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TI 3103 Pemodelan Sistem

MODEL MATEMATIS

Sumber:
Buku referensi Daellenbach dan McNickle, Bab-6
Bahan kuliah Prof. Bermawi Iskandar, Ph.D
Bahan kuliah Rachmawati Wangsaputra, Ph.D

Mathematical Model
Mathematical Formulation
A mathematical model of a system
A symbolic representation involving an abstract
mathematical formulation
A mathematical formulation
composed of symbols, and makes no sense outside
mathematics
not a model by itself
it is only by relating the mathematical formulation to a
system characterization (i.e. variables and relationships)

Model Classification
Model

Model Non Fisik /


Non Material

Dinamis

Linier

Model Fisik

Statis

Non-Linier

Dinamis

Linier

Statis

Non-Linier

3
Tidak Stabil
(constrained)

Stabil

Tidak Stabil
(explosive)

Stabil

Tidak Stabil
(nonexistent)

Stabil

Model
A simple version: A model is a simplified representation of
some aspect of the real world
A more complex version: A mathematical, logical or
mechanical representation of a relationship, theory, process,
system, or sequence of events, so designed that a study of
the model functions as a means of summarizing the complex
relations of the real world or as a way of illustrating a
theory.
https://faculty.washington.edu/krumme/207/models.html

Model Matematis

Model matematis: problem, sistem diekspresikan dalam


istilah (term) kuantitatif, menyatakan hubungan antar
input, komponen, variabel status, dan tujuan/output sistem.
Contoh: Seperti yang didefinisikan dalam sistem yang
relevan untuk suatu problem tertentu (e.g. using Influence
Diagram).

TI 3103 Pemodelan - 7 dan 14 Oktober - SI 2011/2012

Model Matematis (lanjt.)


Terminologi:
Variabel keputusan atau alternatif tindakan (controllable
inputs)
Ukuran kinerja (sebaik apa tujuan tercapai)
Fungsi tujuan (ukuran kinerja diekspresikan sebagai fungsi
dari variabel keputusan)
Input-input yang tidak dapat dikendalikan
(uncontrollable inputs): parameter, koefisien, konstanta
Kendala (constraints) membatasi rentang variabel
keputusan

Pertanyaan mendasar mengenai


model matematis

Apa yang dimaksud dengan model matematis ?


Mengapa membangun model matematis?
Bagaimana membangun model matematis?
Ilustrasi: kasus LOD
Pendekatan formal untuk menemukan solusi optimal

TI5110 Metodologi dan


Pemodelan Sistem

Mengapa membangun model


matematik?

Pengujian di kondisi riil sulit:


mengganggu
beresiko
mahal

Model matematik mudah dimanipulasi:


Eksplorasi yang cepat dari efek perubahan input dalam fungsi
tujuan
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TI5110 Metodologi dan Pemodelan Sistem

Model matematis yang baik

Sederhana model yang sederhana lebih mudah


untuk dimengerti oleh pemilik masalah.
Lengkap harus meliputi seluruh aspek-aspek
penting dari situasi problem yang mempengaruhi
ukuran efektivitas.
Mudah dimanipulasi memungkinkan untuk
mendapatkan jawaban dari model.
Adaptif perubahan dalam struktur situasi
problem.
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TI5110 Metodologi dan Pemodelan Sistem

Model matematis yang baik (lanjt.)


Mudah untuk berkomunikasi mudah disiapkan,
diubah, dan diubah inputnya dan cepat mendapatkan
jawaban.
Cukup untuk problem yang dikaji menghasilkan
output yang relevan pada ongkos yang semurah
mugkin dan dalam kerangka waktu yang dibutuhkan.
Menghasilkan informasi yang relevan dan cukup
untuk proses pengambilan keputusan harus
bermanfaat untuk proses pengambilan keputusan.
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TI5110 Metodologi dan Pemodelan Sistem

Functional Block Diagram


Hubungan antar input-sistem-output

TI 3103 Pemodelan - 7 dan 14 Oktober - SI


2011/2012

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12

TI 3103 Pemodelan - 7 dan 14


Oktober - SI 2011/2012

Mathematical Model
Mathematical Formulation
A mathematical model of a system
A symbolic representation involving an abstract mathematical
formulation
A mathematical formulation
composed of symbols, and makes no sense outside
mathematics
not a model by itself
it is only by relating the mathematical formulation to a system
characterization (i.e. variables and relationships)

Classification of Mathematical
Model
Model Deskriptif
Tujuan
Model Optimisasi
Model Analitik
Cara Pemecahan
Model Simulasi
Model Statik

Model Matematik
Referensi Waktu

Model Dinamik
Model Deterministik
Unsur Kerandoman
Penggunaan Teori

Model Probabilistik
Model Teori

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Model Empirik
TI 3103 Pemodelan - 7 dan 14 Oktober - SI 2011/2012

Sumber: bahan kuliah Suprayogi, Ph.D

Theoretical and Empirical Model


Theoretical Model
The characterization is done using well established theory
Models called theoretical models
Empirical Model
The characterization is based on no theory or knowledge.
The system is viewed as a black box
The mathematical formulation to serve as a dummy
must be selected on an ad-hoc basis
Models called empirical models

Analog Model
(Murthy, p.57)
A real system S1, is an analog model of another real system S2, if
and only if the mathematical models of the two are identical in terms
of mathematical formulation used to build the models
exists one to one correspondence between the variables of the
system characterization of S1 and S2
Mechanical System

Electrical Network

force

voltage

displacement

charge

mass

inductance

Spring stiffness

capacitance

damping

resistance

Contoh
Simulasi

Classification of Mathematical Models


(Murthy, p.56)

Four categories based on mathematical structure of the


underlying formulation
A: Formulations suitable for modeling deterministic
static systems
B: Formulations suitable for modeling deterministic
dynamic systems
C: Formulation suitable for modeling probabilistic
static systems
D: Formulations suitable for modeling stochastic
dynamic systems

Mathematical Formulations
Deterministic Static Formulations
e.g. Linear Programming

Deterministic Dynamic Formulations


e.g. Dynamic Programming

Probabilistic Static Formulations


e.g. Regression Analysis; Design of experiment

Stochastic Dynamic Formulations


e.g. Markov Process; Renewal Process

Algebraic Equation

Static
Formulation
Function Optimization

Difference equation formulation

Deterministic
Dynamic
Formulation

ordinary differential equation


formulation,
integral equation formulation, differential
difference equation formulation
B3 [multi dimensional difference
equation]
B4 [partial differential equation]

Static Systems
Decision processes have been studied (Static Systems)
Concerned with making a single decision at a given point
in time (usually at present)
For the case of a periodic decision it is considered that
the future is stationary, hence each decision is identical to
the first one.

Static Formulation
Algebraic Equation

Static Formulation
Function
Optimization
Examples: Case A (buku Murthy)

Static Formulation- Algebraic


Equation
Case Study-A: Weight Lifting Competition (hal.12)
The lifter 7 different categories based on body weights
Two lifting styles: snatch and jerk
What contest is possible if there are too few competitors
in each category
What is the greatest athletic achievement of a group of
weight lifters of widely differing weight?

Static Formulation- Algebraic Equation


Case
Study-A:
Weight
Lifting
Competi
tion
(hal.12)

Bodyweight class

Winning Weights
[world records]
Snatch Jerk
Total

Flyweight [52]

105

137

242

Bantamweight [56]

117

145

262

Featherweight [60]

125

160

285

Lightweight [67.5]

135

172

307

Middleweight [75]

145

190

335

Light-heavyweight [82.5]

162

202

364

Middle-heavyweight [90]

170

212

382

Heavyweight [100]

175

225

400

Tim-A
4 atlet

Bodyweight class

Winning Weights
[world records]
Snap Jerk
Total

Flyweight [52]

105

137

242

Bantamweight [56]

117

145

262

Featherweight [60]

125

160

285

Lightweight [67.5]

135

172

307

Middleweight [75]

145

190

335

Light-heavyweight [82.5]

162

202

364

Tim-C

Middle-heavyweight [90]

170

212

382

4 atlet

Heavyweight [100]

175

225

400

Tim-B
4 atlet

Problem: pertandingan kadang diselenggarakan pada jam yang bersamaan


baik antar bodyweight class ataupun antar style
Alternatif: 1 pertandingan untuk 8 class dan 2 style disatukan.
Problem: bgmn menentukan tim yg menang ?

Static Formulation- Algebraic


Equation
Case Study-A: Weight
Lifting Competition
(hal.12), Model A1

L kW
log K log k log W

Assumptions: here
must be a
relationship
between L and W

the handicapped lift:


L
'
L
W

Deterministic Static
Function Optimization

Read Case C
(Murthy p. 30)

Deterministic Static
Function Optimization

Read Case C
(Murthy p. 30)

Deterministic Static
Function Optimization

Read Case C
(Murthy p. 30)

Analitik
Static

Simulation
Deterministic
Analitik
Dynamics
Simulation

Model Analitik

Cara Pemecahan
Model Simulasi / Numerical Model

Analytical models
are mathematical models that have a closed form solution, i.e. the
solution to the equations used to describe changes in a system can be
expressed as a mathematical analytic function.
Numerical models
are mathematical models that use some sort of numerical time-stepping
procedure to obtain the models behavior over time. The mathematical
solution is represented by a generated table and/or graph.

http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/mathstatmodels/Numerical.html

Contoh
Model
Simulasi:
Model
matematis
(lengkap)
untuk LOD
Problem
(fungsi Q
dan L)

T (Q, L) [sN ] [h2 D2 ] [0.5Qvr sD1 / Q] [h1D1 ]


T (Q ) :Total Ongkos sebagai fungsi Q
Q : size of stock replenishment
ukuran pengisian kembali inventori
D1 : Annual demand met from stock
permintaan tahunan yang dipenuhi dari inventori
v:

unit product value

r:

the holding cost per dollar invested

s:

ongkos set up

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h1 : the handling cost per unit for demand supplied from strock

Contoh Model Simulasi: Model matematis (lengkap)


untuk LOD Problem (fungsi Q dan L)

ORDER FREQ
SIZE

12

1
2
3
4
5
6
8
9
10
12
15
16
20
24
36
48

134
356
95
186
34
112
91
15
56
85
12
48
23
12
5
2

TOTAL
DRUM /
ORDER
SIZE
134
712
285
744
170
672
728
135
560
1020
180
768
460
288
180
96

CUM
FREQ

134
490
585
771
805
917
1008
1023
1079
1164
1176
1224
1247
1259
1264
1266

7132 15412

CUM
DEMAND SPECIAL
NUMBER FROM PRODUC
OF DRUM STOCK
TION
RUN
134
846
1131
1875
2045
2717
3445
3580
4140
5160
5340
6108
6568
6856
7036
7132

134
846
1131
1875
2045
2717
3445
3580
4140
5160
5340
6108
6568
6856
7036
7132

33

6998
6286
6001
5257
5087
4415
3687
3552
2992
1972
1792
1024
564
276
96
0

Hasil untuk T(Q)-model, L=12

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Kasus LOD
Metoda Analitik
Lihat
Daellenbach
hal. 142

Deskriptif

Tujuan
Optimisasi

Model matematis deskriptif adalah model yang menggambarkan relasi dalam sistem
secara matematis
Model matematis optimisasi adalah model yang merepresentasikan sistem dan
membantu mendapatkan solusi matematis

Model Matematik
(Deskriptif)

Penyerapan Tenaga Kerja dan Peran


terhadap PDB Menurut Pelaku dan Skala
Usaha (Harga Konstan 1993)

Industri Kecil
Industri Besar

3 juta unit (99,21%)


7,4 juta TK (59,5%)

PDB =
Rp 3 T (22%)

PDB = Rp 64 T (61%)

Industri Menengah

7.600 Unit (0,25%)


4,4 juta TK (35,4%)

PDB = Rp 18 T (17%)
16.400 Unit (0,54%)
634.000 TK (5%)

PDB Konsumsi Investasi Belanja


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TI 3103 Pemodelan - 7 dan 14


Oktober - SI 2011/2012

Model Matematik (Prediktif)


Contoh: Model Time Series

Y 10 35, 7t
Y : nilai ekspor
t :tahun

TI 3103 Pemodelan - 7 dan 14 Oktober - SI 2011/2012

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Model Matematik (Normatif)

T (Q) [0.5Qvr] [sD1 / Q] [h1D1 ] [vD1 ]


TI 3103 Pemodelan - 7 dan 14 Oktober - SI 2011/2012

39

Statis
Referensi Waktu

Discrete
Dinamis
Continuous

Model Matematis Statis (contoh: case-A Weight Lifting)


Decision processes have been studied (Static Systems)
Concerned with making a single decision at a given point in time
(usually at present)
For the case of a periodic decision it is considered that the future is
stationary, hence each decision is identical to the first one.
Model Matematis Dinamis (contoh: Case-E Population)
The time element is explicitly incorporated into the decision process
Problems studied involve a sequence of decision points over time
The future is not stationary (but dynamic)
Hence, the state of the system changes over time
Each future decision point may face a different state of the system
Hence, consecutive decision are not identical

Deterministic
Unsur
Kerandoman
Probabilistic

Penggunaan
Theory

Theoritical
Model
Empirical
Model

Empirical Model
Theoretical Model
The characterization is done
using well established
theory
Models called theoretical
models
Establishing relations using
physical laws
Establishing relations via curve
fitting

The characterization is
based on no theory or
knowledge.
The system is viewed as a
black box
The mathematical
formulation to serve as a
dummy - must be selected
on an ad-hoc basis
Models called empirical
models

Analog Model
(Murthy, p.57)
A real system S1, is an analog model of another real system S2, if
and only if the mathematical models of the two are identical in terms
of mathematical formulation used to build the models
exists one to one correspondence between the variables of the
system characterization of S1 and S2
Mechanical System

Electrical Network

force

voltage

displacement

charge

mass

inductance

Spring stiffness

capacitance

damping

resistance

Bidang Operation Research Model Matematik yang sudah Khusus


dikembangkan untuk suatu setting permasalahan
Linear Programming
Transportation and Assignment Problem
Network Operation Model
Dynamic Programming
Game Theory
Decision Analysis
Markov Chain

Queuing Theory
Simulation