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**C.M. Liu Perceptual Lab, College of Computer Science National Chiao-Tung University
**

http://psplab.csie.nctu.edu.tw

(

Office: EC538 (03)5731877

cmliu@cs.nctu.edu.tw

0. Preface

**Engineer Modeling Discrete Signals & Systems
**

Examples Definition

Historical Perceptive

Engineering Discovery Digital Environments

Contents

Discussed Topics & Textbooks Outline & Time Scheduling

0. Preface

**Related Courses in NCTU
**

Mathematics Signals

**& Systems Advanced Courses & Applications
**

Requirements

Presentation Homework Score

& Discussions

Decision

0.1 Modeling

**Two distinct engineer modeling
**

Physical

**systems are modeled by mathematical equations. Physical signals are modeled by mathematical functions.
**

i(t) R C v(t0) y(t) R C

t

0

v(t0)

yzi(t)

y ( t ) Ri ( t )

Problem formulation

C t

1

i ( ) d v ( t 0 )

Mathematical models of systems and signals

Physical system

Conceptual Aspects

Mathematical Solutions of equations

Solution translation

**0.2 Signals & Systems: Speech Example
**

Speech Signals

**0.2 Signals & Systems: Speech Example (c.1)
**

Speech Modeling

Pitch period P

Voiced

DT Impulse Generation

voiced/unvoiced

V

White-Noise

U

Gain estimate 0

**All-Pole Filter
**

( z )

s( n )

signal speech

Generation

Applications Speech Synthesis Compression Systems Speech Recognition Systems

Unvoiced

ADC

Parameter excitation

Parameter excitation

Output device

Microphone

Template memory

**0.2 Signals & Systems: Audio Example
**

CD Record & Play Systems

t 0

0.2 Signals & Systems: Audio Example (c.1)

Psychoacoustic Modeling

**0.2 Signals & Systems: Audio Example (c.2)
**

Psychoacoustic Modeling (c.1)

Masking

Just-noticeable Distortion

4

Frequency (kHz)

8

12

16

**0.2 Signals & Systems: Audio Example (c.3)
**

Spatial Information

Applications

C L R

Audio Compression 3D Sounds Music Synthesis

SL

SR

**0.2 Signals & Systems: Visual Example
**

Psychovisual Modeling

Eye

Structure Color Information

Spectral Absorption of Three Types of Cones

**0.2 Signals & Systems: Visual Example
**

Image blurring Systems

**0.2 Signals & Systems: Definition
**

Signals

Functions of one or two variables. Typically contain information about the behavior or nature of some phenomenon. Respond to particular signals by producing other signals.

Systems

**Example 1: Electrical Circuits
**

**Signals: Voltage and Currents as a function of time in a electrical circuit are examples of signals.
**

Systems: The circuit is a system. Automobile Driver Depresses the Accelerator Pedal Systems: The automobile Input Signals: The pressure on the acceleration pedal.

**Example 2: Automobile Driver
**

Output Signals: Automobile speed

0.3 Historical Perspective

17th Century

Invention of the Calculus (Newton, 1642-1727) Model physical phenomena in terms of functions of continuous variables and differential equations.

18th Century

Euler (1707-1783) Bernoulli (1700 - 1782) Lagrange (1736-1813)

19th Century

Gauss (1777 - 1855) Fourier (1772- 1837)

0.3 Historical Perspective (c.1)

**Digital Computer (1950s)
**

Analog Systems were used for real-time applications The need for sophisticated signal processing

Oil prospecting.

Digital computers are used to simulate & approximate analog systems. Wafer-scale integration Flexibility and High Computing Speeds High speed fixed point and floating point processor. Storage

Microelectronics

DSP Processors

Personal Computers

Computing Power

Media Applications

**0.4 Contents-- Discussed Topics & Textbooks
**

Discussed Topics

The concepts of signals and systems arise in an extremely wide variety of fields. Although the physical nature of the signals and systems may be drastically different, there are common tools for signal analysis and system design. These common tools are the discussed topics in this course. Provide the reader with the knowledge necessary for the wide scope of applications for digital signal processing. A foundation for future developments. A.V. Oppenheim and R.W. Schafer, “Discrete-Time Signal Processing,” Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 2nd Edition, 1999.

**Objective of the Course
**

Text Books

**0.4 Contents-- Outline & Time Scheduling (48 h)
**

Introduction (1)

Discrete-Time Signals and Systems (72 pages, 8 hours) Sampling of Continuous-Time Signals (69 pages, 6 hours) The z-Transform (53 pages, 4 hours) Transform Analysis of Linear Time-Invariant Systems (88 pages, 5 hours) Structures for Discrete-Time Systems (113 pages, 5 hours) Filter Design Techniques (111 pages, 5 hours) The Discrete Fourier Transform (67 pages, 4 hours) Computation of the Discrete Fourier Transform (81 pages, 3 hours)

Mid-Exam.

Fourier Analysis of Signals Using the Discrete Fourier Transform (73 pages, 3 hours)

Final-Exam.

**0.5 Related Courses in NCTU
**

Course Links in Our Departments Mathematics

Linear Algebra Discrete Math. Differential Equations Electronics & Electrical Circuits Computer Programming and Peripherals Image Processing Audio Processing Speech Processing Neural Networks ................................

CSIE Courses

**Advanced Courses & Applications
**

0.6 Requirements

Presentation (2h/week)

Homeworks

Slices Homeworks Tests Reviewing Thoroughly familiar with 80% of the teaching and well acquainted with another 20%. Be able to tackle about the assigned homeworks. Have a reading time at least 4 hours per week.

Problems Computer Simulation Homeworks (30%) 2 Examinations (70%)

Discussion (1h/week)

Score Decision

Prospects

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