figure 5.4.1) ..................................................................... 17


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5.4.3
5.5

Inner Rotor or Outer Rotor............................................................................................ 18

Coil winding arrangements ................................................................................................... 18

5.5.1

Coil placement ............................................................................................................... 18

5.5.2

Coil winding distribution ............................................................................................... 19

5.5.3

Pole slot combinations .................................................................................................. 19

Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Turbine Designs (MT).................................................... 19


6.1

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines .............................................................................................. 19

6.1.1

Advantages of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines .............................................................. 19

6.1.2

Disadvantages of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines.......................................................... 20

6.2

Vertical Axis Wind Turbines................................................................................................... 20

6.2.1

Advantages of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines................................................................... 21

6.2.2

Environmental Benefits ................................................................................................. 21

6.3

Comparison between Vertical designs Vs. Horizontal designs ............................................. 21

6.4

Justification for design choice ............................................................................................... 22

Wind Turbine Power Management (MH)...................................................................................... 22

Safety Systems for Wind Turbines (MH) ....................................................................................... 23

8.1

Vibration Sensors .................................................................................................................. 23

8.2

Turbine over-speed ............................................................................................................... 24

8.3

Thermal and other sensors.................................................................................................... 24

8.4

Anti-Icing Systems ................................................................................................................. 24

8.5

Material Failure ..................................................................................................................... 24

Manufacturing Methodology and Processes (MH) ....................................................................... 25


9.1

Design for Manufacture/Design for Assembly ...................................................................... 25

9.2

Material Selection ................................................................................................................. 26

9.3

Material Properties ............................................................................................................... 26

9.4

Cost and Availability .............................................................................................................. 27

9.5

Selection of manufacturing processes .................................................................................. 27

9.6

Metal and Metal Alloys ......................................................................................................... 28

9.7

Metal Casting Processes ........................................................................................................ 28

9.8

Sand Casting .......................................................................................................................... 30

9.9

Sands ..................................................................................................................................... 31

9.10

Types of Sand Moulds ........................................................................................................... 31

9.11

Patterns ................................................................................................................................. 31

9.12

Sand-Moulding Machines ...................................................................................................... 32

9.13

The Sand Casting Operation .................................................................................................. 32

9.14

Die Casting ............................................................................................................................. 33

9.15

Hot-Chamber Process ............................................................................................................ 33

9.16

Cold-Chamber Process .......................................................................................................... 33


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9.17

Process Capabilities and Machine Selection ......................................................................... 34

9.18

Forging of Metals................................................................................................................... 34

9.19

Extrusion and Drawing of Metals .......................................................................................... 35

9.20

Forming and Shaping Plastics ................................................................................................ 35

9.21

Injection Moulding ................................................................................................................ 36

9.22

Process Capabilities ............................................................................................................... 37

9.23

Rotational Moulding .............................................................................................................. 37

10

Product Design Specification (MH/MT)..................................................................................... 38

11

Design Conceptualisation .......................................................................................................... 41

11.1

Blade (BP) .............................................................................................................................. 41

11.1.1

Design 1 ......................................................................................................................... 42

11.1.2

Design 2 ......................................................................................................................... 42

11.1.3

Design 3 ......................................................................................................................... 42

11.1.4

Aerofoil Shape ............................................................................................................... 43

11.1.5

Materials........................................................................................................................ 43

11.2

Generator (KE) ....................................................................................................................... 43

11.2.1

Design 1 ......................................................................................................................... 43

11.2.2

Design 2 ......................................................................................................................... 44

11.2.3

Design 3 ......................................................................................................................... 45

11.2.4

Design 4 ......................................................................................................................... 45

11.3

Preliminary Design of braking and mounting systems (MH)................................................. 46

11.3.1

Braking Systems............................................................................................................. 46

11.3.2

Braking System Design 1 ............................................................................................... 46

11.3.3

Braking System Design 2 ............................................................................................... 46

11.3.4

Braking System Design 3 ............................................................................................... 47

11.4

Mounting System (MH) ......................................................................................................... 47

11.4.1

Mounting System Method 1.......................................................................................... 47

11.4.2

Mounting system 2 ........................................................................................................ 48

11.4.3

Mounting System 3 ....................................................................................................... 48

11.5

Popular Wind turbine arrangements for domestic use (MT) ................................................ 49

11.5.1

Introduction................................................................................................................... 49

11.5.2

Series Regulators ........................................................................................................... 49

11.5.3

Shunt Regulators ........................................................................................................... 50

11.5.4

Two modes of operation ............................................................................................... 50

11.5.5

Pulse Width Modulation Regulators ............................................................................. 50

11.5.6

PWM regulator with a dump load ................................................................................. 51

11.5.7

Shorting the generator output? .................................................................................... 51

11.5.8

Wind compatible Solar style charge controllers? ...................................................... 51


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11.5.9

Maximum Power Point Tracking ................................................................................... 52

11.5.10

Hysteresis .................................................................................................................. 52

11.5.11

Lead-Acid Batteries.................................................................................................... 52

11.5.12

Dump Loads (as used in 'battery shunt' configuration) ............................................ 53

11.5.13

Braking Resistor (as used in 'turbine brake controller' configuration) ..................... 53

11.5.14

Grid Tie Inverters ....................................................................................................... 53

12

Preliminary Design & Analysis ................................................................................................... 54

12.1

The Blades, the Hub & the Cone (BP) .................................................................................... 54

12.2

Generator design selection (KE) ............................................................................................ 55

12.2.1

Design Selection ............................................................................................................ 55

12.2.2

Design improvements for the preliminary generator design ........................................ 56

13

Final Design (BP) ........................................................................................................................ 57

13.1

FEA Analysis (MT) .................................................................................................................. 59

13.2

Bill of Material (MT) .............................................................................................................. 62

13.3

Blades (BP) ............................................................................................................................. 63

13.4

Bearings (BP/MH) .................................................................................................................. 64

13.5

Final Generator Design (KE) .................................................................................................. 64

13.5.1

Rotor .............................................................................................................................. 64

13.5.2

Stator ............................................................................................................................. 65

13.5.3

Final assembly of the generator .................................................................................... 66

13.5.4

Power Calculations ........................................................................................................ 67

13.5.5

Power Curve .................................................................................................................. 69

13.5.6

Method .......................................................................................................................... 69

13.5.7

Generator circuit (stator to blade point)....................................................................... 70

13.6

Power Management (MT) ..................................................................................................... 70

13.7

Maintenance (ALL) ................................................................................................................ 71

13.7.1

Generator ...................................................................................................................... 71

13.7.2

Tips for long lasting power management system ......................................................... 72

14

Manufacturing (MH).................................................................................................................. 72

15

Business Model Evaluation of wind turbine (MH)..................................................................... 73

15.1

Material Costs........................................................................................................................ 73

15.2

Manufacturing Costs ............................................................................................................. 75

15.3

Marketing Costs..................................................................................................................... 75

15.4

Premises Costs....................................................................................................................... 76

15.5

Labour/staffing Costs ............................................................................................................ 76

15.6

Operational Costs .................................................................................................................. 77

15.7

Revenue ................................................................................................................................. 78

15.8

Profit Margins ........................................................................................................................ 78


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16
16.1

Conclusion (KE/MT) ................................................................................................................... 84


Design Specification .............................................................................................................. 84

17

Works Cited ............................................................................................................................... 85

18

Appendix-A (ALL) ....................................................................................................................... 87

18.1

Figures ................................................................................................................................... 87

18.2

Flow chart for varying conditions (MT) ................................................................................. 90

19

Appendix-B (MT)........................................................................................................................ 91

20

Appendix-C (ALL) ....................................................................................................................... 92

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1 Introduction (BP)
With increasing awareness of global warming due to Carbon Dioxide produced from the burning
fuels, the use of natural energy source is coming into effect. Engineers are adapting the use of
natural sources (e.g. wind, solar, hydro) to generate electricity and provide power to the power
plants. The use of wind turbine is one of the oldest known methods of extracting the energy from
natural sources. Windmills were used in olden times to run the pump for pumping the water from
the well. Wind turbines are not well considered because they heavily depend on the wind blowing
along with the geographical disturbance however, a small scale wind turbine can be used to power
small home appliances reducing the cost of electricity and fuel burnt to produce equal amount of
electricity.
Wind turbine extracts energy from the wind to generate electricity. 40% of all the wind energy in
Europe blows over the UK, making it an ideal country for domestic turbines (known as 'microwind' or
'small-wind' turbines). A typical system in an exposed site could easily generate more power than
household lamps and other electrical appliances use. Just like any engineering design poses
challenges, household wind turbine also poses various challenges such as noise, aesthetics, buying
cost, maintenance cost, etc.
This report looks into the current designs of the small scale wind turbine along with the market
requirement followed by the design of an innovative wind turbine system. In the report areas such as
current designs, power generation, blade design power management and fail safe methods are
considered. The report also considers the development complications limiting the design
enhancement such as noise, aesthetics, material cost, maintenance, legal constraints and other
issues. These are the issue which affect the design, manufacturing and marketing of the product.

1.1 Aim
The main aim of the project is to design a small wind turbine that can generate electricity for home
appliances. The thought of design directs us to look into the various aspects such as manufacturing,
noise, cost which leads us to our additional aim of analysing the system to overcome the usual
technical glitches.

1.2 Design Brief


The project brief involves the design of a small scale wind turbine that can be easily mass produced
and fitted to every household in the UK to aid electricity consumption. The design should provide the
following;
1. Be able to generate a non-trivial electricity supply to the household when operating. Excess
electricity can be fed back into the national grid or charge secondary batteries.
2. The scale of the turbine should be within the limits of the UK building code and not dominate
the aesthetics of the average dwelling.
3. Designed to operate at suitable wind speeds typical to UK weather in urban environments.
4. Possess a fail-safe system as a consequence of an over-speed event.
5. Have a low acoustic footprint.
The above brief for this project can be simplified further to manage the project. Simplified brief
below shows that this project provides us with an opportunity to look into various sections which will
help us complete the task. The several tasks to be completed for this project are as follows:

Evaluation of the working environment for the turbine in the UK wind speeds, weather, etc.
Calculation of the aerodynamic design and structural loads

Selection of the materials & equipment


equipme battery, metal, coils, etc.
Investigation of mass production methods
Cost/Benefit analysis of the system power generated
ted and its cost effective use
Considerations for safetyy system during extreme events
Noise reduction methods and its implementation into design

2 Current Designs (KE)


2.1 Energy ball V200

Figure 1: Energy Ball V200

Energy ball V200 (SeeFigure 1)) is a unique turbine design when compared to the traditional three
blade wind turbines. The design consists of six rotor blades that are assembled
assembled as a sphere shape.
The turbine weights 90kg, turbine diameter of 1.98m and minimum start up wind speed of 3 m/s.
Due to the unique design and the venture effect, the generator harness wind more efficiently. The
electricity generated from V200 Energy ball comes to direct use where it can be plugged in straight to
the electric socket (Plug-in
in product) of the property. The Inverter is connected to the property
electric breaker box. The energy harvest from V200 can be used to charge batteries and excess
unused
nused energy automatically dumped in to the grid. The Energy ball categorised as a noise less, since
the turbine does not have any wing tips it does not generate the swishing noise. The Energy balls
dimensions allow it to be installed in many countries
countries urban areas. Also it features such as less
vibration (noise less) and less shadows it ideally suited for residential or commercial rood top usage.
Figure 90 shows the power curve of the Energy ball V200 which shows the turbines operating
parameters (1).

2.2 Honeywell WT6500 Wind Turbine

Figure 2: Honeywell WT6500

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The Honeywell Wind Turbine (seeFigure


(see
2)) is a gearless wind turbine, which the diameter of 1.8 m,
weight of 110 kg and generates on average up to 1500 kWh per year depending on height and
location. The Honeywell Wind Turbines blade
blade tip power system (BTPS) is a perimeter power system
and the unique multi - stage blade design enables the system to react quickly and efficiently to
change in wind a speed which ensures that the maximum wind energy is captured without the typical
noise and
nd vibration associated with traditional wind turbines. The Wind Turbine has an increased
operating span over traditional turbines with a start-up
start up speed as low as 0.5 mph (0.2 m/s), with an
auto shut off at 38 mph (17.0 m/s). Figure 91shows the power curve for WT600 (2).
(2)

2.3 Hannevind 2.2 kW

Figure 3: Hannevind Wind Turbine

The Hannevind wind turbine (seeFigure


(see
3)) equipped with typical classic look of three blades made of
glass fiber. Since the diameter of the turbine is 3.5 meters it required to acquire
acquire a building permit.
The tower can be high between 12 to 18 meters and it weight around 100 kg. The turbine operates at
minimum wind speed of 2.4 m/s and the maximum power is generates at the wind speed of 9 m/s. At
the rear end of the turbine there is
is a fin mounted which helps it to steer the turbine up towards the
wind for capture as much wind energy as possible. The turbine can be connected to the electric grid,
work solo or be connected with some other kind of electric device (3).

2.4 Windon 2 kW
The Windon 2kW (SeeFigure 4)) is a turbine which has three blades with a diameter of 3.2 meters.
Back on the turbine is a fin, which helps the turbine to steer up against the wind so that maximum
effect can be received. The tower can be 9 or 12 meters high, and the weight of the turbine is
approximately 40 kg. The minimum wind for the turbine to start generate electricity is 2.5 m/s. The
wind turbine is very quiet and demands very little service and maintenance. Figure 92 shows the
turbine power curve (4).

Figure 4: Windon Wind Turbine

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2.5 Bergey Excel

Figure 5: Bergey Excel

5) is designed for high reliability, low maintenance and automatic


The Bergey Excel (See Figure 5)
operation in adverse weather conditions. When connected
connected to the grid the turbine provide most of
the electricity for an average total electric home at moderate wind sites. Rated Capacity of 10kw,
Start-up Wind speed at 7.5 mph and rotor size of 6.7 m, Interconnection can be Utility connected or
battery charging. The Estimated Energy Production of 1500 KWh per month at a wind speed of
12.5mph (5).

2.6 Southwest Windpower Skystream 3.7


The Skystream 3.7(See Figure 6)) is designed for residential use which is the first fully integrated and
grid-tied
tied wind energy system designed for that purposes. This plug and play
play turbine is an allinclusive wind generator with controls and inverter built in designed to provide quiet, clean
electricity in very low wind speeds. The Skystream 3.7 operates to downwind because it has no tail
rudder to keep it facing into the wind.
w
The turbine has a Rated Capacity of 1.9 kW continuous
outputs and peak capacity of 2.6 kW. The Start-up
Start
wind speed of 8mph and the rotor
r
size of 3.72m.
The interconnection can be either utility connected or battery charging. It has a gear less alternator
and a brushless permanent magnet. The turbine generates total voltage output of 240 VAC and
estimated energy production of 400 kWh per month at wind speed of 5.4 m/s (6).
(6)

Figure 6: Skystream 3.7

2.7 Windsave WS500


The Windsave WS500 (See Figure 7)) is 1.25 m in diameter and rated at 500 W at 12 m/s and the
Windsave WS 1000 is 1.75 m in diameter and rated at 1000 W at 12 m/s. Both these ratings imply a
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coefficient of performance (power produced by turbine divided by power in the wind) of about 0.38,
which would be an extremely good performance for a micro wind turbine, which, at that size, might
have been more expected to have maximum coefficient of performance between 0.11 and 0.19 (7).

Figure 7: Windsave

2.8 Renewable Devices Swift


The Swift turbine (SeeFigure 8)) has a blade diameter of 1.8 meters and start in wind speed at 4 m/s.
The turbine rated output power of 2200W and output voltage of 120V. The design engineers
en
of
Renewable Devices claim that it is the worlds first truly silent wind turbine. The Swift has some very
advanced aerodynamics that make the rotor more efficient, whilst reducing the noise emissions
significantly, a problem which has meant that similar
similar sized turbines cannot be building mounted. A
circular rim around the outside of the blades restricts the radial flow of air at the tip of each blade
that creates a ripping noise with conventional turbines. Renewable Devices has also developed an
electronic
ctronic control system that safeguards the turbine in high winds and ensures efficient power
extraction under normal operating conditions (8).

Figure 8: Swift

3 The Wind (BP)


3.1 Geographical Analysis
Wind turbine generates electricity by extracting energy from the wind. Earths circulation system,
driven by its magnetic poles and the temperature gradient (across its latitude), sets the wind
direction and its speed. It gets affected by the landscape, the geometry and the speed its flowing
across or around. Flowing with unique characteristics, the wind carries energy of the
th form which can
be used to generate lift or drag force as a result of a pressure difference. The following paragraph will
show how the wind gets affected by the general landscape aided by the data of UK Mean Wind
Speed.

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Figure 9: Microscale modelling around Wellington (9)

Wind flowing over various landscapes can get affected by its geometrical appearance. Figure 9shows
a classic example of how the wind gets affected by the landscape. It shows graphical presentation of
the CFD simulation carried for a micro scale model over the Wellington area.The wind cannot be
seen in real life but can be visualised as stream of particles flowing in a line (either straight or random
chaotic line). Figure 10&Figure 11shows animated behaviour of the wind flow over the mountain and
the cliff.

Figure 10: Wind Flow near the Cliff (10)

Figure 11: Wind Flow over the Hill (10)

The purpose of this analysis is to show that the undisturbed flow of air is mostly uniform.However
when it flows around or across a geometry or a landscape, it creates turbulence. This turbulent
air/wind includes random movement of the air particles which leads to loss of energy the wind
contains. Therefore wind turbine needs to be placed on a landscape that places rotor and blades in
average wind flow but with little of turbulence created by the surroundings.
Artificial or natural surroundings can potentially create turbulence. Artificial surroundings include the
houses and buildings. Figure 12&Figure 13 shows CFD Analysis carried out by S J Watson at
Loughborough University. Figure 12displays filled vector plot of a house in isolated area and how
wind (flowing from left to right) creates wake resulting in no or low velocity with a change in
direction. Figure 13displays a filled vector plot of a house in urban area which shows wind flow (left
to right). In urban area there is only small amount of wind flowing below the roof tops and because
of this, minimum turbulence is created before and aft of house.

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Figure 12: CFD Analysis of Wind Flow - Isolated Area (11)

Figure 13: CFD Analysis of Wind Flow - Urban area (11)

The wind analysis of different landscape and geometrical obstacles suggest that the wind turbine
needs to be placed in open area where landscape does not create wake. If the turbine is to be placed
on top of a house roof, it needs to be place on the upwind side of the roof as downwind side has high
turbulence close to the roof. If the wind turbine is to be placed near the cliff top or on mountain, it
needs to be high above the ground as the turbulence is high near to the terrain. However at very high
level from ground, wind speed is not high therefore a balance must be found by collecting data over
certain period of time at different height scales.

3.2 UK Historical Data


Weather changes with time bringing in new seasons with different climate conditions. The Met office
provides us with some average data on Mean Wind Speed measured at various regions in UK. This
data will help us identify the wind speed limit we are expected to incorporate while designing small
scale wind turbine for home electricity.

Figure 14: Mean Wind Speed 1971-2000 Spring (12)

Figure 15: Mean Wind Speed 1971-2000 Summer (12)

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Figure 16: Mean Wind Speed 1971-2000 Autumn (12)

Figure 17: Mean Wind Speed 1971-2000 Winter (12)

The data above clearly shows that the mean wind speed varies between 6-25 m/s at various regions
in UK. Climate conditions also play important role in wind speeds as seen from the figures above. In
summer, the wind speed measured in most urban areas is below 10 m/s and towards the Scotland
side it picks up to 25 m/s. however in winter, the urban areas experience wind speed of 10-15 m/s
and areas in Scotland and North Wales experience wind speed greater than 25 m/s. some part in
changing wind speed. Therefore if the small wind turbine is to be designed for UK households, then it
should be able to work at speeds low as 3-6 m/s and should also be able to sustain high wind speeds
of around 25 m/s.

4 The Wind &the Blades


4.1 Wind power calculations
Kinetic Energy of a mass in motion is given by

1
 =  
2

Equation 1: Kinetic Energy

But the power is the rate of change of energy:


=

Equation 2: Power

If the kinetic energy of the wind is considered to have constant velocity then the power of the wind
can be calculated by

 =  


,


where

=  

Therefore,
1
 =  
2

Equation 3: Wind Power (13)

Where is the Density, A is the Sweap Area and v is the Velocity of the wind.

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Figure 18: Wind Turbine Sweap Area (13)

The above calculation only helps us to find out the wind power with specific wind velocity. The wind
turbine however does not extract all the power from the wind. Some of the energy is used to
overcome the profile drag (14) created by the blade geometry and the leftover energy is allowed to
pass through as extracting all the energy from the wind would mean accumulation of static pressure
particles aft of wind turbine blades. Imagine an Axial Stream Tube around a wind turbine as shown
in Figure 19; if the energy is extracted between stage 2 and 3, the pressure accumulation would
divert the incoming flow around the blade rather than passing through the blades. By extracting the
power, the turbine reduces the wind kinetic energy. Therefore the air moves more slowly
downstream of turbine compare to the upstream. This accumulates wind behind the turbine sweap
area (downstream) as its moving slowly after the energy extraction. As a result the approaching
(upstream) wind diverts around the turbine blades to avoid slow moving air. For these very reason
there is an optimum amount of power to extract from a given disc diameter (15). The ideal is to
reduce the wind speed by about two thirds downwind of the turbine, though even then the wind just
before the turbine will have lost about a third of its speed. This allows a theoretical maximum of 59%
of the winds power to be captured (this is called Betzs limit) (15).

Figure 19: Axial Stream Tube around a Wind Turbine (16)

So by taking the Betzs limit in consideration, the power available from the wind is given by the

formula below where is the Betzs limit (generally given by ratio).
1
 =  
2

Equation 4: Power Available

Even after applying the Betzs limit, the wind contains energy enough to drive the blades &generator
and produce electricity. However, it depends on the blade design and its efficiency across the span to
determine how much energy is extracted. While talking efficiency, we are faced by various design
&mechanical limitations, therefore design of the blades will be considered even further in the next
section as the blades play keep role in extracting the energy from the wind.
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4.2 The Blades


Starting from design needs, considering manufacturing & materials limit and finishing with the
power efficiency, the wind turbine blades are shaped to generate the maximum power from the
wind
The design engineers have to consider the following while designing the turbine blade:
Number of Blades
Aerofoil & Load
Materials
Rotational Speed
Wind speed
Pitch Control

4.2.1 Number of Blades


Betzs limit places significant restriction on the power that can be extracted by the blades. The
limitation means more blades there are, the less power each can extract. However this allows us to
reduce the blade length (span) and chord. The other factor influencing the number of blades is
aesthetics: it is generally accepted that three-bladed turbines are less visually disturbing than one or
two-bladed designs (15). Also the number of blades adds to the weight which creates moment about
the centre (mast or pillar). This moment is counter acted by the moment generated by the weight of
the tail fin. Therefore increasing the number of blades would also require increasing the weight of
the tail fin by changing the geometry or the distance its acting at from the centre or by using a denser
material for the tail fin. Blades generate lift and this lift providesacceleration for the angular rotation.
Hence the reason blades need to be manufactured precisely and increasing the number of blades
would increase the cost of manufacturing.

4.2.2 Aerofoil & Load


The turbine blades extract energy from the wind by using wind energy to generate the lift force. It
uses same concept as the aeroplane wing in order to generate the lift force.
1
 =    
2

Equation 5: Finite Wing Lift Equation

The equation above shows the finite wing lift equation which uses the finite wing CL value to work
out the lift. If we look at the cross section of the wind turbine blade at particular point, we would see
an airfoil shape. Air flowing over an airfoil shape generates lift due to the pressure difference. The
best lift/drag characteristics are obtained by an airfoil that has thickness approximately 10-15% of its
chord length (15). The lift can be increased by increasing the angle of attack but it also increases drag
and potential of flow separation (Figure 21). For a particular airfoil shape coefficient of lift to angle of
attack graph (Figure 22) is used to best describe the relation between lift and the angle of attack.

Figure 20: Lift and Drag Vectors (15)

9|Page

Figure 21: Aerofoil Shape & the Angle of Attack (15)

Figure 22: Typical CL Graph (14)

The figure above shows the graph for Infinite and Finite Wing Coefficient of lift where infinite wing
curve is mostly based on experimental and computation analysis and finite wing lift can be worked
using the following formula:
 =

1+



. !
"#$%

Equation 6: Finite Wing CL Gradient (14)

Where CL is the finite wing coefficient of lift curve gradient worked using infinite wing coefficient of
lift curve gradient (Cl), aspect ratio (AR) and the span efficiency factor (e). Using this equation the
coefficient of the lift and the lift itself can be worked out for a blade design however, the drag affects
needs to be considered. The drag force on wind turbine blade is used to rotate the blades for VAWT
but for HAWT it adds to the loss of energy from the wind and also adds to the structural load applied
to the blade and the whole system. Drag force acting on the blade is given by the following equation:
1
& = '   
2

Equation 7: Finite Wing Drag Force

Where CD is:
' =  +

 
()*

Equation 8: Finite Wing Drag Coefficient(14)

The above equation uses finite wing coefficient of lift value along with the aspect ration, span
efficiency factor and airfoil profile drag (skin friction drag + pressure drag) to calculate the Finite

10 | P a g e

Wing Drag. With the method of calculating the lift and drag for wind turbine blade, the design of the
blade can be altered to maximize its efficiency.
To improve the blade efficiency, the blade thick needs to be reduced relative to its width and this has
effect on the aerofoil shape and the loading of the material. Also the apparent wind, wind blowing at
an angle (Figure 23), rotates the angles of the lift and drag to reduce the effect of lift force pulling
the blade round and increase the effect of drag slowing it down. It also means that the lift force
contributes to the thrust on the rotor (15). Hence the reason the blade needs to be turned further at
the tips than at the roots, approximately around 10-20.

Figure 23: Apparent Wind Angle (15)

As mentioned earlier, the best lift/drag characteristics are obtained by an aerofoil that has thickness
approximately 10-15% of its chord length. However the due to structural requirements, the blade
needs to support the lift, drag and gravitational forces acting on it, the aerofoil needs to be thicker
than the aerodynamic optimum. The blade needs to be even thicker towards the root (where the
blade attaches to the hub) where the bending forces are greatest. Because the apparent wind is
moving slowly near to the roots (Figure 24), the need of aerodynamic efficiency is low. In which case
some designers use a flatback section (Figure 25) closer to the roots as it gives high structural
strength at the root attachment area but the attention needs to made as the section cannot get too
thick for its chord length or the air flow will separate.

Figure 24: Apparent Wind across the Blade(15)

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Figure 25: Flatback Section (15)

4.2.3 Materials
To maintain optimum solidity and high aerodynamic efficiency, thickness of the blade is
compromised. This makes it difficult to build the strong blades as thin material can flutter and
fracture eventually. To build a strong blade, material such as Pre-Preg carbon can be used which is
stiffer and stronger then glass fibre but drives the cost of material high. For a small scale wind
turbine blade material; aluminium alloy, iron, wood or strong plastic are more suitable due to its low
cost of manufacturing compared to carbon fibre (blade aerofoil shape does affect the manufacturing
cost).

4.2.4 Wind Speed


The wind speed is also taken into consideration when design the turbine blade. The wind speed sets
the Reynolds Number given by:
+,
*) =
Equation 9: Reynolds Number for flow around Turbine Blade

where u is the wind speed velocity, c is the blade chord length and is the dynamic viscosity of the
fluid (air in this case). If the Reynolds number is high the stall coefficient of lift value for a particular
airfoil shape is also higher (Figure 27), therefore more leverage in the angle of attack. High Reynolds
number also reduces the drag for given angle of attack (Figure 26).

Figure 26: NACA 0010 Cd Graph

Figure 27: NACA 0010 Cl Graph

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4.2.5 Angle of Attack


The blade pitch is controlled to attain correct angle of attack for maximizing the lift; however the
same feature can be used for safety purposes. During adverse weather condition, the blades angle
of attack can be reduced to zero so that it generates no lift. The process is known as featuring as
the blades allow wind to simply pass through without extracting energy from it (except the energy
required to overcome the drag affects while passing over the blade).

4.3 Power Extracted


Earlier we looked into the power available from the wind however, it is important to calculate how
much available power is extracted by the turbine blade design to review its efficiency.
Once the lift and Drag force is calculated for a given airfoil (blade cross section), experimental or
computational analysis can be carried out to measure the angular velocity. Alternatively, lift and drag
force can be used along with the measure RMP to work out the angular velocity and other forces
acting on the blade.
With the calculated values the power extracted by the wind turbine blade can be worked out using
the following equation:
 = ./
Equation 10: Power Extracted

Where is the angular velocity and T is the torque given by:


. =02

Equation 11: Torque

F = force, r= radius from the centre point to where the force is acting
Therefore the efficiency of the wind turbine can be determined by dividing the Power extracted (PR)
by the Power Available (P):
%
3 =

Equation 12: Coefficient of Performance(17)

The efficiency of the turbine gives us good idea on how where the turbine needs to be altered to
improve the coefficient of performance but with the improvement comes the cost of manufacturing
and maintenance. The wind turbine also ends up losing some efficiency to overcome the frictional
affects and some energy is lost as heat and noise.

4.4 Acoustics & Insulation


Although the energy lost in noise, heat, etc. is minor compare to the energy lost due to blade
inefficiency but reducing the other losses would still improve turbines efficiency. The few major
losses that are involved in most wind turbine designs are:
Frictional affects on rotating centre
Gear frictional losses
Drag force on the blades
All the losses stated above either result into noise or heat transfer. As the small wind turbine can be
placed on house roof top or building roof top, the constant noise from the rotating turbine blades
would upset the house or building inhabitants.
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The noise from the mechanical rotating parts can be reduced by lubricating the parts however
maintenance of these parts is expensive and difficult if the wind turbine is mounted on roof top or
high mast. Blade rotating through air also produces noise which can only be reduced by containing
the turbine blades in a cylindrical diffuser built with high acoustic material e.g. foam. The mechanical
parts and blades are not the only source of noise but the electrical generator also emits noise when
wire is turning in the magnetic flux area or when high voltage current is passing through the coils.
This situation not only emits noise but also transfers heat to the surroundings reducing the overall
efficiency of the turbine. To summarise, properly insulating the wires,
wires, placing the acoustics around
the turbine and lubricating the mechanical system regularly keeps the turbine efficiency high but the
maintenance cost increases.

5 Generator (KE)
Torque is transferred from the rotor through a connecting
connecting shaft to the generator
genera
which generates
electricity. The shaft is either directly connected or is connected through
t
the gearbox which then is
linked to the generator. Gearbox is placed to increase the rotational speed if the rotor is not turning
fast enough for the generator to produce high frequency electricity. Some wind turbine would also
incorporate changing gear system managed by the controlled feedback system,
system, i.e. it would change
the gear depending on the rotor speed to keep the generator speed constant.Generators
constant.
can be
placed at the top of the tower or at the base (connect by the gears) for HAWT and at the base for
VAWT. An electrical generator is used to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. The
torque transferred by the rotor is used to rotate acoil of wire
re or a magnet to generate electricity.

5.1 AC & DC Generator


An electrical generator is a device, which converts mechanical
mechanical energy into electrical energy. DC
generator produces direct current. In a DC generator an e.m.f is induced whenever magnetic flux is
cut by a conductorFigure 28:: DC Generator (Figure 28). Figure below shows a copper conductor loop
rotating in a uniform magnetic field provided by permanent magnets or electromagnets. Two ends of
the coil are connected to two slip rings R1 and R2 which are insulated from each other. Two collecting
brushes are pressed against the slip rings. The current is induced in the coil ABCD when it rotates and
cuts the magnetic flux between two magnets according to Flemings right hand rule. However the
current is alternating as coil is turning (cutting
(cutti the flux in two directions), but because
ecause of the split slip
rings (insulted from each other), the current passed to the brushes is always
lways direct.
direct Hence the
reasons we have direct current.For the AC generator, the coil is connected to the individual circular
slip rings that are always in contact with the brushes. Therefore when the current in the coil
alternates (as it cuts the flux in two direction due to its circular motion), the current passed to the
brushes also alternates. Hence the reasons we have alternating current.

Figure 29:: AC Generator (19)


Figure 28: DC Generator (18)

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5.2 InductionGenerator
Electricity can also be generated by rotating magnet and fix stator with coils to induce current in.
Induction generator uses principle from induction motor where the wind turbine rotor blades are
connected to the magnet that rotates between a stator with coils wounded around the stator. When
the magnet rotates it creates flux in the stator which cuts the coils and generates voltage (Figure 30).
The magnet then turns to change the magnetic field and the flux direction which sets the scenario for
changing flux between fixed coils resulting in alternative current produced.

Figure 30: Induction Generator (20)

5.3 Generator types


5.3.1 Synchronous Generator (SG)
The synchronous machine uses separately excited windings in the rotor in order to excite the
magnetic field in the rotor. Separate excited windings give the possibility to change the output
voltage by adjusting the excitation of the magnetic field of the rotor. Since the stator windings do not
have to carry the power to excite the rotor magnetic field, a reduction in mass of the active
materials, over the IM (induction motor), is possible. Another advantage over the IM is that smaller
power handling equipment, like converters, can be used to control the SG (21).

Figure 31: Synchronous Generator

5.3.2 Permanent magnet synchronous Generator (PMSG)


When the separate excitation of the synchronous generator is done by permanent magnets (PMs)
instead of windings, the machine is called a permanent magnet synchronous generator. No power is
lost to excite the rotor magnetic field through windings and efficiency will increase compared to the
SG. Also a weight reduction can be made over the SG. Since the rotor construction of the PMSG is
smaller than the rotor construction of a SG made with excitation windings .The cost reduction of a
PMSG over a SG will not be proportional with the reduction in mass, since PM material is much more
expensive than copper and steel used in SG rotor constructions. However the total costs for a PMSG
are lower than for a SG(21).

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Figure 32: PMSG

5.3.3 Switched reluctance generator (SRG)


In a switched reluctance machine only the stator windings are excited and produce a magnetic field.
The rotor is constructed in such a manner that by moving it, the rotor causes a change of stored
magnetic energy in the machine. By sequentially exciting the stator coils the torque can be produced
or electricity can be generated. The benefits of the SRG lie in a simple and low cost and rigid
construction. However as with an IM the SRG draws its excitation magnetic field from the power
source, therefore larger converters are needed to operate a SRM. For equal efficiencies the SRG
construction appears to be more compact and slightly lighter than the IM construction(21).

Figure 33: SRG

5.4 Permanent magnet generators


Small scale wind power requires a cost effective and mechanically simple generator in order to be
reliable energy source. The use of direct driven generators instead of geared machines reduces the
number of drive components, which offers the opportunity to reduce the number of drive
components. Also it offers the opportunity to reduce the costs and increase system reliability and
efficiency. For such applications, characterized by low speed is particularly situated, since it can be
design with a large pole number and high torque density. The most efficient type of generators
matching the above criteria is the permanent magnet generators. So the group have decided to
consider permanent magnet generators for the design(21).
The permanent magnet synchronous generators are constructed in different ways. Two design
characteristics of a construction type are:

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The orientation of the magnetic flux within the machine.


The type of rotor construction with permanent magnets.

5.4.1 The magnetic flux orientation (Radial Flux or Axial Flux)


Air gap orientation can be identified in two different ways. The radial flux design magnetic field is
given a radial direction by mounting the stator around the rotor. Figure 34 shows the cross sectional
view in radial direction and in axial direction. The axial flux design (See Figure 35) is constructed by
placing stator and rotor in a way that the air gap is perpendicular to the rotational axis, where the
magnetic flux crosses the air gap is in axial direction. The axial design used in situations where the
machines axial dimension is more limited than the radial dimensions(21).

Figure 34: Cross Sectional View in radial direction and in axial direction

Figure 35: Cross Sectional view in radial direction and in axial direction

5.4.2 Longitudinal or Transversal (Figure 5.4.1)

Figure 36: Transversal Flux PMSG

Transversal flux machines are manufactured by mounting the plane of flux path perpendicular to the
direction of rotor motion. The transversal flux machines can used in applications where required high
17 | P a g e

torque density requirements. The transversal flux machines can independently adjust the current
loading and the magnetic loading. The main disadvantage of transverse PMSG is that high leakage
flux results in poor power factor; this can be avoided by reducing the number of poles where in turn
reduces torque density. Another drawback in rotating transverse PMSG is the mechanical
construction is weak due to large number of parts(21).

5.4.3 Inner Rotor or Outer Rotor


The common rotor topology is acquired by mounting the PMs on the rotor surface. This is called a
surface mounted permanent magnet rotor construction. This construction requires to shape the
magnets in a circular arrangement. There are two types of rotor magnetic inner rotor and outer
rotor. The outer rotor machines are constructed by placing the rotor surrounds the stator. The
magnets are mounted on the inner circumference of the rotor. In the outer rotor machine the rotor
has higher radius compared with the stator and it can be equipped with higher number of poles for
the same pole pitch. Another advantage is that the magnets are well supported despite the
centrifugal force also a better cooling of magnets is provided. Figure 37 shows an inner rotor PMSG
and an outer rotor PMSG(21).

Figure 37: Inner rotor PMSG (left) and an outer rotor PMSG (right) (ref3)

5.5 Coil winding arrangements


Winding arrangement determines the way the coils are arranged. Coil can either have an air gap or
they can be placed in slots around the teeth in the stator. Density of coil taps is a choice between
higher amounts of coils placed densely in one place or lower number of taps placed around the
device. When and design with number of slots is considered, the choice or number of poles and coils
is a choice(21).

5.5.1 Coil placement

Figure 38: Slotless Design

Slotless design is where the coil is placed in the air gap. This air gap increases the distance between
stator and the rotor increasing the reluctance causing increase in PM (Permanent Magnet) leading to
18 | P a g e

a reduction in flux density. More magnetic material or copper winding are needed to compensate
this. A slotless design has less steel and therefore less hysteresis and Eddy current losses. The power
density of a slotless design is three times lower than in a slotted design(21).

5.5.2 Coil winding distribution


In a slotted stator, the stator windings can be placed as concentrated coils around the teeth or the
windings can be distributed in the slots. Concentrated coil constructions have the advantage of a
higher winding factor; this increases the amplitude of the induced output voltage. Less copper is
required due to shorter end windings. They are also easier to manufacture through modern
automated techniques. The disadvantage of concentrated coil windings is the increase of harmonic
components in the air gap flux. This causes an increase of losses in the rotor magnets and back iron
due to Eddy currents(21).

5.5.3 Pole slot combinations


The number of stator slots (Ns) and the number of magnet poles (Nm) that can be used in an electrical
machine design are countless. For a 3 phase machine using concentrated coils, the number of
combinations (Ns and Nm) is still large. Therefore the choice of slot pole arrangements has to be
made by considering different slot pole combinations. The combination of 3 coils around 3 teeth with
2 magnet poles creates the lowest Eddy current losses in the magnets and rotor back iron; however
this combination has a poor winding factor. Low rotor Eddy currents cause less temperature rise in
the magnets, which will enhance efficiency and decrease the risk of demagnetizing the magnets(21).

6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Turbine Designs


(MT)
As mentioned earlier, a wind turbine extracts the wind power to generate electricity. The blades
extract energy from the moving wind which spins a shaft, which connects to a generator that
supplies an electric current. Today there are two basic types of wind turbines available in the market.
Most commonly used in wind energy systems are the traditional farm styled, horizontal-axis
turbines.Vertical turbine is relatively new design thats gaining market share rapidly. They both have
their advantages and disadvantages.

6.1 Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines

Figure 39: HAWT

6.1.1 Advantages of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines

Variable blade pitch, which gives the turbine blades the optimum angle of attack. Allowing
the angle of attack to be remotely adjusted gives greater control, so the turbine collects the
maximum amount of wind energy for the time of day and season.

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The tall towers allow access to stronger wind in sites with wind shear. In some wind shear
sites, every ten meters up, the wind speed can increase by 20% and the power output by
34%.
High efficiency, since the blades always moves perpendicularly to the wind, receiving power
through the whole rotation. In contrast, all vertical axis wind turbines, and most proposed
airborne wind turbine designs, involve various types of reciprocating actions, requiring
aerofoil surfaces to backtrack against the wind for part of the cycle. Backtracking against the
wind leads to inherently lower efficiency.

6.1.2 Disadvantages of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines

Taller masts and blades are more difficult to transport and install. Transportation and
installation can now cost 20% of equipment costs.
Stronger tower construction is required to support the heavy blades, gearbox, and generator.
Reflections from tall HAWTs may affect side lobes of radar installations creating signal
clutter, although filtering can suppress it.
Mast height can make them obtrusively visible across large areas, disrupting the appearance
of the landscape and sometimes creating local opposition.
Downwind variants suffer from fatigue and structural failure caused by turbulence when a
blade passes through the towers wind shadow (for this reason, the majority of HAWTs use
an upwind design, with the rotor facing the wind in front of the tower).
They require an additional yaw control mechanism to turn the blades toward the wind. (22)

6.2 Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

Figure 40: VAWT

An increasing number of progressive organizations are adopting Omni-directional VAWTs because of


their aerodynamic performance advantages with characteristically turbulent and moderate winds in
densely populated urban settings. VAWTs operate quietly, deliver clean electricity directly to the
owner, and can feed excess electricity into the local power grid, which can further reduce the
owners energy consumption costs. The use of VAWTs to produce distributed energy also reduces
both the need for unpopular transmission lines and emissions from fossil-fuel-fired generators that
contribute to climate change, and it provides points for LEED certification (Leadership in Energy and
Environmental Design).
Wind flow within urban and suburban environments is turbulent and veering. Increased turbulence
levels yield greater fluctuations in wind speed and direction. Unlike a traditional horizontal axis wind

20 | P a g e

turbine (HAWT), a VAWT rotates around the shaft vertically. VAWTs provide good performance in
urban and suburban environments due to their inherent design characteristics.

6.2.1 Advantages of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

Ability to effectively capture turbulent winds which are typical in urban settings, especially in
built-up areas.
No need for a yaw mechanism to face the blade rotor into veering wind directions; VAWTs
therefore have higher efficiency and no orientation parts to maintain.
Operation at lower rotational speeds, thereby reducing or eliminating turbine vibration and
noise.
Durability and reliability working in multi-directional wind.
Easier and less expensive repair and maintenance with generator on rooftops.
Lower noise and vibration. (23)

6.2.2 Environmental Benefits


Noise & Vibration: Although urban settings are inherently noisier than rural areas, an additional noise
can affect a small minority of people. A popular concern with the use of large-scale wind turbines for
power generation is noise. The majority of large HAWT noise is generated from the gearbox and the
aerodynamic noise of the blades. With small-scale VAWTs, however, a gearbox is not required, and
VAWT blade speeds are much lower than small HAWTs, so noise is also much lower. In a 2007 test by
McMaster University, a small VAWT was tested for noise generation, which revealed that the overall
noise level of the turbine remains below 50 decibel (dB) for all normal operating conditions (the
turbine rarely operated at a wind speed beyond 15 m/s). When this range is converted to the dBA
scale, based upon the average human hearing capability, the level drops to 20 dBA. This is because
the majority of the turbine noise is produced in the infrasound range (frequencies below human
perception), which is quieter than a whisper. Ultimately, the test determined that the noise level
produced by the small VAWT is insignificant and poses no threat to the comfort of nearby persons or
wildlife (24).

6.3 Comparison between Vertical designs Vs. Horizontal designs

A VAWT can receive winds from any direction, this is important in locations where winds Are
turbulent, gusty and constantly changing directions. There is no down-time as the rotor
does not have to yaw to face the wind, in addition there are no gyroscopic effects preventing
yaw. The more obstacles (e.g. trees and buildings) in your environment the more turbulent
the wind is likely to be.
Aerodynamic noise is primarily generated by the fast moving tips of the blades through the
air. A VAWTs tips are much closer to the axis of rotation and therefore moving more slowly
through the air.
A VAWT for the same swept area has a smaller plan area than a HAWT, making it more space
efficient, an important consideration when siting close or onto buildings
Loads are more evenly distributed with a VAWT than a HAWT which results in lower vibration
making VAWTs a better option for roof mounts.
VAWTs HAWTs
Effective in laminar winds (1)

Yes

Yes

Effective in turbid urban winds (2)

Yes

No

Effective in low mountings

Yes

Sometimes

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Ground mounting

Yes

No

Rooftop mounting

Yes

Sometimes

Table 1: VAWT vs. HAWT

1) Laminar: fluid air flow which occurs in "sheets" parallel to each other.
2) Turbid: flow that changes directions quickly and often and has turbulences. (25)

6.4 Justification for design choice


Wind turbine we are designing would be a horizontal axis wind turbine. Even though the vertical axis
wind turbines are efficient they are complex and cost of manufacturing is higher. Also since
horizontal axis wind turbines been around for a long time, finding necessary component from
suppliers is easy and also performance information is readily available.

7 Wind Turbine Power Management (MH)


Once the energy from the wind has been harvested through the turbine blades and transmitted
through a generator to produce electricity, a power management system needs to be put in place in
order to ensure its intended purpose is served. This management system would have slight variations
depending on the scale of the wind turbine. However, the intended final aim is to provide adequate
electricity to a household power grid. Figure 41 provides an example of a typical management system
that can be used for a wind turbine.

Figure 41: Wind Turbine Electricity Power Management (26)

Once the electricity generation process has been completed, it is then sent down through wires to a
transformer unit which increases the voltage up to a few 1000 kV depending on the scale of the wind
turbine. The transformer is needed for either on-shore or off-shore wind turbines where the
electricity generated needs to travel a large distance.
Depending on the type of generator used within the turbine, it will produce either AC or DC power.
An inverter is used in order to convert from DC to AC for domestic use. The electricity can now be
connected directly to the national grid network, stored in batteries for future use or connected to a
household mains grid. When connecting to a household mains grid, another transformer would be
used to reduce the voltage to 120/240 V AC.

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A small scale wind turbine to be used for domestic purposes will contain slight variations to be more
suited for the purpose. Figure 42shows
42
a typical system which might be used for a household wind
turbine.

Figure 42: Small Scale Wind Power (27)

Due to various design and build limitations in small scale wind turbines, a few additional systems
needs to be put in place to provide safe power that can be used in a home system. Typically, they do
not have variable pitch rotor blades and due to this, the rotor speed would constantly change
according the change in wind
nd speed. This does not present a favourable situation for the power
management system because the output voltage and frequency provided by the generator is
proportional to the speed of the rotor while the current produced is proportional to the torque on
the rotor shaft.
Once the electricity is generated, it is sent through a rectifier in order to convert the AC current
produced through the generator. This is done because AC constantly changes direction while DC
maintains a single direction, thus making it easier to regulate. Once this current is converted, it is
sent to a Voltage Regulator unit which is used to maintain the voltage at a constant level
independent of the variability presented to the system. This regulator system can also ensure that
the voltage
oltage supplied is at the correct frequency and phase.
The system is then taken over by a DC control unit which works in a similar method to an Engine
Control Unit (ECU) in a vehicle. Now that we have a constant voltage supply which is regulated, we
can distribute
stribute the electricity using various methods. The electricity could be stored within batteries
for future use. If it is required to be used within a household grid, an inverter would be used to
convert DC to AC which can then be distributed. Another option
option available for home owners is to sell
excess electricity back to the national grid which could help recuperate some of the costs of the
system. Such systems however would need to be agreed to by the supplier and considerations would
need to be made if it would be better to store excess electricity within batteries or to sell back to the
grid, where once sold, if the wind turbine does not produce enough electricity, cost of purchasing the
same amount would be higher.

8 Safety Systems for Wind Turbines (MH)


A typical wind turbine is designed to operate for a lifespan of around 20 years. Within this period, it
is expected for it to be operated under various weather conditions which can often be unfavourable.
A wind turbine has a design operating condition which
which once exceeded, would require it to be
stopped in order to prevent damage. Therefore various safety systems are put in place to prevent
damage to the turbine or people who are within the vicinity of the turbine.

8.1 Vibration Sensors


During adverse weather conditions, vibration of the turbine can be dangerous for the turbine itself
and the parts contained within it. These can range from a very basic mechanical sensor which works
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by having a ball resting on a ring where the ball is connected to a switch through a chain. If vibrations
reach an excessive limit (which can bet set at a required amount), the ball will fall out of the ring
which would enable to switch to turn off the turbine. Advanced electronic sensors which are
connected to the electronic control system of the turbine could also be employed to monitor
vibration levels.

8.2 Turbine over-speed


Since the turbine blades would rotate faster with increasing wind speed, it has a safe limit of
operation. This limit is set to ensure there would be no blade failure and also protects the
components within the nacelle such as generators and gearboxes from overheating and eventual
failure. Modern wind turbines are equipped with variable pitch controlled blades where the optimum
pitch is constantly selected in order to gain the maximum power output. In an event of high wind
speeds, the pitch control would turn the rotor blades 90 degrees (aerodynamic braking). This creates
an aerodynamic effect which gently brings the turbine to a stop within a few rotations. The major
advantage of this system is that it does not present major stress factors on the system and once the
high wind speeds are over, the pitch control will take over once again to make the rotor turn.
A mechanical braking system is kept in place as a backup to the aerodynamic braking system when
required. This system is similar to the disc brake system used within cars where a disc rotates with
the shaft and a brake pad is activated in case it is necessary to stop. This system can also be used as a
parking brake when maintenance is needed.

8.3 Thermal and other sensors


The nacelle of the turbine houses some of the most important components of a turbine. These
include the Shaft, Gearbox, Generator, etc. Advanced sensors which monitor the temperature and
pressure among many other parameters constantly feed information into the electronic control
system of the turbine which would detect any abnormalities and determine if a system shut down is
necessary. Overheating can present numerous problems to a turbine because this can lead to fire,
additional stress placed on components and bearings, etc.

8.4 Anti-Icing Systems


A wind turbines blades are constantly exposed to the environment which requires it to withstand
large variations in temperature. A significant problem in wind turbine operation is having ice build-up
within the blades. While building up of ice can present a danger of the ice falling once the turbine is
operational, it also presents challenges to its efficiency due to ice formation changing the shape of
the aerofoil shape of the blades. Blade design is a carefully researched area and this change in shape
due to ice can reduce its operating efficiency while presenting dangers to people below. Many
modern turbine blades have systems to deal with such situations. Parent and Ilinca (28)conduct a
thorough review of the current systems that exist for anti-icing and de-icing systems. These include a
special coating to prevent the formation of ice and a super-hyperbolic coating which does not allow
water to remain on the surface. Other systems include inducing heat in order to prevent the ice
build-up.

8.5 Material Failure


Material selection is extremely important in the design of a wind turbine due to its operating
conditions. Testing of this material is also important in order to determine the effects that are
present during high levels of loading. A recent report by Elforsk (29)provides a thorough guidance of
damage prevention to many parts inside the nacelle (primary/secondary shafts, rotor hub, bolts,
gearboxes, bearings etc.). Many failures are attributed to fatigue or corrosion and recommendations
are made regarding various testing methods that can be employed (Eddy Current, Magnetic Particle,

24 | P a g e

Sonic, Termographic etc.). Therefore the timely testing and observation to such damage could
prevent incidents such as a blade failure, gearbox failure etc.

9 Manufacturing Methodology and Processes (MH)


9.1 Design for Manufacture/Design for Assembly
Modern product development states that a product should not only be simply designed. It should
also consider the path the product would take through its manufacturing, assembly, disassembly and
finally through servicing of the product. In their book, Kalpakjian and Schmid (30) mention that
design and manufacturing must be intimately interrelated. They argue that we should not view these
two as separate identities but two that must go hand in hand. When any design process is
undertaken, it is vitally important to do so for each part and component which would also reap its
benefits economically. This would also allow the company to standardise its manufacturing process
so that productivity can be improved. Employing Lean Six Sigma (discussed in a later section) is
another popular and effective method of achieving maximum productivity for a process. Although
initial costs may be incurred to implement six sigma methods and techniques, many companies large
and small, have achieved significant increases in productivity and efficiency along with long term cost
savings. This concept is known as Design for Manufacture (DFM).
Kalpakjian and Schmid (30)further highlight that DFM is a comprehensive approach to the production
of goods, and it integrates many design features which should take into consideration the materials,
manufacturing methods and processes among many others. This requires that the designer have a
fundamental understanding of such processes and specifically for DFM, about various machining
processes and equipment. If a designer wants to have a successful product, he/she should also
understand the effects of machining too. These include surface finish, accuracy of each machining
process, processing time etc.
An extension from DFM is DFA (Design for Assembly), which constitutes the next step after the
manufacture of individual components. When considering cost of operating a business, the efficiency
of the assembly process is critical to overall costs associated for the product. If DFA methods are
applied to a product design, then it would consider the ease, speed and cost of assembling the parts
together. The ease of assembly would be considered at a design stage because the easier it is to
assembly, the quicker it would be which would save precious time of the employees. If would
contribute to the bottom line of the business enabling to produce more units within a given period of
time. DFM and DFA can be combined as a methodology named DFMA (Design for Manufacturing
and Assembly).
DFMA can now benefit from advanced computer software that would help the designer from the
very beginning of the process. Modern designers use Computer Aided Design (CAD) software which
can now aid them to use DFMA effectively. Greenlee defines the cost split for DFMA as 70% for
design decisions (Cost of materials, processing, and assembly), 20% for production decisions (process
planning and tooling selection) and the remaining 10% other costs. Greenlee also gives a
comprehensive 10-step guideline for DFMA which summarises the whole process. They are given
below:
1. Reduce the number of parts
2. Develop a modular design
3. Use of standard components
4. Design parts to be multi-functional
5. Design parts for multi-use
6. Design for ease of fabrication
7. Avoid separate fasteners
25 | P a g e

8. Minimize assembly directions


9. Maximize compliance
10. Minimize handling

9.2 Material Selection


An integral process after the design of a product has been conceptualised is material selection.
Material Engineering has many varieties of materials for a designer to choose from. The decision for
this is taken based on many specifications, which for the Turbine, can be found in the Product
Development Specification (PDS). Types of material can be classified as follows (30):
1. Ferrous Metals
2. Non-Ferrous Metals
3. Plastics
4. Ceramics, Glass Ceramics, Glasses, Graphite, Diamond etc
5. Composites
6. Nano-Materials, alloys etc.
For the turbine design, various materials were considered and many factors were taken into
consideration when choosing such materials. For example, at a conceptual stage, the material for
turbine blades was chosen as aluminium for their lightweightness and cost. However, applying DFMA
methodologies, it was decided to use high strength plastics due to ease of manufacturing and also a
lower cost per part. Since plastic also is a non-conductive material, it is even more suited for its
function as a blade for the given turbine design as the generator design warrants electric wires to be
running through the blades. This is an added benefit from a product safety point of view. This
highlights the importance of considering such factors in the design selection.

9.3 Material Properties


Once the type of material is selected, its properties need to be analysed and the designers should
consider if its fit for purpose. Along with the type of material, its properties would be a decisive
factor in the manufacturing process. Various material types can have different properties. For
example, within metal alloys, there are several hundreds, if not more, variations that can be created
in order to gain the ideal type of material the designer is seeking. This flexibility gives a designer the
freedom which does not restrict the outcome that is expected.
Materials can be classified into types of properties, which are:
1. Mechanical Properties: These are properties such as strength, toughness, ductility etc. These
properties need to be chosen carefully according to the physical environment in which the
end product will be operating. Since the turbine will be operating outdoors all year round, it
should be expected to last through many harsh weather and other environmental conditions.
2. Physical Properties: Density, Thermal Expansion, conductivity, melting point, electrical
properties etc. These properties should be chosen to match the operating conditions relating
to the product as well as the environment. For example, since the electrical wires need to
travel through the turbine blades, plastic is an ideal choice due to conductivity of the
material. Also, the magnets used in the generator are selected as such because of its
electrical properties and its intended function to produce electricity which would be the
primary outcome of the turbine.
3. Chemical Properties: These properties can be corrosion resistance, flammability, oxidation
etc. This is also highly important since the turbine will be continuously exposed, factors
which affect its chemical properties would need to be strong.
4. Manufacturing Properties: These would help identify the best manufacturing methods for
any given property. They would determine if a certain material can be cast, machined,
welded, formed etc. This decision would ultimately form the criteria by which the product
26 | P a g e

would need to be manufactured and also its end service life. These factors would also
directly affect the cost of manufacture and labour skills required to carry out the various
tasks.

9.4 Cost and Availability


ility
Once the material selection has taken place, the next step to take into consideration is the cost and
availability of those materials. For any given material, the cost and availability are related to each
other. For example, if a material is not widely
widely available, it would inevitably drive the cost factor
higher. Conversely, a very widely available material will be relatively cheaper to source. Kalpakjian
and Schmid (30) mention that the economic aspect of a material is as important as technological
consideration of the properties and characteristics of that material.
Another method of costs for manufacturing to increase is if DFM or DFMA is not followed properly.
For example, if the raw or processed materials required by the
the design are not available in the desired
shape or size, then adjustments would be required. For example, when designing the mounting
system for the turbine, if the diameter of the mast is not of a standard size, then further work would
be required at the manufacturing stage which would require a higher diameter mast to be bought
and then material taken off. This extra process will add further cost to the product.

9.5 Selection of manufacturing processes


Once the primary design of the turbine is completed, the
the selection of the manufacturing process
would begin for each component. This is a vast area since there are a number of components which
would require different manufacturing processes. It is also very likely that a certain component could
be manufactured
d various methods, at which point a decision would have to be made to determine
the type of manufacturing that would closely resemble the needs of the product.
Typical manufacturing processes can be broadly categorized into 5 types:

1. Casting

Expendable Mould
Permanent Mould

2. Forming and
Shaping

Rolling, Forging, Extrution, Drawing


Sheet
Sheet Forming, Powder Metallurgy and moulding

3. Machining

Turning,
Turning, Boring, Drilling, Milling, Planing, Shaping
Broaching, Gringing, Ultrasonic Machining

4. Joining
5. Finishing

Welding, Brazing, Soldering


Diffusion
Diffusion Bonding, Adhesive Bonding and mechanical Joining

Honing,
Honing, Lapping, Polishing, Burnishing, Deburring
Surface Treating, Coating and Plating

Source: Kalpakjian and Schmid(30)


(30)
Kalpakjian and Schmid also provides a rough guideline on the selection of a manufacturing process;
mentioning that it depends not only on the shape to be produced but also on many other factors

27 | P a g e

that relate to the topics discussed above. For example, certain materials which are brittle and/or
hard cannot be shaped easily but casting is a more relevant method.
Within the next few sections, common manufacturing techniques will be discussed and
recommendations can be made for manufacturing techniques relative to the turbine. The types of
materials will be broadly categorized into metals and plastics. Firstly, a brief discussion on their
various properties which make it suitable for each process will be discussed, followed with methods
in which they could be manufactured.

9.6 Metal and Metal Alloys


Metals have good bonding properties, this key feature distinguishing them from non-metallic
materials. The metals have free electrons, which are free to move from one atom to the other and
they determine certain material properties, such as electrical conductivity.
The mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the metals and alloys are influenced by their
microstructure, composition, processing and treatment methods used in obtaining the final product.
Relevant basic properties, such as ductility, strength, hardness, toughness etc., and others, such as
resistance to wear and corrosion, are dependent on the elements that are alloyed and on heattreatment processes applied to the material. Cold-working operations are available for non-heattreatable alloys, such as rolling, forging and extrusion. (30)
Different material manufacturing processes are analysed in the next section in order to determine
the best approach to be applied for the materials used in the wind turbine.

9.7 Metal Casting Processes


A basic casting process consists of the following: pouring the molten metal into a mould pattern,
cooling it and removing it from the mould. Certain aspects are important to be considered, such as
the flow of the molten metal, the solidification and cooling method and the influence of the type of
mould material. A few factors influence the aspects of casting mentioned above: the flow is
determined by the mould design and flow characteristics, the solidification and cooling are affected
by metallurgical and thermal properties, while the type of mould influences the rate of cooling and
the number of defects. (30)
Various casting processes have been developed over time for different types of applications and their
advantages and limitations can be found in Table 2.

Process

Advantages

Limitations

Sand

Almost any metal cats; no limit to size,


shape or weight; low tooling cost.

Some finishing required; somewhat coarse


finish; wide tolerances.

Shell mould

Good dimensonal accuracy and surface


finish; high production rate.

Part size limited; expensive pattern and


equipment required.

Expendable
pattern

Most metals cast with no limit to size;


complex shapes.

Patterns have low strength and can be costly


for low quantities.

Plaster mould

Intricate shapes; good dimensional


accuracy and finish; low porosity.

Limited to nonferrous metals; limited size


and volume of production; mould making
time relatively long.

Ceramic mould

Intricate shapes; close tolerancesparts;

Limited size.

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good surface finish.


Investment

Intricate shapes; excellent surface finish


and accuracy; almost any metal cast.

Part size limited; expensive patterns, moulds


and labour.

Permanent
mould

Good surface finish and dimensonal


accuracy; low porosity; high production
rate.

High mould cost; limited shape and


intricacy; not suitable for high melting point
metals.

Die

Excellent dimensional accuracy and


surface finish; high production rate.

Die cost is high; part size limited; usually


limited to nonferrous metals; long lead time.

Centrifugal

Large cylindrical parts with good quality;


high production rate.

Equipment is expensive; part shape limited.

Table 2: Summary of Casting Processes, their Advantages and Limitations (30)

The casting industry is impacted by two major trends. The first is continuing mechanisation and
automation of the casting process, leading to changes in the use of equipment and labour. The
second trend is the increasing demand for high quality casting with low dimensional tolerances and
no defects. SeeTable 3 for general characteristics of the casting processes.
Process

Sand

Shell

Expendable Plaster
mould
mould
pattern

Investment Permanent Die


mould

Typical
Materials Cast

All

All

All

Nonferrous All
(high All
(Al, Mg, Zn, melting
Cu)
point)

Nonferrous All
(Al, Mg, Zn,
Cu)

Minimum
Weight (kg)

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.005

0.5

<0.05

Maximum
Weight (kg)

No limit

100+

No limit

50+

100+

300

50

5000+

Typical Surface 5-25


-6
Finish (m , Ra)

1-3

5-20

1-2

1-3

2-3

1-2

2-10

Porosity*

2-3

1-2

2-10

Shape
Complexity*

1-2

2-3

1-2

3-4

3-4

3-4

Dimensional
Accuracy*

Minimum
Section

0.5

Centrifugal

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Thickness (mm)
Maximum
No limit
Section
Thickness (mm)

No limit

75

50

12

100

Table 3: General Characteristics of Casting Processes. *Relative rating: 1 best - 5 worst. (30)

The surface finish of the products depends on the material used in making the mould, as
well as on the manufacturing route selected. Surface roughness figures can be observed in
Figure 43.

Figure 43: Surface Roughness in Casting and other Metalworking Processes (:272)

9.8 Sand Casting


Sand casting is a traditional method of casting metals and it consists of:
Placing a pattern with the desired casting shape in sand to make an imprint
Incorporating a gating system
Filling the resulting cavity with molten metal
Allowing the metal to cool until it solidifies
Breaking away the sand mould and removing the casting (30).

Figure 44: Figure of sand-casting operations (30)

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Figure 45: of a sand mould (30)

9.9 Sands
Silica sand (SiO2) is used by most sand casting operations. Sand is cost effective and is suitable as a
mould material due to its resistance to high temperatures. There are two general types of sand:
naturally bonded (bank sand) and synthetic(lake sand). The last one is preferred as it can be
controlled more accurately (30).

9.10 Types of Sand Moulds


Based on the types of sand contained and on the methods used to produce them, there are three
basic types of sand moulds: green-sand, cold-box and no-bake moulds.The green moulding sand is
the most commonly used sand mould. It is a mixture of sand, clay and water and the term green
refers to its moist state when the metal is poured onto it. This is the most cost-efficient sand mould
method (30).

9.11 Patterns
Patterns are employed to mould the sand into the shape of the desired casting. They can be made of
different materials and their selection is made based on the shape and size of the casting, the
dimensional accuracy, the number of finished products and the moulding process. SeeTable 4 for
characteristics of pattern materials.
The strength and durability of the pattern material should be selected according to the number of
castings desired. The pattern may be made out of more materials to reduce wear in critical regions
and they are designed to suit the application and economic requirements. There are a few types of
patterns, such as the one-piece, split and match-plate patterns (30).
Rating*
Characteristics

Wood

Aluminium

Steel

Plastic

Cast Iron

Machinability

Wear Resistance

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Strength

Weight**

Repairability

Resistance to
Corrosion***

Resistance to
Swelling***

Table 4: Characteristics of Pattern Materials. *relative rating: 1 excellent, 2 good, 3 fair, 4 poor. **as a factor in operator
fatigue. ***by water (30).

9.12 Sand-Moulding Machines


The first sand moulds consisted of compacting the sand around the pattern by hand hammering, but
a more modern approach is applied to most sand casting operations nowadays: the sand mixture is
compacted by moulding machines (see Figure 46). They offer great advantages over the traditional
method, such as reducing labour and creating high quality casting by improving the application and
distribution of forces, manipulating the mould in a controlled manner and increasing production
rate.(30)

Figure 46: Designs of squeeze heads for mould making: (a) conventional flat head; (b) profile head, (c) equalising squeeze
pistons; (d) flexible diagram (30)

9.13 The Sand Casting Operation


The melting of the raw materials starts the manufacturing process. Then the metal is poured in the
sand mould and it is followed by the casting cooling which provides slow uniform cooling. The cast is
then removed from the sand moulds and it is cleaned. If desired, heat treatment can be applied
32 | P a g e

e.g.stress relieving, annealing etc. In addition, the wear resistance of the metal can be enhanced at
the surface by laser hardening.

9.14 Die Casting


The die-casting process was developed in the early 1900's. The molten metal is forced into the die
cavity at pressures ranging from 0.7MPa to 700MPa. The weight of most castings ranges from less
than 90g to about 25kg. There are two basic types of die-casting machines: hot-chamber and coldchamber (30).

9.15 Hot-Chamber Process


In the hot-chamber process, a piston traps a volume of molten metal and forces it into a die cavity
through a gooseneck and a nozzle. Pressures range up to 35MPa, with an average of 15MPa. The
metal is help under pressure until it solidifies in the die. See a schematic diagram of the hot-chamber
process inFigure 47 (30).

Figure 47: Schematic illustration of the hot-chamber die-casting process (30)

9.16 Cold-Chamber Process


In the cold-chamber process, molten metal is poured into a cold injection cylinder (shot chamber);
hence the shot chamber is not heated. The metal is forced into the die cavity at pressures usually
ranging from 20 to 70MPa, although they can be as high as 150MPa. See figure 5 for a schematic
diagram of the process (30).

Figure 48: Schematic illustration of the cold-chamber die-casting process (30)

33 | P a g e

High-melting-point alloys of aluminium, magnesium and copper are normally cast using this method.
Molten-metal temperatures start at about 600 degrees Celsius for aluminium and some magnesium
alloys and increase considerably for copper and iron based alloys (30).

9.17 Process Capabilities and Machine Selection


Dies have a tendency to part unless clamped due to high pressure involved in the casting process.
Die-casting machines are rated according to the clamping force that can be exerted to keep dies
closed, but also according to other factors, such as die size, piston stroke, shot pressure and cost
(30).
Die-casting has the capability for time-effective production of high strength and quality parts with
complex shapes. It also produces good dimensional accuracy and surface details, so that parts
require little or no subsequent machining or finishing operations (30).
Additionally, due to the fact that molten metal chills rapidly at the die walls, the casting has a finegrained, hard skin with higher strength. With good surface finish and dimensional accuracy, diecasting can produce surfaces that are normally machined.
Equipment is costly, particularly the dies, but labour costs are generally low as the process is semi- or
fully automated. Die-casting is economical for large production runs. The properties and typical
applications of common die casting alloys are given in Figure 49 (30).

Figure 49: Properties and Typical Applications of Common Die Casting Alloys (30).

9.18 Forging of Metals


Forging is a process in which the work piece is shaped by compressive forces applied through various
dies and tools. Simple forging can be performed using a heavy hand hammer and an anvil, but more
modern techniques require a set of dies and a press or a forging hammer (30).Forged parts have
good strength and toughness as the metal flow and grain structure can be controlled; they can be
used for highly stressed and critical applications (30).Forging may be done at room temperature (cold
forging) or at more elevated temperatures (warm or hot forging). Cold forging requires greater forces
because of the higher strength of the material, but it produces parts with good surface finish and
dimensional accuracy. Hot forging requires lower forces, but the quality of the products is not as
good (30).

34 | P a g e

A component that can be forged successfully may also be manufactured economically by other
methods, such as casting. However, each process has its own advantages and limitations with regard
to strength, toughness, dimensional accuracy, surface finish and defects (30).
The open die forging uses simple, inexpensive dies, but it is limited to simple shapes and a low
production rate. The closed die forging has good dimensional accuracy and reproducibility, but
machining is often necessary for the finished product (30).
Forging was considered as an alternative manufacturing route to casting, but due to its limitations or
high cost, metal casting is the preferred manufacturing technique employed for the wind turbine
components.

9.19 Extrusion and Drawing of Metals


In the extrusion process, a billet (generally round) is forced through a die. Almost any solid
or hollow constant cross-section may be produced by extrusion, creating semi-finished
parts(30).
In the basic extrusion process, called direct or forward extrusion, a round billet is placed in a
chamber and forced through a die opening by a hydraulically driven ram or pressing stem.
The die opening might be round or it may have various shapes. In indirect extrusion (reverse,
inverted or backward extrusion), the die moves toward the billet.
In hydrostatic extrusion, the billet is smaller in diameter than the chamber, which is filled
with a fluid and the pressure is transmitted to the billet by a ram. Unlike in direct extrusion,
there is no friction to overcome along with the container walls. Another type of extrusion is
lateral or side extrusion(30).
Important factors in extrusion are die design, extrusion ratio, billet temperature, lubrication
and extrusion speed. Depending on the ductility of the material, extrusion may be carried
out at room temperature (cold extrusion) or at an elevated temperature (hot extrusion). The
cold extrusion combines extrusion with forging operations and it is capable of economically
producing discrete parts in various shapes with good mechanical properties and dimensional
tolerances(30). Commonly used materials are aluminium, copper, steel, magnesium and
lead. Other metals and alloys can also be extruded, having different levels of difficulty.
Drawing is a process through which the cross-section of a solid rod, tube or wire is reduced
or changed in shape by pulling it through a die(30). Although the cross-section of most
drawn products is round, other shapes can also be drawn(30).

9.20 Forming and Shaping Plastics


The processing of plastics involves operations similar to those used to form and shape
metals. Plastics can be moulded, cast, machined etc. at relatively low temperatures; hence,
unlike metals, they are easy to handle and require less energy to process. The properties of
plastic components are greatly influenced by the manufacturing process and a thorough
control of its conditions is vital for good part quality(30).
Basic processes and their characteristics can be seen in Table 5.
Process

Characteristics

Extrusion

Long, uniform, solid or hollow complex crosssections; high production rates; low tooling
costs; high tolerances.

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Injection moulding

Complex shapes of various sizes, eliminating


assembly; high production rates; costly tooling;
good dimensional accuracy.

Structural foam moulding

Large parts with high stiffness-to-weight ratio;


less expensive tooling than in injection moulding;
low production rates.

Blow moulding

Hollow thin-walled parts of various sizes; high


production rates and low cost for making
containers.

Rotational moulding

Large hollow shapes of relatively simple shape;


low tooling cost; low production rates.

Thermoforming

Shallow or relatively deep cavities; low tooling


costs; medium production rates.

Compression moulding

Parts similar to impression-die forging; relatively


inexpensive tooling; medium production rates.

Transfer moulding

More complex parts than compression moulding


and higher production rates; some scrap loss;
medium tolling cost.

Casting

Simple or intricate shapes made with flexible


moulds; low production rates.
Table 5: Characteristics of Forming and Shaping Processes for Plastics

9.21 Injection Moulding


Injection moulding is essentially the same process as hot-chamber die-casting (see Figure 50).
Just as in extrusion, the barrel (cylinder) is heated to promote melting. However, with
injection-moulding machines, a far greater portion of the heat transferred to the polymer is
due to frictional heating. The pellets or granules are fed into the heated cylinder and the
melt is forced into a split-die chamber, either by a hydraulic plunger or by the rotating screw
system of an extruder.
Newer systems hare reciprocating screw type (see Figure 50). As the pressure builds up at the
mould entrance, the rotating screw begins to move backwards under pressure to a
predetermined distance; this movement controls the amount of material to be injected. The
screw then stops rotating and is pushed forward hydraulically, forcing the molten plastic into
the mould cavity. Injection-moulding pressures usually range from 70MPa to 200MPa(30).

36 | P a g e

Figure 50: Injection moulding with (a) plunger, (b) reciprocating rotating screw (30)

9.22 Process Capabilities


Injection moulding is a high rate production process and allows good dimensional control.
Typical cycle times range from 5 to 60 seconds. The moulds are generally made out of steel,
beryllium-copper or aluminium and they have multiple cavities, so that more than one part
can be made in one cycle. Mould design and the control of material flow in the die cavities
are important factors to be considered for the quality of the product(30).

9.23 Rotational Moulding


Most thermoplastics and some thermosets can be formed into large hollow parts by
rotational moulding. The thin walled metal mould is made of two pieces (split female mould)
and is designed to be rotated about two perpendicular axes (see figure 9). A premeasured
quantity of powdered plastic material is placed inside the warm mould. The powder is
obtained from a polymerisation process. The mould is then heated, while rotating about the
two axes.
This action tumbles the powder against the mould, where heating fuses the powder without
melting it. In some parts, a chemical cross-linking agent is added to the powder.

37 | P a g e

Figure 51: The rotational moulding (rotomoulding or rotocasting) process (30)

Rotational moulding can produce parts with complex with complex hollow shapes and with a
wall thickness starting from 0.4 mm. Cycle times are longer than in other moulding
processes, but equipment costs are low. Quality control considerations usually involve
accurate weight of the powder placed in the mould, thorough rotation of the mould and
temperature-time relationship during the oven cycle(30).

10 Product Design Specification (MH/MT)


1. Dates of P.D.S Production and Adoption
1.1. This Product Design Specification was created on 31/01/2013
1.2. This Product Design Specification was adopted by all members of the Group on 31/01/13
2. Introduction
2.1. This design specification is for the proposed concept design of a small scale wind turbine to
be powered by wind
2.2. The wind turbine named above will henceforth be known as The Turbine or The Product
2.3. The aim of this design specification is to provide detailed analysis of the requirements
3. Duty Description
3.1. Harness wind energy through a horizontal wind turbine to produce electricity in order to
provide constant power to a typical domestic refrigerator
3.2. The power generated will be stored within a battery bank containing two power outlets;
one to power the refrigerator and the other to power an appliance of the users choice
3.3. Further excess power will be sold back to the national grid based on a feed in tariff
4. Design Criteria
4.1. General Design Criteria
4.1.1.The turbine is intended to be a mass produced item where assumptions are to be made
in relation to pricing, marketing and other design factors.

38 | P a g e

4.1.2.The turbine is to be designed to operate within a range of wind speeds between 5 and
20 m/s and appropriate safety systems to ensure shutdown in the event of excessive
wind speeds as per section 4.5
4.1.3.The design of the turbine should comply with the Betz limit which limits the power
extracted from the wind at 59.25%
4.2. Legal Constraints/Building Regulations
4.2.1.The requirements set out below are to be met at all times in order for the turbine to be
installed without requiring further planning permission
4.2.2.It is recommended however that the local council of the area in which the turbine is to
be installed, be contacted in case separate regulations exist
4.2.3.Such development rights are applicable for building mounted wind turbines applicable
to detached houses or other detached buildings within the boundaries of a house or
block of flats.
4.2.4.In addition to the criteria set out in 4.2.2 a block of flats should not contain commercial
premises
4.2.5.The installation of the wind turbine must comply with criteria set out in the Micro
generation Certification Scheme Planning Standards (or equivalent)
4.2.6.The installation cannot be carried out on protected land i.e. national parks, heritage
sites, protected and/or land with restricted access for legal reasons
4.2.7.Only the first turbine installation is exempt from planning permission. Any further
installations would be subject to permission from the local council as applicable by
their requirements.
4.2.8.The turbine in an installed condition is not allowed to protrude more than 3 meters
above the highest part of the roof (excluding the chimney) or exceed an overall height
(including building and turbine) of 15 meters, whichever is lesser
4.2.9.The distance between the ground level and lowest part of the wind turbine blade must
not be less than 5 meters
4.2.10. No part of the turbine is allowed to be within 5 meters of any boundary
4.2.11. The swept area of the turbine blades must be no more than 3.8 square meters
4.2.12. In Conservation Areas, an installation is not permitted if the building mounted wind
turbine would be on a wall or roof slope which fronts a highway
4.2.13. The materials used within the blades must be non-reflective
4.2.14. The turbine is to be removed as soon as it is reasonably practicable when no longer
needed for micro generation
4.2.15. The turbine is to be sited (or mounted), so far as practicable, to minimise its effect on
the external appearance of the building
4.3. Power Requirements
4.3.1.As set out in Section 3, in order to fulfil its primary duty of providing power to a
domestic refrigerator, a minimum production of 0.5 kW/h is expected although it is
aimed to be able to produce between 1-1.5 kW/h in order to satisfy secondary duty as
set out in 3.2
4.4. Power Management
4.4.1.A system needs to be in place in order to manage the power that is generated by the
turbine, including regulators and converters
4.4.2.The power management system is also required to provide, at least, a simple interface
for the end user where information about the current system can be gained
4.4.3.A power consumption and production log is beneficial to have for maintenance and
analysis purposes
4.5. Safety Systems
4.5.1.In the event of a wind over speed event, a mechanical brake system is to be applied to
stop the turbine from rotating and thereby posing a safety risk
39 | P a g e

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

4.5.2.Safety systems are to be built into the power management system where the current is
to be regulated before delivered to the household
4.6. Building Mounting
4.6.1.It is required that the turbine is designed to be mounted on a typical UK household
4.6.2.The mounting system is to be designed to be able to withstand forces produced by the
turbine and nature
4.6.3.The design of the mounting system should permit ease of access to the turbine and its
components during maintenance and capability to remove the turbine if necessary
Material Selection
5.1. The selection of materials for the construction of any part of the turbine should be done
with the aim of achieving the requirements set out in sections 3 and 4 i.e. the material
selected must be fit for function and purpose
5.2. In order to meet the cost requirement set out in 4.1.1 the cost of each selection needs to be
carefully reviewed and if a selection of materials (which meets the criteria) is available, then
the cheapest material should be used unless any other valid reasons exist.
5.3. As highlighted in 4.1.2 prices for materials should be based on bulk purchase prices, as this
would reduce the overall manufacturing cost of the turbine.
5.4. The materials selected should also be considered for their recycling and disposable
properties at the end of the turbine life
Production
6.1. If the design of the wind turbine requires customised parts, then it should be investigated if
such parts are cheaper to be manufactured in-house or from a specialist manufacturer
6.2. Packaging of the turbine should be designed to minimise shipping costs and space and
wherever possible, consist of sustainable and recyclable materials
Selection of Conceptual Design
7.1. All members of the group are to be involved in an equal manner regarding the selection of
conceptual designs
7.2. All members are to be given specific areas of responsibility in the design of the turbine and
it is expected for them to carry out a thorough research into such areas and inform the
other members of their findings
7.3. The selection of the final conceptual designs are to be made as a group where input from
the areas researched in 7.2 is required
Maintenance
8.1. The design of the turbine should, as practicable as possible, not include user serviceable
parts due to safety reasons
8.2. Routine service maintenance is to be carried out by a certified technician at six (6) month
intervals and a thorough safety and electrical check carried out every twelve (12) month
period
8.3. If any part(s) that are contained within the turbine is judged to have a limited life either
through hours of operation or limited life cycles, they are to be made clear in the product
service schedule and made clear to the end user
Financial
9.1. The production costs of the turbine must not exceed 250 (GBP)
9.2. The turbine is to be presented to the market at a profit of 15% above all costs incurred per
unit
9.3. The final cost at which the turbine is sold at should take into account all manufacturing,
labour, shipping and other such costs
9.4. The cost of the turbine is to be determined once a final value of the components is made
and it is then to be scaled to a production cost per unit for 20,000 units
Target Markets
10.1.
The intended target market for this product is domestic home users where the
power requirement is for a medium sized refrigerator (or similar appliance)
40 | P a g e

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

10.2.
In addition, as stated in 3.2, extra flexibility is given to the user regarding power
consumption through additional power sockets made available through battery banks
10.3.
The product is to be marketed as a relatively inexpensive wind turbine where the
cost of purchase and installation would reflect as such
Operational Safety
11.1.
It should be noted at all times during the design stage that the safety should be of
paramount importance at all times. Any aspect of the design should not post any safety risks
either to the consumer or cause damage to any surroundings.
11.2.
The turbine should be designed that wherever possible, Foreign Object Damage
(FOD) should be prevented or minimized
11.3.
Adequate protection needs to be given to any systems within the turbine containing
moving parts
11.4.
Any systems that contain electrical elements are also required to be given proper
insulation and sealing properties
11.5.
The turbine is to be accompanied with a thorough manual which provides clear
instructions to the user about its operation and safety features
11.6.
The safety systems described in section 4.5 is to be tested as part of section 12 and
the results made available to the end user
Quality Assurance
12.1.
In order to be compliant with various safety standards, the turbine is to be put
through a thorough testing process before it is launched into the market
12.2.
Testing is to be carried out for the following conditions:
12.2.1. Expected range of operating wind speeds
12.2.2. Safety systems at wind over speed event
12.2.3. Expected temperatures throughout the year
12.2.4. High rain or snow events
12.3.
Maintenance to be carried out at intervals specified in section 8
Engineering Drawings
13.1.
Complete engineering drawings are to be done for the design of the turbine and its
components
13.2.
Any such drawings are to be kept securely at all times
Intellectual Property (IP)
14.1.
The design of the turbine should take into account any existing patents, copyright or
design protection(s) and should not at any time infringe such protection(s)
14.2.
If any part of the turbine design requires design or copyright protection, applications
for such should be carried out
Revisions
15.1.
Revisions to the Product Design Specification should be clearly marked at the top of
the document and the table provided below where the changes made are to be
documented

11 Design Conceptualisation
11.1 Blade (BP)
A blade can be designed to have various shapes but as described in section 4.2.2, the lift and the drag
force need to be accounted for. The lift and the drag force depend on their coefficient value which
eventual depends on the aspect ratio (for finite blade structure) therefore changing the aspect ratio
would change the lift and drag force which will help us determine the advantages and disadvantages
of different blade structures.

41 | P a g e

11.1.1 Design 1
Trapezoidal Planform Area design would allow us to account for the apparent wind (see section 4.2).
With length (h) being the span area, smaller chord length can be placed towards the tip of the blade
to reduce the chances of stall near to the root section. It also angles the blades from the root section
to increase lift due to the apparent wind as mentioned earlier. However, the aerodynamic centre for
this shape shifts towards the root chord which reduces the linear velocity (acting at the aerodynamic
centre due to the lift force) as its proportional to the force and the radius.It also lowers the aspect
ratio (compared to the rectangular planform with same root chordlength) which eventually increases
the induced drag and the requirement for the angle of attack. The other problem this design imposes
is the changing chord length, which changes the thickness of the aerofoil shape (see section 11.1.4).
This does not allow us to work out the volume of the blade structure accurately during the design
stage in order to estimate the mass accurately.

b
h
456789

Planform Area = 
Volume : = A t, where A is the planform area and t is the thickness
9 45678
X axis Centroid = =  45678

11.1.2 Design 2
Rectangular Planform Area can also be used to design the wind turbine blade. This design has high
aspect ratio relative to the Trapezoidal Planform design (with same root chord length). Increase in
aspect ratio reduces the downwash but this design does not account for the apparent wind. However
the simplicity of this design (constant aerofoil shape) allows us to measure the volume more
accurately than any other planform shape, which means we can calculate the mass of the blade
accurately at design stage. Although caution must be paid while working out the volume as its not a
rectangular box but an aerofoil shape with rectangular planform area. This design has high aspect
ratio and therefore high coefficient of lift and low induced drag however; it has relatively high profile
drag.
a
b
Planform Area  = ? @
Volume : = A t, where A is the planform area and t is the thickness
5
X axis Centroid = 

11.1.3 Design 3
Triangular Planform areahas minimum span area but low aspect ratio as the trapezoidal planform
design and therefore poses the same problem of downwash. However it has relatively low profile
drag and low volume compared to the other two designs therefore the mass of the blade would be
low too.

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a
b
57

Planform Area  = 
Volume : = A 1 t,, where A is the planform area and t is the thickness
7
X axis Centroid =


11.1.4 Aerofoil Shape


Various aerofoil profiles are available for selection from the National Advisory Committee for
Aeronautics (NACA). The agency has various aerofoil profiles that can be used to generate different
aerofoil shapes depending on the chord length.
length The profile shape
ape depends on the NACA MPDD
number give for each specific shape which depends on the chord length. M is the maximum chamber
divided by 100, P is the position of the maximum camber divide by 10 and DD is the thickness divided
by 100. NACA 2412 has maximum chamber line of 2% with 4% of maximum thickness
thickn
of an aerofoil
shape and 12%.
For various chord lengths, wind turbine blades can be designed using various NACA profiles to
determine blades thickness and maximum chamber. The tail section can be altered for any profile to
maximize the lift but the design alterations can only be carried out after testing an aerofoil shape.
Experimental or computational analysis can be carried to improve the aerofoil shape and its
operational angle of attack.

11.1.5 Materials
The wind
nd turbine blade can be made out of range of materials available but the choice of material for
individual design heavily depends on the design aspects e.g. Lift the aerofoil shape generates, Length
of the blade, Tip velocity, etc. For large wind turbine blades,
blades, material chosen needs to be strong but
light therefore carbon fibre reinforcement on a strong plastic is widely used. For a small scale wind
turbine blades, aluminium is more commonly used as they are more resistive to corrosion then iron.
High strength
ngth plastic can also be used for blades but the manufacturing cost could be high as the
blade surfaces would require smoothening. However plastic are really light weight for small scale
wind turbine and, if reinforced with enough thickness to sustain structural
structural damage, they can produce
high angular velocity due to low mass.

11.2 Generator (KE)


11.2.1 Design 1

Figure 52: Design 1

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Description: Figure 52 illustrates the first preliminary for the generator the wind turbine. The
permanent magnet generator is mounted to a central shaft which runs through the bearing and
housing.
Materials: Rotor is made out of Magnetite or Neodymium and stator is made using copper.
Advantages: No gear box required due to direct drive mechanism.
Disadvantages: Average cost of a 0.5 kW generator start from 100 which will increase the cost of
the product.

11.2.2 Design 2

Figure 53: Design 2

Description:Figure 53 shows the second generator design for the wind turbine. This concept was
extracted from the permanent magnet generator theory. In this design, magnets are mounted on the
blade tip where the fluxes
luxes are distributed and the blades represent the rotor. A non-magnetic,
non
Nonconducting circular section holds a number of circular bobbin wound armature copper coils
positioned circumferentially around the circular ring which acts as the stator of the generator.
ge
The
power is generated when the blade tip magnet pass through the copper coil banks mounted onto the
outer ring.
Materials: For the rotor, Neodymium magnet was chosen due to its high performances. The copper
wires were chosen for the stator due to less resistance.
Advantages: Since blade tip has the highest speed, the electricity generate from the generator is
much higher when comparing to the axial fixed generator. Also the mechanical resistance is much
lower (Blades are connected to a bearing not
not to a yaw shaft) so the losses are low which will enable
the turbine to operate at a lower wind speed. This design reduces the noise, vibration and the size of
the wind turbine.
Disadvantages: The blade tip mounted magnets will add extra weight to the blade
bl
tip which
increases the cut in wind velocity.

44 | P a g e

11.2.3 Design 3

Figure 54: Design 3

Description: Figure 54 illustrates the third generator design for the wind turbine. It also uses the
blade tip power generation system. However in this design the magnets are mounted on the outer
ring (Rotor) and the coils are wounded at the tip of the blade.
Materials: For the rotor, Neodymium magnet was chosen due to its high performances and copper
wires were chosen for the stator due to less resistance.
Advantages: The magnets are fixed in a N-S arrangement to create higher and uniform magnetic flux
between the two magnets, this effect create higher electricity from the turbine.
Disadvantages: Since the blade tip are equipped with coils the aerodynamic efficiency of the system
decreases. Total number of 8 magnets is used in this system which increase the total cost of the
system.

11.2.4 Design 4

Figure 55: Design 4

Description: Figure 55shows the schematics of the fourth conceptual design of the generator.
Turbine consists of two rotating rotor sections. Where the Inner blades tip consists of wounded
copper coils.
Materials: For the rotor, Neodymium magnet was chosen due to its high performances and copper
wires were chosen for the stator due to less resistance.
Advantages: The two counter rotating blade systems increases the frequency of flux-coil interaction
generates more electricity.
Disadvantages: Mechanically complicated to build due to the two counter rotating blade system.
Additional materials required to build outer rotating system, which increase the cost of the product.

45 | P a g e

11.3 Preliminary Design of braking and mounting systems (MH)


11.3.1 Braking Systems
Having a well-defined and functional safety system is critical to any modern wind turbine
design. Common safety systems found in wind turbines have been reviewed and
considerations have been made for the initial concept.
A disc brake system was chosen as the primary method of stopping the wind turbine
primarily due to cost considerations. Aerodynamic braking is proven to efficiently stop a
turbine from rotating during high wind situations but they are expensive to implement, as
many systems will be required to operate it. Due to the current generator design requiring
coils to be installed at the blade tip, which would require cables to run within them, also
increases the complexity of having a pitch control mechanism within the rotor hub.
Three initial designs were formed for the braking system of the turbine.
11.3.2 Braking System Design 1
The 1st preliminary design of the wind turbine system contains the rotor hub seated on a set of
bearings which will contain an attached brake disc. This disc will be similar to that found on go carts
due to their small size as well as reduced weight compared to much larger car braking systems. The
surface area acting on the disc will be chosen to sufficiently provide braking at high wind speeds. A
hydraulic or electric actuator system will be mounted within the nacelle of the turbine in order to
provide the actuation force needed for the brake pads. An anemometer placed within the turbine
would measure the current wind speeds and activate the braking system.
Disc

Hub
Figure 56: Design 1

11.3.3 Braking System Design 2


The 2nd brake systems design incorporates the brake disc into the centre shaft which travels through
the turbine. This would require the shaft to be rotating at the same speed as the hub, which the disc
would be attached to. Due to the bearing system being installing within the hub, it was decided that
the rotor would not rotate along with the hub, but rather act as a backbone to the turbine which
provides support to all systems.

46 | P a g e

Hub

Disc
Shaft

Figure 57: Design 2

11.3.4 Braking System Design 3


The 3rd brake system design is to incorporate aerodynamic braking. This would include a variable
pitch control system for the blades which requires a set of motors to be placed within the hub
system. When the detected wind speed exceeds a specified cut-off value, aerodynamic braking will
be activated which would bring the turbine to a gradual stop.

11.4 Mounting System (MH)


The wind turbine is to be designed for the use of domestic UK homes and therefore the mounting
system should take into consideration current UK building regulations and legal requirements as well
as extracting maximum energy from the wind speeds predicted within such heights.
The limitations of the mounting system are highlighted in the PDS under section 4, which highlights
all the design considerations. A majority of the power management system for the turbine would not
necessarily be required to be placed within the nacelle and this lends to a reduction in weight and
space taken up by the nacelle. Although initially, a lattice steel structure could be considered the best
method to mount the turbine, costs could be reduced by either fixing the turbine within a steel pole
onto the chimney or a concrete base.
Examples of mounting systems that could be used are shown below from current small scale wind
turbines.

11.4.1 Mounting System Method 1


Mounting system method 1 includes a side mounted turbine on the wall of the building. This is
shown in FIGURE. Since roofs in domestic houses are at a given angle, if the house is a detached
dwelling, this system would be ideal as work would not need to be carried out on the roof itself.

Figure 58: Design 1

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11.4.2 Mounting system 2


Mounting system method 2 would require the turbine to be installed on the roof and includes a
hydraulic ram in order to adjust the tower height when necessary for maintenance and safety.

Figure 59: Design 2

11.4.3 Mounting System 3


Mounting system method 3 would be similar to the system highlighted in method 2, but without the
hydraulic ram. In order to maintain a low product cost, and taking into account height limitations
given in the PDS, this system is the chosen system as the final design.

Mast

base

Figure 60: Design 3

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11.5 Popular Wind turbine arrangements for domestic use (MT)

Figure 61: Typical Wind Turbine arrangements (31)

11.5.1 Introduction
A charge controller or charge regulator limits the current being delivered by the power source to the
battery. To be useful, "12 volt" wind generators need to be capable of delivering 16 to 20 volts in
moderate winds (at say 250-400rpm). Most 12v batteries need around 14 to 14.5 volts to get fully
charged.
Wind turbines need to be protected from 'over speed' which could occur if a load was suddenly
removed or switched 'off'. Over speed protection is normally achieved by maintaining a constant
electrical load on the turbine as well as providing voltage regulation the charge controller also
ensures that this electrical loading is present at all times. The electrical load is either provided by
charging the battery, or if the battery is fully charged then the excess power is normally diverted to a
dump load/braking resistor (which could be used for air, water or under floor heating)in this
situation, the excess power would be sold to the national grid under Feed-In-Tariff.

11.5.2 Series Regulators


Many charge controllers are designed to disconnect (or open circuit) the solar panel when the
battery becomes charged and re-connect the solar panel when the battery needs recharging. While
this is acceptable for solar panels, these series regulators are unsuitable as wind and water turbine

49 | P a g e

charge controllers as they would cause the turbine to over speed and damage would result from
excessive centrifugal force or excessive vibration.

11.5.3 ShuntRegulators
Have the following characteristics
The wind generator is not regulated or controlled and continuously delivers the available
power to the regulator and battery.
The regulator constantly monitors the battery voltage and switches between two states
determined by the battery voltage.
If the battery voltage falls below a "low" set limit the controller disconnects the dump
load and allows the battery to charge.
If the voltage rises above a "high" set limit the controller turns on a dump load and isolates
the battery from further charging.
In normal operation the wind controller will cycle between these two binary operating states
(Charging and Charged), thus achieving the battery voltage regulation between the controllers low
and high voltage set points* (*Note: see hysteresis below) (32).

11.5.4 Two modes of operation


There are two possible ways in which the simple shunt regulator can be incorporated into a wind
generation system; a "dump load controller" (sometimes called a "simple battery shunt" or "shunt
mode")anda "turbine brake controller" (sometimes called "back EMF braking" or "diversion mode").
The difference is that in Diversion Mode the regulator only diverts the instantaneous generated
power to the dump load and only when the battery is charged. Note: Stored battery power is never
dumped by a regulator in Diversion Mode (this is prevented by the presence of a blocking diode).In
Shunt Mode the regulator operates as a simple battery shunt and has to dump the generators full
rated power capacity each time it turns on (whatever the prevailing conditions) consequently the
dumping of battery power is a feature of this mode of operation.
In the "shunt mode" configuration, and in windy conditions, once the battery is fully charged the
rotor speed will not change significantly when the controller switches between the Charging and the
Dumping states. In the turbine brake controller" configuration, once the battery is fully charged
(and the controller has entered into the charged/dumping state) the rotor speed will be
determined by the braking resistor impedance. If the braking resistor is low impedance, then the
rotor will be observed to slow down. As the controller switches back into the charging state then
the rotor will speed up again.
Some shunt regulators are designed to operate in one mode only, some can be configured in
either of the two modes during installation, some can be dynamically switched during operation.
Shunt regulators cant operate in both modes at the same time.

11.5.5 Pulse Width Modulation Regulators

PWM charge controller regulates the power being sent to the battery.The PWM regulator is
a proportional controller which is capable of varying the charge duty cycle between 0 and
100%. The controller constantly checks the state of the battery to determine how fast to
send pulses, and how long (wide) the pulses will be. In a fully charged battery with no load, it
may just "tick" every few seconds and send a short pulse to the battery. In a discharged
battery, the pulses would be very long and almost continuous, or the controller may go into
"full on" mode. The controller checks the state of charge on the battery between pulses and
adjusts itself each time.

50 | P a g e

A PWM dump load controller regulates the 'excess' power which needs to be dumped. This is
an alternative way in which a PWM regulator can be configured. Instead of regulating the
power being sent to the battery (see above) it regulates the excess power that needs to be
dumped into a braking resistor. With a discharged battery, pulses would never be sent to the
braking resistor. When the battery is fully charged and excess power is still being generated
then the PWM dump load controller sends pulses or may go into "full on" mode if the
generated power is high.

With the development of PWM charge controllers came a new and improved way of charging
batteries using bulk, absorption, float and equalization charges. These are a great improvement over
shunt charge controllers as they are able to keep the battery voltage much more stable.

11.5.6 PWM regulator with a dump load


Wind turbine system normally require PWM regulator with a dump load to maintain the load on
thegenerator/turbine and to dissipate energy when the battery becomes charged). Such regulators
allow the wind turbine to deliver all of the available power to the regulator and battery. Examples of
PWM shunt regulators which support an external dump load include the Xantrex C40 and
Morningstar Tristar-45 family of regulators.

11.5.7 Shorting the generator output?


The output from a DC generator should never be shorted while it is rotating since the commutator
and brushes will quickly burn out. Some small machines with more internal resistance and
servomotors may survive limited abuse but shorting the DC generator output as a means of
continuous regulation should be avoided.
AC wind generators have lots of kinetic energy stored within the rotating components and shorting
the generator output induces very large currents flowing within the coils. This may cause excessive
heat build-up and premature failure of the windings (particularly if the alternator windings are
potted within resin, as air cooling is severely constrained).
Shorting the windings of an AC generator should only be considered as a maintenance function. If the
turbine/generator does not stop within 10-15 seconds then the braking effect is insufficient to
overcome the wind strength. If the generator is allowed to continue to rotate with the generator
output shorted then permanent damage could occur. Shorting the AC generator output as a means
of continuous regulation should be avoided.

11.5.8 Wind compatible Solar style charge controllers?


There are an increasing number of solar style charge controllers which utilize the shunt/diversion
mode architecture without a dump load. When the battery becomes charged the solar style charge
controller applies a short to the power source, which works perfectly well with solar panels, but care
needs to be taken when considering their use for wind generator applications. These solar style
charge controllers include the JUTE CMP24 family (20A, 30A and 45A), Hybrid controller CQ1210 and
SecasSolarix; Alpha, Gamma, Sigma and Omega family (with the ATONIC chip architecture).
Modern wind turbines can be designed to take advantage of solar style charge controllers (they are
cheaper than conventional PWM controllers which require a dump load). However they need to be
designed from first principals for use with solar style charge controllers. Two wind turbine systems
that are compatible with solar style charge controllers (which do not have a dump load) include the
Wren Micro-turbine which is compatible with the Samrey 30A Shunt Charge Controller (a rebadge
SecaSolarix Omega) and the Macro-Wind small wind turbines (MW-200 and MW-400) which are
compatible with the solar style charge controller supplied by Macro-Wind. Additional protection has
51 | P a g e

been embedded within the wind turbine manufactured by Macro-Wind to ensure compatibility with
a solar style charge controller which has no provision for a dump load.
You should not assume that a new solar style charge controller which has no provision for a dump
load will be compatible with your existing wind generator. You need to check for compatibility with
your generator and the solar style charge controller suppliers. Apart from the damage referred to
above caused by the application of frequent shorts to the generator output there will be the
additional problem that the turbine would be beset with frequent stops. If the winds are light then
frequent stops means that you will lose the ability to generate power in low winds.

11.5.9 Maximum Power Point Tracking


MPPT charge controllers can be used in conjunction with uniform solar arrays consisting of multiple,
identical solar panels. The MPPT controller is designed to maximise the quantity of power obtained
by performing a periodic sweep of the solar power curve to determine the ideal voltage at which the
maximum power can be extracted. The timing of the sweep has been optimized to take account of
solar events like "passing clouds" (typically the sweep occurs every 7 minutes).
The power output from fixed pitch wind generators have significant short term fluctuations, as the
speed is constantly changing with the variable wind conditions. MPPT systems are not fast enough to
keep up with the changing condition of the turbine. Consequently the MPPT sweep algorithm will
produce erroneous data with each gust of wind. Hence MPPT controllers are not generally used for
fixed pitch wind turbine generators.
The power output from variable pitch wind generators and from water turbines can remain constant
over the longer term. This makes them more suitable for use with MPPT power controllers.

11.5.10

Hysteresis

Hysteresis is an integral characteristic with shunt regulators (but not with PWM regulators).The
regulator is either 'off' or 'on', with nothing in between. The regulator is a system; its input is the
battery voltage, and its output is the 'Charging' or 'Charged/Dumping' binary state. If we wish to
maintain a battery voltage of 12.5v, then the regulator may be designed to turn the dump load 'on'
when the battery voltage rises above the 12.6v set limit, and turn it 'off' when the battery voltage
falls below the 12.4v set limit. The controllers "low and high voltage set points" and a "lock out" time
constant within the controller define the characteristic hysteresis properties of the controller.
Domestic central heating thermostats also exhibit hysteresis. Further information on hysteresis can
be found on Wikipedia.

11.5.11

Lead-Acid Batteries

Lead-acid batteries fall into two categories. 1. Shallow cycle - these are the type used to start your
car. They are designed to deliver a large amount of current over a short period of time. This type is
unsuitable for a home power battery bank. They cannot withstand being deeply discharged, to do so
shorten their life. 2. Deep cycle - Designed to be discharged by as much as 80% of their capacity, this
is the type of choice for home power systems. The life of deep cycle batteries will be extended if the
discharge cycle is limited to 50% of the battery capacity and if they are fully recharged after each
cycle (this avoids positive plate sulphating). The quickest way to ruin lead-acid batteries is to
discharge them deeply and leave them standing "dead" for an extended period of time. When they
discharge, there is a chemical change in the positive plates of the battery. Batteries that are deeply
discharged, and then charged partially on a regular basis can fail in less than one year.
Second hand batteries from computer UPS and GSM base-station installations frequently come onto
the market. These batteries are normally removed from service when the battery backup time (i.e.
52 | P a g e

the battery capacity) has fallen below acceptable operational limits. Batteries always have a
manufacturers date code on them (for warranty purposes), make sure you know what it is before
you purchase. Second hand traction batteries (milk float, fork lift and submarine) are ideal but
difficult to value. However the price will never fall below the scrap value for lead. Storage batteries
need adequate ventilation(33).
State of Charge (approx.)
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

12 Volt Battery
12.7
12.5
12.42
12.32
12.2
12.06
11.9
11.75
11.58
11.31
10.5

Volts per Cell


2.12
2.08
2.07
2.05
2.03
2.01
1.98
1.96
1.93
1.89
1.75

Table 6: State of Charge

11.5.12

Dump Loads (as used in 'battery shunt' configuration)

Typically 0.5 to 2.0 ohms (for example: a 12volt 200watt dump load would consume 16.6amps and
have a resistance of0.72ohms).
The dump load should be dimensioned to dissipate the generators maximum output power. You can
use a "car ceramic heater" or a regular 12/24/48v immersion heater. If you need a higher capacity
dump load you can use a cheap DC-AC inverter to generate 240volts and a domestic oil filled
radiator.
Car headlight bulbs may be used for experimentation, but are not suitable as a permanent fixture
since they will burn out during high winds and without the dump load the controller will either "boil"
the battery or fail to load the generator which will then over speed (depending upon the controller
design and failure mode). Incandescent bulbs also have low impedance when cold and induce very
high switching currents. Dump loads can be controlled by MOSFET's or by relays.

11.5.13

Braking Resistor (as used in 'turbine brake controller' configuration)

Typically 1 to 5 ohms
To determine your optimum braking resistor value you may need to experiment with different power
resistors during various wind conditions. A very low impedance braking resistor would cause the
turbine to slow instantaneously to a low speed, which could place unnecessary stresses on the
turbine. The benefit of the turbine brake controller" configuration, which slows the rotor down, is
less wear and tear on the rotating components while the battery remains in its fully charged state. A
Rheostat is useful in determining the ideal brake resistor value when configured in the "turbine brake
controller" configuration. The braking resistor should be dimensioned to dissipate the generators
maximum output power.

11.5.14

Grid Tie Inverters

A grid-tie inverter or a (GTI) is an electrical device that allows turbine or solar panels to complement
their grid power with renewable power. It works by regulating the amount of voltage and current
53 | P a g e

that is received from the turbine or solar panel and converting this into alternating current. The main
difference between a standard electrical inverter and a grid-tie inverter is that the latter also ensures
that the power supplied will be in phase with the grid power.This allows individuals with surplus
power (wind, solar, etc.) to sell the power back to the utility. This is sometimes called "spinning the
meter backwards" as that is what literally happens.
On the AC side, these inverters must supply electricity in sinusoidal form, synchronized to the grid
frequency, and limit feed in voltage to no higher than the grid voltage including disconnecting from
the grid if the grid voltage is turned off. A major advantage of Grid Tie Inverters is that the
requirement for batteries is eliminated.
Grid-tie inverters have a maximum permitted input voltage. As wind speeds increase, this limit may
be exceeded. In these circumstances the grid-tie inverter will automatically disconnect the turbine
from delivering power to the mains. At this point the rotor is no longer loaded and it will rapidly
increase to a dangerous speed. High voltages are still being applied to the input of the "off-line" Gridtie inverter, which will destroy it. Then the rotor may also be destroyed by high speed vibration and
centripetal forces. An additional problem is mains failure as this will also remove the loading on the
rotor, with the same consequences. A frequency switch can be used to apply a diversion load and
brake to slow the turbine down to a safe speed, during either of these two conditions.
Grid-tie inverters also have a minimum input voltage which needs to be maintained if you wish to
remain connected to the grid. Falling outside of this min-max window will result in the GTI
disconnecting from the grid. To reach the minimum voltage you need to improve your ability to
capture the wind by changing the tower height, rotor size, number of blades, blade design, etc. (34)

12 Preliminary Design & Analysis


12.1 The Blades, the Hub & the Cone (BP)

Figure 62: Preliminary Blade Design

Design Features:
NACA 0010 Airfoil Shape
Ultra High Molecular Weight Polethylene
Bolted by two M8 to the hub
6 angle of attack considering infinite wing Cl graph
High aspect ratio as the span to chord length ratio is high
Low induced drag as aspect ratio is high however; high profile drag
The initial design of the blades included trapezoid mount with thin section going into the hub bolted
together using M8 bolts. The design is not practical as it requires bolts to attach the blade with the
hub. This would induce high stress concentration on the plastic blade around the bolt area which
could result in a crack or a fracture. Plastic is also likely to deform if a constant force is applied which
54 | P a g e

means the bolt holes are likely to elongate making blades vibrate more and deform further resulting
in a catastrophic failure. The hub is made of aluminium and does not have any significant effect
compare to the blades. The cone is also plastic and bolted with the aluminium hub however; cone
has no major force acting on it and therefore the bolt hole elongations is not significant for the cone.

Figure 64: Preliminary Cone Design

Figure 63: Preliminary Hub Design

12.2 Generator design selection (KE)

Figure 65: Conceptual Design 3

12.2.1 Design Selection


From the analysis of the conceptual designs, Design 3 was selected for the preliminary design. The
unique Blade tip generator system reduces the losses due to the axial rotating components. The cost
of the product is lower due to the use of separate stator and rotor. Due to high Blade tip speed high
energy generate from the tip.
Design 1 _ Use of conventional axial generator need to have a gear box in order to operate in low
wind speeds. The axial driven generators have higher losses due to friction, which reduce generator
efficiency and high noise pollution. So the conceptual design 1 wasnt chosen for the preliminary
design.

55 | P a g e

The design is based on wind tip generator concept. However, the magnets are mounted on
Design 2_The
the blade tips which add extra weight. The cut in wind speed of the system is much higher in order to
generate power. Also cost of the magnets is higher and mounting it on a rotating component will
reduce the life cycle. Conceptual design 2 wasnt selected for the final design.
The conceptual design 4 has a two counter rotating blade system, where the system
sy
will
Design 4_The
exceed the size limitation set by governing bodys (This was discussed in the beginning of the report).
Also the cost of the manufacturing will increase due to mechanical complexity.

12.2.2 Design improvements for the preliminary generator design

Figure
igure 66: Preliminary CAD Design for the generator

Figure 66 shows the CAD drawing of the preliminary design. The magnets were mounted N-S or S-N
pole arrangement, where it creates constant axial magnetic flux distribution between two magnets.
This arrangement
angement increases the electricity generation form the rotating coils (stator-mounted
(stator
on the
blade tip). After the CAD analysis it was identified due to the outer ring which support magnets
reduces the blade tip aerodynamic efficiency. To solve this issue outer ring thickness was reduce and
the magnets were mounted on the inner surface of the ring in series arrangement. This modification
increases the blade aerodynamic efficiency and high wind energy is captured to generate electricity.
Figure 80 shows the magnetic flux arrangement of the magnets
magnets in preliminary design.

Figure 67:
67 Magnetic Flux Arrangement in Conceptual Design 3

56 | P a g e

13 Final Design (BP)


The final design shows fully assembled wind turbine with bearings and magnets presented as blocks
of steel (cream colour). The slice view of the turbine is used to show display the bearing positions. 3D
Exploded view shows the position each component is attach to.

Figure 69: Side View of the Wind Turbine


Figure 68: Front View of the Wind Turbine

Figure 71: Slice View of the Wind Turbine


Figure 70: 3D View of the Wind Turbine

57 | P a g e

Figure 72: 3D Slice View of the Wind Turbine

Figure 73: Exploded View of the Wind Turbine

58 | P a g e

Figure 74: 3D Exploded View of the Wind Turbine

13.1 FEA Analysis (MT)


FEA Analysis was carried out for different load condition the wind turbine would experience. The first
FEA was carried out for the forces the wind turbine would encounter on a worst case scenario (60
m/s wing, highest recorded wind speed for UK) to make sure the turbine would be able to survive.

Figure 75: Equivalent Stress

59 | P a g e

Figure 76: Total Deformation

As you can see from the above figure, you can notice some deformation in the blades. But safety
factors are well above breaking point proving that the wind turbine would survive a worst case
scenario. If the deformations are plastic (unlikely) the blades would need replacing.

Figure 77: Equivalent Stress

60 | P a g e

Another analysis was carried out for more likely high wind situation of 25m/s wind. This level of wind
speed is not an everyday occurrence but it is a likely situation the wind turbine would encounter.
Deformations in blades are slightly above 1mm, well within the elastic limit for Ultra-high-molecularweight polyethylene proving the wind turbine is capable of withstanding this level of strong wind
without any problem.

Figure 78: Total Deformation

Further FEA analysing was carried out to find out at what speeds, plastic deformations would occur in
the wings. The results revealed the winds higher than 25 meters per second wind would cause
plastics deformation in blades. To prevent that anemometer will detect the wind speeds above 23
m/s and apply the brakes stopping any damage to the wings/system
When FMEA was carried out on the system, the break mechanism was flag as a system of high risk.
This is due to fails in brake system would be recognised only in the annual maintenance. This is not as
the there are many ways the break system can fail and if the turbine is faced with a high wind
situation after the beaks had failed, that would cause plastic deformation in blades requiring costly
replacements.This was unacceptable and the solution had to be easy on the customer, preferably a
solution that automated requiring no involvement from the residents or maintenance.
The implemented solution is an innovative automated monthly check system. The circuit run through
the utility meter (the model specified in the price list capable of running small programs) is system
that would supply power to the breaks once a month and compare the power generated against the
wind speed registered by the anemometer. When the fail safe check in operation, for any wind speed
above zero, the power generated also should be zero as the check system is powering the breaks. If
the turbine is generating power, that means the beak system has failed and indication would be
displayed of this in the utility meter.As this system is run monthly, chance of damaging situation
occurring is very low.

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13.2 Bill of Material (MT)

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13.3 Blades (BP)


The final design specification:
NACA 0010 Profile
Chord length 0.1m
Each blade with 0.3m span
Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene material used to manufacture
10 angle of attack for Finite blade
Section cut at the tip for stator
For 6m/s wind speed, 0.3m blade span and 0.05m hub radius, Power available is:
16
 = A D 1 0.5 1 46 8 1 1.225 1 4( 1 0.35 8 = 30.17 H
27
For the given chord length, thickness (t) of the NACA 0010 airfoil shape is 10% therefore the
thickness of the airfoil is 0.01m.
The Planform area is given by:  = , 1 @ = 0.1 1 0.3 = 0.03 
The volume of the blade worked out using the SolidWork tool is 0.204 10-3m3
Therefore the Aspect Ratio is: * =

7I
J

K.I

= K.K = 3

Mass:  1 : = 931 1 0.204 1 10N = 0.189 PQ

Reynolds number of the fluid flowing over the airfoil shape: *) =

RST
U

.11K.
.VW1 KXY

= 37065

At calculated Re value, the coefficient of lift value curve gradient is approximately 0.1/
Therefore the Finite Blade CLgradient is given by:  Z =

K.

Y[.\1].^
64
8
]._Y1`1\

= 0.0598

The finite wing CL is 0.0598 1 10 = 0.598

The Lift:  = 0.5 1 1.225 1 0.598 1 6 1 0.03 = 0.396 a


I

c
d = 0.16
CD can be worked out using airfoil Cd Value (0.12): ' = 0.12 + bK.V1"1

Drag Force: & = 0.5 1 1.225 1 0.03 1 0.16 1 46 8 = 0.106 a


Torque: . = 0 1 2 = 0.396 1 0.15 = 0.0594 a

Power extracted for 0.5 rps:  = . 1 / = 0.0594 1 42 1 ( 1 0.58 = 0.187 H


The Power extraction calculations do show low value because of the estimation made for the rps.
This is because we need experimental or computational analysis to work out the rotational speed.

63 | P a g e

13.4 Bearings (BP/MH)


Two roller bearings are installed; one holding the hub and the other one holding the upper frame.
The bearings are lubricated to reduce the noise of blade rotation.

The bearings need to lubricate in order increase longevity. For the bearing in the hub with blades,
this needs to be lubricated daily. This would be done via a small pump and an oil reservoir. Time
control unit would be a circuit based on a 555
555 time control IC that would operate ones a day for small
period of time to lubricate the bearing. Power will be drawn from the battery to run this circuit.The
large bearing inside the mast for yaw movement is not rapidly moving and no used long periods of
o
time. This bearing is lubricated manually ones a year.

13.5 Final Generator Design (KE)


The final generator consists of rotor section and stator section, the specifications and description
follows.

13.5.1 Rotor

Figure 79: Final Generator Design

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Figure 79 shows the final generator design; the outer ring is defined as the rotor.
16 magnets (see Table 7)
7 are mounted on the stationary ring (355mm inner diameter ring)
made out from plastic material to reduce the flux absorption from the magnets. 16 magnets
were chosen in order to generate
generate more electricity from the generator, also considering the
cost of the total generator.
Neodymium magnets were chosen for the rotor, the magnets are made out from Iron and
Boron which is class as the strongest magnets. It creates strong magnetic fluxes, which will
influence the total electricity generation higher. Most of the renewable appliance used
neodymium magnets.
Two magnets were place in series in order to create higher flux density around the magnets.
Error! Reference source not found.,
found., shows the flux arrangement between two magnets.
N42 gradeneodymium magnets were chosen due to its optimal balance of magnets strength
and durability for the price.
Shape
Magnetic Face:
Thickness:
Grade:
Plating:
Performance (Gauss):
Vertical Pull (Kg):
Slide Resistance (Kg):
Max Temp (degrees C):
Fixing:

Rectangle
46 x 30mm
10mm
N42
Ni-Cu-Ni ( Nickel )
2700
30
6
80
Araldite/Loctite
Table 7: Magnet specification (35)

Figure 80: Magnetic Flux Arrangement in Final Design

13.5.2 Stator

Figure 81: Front View of the Stator

Error! Reference source not found.,


found. shows the front view of the stator.
65 | P a g e

It was decided to use removable stator parts to be fitted to the tip of the blade, which will
gives user to replace the stator section and replace with the new part in case of damage to
the stator. In total 6 stators each was fitted to each blade tip and it was connected via screws
to the blades.
Stator main plate was made out from the plastic material, which has zero permeability and
zero conductivity. These properties enhance the electricity generation form the coils and
reduce loses.
Since the copper wires were used in stator, due to its excellent electricity conductivity, its
metal properties and low cost.
Copper wires were winded (10 rotations) in slots on the main stator blade, which increases
the higher winding factor and subsequently increases the electricity generation.
The copper wire winding pattern was done in a way to satisfy Faraday low, Figure 82 shows
the diagram of the stator winding arrangement for flux direction from the magnet.
Insulated copper was used to protect the copper from electricity discharge and other
damages. Also this layer of plastic was applied on the side top and bottom face of the stator
to increase the aerodynamic performances on the tip of the blade.

Figure 82: Copper winding vs Flux direction

13.5.3 Final assembly of the generator

Figure 83:Stator Connection to the Blade

Figure 84: Wire Connection from Stator

Figure 83, shows the stator connection to the blade, where stator is connected by screws to
the blade. Also Error! Reference source not found. shows the wire connection to the main
blade.
66 | P a g e

Figure 85, Shows the Magnets placement on the outer ring of the rotor.

S
N

Figure 85: Magnet arrangement on the ring

Figure 86 shows the stator and rotor intersection when blades rotating.

Figure 86: Cross Section of Stator & Rotator Flux Arrangement in Generator

13.5.4 Power Calculations


In order to calculate system electricity generation system flux density distribution needs be studies,
ef
H
H
e = gtanN g
k tanN g

kk
j
(
2=44=  + H  +  8 
24= + .8m44= + .8 + H  +  n j .
Br(magnet flux density)=2700 Gauss
W (width of the magnet) = 30mm
L (Length of the magnet) = 46mm
T (Thickness magnet) = 10mm
X (distance from magnet) = 2cm (the value was chosen at the furthest point from the magnetic
surface, to get the minimum magnetic flux point at the stator)

67 | P a g e

Figure 87

Magnetic flux at x distance was calculated,


e

2700
30 10N 46 10N
gtanN g
k
(
242 10N 84442 10N 8 + 430 10N 8 + 446 10N 8 8 j
30 10N 46 10N
tanN g
kk
242 10N + 10 10N 8m442 10N + 10 10N 8 + 430 10N 8 + 446 10N 8 n j .

B = 9574.12 Gauss = 9574.12 X 10-4T (Tesla)

Stator is wound with copper coils, the length on one wound is 1.3cm on one side and there are 10
rotations of coli going through on one slot. Also there are 7 coils wounds in one stator.
The total length cutting the magnetic flux is can be found from below equation,
 = 10 7 1.3 10N 2 = 1.82m
The area of flux enclosed per second (A) can be found using the below equation,
 = 1.82 V (blade tip linear velocity)

It was calculated that the angular velocity 4/ = 3.14 2? /p8 of the turbine blades at the minimum
operating wind speed of 6 m/s. The relationship between angular velocity and linear velocity (V) can
be found from the below equation,
: = / *42? qr+p = 3.14 2? jp 350 10N = 1.099 p
emf charge per second 4t8 can be found from equation (one stator),
t =  =  e = 1.82 1.099 9574.12 10Nu = 1.91:
t = )v
 = :rw
?Q)
In order to find the current flowing through the circuit resistance of copper wires need to be
calculated. The resistance was calculated by using below equation,
R= Resistance
L= Length of the wire
K=Resistivity of copper wire (Copper = 1.73 X 10-8)
A= Cross sectional area of wire (0.6 mm copper wire was used)
P
1.73 10NW
= 1.82 g
k = 0.0278z

( 40.6 10N 8
The current flow in the circuit can be found from the below equation,
R=L

68 | P a g e

I=

1.91
t48
=
= 68.70
0.0278
*

The power generated from one stator can be found from the below equation,
 = :|
 = 1.91 1 68.7 = 131.217H
The system is equipped with 6 stators, to find the total power generate from the system the P1 need
to be multiplied by 6.
 = 131.217 1 6 = 787.30 H

13.5.5 Power Curve


The power curve of the system evaluated to study the power output for different wind speeds.
However it was unable to find the relationship betweenwind speed and blade angular velocity. So
the power curve was plotted to different blade angular velocities.

Power Output (watts)

Power Curve
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

/ - Blade Angular velocity (rad/s)

13.5.6 Method
Voltage or coil e.m.f generated due to the magnetic flux can be calculated by below equation,
t =  = :e
t = )v
 = :rw
?Q)
V=blade tip linear velocity
L=length of the wire (0.182m)
B=magnetic flux (9574.12 X 10-4T)
t =  = : 1 9574.12 1 10Nu 1 1.82 = V 1 1.7424
Also the liner velocity and the angular velocity related by below equation,
: = / 1 2 = / 1 350 1 10N
r =Radius of the area covered by blades
P = vI
P= Power
v=Voltage
I= Current
Where,

I=
*
69 | P a g e

R=Resistance
By replacing I in equation,
   4: 1 1.74248 4/ 1 350 1 10N 1 1.74248
=
=
= 13.39/
P=v1 =
*
0.0278
0.0278
*
P = 13.39/

13.5.7 Generator circuit (stator to blade point)

13.6 Power Management (MT)


Customer has the option of choosing an arrangement that suits his lifestyle, but for this wind turbine,
below arrangement is provided as the standard setup. Out of the typical arangemenbts, we belive
this arrangement with combination with the wind turbine would most benificial for the cost.

Figure 88: Final Design Power Management System

70 | P a g e

1) Wind turbine tower would be the new innovative wind turbine design presented in this report.
2) Wind turbine control unit looks after charging the batteries. This prevents the batteries from
overcharging (providing power when the battery is full reduces the battery life) and undercharging
(draining the battery below 20% will irreversibly reduce the battery capacity). It charges the batteries
at the earliest opportunity, minimising battery cycling (charging and discharging rapidly).
The charge controller and voltage regulator provides the capability for maintaining the state of
charge for 12V or 24V storage batteries. The charge controller circuit performs as a fully automatic
voltage regulator. It has been designed for unattended site operation and is supplied in a
weatherproof plastic enclosure, suitable for mounting on a vertical pole or on a wall.
The charge controller constantly monitors the battery voltage and if required the batteries are
allowed to charge. As the float voltage is approached a load is applied to dissipate power. The charge
controller continues to monitor the battery voltage and if it subsequently drops below a threshold
then the load is disconnected and the charging action will resume.
3) Bator yank stores the energy generated from the wind turbine for the purpose of distribute it to
the loads when necessary. Standard batteries provided are two non-sealed deep cycle batteries of a
capacity of 75 Ampere Hour at 12 volts. Deep cycle batteries are very durable (needs replacing about
every six years) and can handle cycling of leads (charging and withdrawing rapidly). Non sealed
batteries are used as it allows the user to replenish the fluid inside themselves rather than replacing
the battery. Non sealed batteries last longer than sealed batteries but requires replenishing fluids
about every six months.
The two batteries supplied are able to power a typical refrigerator for two consecutive days.
Customer can have increased capacity batteries installed if they wish to do so.
4) The inverter converts the battery stored direct currant to alternating current of 230 volts which is
what the typical grid supply would be. Being a grid tie inverter this not only provide AC currant for
the refrigerator, it is also capable of exporting the excess electricity in to the national grid under the
Feed-In-Tariff. The customer would be paid 16 pence per kilowatt hour exported to the grid.
This specific model of inverter has two power outlets, so the customer can chose between exporting
the extra power and running a another appliance such as a washing machine when too much power
is generated from the wind turbine.
5) Utility meter provides the customer with important information about the system performance.
Utility monitor displays the amount of power generated, power exported and battery level.
Customer can use this information to manage the power accordingly if necessary.

13.7 Maintenance (ALL)


13.7.1 Generator
Normally magnets maintain its magnetic properties, so replacement of magnets is very rare.
However the Neodymium magnets used in the generator is exposed to environment. The magnets
are made by using NdFeB is very reactive and it might cause corrosion. It also has a low curie
temperature so temperature is concern over the time (high sunlight, snow and rain). Also if there is a
crack on magnets the magnetic power losses. Yearly inspection would be a solution to check
magnets, since there is no such a formula to find magnetic life time.

71 | P a g e

Stator coils are subjected to vibration due to blade tip acceleration. Also the stator is exposed to the
temperature changes and high wind speeds. So the durability of stator might reduce. The inspection
of stator should be carried out annually.

13.7.2 Tips for long lasting power management system


Corrosion increase resistance in delivering power causing power losses. It is advised that the
customer take precautions to avoid/minimise corrosion in the system. A method such as covering the
exposed metal with petroleum jelly is widely popular, effective and inexpensive.
The batteries used are flooded batteries, which needs refilling with deionised water every 6 months.
Batteries lose its ability hold power with cold temperatures. It is advised the batteries are stored in
room temperature.
Letting the battery be drained fully cause definite and irreversible loss of power storage capability.
Provided power regulating system is capable of detecting such events and disconnecting the system.
It is also capable of detecting overcharging events and disconnecting the charging supply from the
battery bank.

The table below highlights all the components that are suited for manufacturing using the
methods detailed above, and the justification for choosing them.

14 Manufacturing (MH)
Component
Hub (Main body)
Hub Centre Rod
Hub Cone

Generator Housing

Generator Frame Support

Brake Disc

Blades

Mount: Mast
Tail: Shaft

Manufacturing Method

Justification
Good dimensional accuracy
Casting/ moulding
needed, intricate part details
Relatively simply part but
Extrusion or Drawing
strength required
Part is of a simple design,
Compression Moulding
therefore can be moulded at
a relatively high rate
Complex shape which
requires a very high
Die Casting
tolerance of finish in order to
house magnets in place
Moderate shape, large
Sand Casting
volumes required due to 3
parts per turbine
Simple shape, moderate
Sand Casting
dimensional accuracy is
sufficient
Complex shape, hollow
structure, high production
Injection Moulded
rates at 6 parts per turbine,
high strength plastics to be
used
Forging or extrusion/drawing Relatively simple shapes and
Forging or extrusion/drawing constant hollow sections in
72 | P a g e

Mount: Base

Forging

Tail: Vane

Casting

centre
Due to varying dimensions
(non linear), forging is the
best method of manufacture
Heavy weight due to
counterbalancing function
and therefore high accuracy
not required but casting
presents the easiest
production option

15 Business Model Evaluation of wind turbine (MH)


In order to create a viable business model to design and produce the wind turbine, it is first
necessary to understand the costs involved with each part of the system. The table below
gives a guide to the material costs for the turbine. It is important to note the following points
that form the basis of the business model in this section:
The business model is developed for an initial production of 20,000 units
Material costs are estimated using the volume given in the CAD software and then
the mass obtained through the density of the material of the component and CES
Edupack software to obtain price per kilogram.
Manufacturing costs are to be discussed separately which does not take into account
material costs used to make the component
Costs for each standard parts are obtained at a retail price point, whereas in actual
production, the cost for the same item would be less as a higher volume will attract
a significant discount

15.1 Material Costs


Material Costs
System

SubSystem

Turbine Blades

Hub

Generator

Unit Cost
()

Comments/Source

2.22

6 Turbine blades

Hub (Body)

5.66

Centre

17.28

Cone

0.40

Housing

3.39

Frame
Support

1.78

Magnets

227.40

12 magnets costing 18.95 each

Coils

10.50

8m of coils

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2.99

From blade tip to turbine: 10m,


http://www.maplin.co.uk/equipment-wire-16-0.2-6197

22.68

http://www.kartpartsuk.com/product.php?id=1299

Pads

7.95

http://tinyurl.com/cxc7dha

Battery x2

160.00

80 per battery. The design requires 2


(http://tinyurl.com/b9eex7g)

60.00

http://tinyurl.com/ahkmxke

45.00

http://tinyurl.com/b2wb276

45.00

http://tinyurl.com/acllfea

Wires
Brushes
Disc
Braking
System

Power
Management

Mounting
System

Tail

Other

Calliper

Grid Tie
Inverter
Shunt
Regulator
Power
Output
Monitor
Wires

16.00

Mast

1.12

Base

4.14

Shaft

0.57

Vane

13.46

Hub
Bearing
Mast
Bearing

Carbon Steel prices obtained from CES Edupack at


0.045 per kg

28.96
42.36

Miscellaneous

30

Total Unit
Cost

748.86

Final Unit
Price

524.20

These costs include nuts, bolts and other items

Price includes 30% reduction for bulk buying


components

As seen in the above table, the total unit cost for the material of the turbine is nearly 750. As
mentioned previously, this figure is calculated at retail cost value and also material prices per kg
obtained from CES Edupack.
For a production rate of 20,000 units, a wholesale price can be agreed with the manufacturers of the
components within the turbine. A 30% markup on price is generally accepted and if this is factored
into the cost model, it reduces to approximately 525.
Before we can determine the retail price for the turbine, we have to consider all other cost factors
involved within the business and also consider the current market conditions at which we need to
sell the turbine at. These costs can be broadly categorized into the following:
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Manufacturing: Machines, moulds, raw material, Packaging


Marketing Advertising and promoting costs for the turbine
Premises Rent and utilities to produce the product
Labour Wages and administrative costs
Operational I.T., Stationary, Security systems

15.2 Manufacturing Costs


The manufacturing costs for the turbine include all costs that are associated with the making of the
product. Although the machines will take up the majority of the costs, there are various other costs
to consider too.
Typically, a new injection-moulding machine would cost in the region of 30,000. As highlighted in
the manufacturing process stages, an injection-moulding machine would also have other costs
associated such as moulds and pellets.
It is aimed to produce the blades and the hub through injection moulding. Although initially the cost
per mould might seem quite high, it is important to understand the price per piece, as production in
high volumes will significantly decrease this value. A rough guide to injection mould prices can be
found at:
Hub: Due to its complex shape with many features, the tooling cost will be fairly high. It is estimated
to be around 20,000. This would mean the cost per hub would only be 1.
Blades: Since the blades are a relatively simply part to produce in comparison, it is estimated to cost
around 10,000. This would mean the cost per hub would only be 0.50.
Pellets: Since the working material of the machine is pellets, it is important to choose them carefully.
Initial research suggests that a price of $1000-2000 per tonne is reasonable. For production
purposes, it can be estimated that 2 tonnes worth of material to be kept and used. This would cost
an estimated 2680 if higher estimates is to be used.
Other manufacturing cost will include cost of sand casting and moulds, forging machines, coolants
and other liquids. A conservative estimate for all such machinery would be 300,000.
This gives a total of nearly 400,000 for machinery costs. Material costs will also have to be
considered for all machining operations which are not plastics. A budget of 200,000 will be set for
this which would produce a final cost of 600,000.

15.3 Marketing Costs


The marketing budget for any small business is not a topic that has a clear answer. This is because it
can vary a great deal with the type of product, its industry and also required return levels. Image
Works Creative mentions that it could be around 5-6% of initial revenue of the company for a
company that makes between 10-100 million a year. It should however be noted, as pointed out by
Paul that a start-up company would want to spend more as it would want to increase its presence in
the market.
In order to gain a significant presence in the marketplace, the following marketing streams should be
explored:
Online Advertising: There are currently many forums and websites that offer information and
advice regarding renewable and alternative energy products that are in the market. They are
also reviewed according to their performances. An annual budget of 4,000 could bet spent
for such advertising which could increase depending on the success of the campaign.
Social Media: Social media advertising has grown in recent years and this should be
capitalized upon. It is a good method of promoting the business although the results of such

75 | P a g e

promotions are not always clear. A nominal budget of 1,000 can be spent on developing a
campaign to promote the product
Magazine: Many renewable energy magazines exist in the UK market and they are also
popular sub topics of consumer advice magazines. A budget of 5,000 could be spent on
developing a printed ad campaign in this medium.
Paper: Paper advertising has enormous potential as it has a very firm user base with a very
wide demographic. The same ad campaign used for magazines could be run in national or
local newspapers. Since newspaper ads are more costly, a 10,000 per year budget could be
set for this.

Therefore, initially a total budget of 20,000 per annum is to be set up for advertising and
marketing the product.

15.4 Premises Costs


Premises costs are considered to be a combination of the rent and utilities for the premises in which
the manufacturing will be taking place.
If the business is considering manufacturing most of the components on site as well as assembly, a
10,000 sq. ft. site is considered sufficient. This is roughly equivalent to 930 square meters (300 x
300m). Initial research suggests that it would cost 50,000 per annum to rent this amount of space
within the outskirts of London.
Utility costs can vary by a large amount within such a warehouse space as it entirely depends on the
amount of equipment that would be installed within it. Since this cost model will assume that most
of the components will be manufactured in house, it can be expected to be higher than average.
Other factors that can also have an effect are the amount and level of insulation protecting the
premises and the energy efficiency of machines/lighting etc.
An initial research suggests utility costs at 1 per square foot per year. Since there are a lot of
machines used within the building, it would be wise to estimate this at around 1.25 per square foot,
which gives a total of 12,500 per year for utilities.
Therefore the total cost for premises would be 62,500 per annum.

15.5 Labour/staffing Costs


Labour/staffing costs have been estimated based on average annual wages in the UK. The amount of
staff is an estimated number in order to produce an initial 20,000 units and more staff can be hired
based on the requirements of the business in the future.

Position

Average Annual
Salary

Assembly
line 15,000
worker
Skilled Labour
24,000

Amount
of staff
needed
4

Annual
Source
Cost for
position(s)
60,000
http://tinyurl.com/conleva

120,000

http://tinyurl.com/az7lcel

Administrative
Assistant
Security

15,000

15,000

http://tinyurl.com/ablfg3r

15,000

15,000

http://tinyurl.com/bbzmsrz

Supervisor

25,000

50,000

http://tinyurl.com/akm5dmb

Employee Liability Insurance

5,000
76 | P a g e

Pension + other benefits


Total Annual cost

40,000
305,000

The table above shows an estimated cost for labour and staffing per annum. The job positions were
determined to fit the type of business requirements.
Assembly line worker Assembly line workers are required once the products are
manufactured, to assemble the components together as well as finish packaging
Skilled Labour Skilled labour is required to operate the casting and moulding machines as
well as producing parts which require any kind of work done to it
Administrative Assistant As with any office, an administrative assistant is required to carry
out all administrative duties and assist with paperwork and other employee enquiries
Security Since the business will be holding high value items, a security guard is needed at
the premises to protect it as well as its employees
Supervisor While the production is being carried out, 2 supervisors are needed, each at the
manufacturing and assembly sections, to ensure the quality of the product is upheld and the
production runs on schedule and budget.

15.6 Operational Costs


Operational cost of the business can account for a sizeable proportion of costs, but are necessary to
run a successful business.

Type

I.T.

Security
Systems

Subtype

Computer
Systems
Staff Training
Maintenance
/Support
CCTV
Cameras

One-off costs
(installation,
etc)

Annual
Cost

25,000

5,000

Total Initial
Cost (Oneoff +
Annual)
30,000

2000

1,000
5,000

3,000
5,000

2000

Initial
400
Installation
CCTV
Monitoring
Premises
Security
Stationary Initial Cost
500
Total annual costs for year 1

2,000

400
1,200

1,200

2,000

2,000
500
44,100

Cost Summary for turbine manufacture:


Type
Manufacturing
Marketing
Premises
Labour/Staffing

http://www.icctvsystems
.co.uk/Item/izeus16_hdi
psystem1

Cost
600,000
20,000
62,500
305,000
77 | P a g e

Operational
Total Cost

44,100
1,031,000

15.7 Revenue
Since the business would be classified as a start-up, the only expected income is from product sales.
The cost estimates were carried out for an annual production basis and an estimate of the annual
production for the turbine in the first year is set to be 20,000.
Given the market conditions and current demand for wind turbines, it is not realistic to sell 20,000
turbines within the first year. In order to be conservative, 10,000 units are to be estimated as an
initial sales target for the first year.
It is of paramount importance to price the turbine according to current demand and market
conditions. As a new entrant to the market and as specified in the PDS, this turbine is to be sold at a
lower cost than current similar models. During the initial literature review, it was highlighted that
similar turbines will cost upwards of 2,000, which is a substantial initial investment. Therefore it is
reasonable to be priced at 1,500, which is lower than the current average market price for similar
turbine models.

Therefore, Total Revenue = 1000 per unit x 10,000 units = 15,000,000

15.8 Profit Margins


The total annual cost for the turbine production is 1,031,000 and this is based on producing 20,000
units. This gives a unit cost for production of: 103100/20,000 = 51.55
The total cost per unit is calculated as a per unit cost which is added to the turbine. This includes all
the costs detailed in previous sections, but in addition, includes the material costs per unit. Since we
have a material cost for producing the turbine of 524.20, we can add the production cost per unit in
order to work out the profit margin per unit sold.
Therefore total cost per unit: 524.20 + 51.55 = 575.75
Projected Profit per unit = Turbine selling price total cost per unit = 1,500 - 575.75 = 924.25
Once the profit per unit is calculated, a total projected profit value could be found for the year:
Total Projected Profit = 924.25 x 10,000 units = 9,242,500
While these values included are purely projected values, they are based on conservative estimates. It
is also important to note that while the selling price of 1,500 is a low value in comparison to current
market products, in order to gain initial market share, could be sold at a discounted price of around
1,000.

78 | P a g e

AE5 Wind Turbine

Proces
s
Owner:

Maheemal/Mishkath/Bh
avedeep/Kalinga

Centre

Abrasion

Improper
maintena
nce
Improper
Maintena
nce

How
often
does
cause or
FM
occur?

What are the


existing
controls and
procedures
that prevent
either the
Cause or the
Failure
Mode?
Routine
Annual
Check

How
well can
you
detect
the
Cause
or the
Failure
Mode?

Routine
Annual
Check

FMEA Date
(Orig):

08/03/2013

Actions
Recommend
ed

Resp.

What are the


actions for
reducing the
occurrence
of the cause,
or improving
detection?

Who is
Responsibl
e for the
recommend
ed action?

No Further
Action

Maintenanc
e Crew

No Further
7 Action

Maintenanc
e Crew

Actions
Taken

of

RPN
DET
OCC

Total
failure,
Excessive
Vibration
Noise, Low
Power
Output

What are
the
Outcomes
Resulting
From
This?

Maheemal

SEV

Facture

How
Severe
is the
effect to
the
custome
r?

Current
Controls

RPN

Centre

Outcome
s

DET

What is the
cause for
the
Variables?

Cause

OCC

In what
ways can
the
Process
Step or
Input fail?

Potential
Failure
Mode

SEV

Key
Proce
ss
Step
or
Input
What
is the
Proces
s Step
or
Input?

Prepared by:

Rev.

Proces
s or
Produc
t
Name:

Page:

Failure Modes Effects Analysis

1 1 9

1 1 7

Note the
actions
taken.
Include
dates of
completi
on.

79 | P a g e

Cone

Cone

Fracture

Screws
loosing
due to
vibration

Break
Disk

Fracture

Break
Disk

Breaking
at
attachme
nt point

Break
Disk

Wear and
tear

Break
Disk

Power
failure to
Callipers

Break
Disk

Blades

Vibration
casing
misalignm
ent in
callipers
and pad
Fracture

Blades
Becoming
Lose
Blades
Becoming
Lose

Improper
Maintena
nce
Vibration

Ineffective
Breaks in a
Over speed
Event
Ineffective
Breaks in a
Over speed
Event
Ineffective
Breaks in a
Over speed
Event
Ineffective
Breaks in a
Over speed
Event
Ineffective
Breaks in a
Over speed
Event

Low Power
Output

Excessive
Vibration

Excessive
Vibration,
Misalignm
ent of
Callipers
Long
Term Use

Power
Supply
System
Failure

Excessive
Vibration
9

Excessive
Vibration

Routine
Annual
Check
Opposite
Directionally
Tapped
Screws (3
Screws in
each
direction)
Routine
Annual
Check
Routine
Annual
Check

Routine
Annual
Check
Routine
Annual
Check

Routine
Annual
Check

Routine
Annual
Check

No Further
8 Action

Maintenanc
e Crew

Annually
Check
Screws For
4
Tightness
0

Maintenanc
e Crew

No Further
Action

Maintenanc
e Crew

No Further
Action

Maintenanc
e Crew

No Further
Action

Maintenanc
e Crew

Automated
Fail Check
8
(Explained in
1
the Report,
Run Monthly)
No Further
Action
2
7

Customer

No Further
5 Action

Maintenanc
e Crew

1 1 8

1 5

1 1 9

1 1 9

1 1 9

1 9

8
1

1 3

2
7

1 1 5

4
0

Maintenanc
e Crew

80 | P a g e

Blades

Blades

Blades

Misbalanc
ing

Deformati
on over
time

Excessive
Noise,
Fracture
Blades and
Other
Component
s

High Heat,
Long
Lasting
High Wind
Situation

Foreign
Object
Damage,
Excessive
Vibration

Low
Power
Output

Bird strike
7

Frame
Suppor
t

Frame
Suppor
t

deformati
on over
time
fracture at
joint,

High Heat,
Long
Lasting
High Wind
Situation
Excessive
Vibration

Frame
Suppor
t

vibration
cracks

Fracture
Compone
nts,
Excessive
Noise
Damage
to Blades

Excessive
Vibration
7

Routine
Annual
Check,
Visual
Checks by
Customer in
case of
Excessive
Noise
Routine
Annual
Check

No Further
Action
1

No Further
Action
1

Routine
Annual
Check
1

Routine
Annual
Check

8
4

No Further
Action

1 1 4

1 1 7

1 1 8

1 1 7

3 4

Customer

No Further
Action (as 2
Support
Rods can
effectively
7
Hold the
Frame
Safely)

1 1 9

Customer

Visual Check
By Customer

Maintenanc
e Crew

No Further
Action
1

Maintenanc
e Crew,
Customer

Visual Check
By Customer

Misalignm
ent
Between
Blades
and
Magnets
Resulting
in Low
Power
Output
Misalignm
ent
Between
Blades
and

No Further
Action

Maintenanc
e Crew

Maintenanc
e Crew

81 | P a g e

8
4

Frame

deformati
on due to
vibration

Excessive
Vibration

Base

Base

Base

Tail

failure of
screws,

Metal
Fatigue

fracture,

Excessive
Vibration

joint
between
mast and
base
failing
weld
fracture

Excessive
Vibration

bird
strike

Total
Failure

Routine
Annual
Check
3

Total
Failure
9

High Gust
5

Tail

Magnets
Resulting
in Low
Power
Output
Misalignm
ent
Between
Blades
and
Magnets
Resulting
in Low
Power
Output
Total
Failure

Loss of
Yaw
Control,
Low
Power
Output
Insignifica
nt
Deformati
on

No Further
Action

Replacement
of Screws
Every 10
Years
Routine
Annual
Check
Routine
Annual
Check

Routine
Annual
Check

Routine
Annual
Check

4
2

No Further
2 Action
7

Maintenanc
e Crew

No Further
9 Action

Maintenanc
e Crew

No Further
Action

Maintenanc
e Crew

No Further
Action
1

Maintenanc
e Crew

3 2

4
2

1 3

2
7

1 1 9

1 1 9

1 1 5

1 1 1

Maintenanc
e Crew

No Further
Action

Maintenanc
e Crew

82 | P a g e

Tail
Suppor
t

weld
fracture,

Hub

fracture at
joints,

Excessive
Vibration

failure at
joint
between
bearing
and hub
fail at the
joint,

Excessive
Vibration

bearing
freeze up

Extreme
Cold
Temperatur
e

Hub

Base
Mount
Bearin
g
Base
Mount
Bearin
g

High Gust
1

Base
Mount
Bearin
g
Magne
t

pitting of
the roller
bearings

Magne
t

vibration
wear off, ,

Loss of
Yaw
Control,
Low
Power
Output
Total
Failure

Extreme
Cold
Temperatur
e

thunder
strikes

Total
Failure
9

Excessive
Vibration

6
Vibration
2

Total
Failure

Loss of
Yaw
Control,
Low
Power
Output
Noise,
Wear and
Tear
Reduced
Power
Output
Reduced
Power
Output

Routine
Annual
Check

Routine
Annual
Check
Routine
Annual
Check

Routine
Annual
Check

No Further
Action
1

No Further
9 Action

Maintenanc
e Crew

No Further
Action

Maintenanc
e Crew

No Action
1

Routine
Annual
Check
Routine
Annual
Check

No Further
Action

Maintenanc
e Crew

1 1 1

1 1 9

1 1 9

1 1 9

1 1 4

1 1 7

No Further
Action
1

Routine
Annual
Check

Maintenanc
e Crew

No Further
Action

Maintenanc
e Crew

No Further
7
Action
2

Maintenanc
e Crew

4 3

7
2

No Further
2
Action
4

Maintenanc
e Crew

4 3

2
4

83 | P a g e

16 Conclusion (KE/MT)
All the calculation show that this project would be a success and it will be more than capable
cap
of
providing operating power to a refrigerator without needing support from the grid. The next stage of
the project would be to protect this design from being copied. We plan to do so by applying to a
patent UK and International. Our research shows this
this has never been done before, so we can go to
the prototype, felid trials and manufacturing stages with confidence with the patent pending (As
international patents can take up to six years to process)

16.1 Design Specification

Figure 89

Rated Power
Applications
Solutions
Architecture
Blade Material
Blade type
Generator Type
Cut In Speed
Cut Out Speed
Cost
Weight
Overall Height
Span Diameter
Number of Blades
Inverter
Safety System
Tower Type
Tower Height
Tower foundation
Operating Temperature Range
Warranty

. (rated at wind speed of 6m/s)


Rural Domestic, Small Holding, Agricultural, Commercial,
Telecoms, Public
Grid tied, Battery Charging, 12V
Up wind, 6 blade rotor, self-regulating
Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene
Fully optimised aerofoil ensuring maximum yield & minimum
noise
Blade Tip permanent magnet generator
6 m/s
25 m/s
1500.00
150kg
0.7 m
0.3m
6
Grid-tie inverters
Electrically actuated brakes, automated monthly brake checks
Free-standing
2m (from roof )
Root/ Pad
-20 C - +50 C
3 years

84 | P a g e

17 Works Cited
1. www.home-energy.com. [Online] [Cited: 06 02 2013.] http://home-energy.com/int/ebv200.htm.
2. Honeywell wind turbine is a breeze to run and a light one at that. Gizgam. [Online] [Cited: 06 02
2013.] http://www.gizmag.com/earthtronics-honeywell-windgate-wind-turbine/11990/.
3. www.microstrain.ie. [Online] [Cited: 06 02 2013.] http://www.microstrain.ie/hannevind.html.
4.
www.bettergeneration.co.uk.
[Online]
[Cited:
06
02
2013.]
http://www.bettergeneration.co.uk/wind-turbine-reviews/windsave-ws1000-wind-turbine.html.
5. www.bergey.com. [Online] [Cited: 06 02 2013.] http://bergey.com/products/wind-turbines/10kwbergey-excel.
6.
www.windenergy.com.
[Online]
[Cited:
06
02
2013.]
http://windenergy.com/products/skystream/skystream-3.7.
7. better generation. [Online] [Cited: 04 02 2013.] http://www.bettergeneration.co.uk/wind-turbinereviews/honeywell-wt6500-wind-turbine.html.
8. www.renewabledevices.com. [Online] [Cited: 06 02 2013.] http://renewabledevices.com/rd-swiftturbines/overview/.
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2013.] http://www.niwa.co.nz/publications/wa/vol13-no4-december-2005/wind-and-wind-energy.
10. Is wind power right for you? Energy Matters. [Online] [Cited: 20 01 2013.]
http://www.energymatters.com.au/renewable-energy/wind-energy/wind-power-guide.php.
ISO8859-1.
11. Watson, S J.Predicting the yield of micro-wind turbines in the roof-top urban environment. [Power
Point Presentation] s.l. : Loughborough University.
12.
Climate.
Met
Office.
[Online]
Met
Office.
[Cited:
20
01
2013.]
http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/public/weather/climate/#?tab=climateMaps.
13. Wind Turbine Power Calculations. npower. s.l. : The Royal Academy of Engineering.
14. Yechout, Thomas R., et al., et al.Introduction to Aircraft Flight Mechanics. s.l. : AIAA, 2003. ISBN
1-56347-577-4.
15. Wind Turbine Blade Aerodynamics. [book auth.] WE Handbook. 2-Aerodynamics and Loads.
16. Ingram, Grant.Wind Turbine Blade Analysis using the Blade Element Momentum Method. s.l. :
Durham University, 2011.
17. Wind Turbines. University, Boston. s.l. : Coherent Application Threads.
18. Edurite.DC Generator. Youtube.
19. Generating Electrical Current. [Online] School for Champions, 10 12 2012. [Cited: 20 01 2013.]
http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/electrical_generation.htm.
20. Whitehouse, Jon Ogborn & Mary.Advancing Physics. s.l. : Institute of Physics. ISBN 0-7503-06777.
21. Madani, Nima.Design of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator for a Vertical Axis Wind
Turbine. Sweden : s.n., 2011. XR-EE-EME 2011:013.
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23. Key Benefits of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs). [Online] Cleanfield Energy, 02 2013.
http://www.cleanfieldenergy.com/key_VAWT_benefits.php.
24. Wind Energy Noise Impacts. Acoustic Technology Institute. [Online] Cleanfield energy, 02 2013.
http://www.acousticecology.org/srwind.html.
25. Why a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) ? [Online] macado, 02 2013.
http://www.verticalgreenenergy.co.za/all_about_wind_vawt.htm.
26. Exploring Green Technology. [Online] http://exploringgreentechnology.com/images/windenergy-diagram.gif.
27. Wind Power. Battery and Energy Technologies. [Online] [Cited: 20 01 2013.]
http://www.mpoweruk.com/wind_power.htm.

85 | P a g e

28. Anti-icing and de-icing techniques for wind turbines: Critical review. Olivier Parent, Adrian Ilinca.
8 January 2010, s.l. : Elsevier, Vols. Cold Regions Science and Technology 65 (2011) 8896.
29. Erik Isaksson, Magnus Dahlberg.Damage prevention for wind turbines. s.l. : Elforsk report 11:18,
July 2011.
30. Kalpakjian, Serope and Schmid, Steven R.Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. s.l. :
Prentice Hall, 2001. ISBN 0-201-36131-0.
31. Liu, Jessica. KHCK. KHCK. [Online] Kee Hing Cheung Kee Co., Ltd., 2011. [Cited: 2013 01 16.]
http://www.khck.hk/New-Energy.htm.
32. Shunt Regulator. REUK.co.uk. [Online] [Cited: 26 01 2013.] http://www.reuk.co.uk/ShuntRegulator.htm.
33. Wind Turbine Regulators and Charge Controllers. Ebay.co.uk. [Online] Ebay. [Cited: 2013 01 28.]
http://reviews.ebay.co.uk/Wind-Turbine-Regulators-and-Charge-Controllers-Part1?ugid=10000000006308446.
34. Grid Tie Inverters. REUK.co.uk. [Online] 06 2011. http://www.reuk.co.uk/.
35. F63010. High Performance Neodymium Magnets & Outstanding Customer Service. [Online] 02
2013.
http://www.first4magnets.com/f63010---46-x-30-x-10mm-thick-n42-neodymium-magnet--30kg-pull-x1-d31o-786-p.asp.
36. Town and Country Planning, England. Statutory Instruments. 2011 No. 2056.

86 | P a g e

18 Appendix-A (ALL)
18.1 Figures

Figure 90: Power curve for Energy ball V200

Figure 91: Power curve for WT6500

Figure 92: Windon Power Curve

87 | P a g e

Figure 93: Power Curve for Bergey Excel

Figure 94: Power Curve for Skystream 3.7

Figure 95: Windsave Power Curve

88 | P a g e

Figure 96: Swift Power Curve

89 | P a g e

18.2 Flow chart for varying conditions (MT)

90 | P a g e

19 Appendix-B (MT)

Technical Drawings

91 | P a g e

20 Appendix-C (ALL)

Weekly Review Sheets

92 | P a g e