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KERTAS PENERANGAN
(INFORMATION SHEET)
KOD DAN NAMA
PROGRAM /
PROGRAMS CODE &
NAME

TP-300-2:2013- AUTOMOTIVE AFTER SALES SERVICE

TAHAP / LEVEL

LEVEL 2

NO. DAN TAJUK UNIT


KOMPETENSI /

EO1 VEHICLE AIR-CONDITIONING RECTIFICATION WORK

COMPETENCY UNIT NO.


AND TITLE
1.Remove transfer case from vehicle
NO. DAN PENYATAAN
AKTIVITI KERJA / WORK
ACTIVITIES NO. AND
STATEMENT

2.Dismantle transfer case


3. Inspect transfer case components parts
4. Replace transfer case component faulty / worn out parts
5.Assemble transfer case
6. Install transfer case to transmission

NO. KOD / CODE NUM.

TP-300-2:2013-E01/P(1/1)

TAJUK : TRANSFER BOX


TUJUAN :
Pelatih - Pelatih Mestilah Boleh :1.
2.
3.
4.

Jelaskan pengenalan kepada transfer box


Nyatakan jenis-jenis transfer box
Huraikan operasi Part time transfer box.
Huraikan operasi Full time transfer box

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TAJUK

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: TRANSFER BOX

TUJUAN :
Kertas penerangan ini memberi penerangan kepada pelajar mengenai transfer box bagi kenderaan
pacuan 4 roda

PENERANGAN :

Introdution
Four wheel drive (4WD) systems continue to increase in popularity on a variety of vehicles types.
Many 4WD vechiles are baiscally used on cars, vans, pickup trucks, sportuility vehicles and
commercial trucks. They have rear wheel drive with auxiliary front wheel drive. A two speed gear
box engages and disengages the front axle, while providing high and low speed ranges.(figure 1)
Other vehicles use front wheel drive with auxiliary rear wheel drive. The transfer box engages the
rear axle to get 4WD. 4WD vehicles usually have high grounds clearance, oil sump and under body
protection and tyre treads suitable for off road use.

Fig. 1 drive train in a vehile wich four wheel drive ( Ford Motor Company)
Function
The transfer box is attached to the transmission output shaft. It provided neutral, 2WD HI, 4WD
LOW and 4WD HI ranges that can be selected by the driver. This provides on road cruising on
ordinary roads or highway, large tractive power or when engine braking is needed, runnimg on snow
covered roads, muddy roads, dunes roads, rough roads or off roads for which 2WD is not suitable.

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TYPES OF TRANSFER BOX


Automotive transfer box are classified as single speed or two speed. The single speed
transfer box can divide the power and deliver it to either axle or boths axles. In addition, the two
speed transfer box has a low range and a high range. ( Figure 2 and Figure 3)

High range in the transfer case provided direct


drive, or a gear ratio 1:1. low range usually
produces a gear reduction of about 2.5:1. This
reduces vehisles speed while greatly increasing the
low speed torque available. A singlespeed
transfer case usually has a 1:1 ratio.
Figure 4 shows the power flow through a two speed part time transfer box as the shift lever is
moved to the different positions. The four modes of transfer box operation are obtained by moving
two sliding clutches. These clutches are shifted to the transfer box output shafts for the front and the
rear axles.
There are three basic types of transfer box. The following are typical examples.
1. Part time transfer box : provides neutral, 2WD HI, 4WD LO, and 4WD HI. The helical gear
part time transfer case driven train use an input shaft and gear, a double idler gear and shaft, a
fronts output shaft with a high gear and a low gear, a rear drive low gear and output shaft, and two
sliding clutch collars and two shift fork. The chain drive parttime drive transfer case drive train uses
an input gear, two speed planetary gear set, a drive chain and two sprockets, a front output shaft, a
main shaft, a syncronizer, a range hub and gear, and two shift forks.
2. Full time transfer box :provides 2WD HI, 4WD HI and 4WD LO. The fulltime transfercase
drive train consists of the input gear, twospeed planetary gear set, mainshaft, rear out put shaft, a
chain two sprocket, a viscous coupling differential, and three shift forks. The differential can be
locked to provide equal power to front and rear drive axles.

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3. Parttime / full time transfer box : provides 2WD HI, fulltime 4WD HI, and parttime
4WD LO. The part-time / fulltime transfer case drive train consist of the input gear, a twospeed
planetary gearset, intermediate shaft, mainshaft, front output shaft, planetary differential, drive chain,
two sprockets, two shift sleeves, and two shift forks.

PART TIME TRANSFER BOX POWER FLOW

2H Range
The range clutch is shifted foward. The input shaft is
locked to the rear output shaft to turn rear driveshaft.
Input shaft gear also turns idler gear which turns the
freewheeling front drive high gear. The 4WD clutch is
in center position so the front drive low gear, turned
by the idler gear, is freewheeling. Rear drive low gear
is also freewheeling.

4H Range
Both the range sliding clutch and 4WD clutch are
shifted foward. The input shaft is locked to the rear
out put shaft to turn rear drive shaft. Input shaft gear
also turns idler gear which turns the front drive high
gear and front drive low gear are turned by rear idler
and are freewheeling.

4L Range
Bolt the range clutch and 4WD clutch are shiffted
rearward. The input shaft gear turns the rear drive low
gear. This gear is locked to rear drive output shaft
which then turn s rear driveshaft. The idler gear also
turns front drive low gear. This gear is locked to the
front drive output shaft which then turns front
driveshaft.

FIGURE 4.

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Planetary gear transfer box


All transfer boxes do not have helical gear as shown in Figure 4. Many transfer boxes me a
planetary gear set to provide gear reduction for low range operation. A drive chain transmits power
beetween the shaft. In 2 WD, the internal point of the transfer box do not rotate.
PLNETARY GEAR OPRATION
The single planetary gearset shown in
fig.5 in made of the members : a sun gear,
a planetpinion carrier, and an internal or
ring gear. The sun gear is in the center, on
the end of the sun gearshaft. This is the
driving or input gear in fig. 5B. Meshing
with the sun gear are three (or four)
planets pinions. They mount on pins in the
planet-pinion carrier. The planet pinion
mesh with the internal gear or ring gear.
The shaft attached to the planetpinion
carrier is the driven or output shaft. (fig. 5B)
The planetary gearset can provide
five conditions:
1. Speed increase with torque
decrease (overdrive).
2. Speed decrease with torque
increase (underdrive or reduction)
3. Direct drive (lockup)
4. Neutral
5. Reverse
The two drive conditions used in the
transfer box are (low range) and direct
drive (high range). Direct drive is obtained
by locking together any two members of
the planetary gearset. Holding the internal
gear stationary provides speed reduction
5B. As the sun gear rotate, it forces the
planet pinions to walk around the internal
gear. This rotates the planetpinion carrier
in the same direction as the sun gear, but
more slowly. The carrier shaft is the
transfer box dirven shaft or output shaft. It
now turn slower than the input shaft, but
with greater torque.
Fig. 5B (A) disassembled planetary gear set. The
planet gears rotate on pins taht are part of the carrier.
(B) Gear reduction through the planetary gearset. With
the internal gear held stationary by the applied band,
the planet carrier and output shaft turn slower than the
sun gear. This provides the transfer case with low
range.

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Code No. TP 300 3/M03/IS3

NOTE :
To illustrate the operation of a planetary gear set fig. 5B shows the internal gear being
held stationary the brake band. However. The planetary gear transfer case does not use a
brake band as a holding device. Moving the selector lever in to low range slides the internal
gear and planetpinion carrier foward on its splined shaft Fig. 5A. The teeth in the internal
gear engage a locking plate bolted to the case. This hold the internal gear stationary.
Shifting the transfer case into high range locks the internal gear and planet pinion carrier
together Fig. 5A. The complete planetary gearset turns as a unit because the planet pinion cannot
rotate on their pins. This provides direct drive. The transfer box output shaft turns at the same speed
as the input shaft.
Auxiliary Front Drive Axles
To get 4WD, the driver shift the transfer box to engage the front axle. These tranfer boxes may be
shifted manually, or by a vacumm or electric motor. In Figure 4 front axle sliding clutch in the
transfer box locks the front drive gear to the front drive output shaft. In most transfer box, the front
axle can be engaged or disengaged while the vehicle is moving as long an the front and the rear
wheel are turning at the same speed. Some transfer boxes have syncronizers to make shifting
earlier. Shifting the transfer box from neutral into gear may reguise stopping the vehicle and engine.
LOCKING FRONT WHEEL HUB OPERATION
See Figure 6 and 7. Locking hubs use are used on four-wheel-drive systems to engage or
disengage the front drive axles from the front wheel unltead of shifting sliding clutch in the transfer
box. When in the 2WD mode the hubs must be unlocked. If the hubs are locked while driving on dry
pavement, the tires scrub and wear rapidly. They must be locked to operate in the 4WD mode to
drive the front wheel. When the hub are unlocked, the front wheels are free turn. This prevent the
front drive axles from being driven by the front wheel. This reduces wear on them and on the
diffrential, the front drive shaft, and certain parts in the case.
Some front wheel hubs lock automatically. Others require the driver to stop the vehicle and get
out to turn the locks by hand. To unlocks automatic locking hubs, disengage the 4WD and back up
about 3 feet. Often, the hubs will unlock without backing up. A disadvantage of automatic locking hub
is that they do not drive the front wheels in reverse.
FIGURE 6
Locking hub is engaged foe 4WD and disengaged for 2WD. In the disengaged
position the front wheel-drive axles do not turn while driving in the 2WD mode.

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FIGURE 7
Automatic locking front-wheel drive hub for four-wheel drive.

FULL-TIME 4WD
The fulltime fourwheeldrive system provides power to all four wheels all the time. No wheels
locking hubs or axle disconnect are used (Figures 8A and 8B). The transfer box has a center
diffrential that can be locked to provide equal power to all four wheels when operating on surfaces
where one or more wheels could slip. The center diffrential may be locked by a viscous coupling
Figure 9, the diver using a switch on the dash, or it may be a computer controlled electromagnetic
clutch oprating in response to wheel speed sensor (usually, the same sensors used with antilock
brakes)
VISCOUS COUPLING
A viscous coupling (Fig. 9) is a type of selfactuated fluid coupling. It can be used in the drive
train between the transfer case and the rear axle.

Fig.9 Contructions of the center differential and viscous coupling in an allwheeldrive system.
Mitsubishi Motor Sales Of America, Inc)

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Figure 8 A shaws the power flow through a two speed full time transfer box as the shift lever is
moved to the diffrential positions.
FULL TIME TRANSFER BOX POWER FLOW

HI POSITION
The range clutch is shifted foward. The input
drive gear is locked to the input shaft assembly
which transfer power through the differential to the
chain sprocket and chain. The chain turns the front
output shaft which turns front drive shaft. The input
shaft assembly also transfer power through the
diffrential to the rear output shaft which turns the
rear driveshaft. The input drive gear is also turning
the idler gear which then turns the freewheeling low
speed gear.

LO POSITION
The range clutch is shifted rearward. The input
drive gear is turning the idler gear which the turn the
low speed gear. The low speed gear is now locked
to the input shaft assembly by the sliding clutch in
the rearward position. The input shaft assembly
transfers power through the diffrential to both the
chain sprocket and rear output shaft, which then
power the front driveshaft and rear drive shaft
respectively.

HI LOCK AND LO LOCK POSITIONS


The shift to either HI LOCK or LO LOCK position
moves the sliding lockout clutch rearward to lockup
the diffrential. This prevent the front and rear axle
from rotating independently of each other. In HI
LOCK, the range clutch is shifted forward and power
flow is the same as HI expert the differential action is
no part of the folw. In LO LOCK, the range clutch is
shifted rearward and the power flow is the same as
LO expert the differential action is not part of the
flow.

Figure 8 A.

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FIGURE 8B Layout of a full time fourwheeldrive system, which has a transfer case with a builtin viscous coupling and center diffrential. ( Chrysler Corporation )

Part time / Full time 4WD


The part time / full time 4WD provides for drive modes possible in part-time 4WD and fulltime
4WD. It allows the driver to select 2WD, full time 4WD LC, and full time 4WD HI.

ID UNIT KOMPETENSI /
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TP-300-2:2013-E01/P(1/1)

Soalan :

1. Nyatakan 3 jenis transfer box

2. Jelaskan operasi 4H range bagi part time transfer box

3. Jelaskan operasi Lo Position bagi full time transfer box

RUJUKAN :

Automotive Principles & Service (Forth Edition)


Frank J. Thiessen/Davis N.Dales

Automotive Mechanic (Tenth Edition)


Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

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