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# Keplers law of planetary motion

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Johannes Kepler

## Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer, and

astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best
known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia
nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These
works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of
universal gravitation.

## In astronomy, Kepler's laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws

describing the motion of planets around the Sun. Kepler's laws are now

## Keplers first law- Law of orbit

Every planet revolves in an elliptical orbit around the sun. The orbit of every
planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci.

## Keplers second law- Law of equal area

A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal
intervals of time.This law is known as Keplers second law.

## Keplers third law- Law of periods

The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube
of the semi-major axis of its orbit.

## Mathematical representation of Keplers third law

P2/a3
P is the time taken for a planet to complete an orbit around the
sun
a is the mean value between the maximum and minimum
distances between the planet and sun

## Contribution of Keplers law

With the help of Keplers second law, Newton introduced the Law of
universal gravitation (Newtons law of gravitation).
Keplers laws are very useful in the study of planet orbit systems.
These laws are also very important for satellite motion.

## Newtons law of universal gravitation

Newton's law of universal gravitation states that any two bodies in the universe attract
each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and
inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

M
r

Universal gravitational
constant

Mass of body 2

F= GmM
r2

Mass of body 1

Distance between
two matter

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