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A NEW METHOD FOR REDUCING MAGNETIC RADIAL FORCE

IN SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTOR

K. Vijayakumar1*, R. Karthikeyan,2 S. Kannan3, S. Rajkumar4 and G.K. Sathishkumar5


1*
Assistant professor, Department of electrical & electronics engineering, Mailam Engineering
College, Mailam and k_vijaymec@yahoo.com.
2
Assistant professor, Department of electrical & electronics engineering, Shri Venkateswara
College of Engineering, Sriperumpudoor, Chennai and vijipreethi@rediffmail.com.
3
Final year student, Department of electrical & electronics engineering, Mailam Engineering
College, Mailam.
4
Lecturer, Manakula vinayar Institute of Technology, Madagadipet, pondicherry.
5
Design Engineer ITC Infotech, Bangalore.
Abstract--This paper investigates the influence of
II. SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTOR
rotor with feeble-magnetic portions (groove or hole
in a rotor) on electromagnetic radial force
characteristics of 6/4 switched reluctance (SR)
motor. Three different configurations viz (i)
Conventional rotor (ii) rotor with circular hole and
(iii) rotor with triangular hole SR motor have been
studied using finite element analysis tool ANSYS
10.0 to obtain their force and torque
characteristics. The study reveals that the rotor
with hole provision has lesser radial force level
which makes it a viable alternative in high speed
applications.
Fig. 1. The 2D CAD model of a 6/4 SRM.
Index Terms--Finite Element Analysis (FEA),
Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM), Torque ripple, A switched reluctance motor is an electrical
Radial force.
machine in which the torque is developed by the
tendency of the rotor to occupy a position so as
I. INTRODUCTION to minimize the reluctance of the magnetic path
The proliferation of power electronics of the excited stator phase winding. The SRM is
technology with advances in material technology a doubly salient but singly excited machine
has led to the development of special machines wherein the stator carries the winding while the
for myriad applications in recent times. One of rotor is simply made of stacked silicon steel
the such special machines, the Switched laminations. This lends to a simpler geometry for
Reluctance Motor (SRM) [1] is gaining SRM as evidenced from the two dimensional
recognition in the electric drives market due to (2D) CAD model of a 6/4 switched reluctance
its simple and rugged construction, low expected motor shown in Fig. 1.
manufacturing costs, fault tolerance capability,
high efficiency and high torque to inertia ratio.
Despite many advantages, the SRM has some III. THE 2D NUMERICAL FINITE ELEMENT
drawbacks. It requires an electronic control and ANALYSIS
shaft position sensor, a huge capacitor is needed The time stepped FEA is the most accurate
in the dc link and the double salient structure method available to obtain the magnetic
causes acoustic noise and torque ripple. This characteristics such as torque and force
paper presents the analysis of magnetic radial calculation in an electromagnetic device. In this
force and torque characteristics of a 6/4-switched paper a two-dimensional FEA has been carried
reluctance motor. The investigation is focused on out on the three configurations using FEA
the influence of groove or hole formed in a package ANSYS 10.0. [3].
projected pole of the rotor on the radial magnetic
of a 6/4 switched reluctance motor. The studied configurations of conventional
rotor SR motor, rotor with circular hole SR
motor and rotor with triangular hole switched
reluctance motor shown in Fig. 2, 3 and 4.
rotor in generally circumferential directions
quickly increases as the rotor rotates during a
cycle of the electric current distribution, and then
abruptly terminates at the time of switching the
current distribution. This on-off cycle of
magnetic attractive force causes the rotor and the
stator to considerably vibrate in generally
circumferential directions [4]-[5].

In a switched reluctance motor, the projected


poles of a rotor have feeble-magnetic portions
each having a shape that extends radially inward
Fig. 2. The 2D CAD model of a 6/4 conventional SRM. approximately in the rotational direction from a
position relative close to a radially outer end of
the projected pole and to an end of the projected
pole facing in a counter-rotational direction, that
is, a direction opposite to the rotational direction,
or a shaped that has a side extending radially
inward approximately in the rotational direction
from a position relatively close to a radially outer
end and an counter-rotational direction-facing
end of the projected pole and that extends
radially inward approximately in the counter-
rotational direction. The feeble-magnetic
portions are weaker in magnetism than the
material of the rotor and reduce the magnetic
attraction force occurring at the time of
Fig. 3. The 2D CAD model of a 6/4 SR motor with circular switching of coil energization, thereby reducing
hole formed in a projected rotor. noises while ensuring generation of a desired
amount of torque.

Thus, the switched reluctance motor of the


invention reduces the magnetic attractive force
between the stator pole portions and the rotor
pole protrusions in the radial direction at the time
of switching the current distribution to the coils,
compared with the conventional SR motor [2]-
[3]. The invention also avoids a large amount of
torque reduction.

The torque and radial force characteristics of


three rotor configurations as shown in Fig. 5 and
6.

Fig. 4. The 2D CAD model of a 6/4 SR motor with triangular


hole formed in a projected rotor. TORQUE PROFILES OF THREE ROTOR
CONFIGURATIONS
IV. RADIAL FORCE OF SWITCHED- 150
RELUCTANCE MOTOR
TORQUE (in N-mm)

100
CIRCULAR HOLED
50 ROTOR
The switched reluctance motor is a doubly 0
TRIANGULAR
HOLED ROTOR
salient construction, with salient poles on both -50
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10
CONVENTIONAL
0
the stator and the rotor. Phase windings are -100
ROTOR

wound on the stator poles, each coil being -150


wound around a single pole or tooth. The SR ROTOR POSITION (in DEGREES)
motors generate torque by utilizing magnetic
attractive force that acts between the rotor and
the stator when the coils are magnetized. Fig. 5. Torque angle characteristics of three rotor
However, conventional SR motors normally configurations.
suffer vibration problems. The magnetic
attractive force acting between the stator and the
ROTOR POSITION Vs MAGNETIC RADIAL FORCE
VI. REFERENCES

MAGNETICE RADIAL FORCE


700 [1] R. Arumugam, D. A. Lowther, R. Krishnan and J.
600
CONVENTIONAL F. Lindsay, “Magnetic field analysis of a
500 ROTOR SRM
switched reluctance motor using a two

(in N-mm)
400 CIRCULAR HOLED
300 ROTOR SRM dimensional finite element model,” IEEE Trans.
200 TRIANGULAR Magn., vol. MAG-21, no. 5, pp. 1883-1885, Sep.
HOLED SRM
100 1985.
0 [2] R. Rabinovici, “Torque ripple, vibrations, and
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10
0 acoustic noise in switched reluctance motors”,
ROTOR POSITION (in DEGREES) HAIT Journal of Science and Engineering B,
Volume 2, Issues 5-6, pp. 776-786, July 2005.

[3] “switched reluctance motor with reduced radial


Fig. 6. Magnetic radial force characteristics of three rotor
force”, United States Patent, Dec. 1998.
configurations.
The analysis of the torque and radial force [4] C.Y.Wu, C.Pollock, “Analysis and reduction of
characteristics of three rotor configurations acoustic noise and vibration in the switched
reluctance drive”, IEEE Trans. on Industry
indicates that there is indeed a reduction in Applications, Vol.31, No.1, January/February,
torque ripple and magnetic attraction force 1995, pp.91~98.
between the stator pole and rotor pole portions in [5] S. Colby, F.Mottier, T.J.E.Miller, “Vibration
the radial direction when compared with the modes and acoustic noise in a 4-phase switched
conventional configuration. reluctance motor”, Conference Record of the
1995 IEEE Industrial Application Society, 30th
V. CONCLUSION IAS Annual Meeting, Vol.1, Orlando, USA, Oct.
8-12, 1995, pp.441~447.
In this paper an in-depth study of groove or
hole formed in a projected pole of the rotor on
the radial magnetic force characteristics of a 6/4
switched reluctance motor with three
configurations viz (i) conventional rotor SR
motor (ii) rotor with circular hole SR motor and
(iii) rotor with triangular hole SR motor has been
conducted. The studied results shows that a
gradual decrease in the magnetic radial force of
rotor with hole configurations. Study has lead to
the rotor with hole provision has better magnetic
radial force characteristic.