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VYSTYMO BENDRIJA NUGALK PRIKLAUSOMYB

ENGLISH FOR WAITERS

Dst. Vilma iatkut

Vilniaus kooperacijos kolegija


2006

CONTENTS
1. Introduction
1.1.The ABC
1.2.Reading rules
2. At work: place and time
2.1. Describing work place: Present Simple Tense, there is/ are, prepositions
2.2. Indicating Time: prepositions, ordinal and cardinal numerals
3. Kitchenware. Crockery and cutlery
3.1. Kitchenware
3.2. Crockery and cutlery
4. Food
4.1. Vocabulary. Names of food
4.2. Indicating likes and dislikes
5. Drinks
5.1. Vocabulary. Names of drinks
5.2. Indicating likes and dislikes
5.3. Do you like and would you like
6. Breakfast. Second breakfast. Elevenses. Brunch
6.1. Meals of the day
6.2. Continental Breakfast and English Breakfast
6.3. Past Simple Tense
7. Lunch and Tiffin
7.1. Lunch
7.2. Tiffin
7.3. Future Simple Tense
8. Tea. Dinner. Supper
8.1. Tea
8.2. Dinner
8.3. Supper
9. Healthy food. Dietary and vegetarian food
9.1. Healthy food
9.2. Dietary food.
10. National food and cuisine
10.1. National food and cuisine
10.2. Present Continuous Tense
10.3. Past Continuous Tense
11. Methods of cooking/ preparing food
11.1. Methods of cooking and preparing food
11.2. Present perfect Tense
12. Serving the client
13. Orders on the phone
14. Revision
References

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. The ABC
There are 26 letters in the English Alphabet.
Remember that this type of pronunciation is valid for sole letters in the ABC only. Letters will be
pronounced in a different way when standing in syllables.
Pronounce the ABC letters.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg

Hh

Ii Jj

Kk Ll Mm

[ei] [bi:] [si:] [di:] [i:] [ef] [d3i:] [eit ] [ai] [d3ei] [kei] [el] [em]

Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr

Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww
[en] [u] [pi:] [kju:] [a:(r)] [es] [ti:] [ju:] [vi:] [dblju:]
Xx

Yy

Zz

[eks] [wai] [zed]

1.2. Reading rules


Pronunciation of vowels mostly depends on the kind of the syllable they appear in an open syllable ends
with a vowel while a closed one with a consonant (e.g. name open; stop closed). Vowels standing
in an open syllable are usually pronounced in the same way as in the ABC and they are shortened in closed
syllables.
Vowel
Aa
Ee
Ii
Oo
Uu
Yy

Open syllable
ei
i:
ai
au
ju:
wai

Closed syllable
, , e:, o:
e
(not pronounced if the word ends with e)
i
o
u,
i

PRACTICE 1. Pronounce the following words correctly:


Make, cake, cut, salad, fat, no, my, five, bit, ten, pot, dot, nut, put, fall, lady.

Combinations vowel + vowel , vowel + consonant , consonant + vowel, consonant + consonant etc. make
different sound structures:
ar [a:(r)] bar, far
ck [k] bucket, luck
ur/ ear [:] blur, turn, burn
ea [i:] tea, sea
our [o:] pour, four
ou [u] could
ue, oo [u:] blue, food
ow, ou [u] now, out
er, air [e] where, air
ear, er [ie] dear, here
oy, oi [oi] boy, join
ur, our [u] pure, tour
y at the beginning [j] yes
ng [] sing, bring
gh is usually silent [ ] light, bright
ss [s] miss, kiss
tt [t] getting
ch [t] catch, match
th [] think, both
th [ ] that

PRACTICE 2. Pronounce the given words and transcribe them.


Blanch

Boil

Braise

Minced

Chill

Poach

Chop

Roast

Deep-fry

Sear

Dice

Simmer

Dry-fry

Stock

Grill

Steam

Stew

Stir-fry

Sweat

Marinade

2. AT WORK: PLACE AND TIME


2.1. Describing work place: Present Simple Tense, there is/ are, prepositions.
Singular
I
am, have, do, like, go, can
You
are, have, do, like, go, can
He, she, it is, has, does, likes, goes, can

We
You
They

Plural
are, have, do, like, go, can
are, have, do, like, go, can
are, have, do, like, go, can

We use the Present Simple to talk about things in general. We are not thinking only about now. We use it
to say that something happens all the time or repeatedly (sometimes, often, usually, rarely, seldom), or
that something is true in general. Remember that we say: he/she/it -s.
I work... but He works...

Question
word

Auxiliary
Verb/ to
be

Negative
Question

Subject
I
You
We
They
He, she, it
My brother
Her friend
The cake
I
You
We
They
He, she, it
My brother
Her friend
The cake

Positive

Sent.
type

They like... but my sister likes...

When
Why
Where
How
What
(kas,k?)
Whom
(k?)
Who (k?)

do
does

am
are
is

I
you
we
they
he, she, it
my brother
her friend
the cake

Auxiliary
Verb

___

do not
(dont)
does not
(doesnt)

____

Verb
love
make
bring
write
taste
smell
am
are, is
love
make
bring
write
taste
smell
am not
are, is
not
love
make
bring
write
taste
smell

Object

me
you
him
her
them
us
my
dog
a letter

Adverbial Modifier
Manner
Place

Time

nicely
beautifully
tasty
loudly
precisely
happily
greatly
bitterly

in the morning
in the evening
in the afternoon
during the day
at night
in summer
in winter
at 8 oclock

at work
in the kitchen
at home
at the restaurant
at school
in prison
in the caf
on the table

_____

PRACTICE 1. Insert given words into the gaps: bake, cook, like (2).
1. My mum __________ cakes every Saturday.
2. I often __________ soup because I like it.
3. My friend ______ ______ fish.
4. _____ you _________ fish?

When we describe places where we find things we use There is. / There are .. like in the
example below:
There is .
+ There is a cup on the table.
- There is not any cup on the table.
? Is there a cup on the table?

There are
+ There are some cups on the table.
- There are not any cups on the table.
? Are there any cups on the table?

NOTE! * When we use some, we are not interested in the exact number.
I have ten fingers (NOT I have some fingers).
I have some friends in Great Britain.
* We use any in questions and negatives.
Are there any photographs?
There arent any people.

PRACTICE 2. Tell your friends and ask questions what they can see in the kitchen. Use such words as
cupboards(s), washing machine, a fridge (a refrigerator), a cooker, a dishwasher, a radio, plates, cups,
sink, a table, a chair, glasses. Do not forget prepositions near, on, next to, in front of, behind, in, under.
Describe what is there in your kitchen. Is it different from the one in the picture?

PRACTICE 3. Fill-in the gaps using a, some, any.


Its ___ modern kitchen, nice and clean with a lot of cupboards. Theres __ washing machine, __ fridge,
and ___ cooker, but there isnt __ dishwasher. There are _______ lovely pictures on the walls, but there
arent _____ photographs. Theres ___ radio next to the cooker. There are _____ flowers, but there arent
_____ plants. On the table there are ______ apples and oranges. And there are _______ cups and plates next
to the sink.
2.2. Indicating Time: prepositions, ordinal and cardinal numerals.
All events are usually connected with certain dates, seasons and daytimes. On every special occasion we
should be able to provide our clients with necessary information about our working hours as well as other
events taking place at our restaurant or caf.
E.g. The caf opens at 9 oclock each morning and closes at 7 oclock in the evening. We do not usually
work on Sundays and the caf is never open on the first Christmas day.
So to be ready to give our clients all the necessary information we should revise the names of weekdays,
holidays, months as well as ordinal and cardinal numbers. We will also have a look and remember how to
indicate what time it is. Look at the tables below. Remember the usage of prepositions.

Sunday
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday

ON
holidays

the weekend

AT
Christmas
Easter

night
January
midnight February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

IN
winter
the morning 1957
spring
the evening 2008
summer
the afternoon
autumn

PRACTICE 4. Translate:
per Kaldas

ryt

vakare

sekmadien

per ventes

gegu

iem

vidurnakt

1980-aisiais

vasar
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PRACTICE 5. Using the table say the following numerals in their cardinal (kiekiniai) and ordinal
(kelintiniai) forms: 8, 698, 14, 40, 15, 59, 129, 3325, 45,89,78,77,17, 1998, 2004, 158:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

one
two
three
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
ten
eleven
twelve
thirteen
fourteen
fifteen
sixteen
seventeen

the first
the second
the third
the fourth
the fifth
the sixth

18

eighteen

19
20

nineteen
twenty

the twentieth

300
415

21

twenty-one

the twenty-first

678

22

twenty-two

the twenty-second

1000

the .. + th

the twelfth

the ..+ th

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
130
285

twenty-three
twenty-four
twenty-five
twenty-six
twenty-seven
twenty-eight
twenty-nine
thirty
thirty-one
forty
fifty
sixty
seventy
eighty
ninety
one hundred
one hundred and
thirty
two hundred and
eighty five
three hundred
four hundred and
fifteen
six hundred and
seventy eight
one thousand

the twenty-third
the twenty-fourth
the twenty-fifth
the twenty-sixth
the twenty-seventh
the twenty-eighth
the twenty-ninth
the thirtieth
the thirty-first

the ..+ th

PRACTICE 6. Say the phone numbers.


a 43816
b 933672
c (041)2287153
d (0923)4828661
e (0225)69026
What is your phone number?

PRACTICE 7. Tell the time using the questions and answers in the table below:
Whats the time?
What time is it?
Could you please tell me the time?
Do you have the time?

It is (its)

1.______________ 2.____________ 3._____________ 4.______________

5._____________ 6._____________ 7.Its a quarter past four. 8.Its a quarter to nine.

PRACTICE 8. A.M. and P.M. Write the time using a.m. and p.m. The first one has already been
done for you.

1. eight minutes to ten in the evening


9:52 p.m.

2. forty-five minutes after midnight


_____________________________

3. seventeen after seven in the morning


_____________________________

4. fifteen after two in the afternoon


_____________________________

5. twenty-four minutes after seven in the morning


_____________________________

6. forty-seven minutes after noon


_____________________________

7. eight-fifty in the morning


_____________________________

8. five minutes after three in the afternoon


_____________________________

9. twenty minutes after ten at night


_____________________________

10. nine-fifteen in the evening


_____________________________

11. nine minutes to noon


_____________________________

12. seven minutes to midnight


_____________________________

13. twenty-five minutes after midnight


_____________________________

14. sixteen after two in the afternoon


_____________________________

15. one minutes after one in the afternoon


_____________________________

16. nine minutes to nine at night


_____________________________

17. seventeen minutes after noon


_____________________________

18. eight minutes after six in the morning


_____________________________

19. ten-twenty-five in the morning


_____________________________

20. eleven after six in the morning


_____________________________
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PRACTICE 9. Read the following dialogue in pairs:


A. Good morning! Can I help you?
B. Good morning! I would like to ask what do you serve here. I cannot see any kind of tea on the menu!
A. Its a coffee bar Madam. Would you like a cup of coffee?
B. Let me see. Well. Can I have a cup of espresso coffee?
A. Just a minute. Here you are! Anything else?
B. No, thank you. Are you open every day?
A. Yes. We work from 10 a.m. till 8 p.m. every day except weekends. At weekends we start at 11 a.m.
and finish work at 10 p.m.
B. I see. And do you work on holidays? At Christmas for example? My friend is going to visit me at
Christmas and I would like to bring him to this place. I like it here very much! Its cozy.
A. Thank you! I am glad you like this place! Yes, we work on holidays but we are open and close at the
same time as at weekends. That is from 11 a.m. to 10 p.m.
B. Well, great! I will invite my friend here!
A. Fine! Do you like your coffee, Madam?
B. Its strong and tasty. I like it. Thank you! How much is it?
A. Its 4,50 Lt.
B. Here you are!
A. Thank you. Have a nice day!
B. You too. Bye!
A. Good-bye! We hope to see you next time!
PRACTICE 10. Now look at the important vocabulary and its usage and make your own dialogues.

3. KITCHENWARE. CROCKERY AND CUTLERY


3.1. Kitchenware

Coffee & Hot Chocolate Maker

Blenders & Smoothie Maker

Juicer

Jar opener

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Can Opener

Toaster

Toaster Oven

Sandwich Maker

Popcorn Poppers/Maker

Countertop Range & Burner

Water Purification

Ice Cream Maker

Corkscrews

Tongs

Mixer

Spatula

PRACTICE 1. Ask your friend questions:


1. about kitchenware that is commonly found in every kitchen;
2. about kitchenware he/ she can name/see in his/ her kitchen/ at his/ her workplace;
3. about kitchen equipment he/ she has at home;
4. whether the above-mentioned kitchen items are familiar to him/ her;
5. whether there are any new ones;
6. about items he/ she uses every day; the most commonly; very rarely; never.
3.2. Crockery and cutlery

Plates

Platter

Bowls

Salt and pepper shaker

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Salt-cellar, pepper-caster

Sugar basin

Butter dish

Teapot

Cup

Mug

Beer mug

Glass

Margarita glasses

Pitcher

Table spoon, tea spoon

Fork and knife

PRACTICE 2. Compose word- groups from the words given in column A and B:
A.

B.

Salt and pepper

pot

Margarita

basin

Tea

shaker

Table

dish

Beer

caster

Sugar

glasses

Salt

cellar

Pepper

mug

Butter

spoon
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PRACTICE 3. Insert missing letters and write the names of kitchen equipment. Remember them.
1. C _ n

O____r

2. W _ _ _ _ e

M___r

3. W _ _ _ r P _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ n
4. C _ _ _ _ e & H _ t

C_______e M___r

5. S _ _ _ _ _ _ h M _ _ _ r
PRACTICE 4. Put the words into the right order to make sentences.
1. usually/ soup/ for/ dinner/ I / cook
2. the/ table/ some/ are/ apples/ there/ on
3. is/ in/ the/ kitchen / a /cooker/ there
4. oranges/ are/ not/ on /there/ the/ plate/ any
5. you/ cook/ are/ a
6. I/yes/ am
7. I /not/ no/ am
8. a / dishwasher/ there/is / kitchen/ in/ the/ restaurant
9. Is/ there/ in/ your/ kitchen/a/ dishwasher
10. are/ plates/ some /the/ sink/ near/ there
11. are/ not/ cups/ there/ any /next/ to/ the/ plates
12. what/ does/ time/the/ open/ caf
6. you/ could /the/ time/ tell/ me
7. now/ time/ the/ is /what
8. open/ is/ caf/every/ the/ day
9. it/ at / does/ work/ weekends
10. are/ mugs/ a lot of/ cups/ and/ in/ the/ there/ cupboard.
11. there/ on/ the/ cooker/ and/ a pot/ a frying/ pan/ is
PRACTICE 5. What is the English for:
1. virtuvs spintels

11. staliai

2. virtuvs bald komplektas

12. skalbimo maina

3. aldytuvas

13. virykl

4. indaplov

14. stalas

5. kd

15. kriaukl

6. stiklins

16. puodeliai

7. arti

17. alia

8. prieais

18. u
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9. ant

19. po

10. keletas, kakiek (teig. s.)

20. kakiek, kiek nors (neig. ir klaus. s.)

PRACTICE 6. Complete sentences using is/ are and making plural forms of the words in brackets:

NOTE! In the English language there are nouns having irregular plural forms. They are such as: childchildren; foot-feet; tooth-teeth, mouse-mice; fish-fish; sheep-sheep; person-people etc.

4. FOOD
4.1. Vocabulary. Names of food
Meat
beef
veal
lamb
mutton
pork
bacon (fat/lean)
liver
kidney
tongue
ham
hamburger
sausage (s)
beefsteak;
chop
cutlet
Vegetables
aubergine
tomato
cabbage
cauliflower
spinach
cucumber
carrot
garlic
onion
lettuce
radish
potatoes
pulses
beans
peas

Poultry
chicken
chicken broth
duck
egg
egg in its shell
hard / soft - boiled egg
scrambled egg (s)
bacon and eggs
to shell an egg
white /yolk [jouk] of an egg
goose (plgeese)
omlet (te)
pheasant
turkey (s)

Fish
cod
plaice
herring
sardine
trout
salmon
carp
eel
pike
stuffed fish
tinned fish

Seafood
prawn/shrimp
crab
lobster
crayfish
oyster
caviar(e)

Dairy products
butter
cheese
cheese
sandwich
cheeseburger
cream
sour cream
curds/cottage cheese
yoghurt
milk
skimmed milk
whole milk
sour milk

Confectionery
chocolate
bar of chocolate
ice-cream
jam
honey
marmalade
sweet
biscuit
cake
doughnut
pie
cornflakes
tart

Fruit
apple
apricot
banana
lemon
orange
melon
peach
pear
pineapple
plum
cherry
pomegranate
tangerine
grapefruit
watermelon

Berries
cranberry
currant
black / red /
white currant;
gooseberry
grapes
raisin
raspberry
strawberry
bilberry
wild strawberry

Nuts
almond
peanut
walnut
hazelnut

Herbs and spices


parsley
thyme
dill
mint
cinnamon
ginger
nutmeg
pepper
mustard
vinegar
horse radish
basil

Cereals
corn
wheat
rice
buckwheat
cereal
grain

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4.2. Indicating likes and dislikes


You can use the following expressions to indicate your likes and dislikes:
My favourite food is fish.
I (really) like apples but I dont like bananas.
I dont like bananas very much.
I dont like tomatoes.
I dont like tomatoes at all!
I hate onions.
What is your favourite food?
Do you like grapefruit?
Yes, I do, but I prefer pears to grapefruit.
Dont you like bananas?
Do you really hate onions?
What food do you like?
Why do you like watermelons?

We like different kinds of food because of some nutrients or taste. We can use such questions to find
out the taste of a product or food:
How does it (your salad) taste like?
Do you like the taste of it (this cake)?
Would you like to taste it (this pie)?
To describe the taste we can use:
Sweet, salty, bitter, sour, hot / spicy, bland, mild, tasty, tasteless, greasy: too much oil / fat, overcooked /
overdone, undercooked / underdone, done to a turn, just perfect, not overdone, delicious, artificial additives.
Food always has nutrients: minerals, proteins, vitamins, fats, carbohydrates, fibre, starch.

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NOTE! A Noun can be countable or uncountable. Compare:

PRACTICE 1. Tell your likes and dislikes. Complete the table below:
Type of food

My favourite is

I like

I dont like

I hate

Meat and poultry


Fish and seafood
Dairy products
Confectionary
Fruit and
vegetables
Berries and nuts

16

PRACTICE 2. Make a dialogue with your friend- ask about his/ her likes and dislikes. Get
information why your friend likes these things. Complete the table below:

Type of food

My friends
favourite is
because

He/ she likes


because

He/ she doesnt


like because

He/ she hates


because

Meat and poultry


Fish and seafood
Dairy products
Confectionary
Fruit and
vegetables
Berries and nuts

PRACTICE 3. Group the words below under the following headings:


Cereals

Dairy products

Fish

Fruit

Herbs

Meat

Vegetables

Aubergine, bacon, barley, basil, beans, blackberry, chicken, cream, dill, flour, gooseberry, grape, herring,
yoghurt, lamb, maize, mint, mustard, mutton, onions, parsley, pear, peas, plaice, rabbit, rice, rye, salmon,
sausage, thyme, trout, veal
PRACTICE 4.
a) Find the pairs of antonyms.
1 ripe
8 stale

2 sweet
9 fattening

3 raw
10 sour

4 fresh
11 mild

5 slimming
12 cooked

6 spicy
7 tender
13 unripe 14 tough

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b) Complete the sentences using some of the adjectives given above.


1. I can not eat this cake - it's too.....and I'm on a diet.
2. The curry burns my mouth, it is so......
3. Could you pass me the sugar, please, I'll put some in this lemon juice, it's too......
4. This steak is so ...... I can't even chew it!
5. I can't cut this bread, it's so......
6. These apples are green and not very....., I suppose.
7. This fish is almost....., you have to cook it for fifteen minutes more,

PRACTICE 5. Replace the underlined words in the sentences with the words tasty, overcooked/ overdone,
undercooked/ underdone, salty, greasy, tasteless, done to a turn, sour, season, there-course meal. Make
changes if necessary.
1. My dish seems to have no flavour at all!
2. Oh, this meat was absolutely perfectly cooked !
3. This fruit is unripe! I can't eat it!
4. You know, my chips have too much oil on them!
5. I think this cake has a very good taste.
6. There's a lot of salt in this salad! I don't like it!
7. This dish has obviously been cooked too long.
8. Have you added herbs, spices, salt and pepper? The stew seems tasteless.
9. This chicken has been cooked not long enough.
10. I'm not very hungry so I don't think I could manage a meal consisting ofthree courses.

5. DRINKS
5.1. Vocabulary. Names of drinks
Drinks
Still
juice
still mineral water
milk-shake

Fizzy
sparkling mineral water
soda water
Coca-Cola (coke)
lemonade

Beverages (alcohol)
Beer
cider
wine
cocktail
champagne
whisky
vodka
tequila

Hot drinks
coffee (black, with milk )
to make coffee
to grind coffee
tea
hot chocolate
cocoa

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We usually say:
A cup of

tea, coffee, cocoa, hot chocolate

A glass of

juice, mineral water, soda water, coke, lemonade, beer, wine, whisky, champagne

A mug of

tea, beer

5.2. Indicating likes and dislikes


You can use the following expressions to indicate your likes and dislikes:
My favourite drink is orange juice.
I (really) like coffee but I dont like tea.
I dont like tea very much.
I dont like vodka.
I dont like beer at all!
I hate milk.
What is your favourite drink?
Do you like beer?
Yes, I do, but I prefer apple juice to beer.
Dont you like milk?
Do you really hate vodka?
What cocktails do you like?
Why do you like champagne?

PRACTICE 1. Move around the classroom and ask about your friends favourite drinks. Complete
the table below:
Favourite drink?
Why?

Students 1

Students 2

Students 3

Students 4

5.3. Do you like and would you like:


Would is the same in all persons. We use would like in offers and requests:
I would like a drink.
My friend would like a cup of tea and a sandwich.
Would you like anything to eat?
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Yes, please. Id like some fish. I am hungry.


Would you like anything to drink?
No, thank you. I am not thirsty.

PRACTICE 2. Look at the pictures and make similar conversations in pairs.


A
B
A
B
A

I'm thirsty.
Would you like some tea?
No, thanks.
Would you like some apple juice?
Oh, yes, please!

A
B
A
B
A

I'm hungry. Is there anything to eat?


Would you like a biscuit?
No, thanks. I'd like a sandwich.
Cheese? Ham?
Cheese and ham, please!

PRACTICE 3. Choose the correct sentence.


1) A Do you like a drink?/ Would you like a drink?
B Yes, please. Some Coke, please.
2) A Can I help you?
B Yes. I like a packet of cigarettes./ Yes. I'd like a packet of cigarettes, please.
3) A What sports do you do?
B Well, I'd like swimming very much./ Well, I like swimming very much.
4)

A Are you ready to order your meal, sir?


B Yes. Id like a steak, please./ Yes. I like a steak.

6. BREAKFAST
6.1. Meals of the day
breakfast; lunch; dinner; supper; snack / bite;
to have a snack
meal: the food taken at one time She eats three meals a day.
dish: food prepared for the table
course: a division or part of a meal What's the main course ? There are five meat and three fish dishes.
dessert
starter/hors d'oeuvre
refreshments
substantial meal
20

NOTE! We say:

to have

breakfast
lunch
dinner
supper
a meal
a snack
a bite
a drink
a smoke

6.2. Continental Breakfast and English Breakfast


As a general trend, traditional breakfasts are less substantial and less elaborate in the warmer, more
southern countries bordering the Mediterranean, while breakfasts are traditionally larger, with a greater
variety of dishes and greater prevalence of hot dishes in the cooler northern- and central-European countries.
An institutional meal plan based on lighter Mediterranean breakfast traditions and served in hotels
world-wide is known as a European "Continental breakfast". It is a light snack meant to tide one over
until lunch. It consists mainly of coffee and milk (often mixed as Cappuccino or latte) with a variety of
sweet cakes such as brioche and pastries such as croissant, often with a sweet jam, cream, or chocolate
filling. It is often served with juice.
The typical German breakfast consists of bread rolls or toast with butter, honey, jam, ham or
sausage, a soft-boiled egg, and coffee. However, cereals have become popular, and regional variation is
significant.
A typical breakfast in Denmark, similar to its southern neighbor Germany, consists of bread rolls
or toast with butter and Danish slicing cheese, a buttery creamy white cheese, fruit jam, and a lot of coffee.
A bigger and fancier spread might also include cold cuts (cold, thin-sliced ham, salami), soft-boiled eggs,
muesli and sweet rolls of all types.
A traditional Dutch breakfast consists of a combination of poached eggs, bacon, sausage,
breakfast cake, and cold sliced meat such as smoked horse or smoked beef.
In Eastern European countries with cold climates, such as Russia, breakfasts tend to be substantial.
Zavtrak may consist of hot oatmeal, eggs, cheese, cured meats or sausage, rye breads with butter, and coffee
or tea. Yoghurt or, especially in central and eastern Europe, kefir may be consumed.
In some Balkan countries such as Serbia, savoury pastries are consumed with yogurt.
In France a typical domestic breakfast will consist of bowls (rather than cups or mugs) of coffee,
often caf au lait, or hot chocolate with slices of baguette spread with jam - to be dunked. Croissants are also
traditional.
In Northern Greece a pastry is eaten with Greek coffee.
21

In Italy breakfast is simply Caff e latte with bread or rolls, butter, and jam. It is very common for
Italians to have a quick breakfast snack during the morning (typically a bread roll).
A distinctive breakfast of Europe is the Spanish early-morning fare of a doughnut covered in sugar,
and very thick, sweet hot chocolate drink.
A full English breakfast, or traditional fry-up, is a traditional breakfast meal in England. While
weekday breakfasts in England often consist of a brief meal of cereal and/or toast, the fry-up is commonly
eaten in a leisurely fashion on Saturday or Sunday mornings. Whether the fry-up is accompanied by orange
juice and usually an abundant supply of tea or coffee, or only bacon, eggs, and toast, it is regarded as a ritual
comfort and a wholly satisfying start to a day of work or leisure.
The ingredients of a fry-up vary according to region and taste. At its heart, the meal it consists of
bacon and eggs, but to earn the title of a "Full English" a number of other ingredients are expected.
The bacon and eggs are traditionally fried, but grilled bacon and poached or scrambled eggs may be
offered as alternatives. Some of the additional ingredients that might be offered as part of a Full English
breakfast include:

toast, fried bread, or bread and butter

sausages

fried, grilled or tinned tomatoes

mushrooms

black pudding

baked beans

kidneys

possibly saut potatoes, chips, hash browns or bubble and squeak

condiments such as ketchup and brown sauce

Fry-ups are no longer an everyday occurrence in most English households, but they are offered to
tourists as traditional fare in hotels, guest houses and cafs, and occupy an important place in the English
concept of the morning meal. In British hotels and bed and breakfast establishments, a Full English
breakfast might include additional courses such as cereal, porridge, kippers, toast and jam or marmalade,
kedgeree, or devilled kidneys. Fruit juice and dry cereal were added to the English breakfast after 1950. The
term "Full English" is used to differentiate between the larger multiple course breakfast, and the simpler
"continental breakfast" of tea, coffee and fruit juice, with croissants or pastries. Coffee at breakfast is a
Continental tradition introduced through hotel fare.
Common beverages at breakfast worldwide include fruit juices (orange juice, apple juice, grapefruit
juice, etc.), milk, tea, and coffee. Cultures around the world commonly shun or restrict alcoholic beverages
at breakfast.
22

PRACTICE 1. Answer the following questions:


1) What specific features of Continental breakfast can you name?
2) What were the reasons for Continental breakfast beeing lighter than English breakfast?
3) What specific features of English breakfast can you name?
4) What were the reasons for English breakfast to become more substantial than Continental?
5) Is the full English breakfast served in English families daily? Why?
6) Would you prefer English breakfast to Continental one? Why?
PRACTICE 2. Compare Continental and English breakfast meals filling-in the table below.
Discuss your answers with your friend.
Meal
Yoghurt
Toast and jam
Latte
Bacon and eggs
Poached eggs
Croissant
Savoury pastries
Breakfast cereal
Smoked beef
Fruit juice
Kidneys
Fry-ups

Continental breakfast

English breakfast

My breakfast

6.3. Past Simple Tense


We use the Past Simple Tense to indicate past time events. We know the time of the event. E.g.
yesterday, last month/ year/ summer, in 1980, on holidays, at Christmas etc.
Study this example:
My grandfathers neighbor was a famous cook. He lived from 1922 to 1992. He opened his first
restaurant at the age of seventeen. He had five famous Italian restaurants when he was forty.
Lived/opened/had/was are all Past Simple.
Very often the Past Simple ends in -ed (regular verbs): We invited them to our party but they
decided not to come. But many verbs are irregular when the Past Simple verb does not end in -ed.
For example:
have had - He had five famous Italian restaurants.
see - saw - We saw Rose in town a few days ago.
go went - I went to the cinema three times last week.
shut shut - It was cold, so I shut the window.
23

For a list of irregular verbs, see the table below:


Infinitive
be
become
begin
bite
break
bring
burn
buy
catch
choose
come
cost
cut
do
drink
eat
fall
feed
feel
find
freeze
get
give
go
grind
have
lend
lose
make
put
shake
smell
speak
spend
spill
take
tell
think
throw

Past
was, were
became
began
bit
broke
brought
burnt
bought
caught
chose
came
cost
cut
did
drank
ate
fell
fed
felt
found
froze
got
gave
went
ground
had
lent
lost
made
put
shook
smelt
spoke
spent
spilt/ spilled
took
told
thought
threw

Participle
been
become
begun
bitten
broken
brought
burnt
bought
caught
chosen
come
cost
cut
done
drunk
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
found
frozen
got
given
gone
ground
had
lent
lost
made
put
shaken
smelt
spoken
spent
spilt/ spilled
taken
told
thought
thrown

Translation
bti
tapti
prasidti
ksti
sudauyti, sulauyti
atneti
(nu)degti
pirkti
pagauti
pasirinkti
ateiti
kainuoti
pjaustyti
daryti, veikti
gerti
valgyti
kristi
maitinti
jausti(s)
rasti
sualti
gauti
duoti
eiti
malti
turti
paskolinti
pamesti
pagaminti
padti
kratyti, plakti
uuosti, uostyti
kalbti
praleisti, ileisti
ipilti
paimti
pasakyti
galvoti
mesti

In questions and negatives we use did/didn't + infinitive (enjoy/see/go etc.):


A.:

Did you go out last night?

B: Yes, I went to the cinema but I didn't enjoy the film much.
The past of be (am/is/are) is was/were.
NOTE! We do not use did in negatives and questions with was/were:
I was angry because they were late.
Was the weather good when you were on holiday?
They weren't able to come because they were so busy.
24

Did you go out last night or were you too tired?


Study the table:
Question
word

Auxiliary
Verb/ to
be

Negative
Question

Subject
I
You
We
They
He, she, it
My brother
Her friend
The cake
I
You
We
They
He, she, it
My brother
Her friend
The cake

Positive

Sent.
type

When
Why
Where
How
What
(kas,k?)
Whom
(k?)
Who (k?)

Auxiliary
Verb

___

did not
(didnt)

did

was
were

I
you
we
they
he, she, it
my brother
her friend
the cake

____

Verb,
II f.
loved
made
brought
wrote
tasted
smelled
was
were
love
make
bring
write
taste
smell
was not
were not
love
make
bring
write
taste
smell

Object

me
you
him
her
them
us
my
dog
a letter

Adverbial Modifier
Manner
Place

Time

nicely
beautifully
tasty
loudly
precisely
happily
greatly
bitterly

in the morning
in the evening
in the afternoon
during the day
at night
in summer
in winter
at 8 oclock

at work
in the kitchen
at home
at the restaurant
at school
in prison
in the caf
on the table

_____

PRACTICE 3. Make dialogues using the examples below:


What do you usually have for breakfast?
What is your favourite breakfast dish?
What did you have for breakfast yesterday?
What do you have for breakfast at weekends?
What did you have for breakfast on Sunday?
Do you like cooking breakfast?
And what about you?
PRACTICE 4. In groups read the texts A-C and summarize the information given. Be ready to present
your groups text to your friends.
A. Second breakfast
Second breakfast is a meal eaten after breakfast, but before lunch. It is traditional in Germany, more
specifically Bavaria, where special dishes are made only to be eaten during second breakfast. It is typical to
25

eat four to five meals a day in these locations. The second breakfast is typically a lighter meal or snack eaten
around 10:30 in the morning. It consists of coffee, pastries, or some sausages. The sausage is prepared
during the early morning to serve during the second breakfast. It is served with brezen, sweet mustard, and
wheat beer.
B. Elevenses
In the United Kingdom and Commonwealth, elevenses is a snack that is similar to afternoon tea, but eaten in
the morning. It is generally less savoury than brunch, and might consist of some cake or biscuits with a cup
of tea or coffee. In Australia, it is called morning tea (often little lunch in primary school). The name refers
to the time of day that it is taken: around 11 am. The word "elevenses" is seen as a little old fashioned, and
few people still refer to morning tea as such.
C. Brunch
Brunch is a late morning meal between breakfast and lunch, as a replacement to both meals, usually eaten
when one rises too late to eat breakfast, or as a specially-planned meal. The term is a portmanteau of
breakfast and lunch. It originated in the USA, unlike Tiffin. Brunch can be served after a morning event or
prior to an afternoon one, such as a wedding or sporting event. It is usually a more relaxed meal than
breakfast or lunch, and considered appropriate for informal celebrations. Some restaurants and hotels serve
brunch, especially on weekends and holidays. Such brunches are often serve-yourself buffets, but menuordered meals may be available instead of, or with, the buffet. The meal usually involves standard breakfast
foods such as eggs, pancakes, sausages, bacon, ham, fruits, pastries, and the like. However, it can include
almost any other type of food served throughout the day. Buffets may have large roasts of meat or poultry,
cold seafood like shrimp and smoked fish, salads, soups, vegetable dishes, many types of breadstuffs, and
desserts of all sorts. The dim sum brunch is a popular meal in Chinese restaurants world-wide. It consists of
a wide variety of stuffed bao (buns), dumplings, and other savory or sweet food items which have been
steamed, deep-fried, or baked. Customers select what they want from passing carts, as the kitchen
continuously produces and sends out more freshly prepared dishes.

7. LUNCH AND TIFFIN


7.1. Lunch
Lunch is a meal that is taken at noon or in the early afternoon. The term is short for "luncheon".
Lunch is a newer word for what was once invariably called "dinner," a word nowadays only sometimes used
to mean a noontime meal in the British Isles, and in parts of the United States, Canada and Australia. In
parts of India a light lunch is known as tiffin. Lunch food varies. In some places, one eats similar things
both at lunch and at supper - a hot meal, sometimes with more than one course. In other places, lunch is the
26

main meal of the day, supper being a smaller cold meal. German and Scandinavian lunch mostly is large and
cooked (as opposed to, say, a sandwich).
Lunch from Karnataka served on
a plantain leaf.

7.2. Tiffin
Tiffin is an Indian and British English dialect word meaning a light meal eaten during the day. The
word became popular in British India, deriving from tiffing, an old English dialect or slang word for taking
a little drink or sip.
In modern day India, the word mostly is used for light lunches prepared for working Indian men by
their wives after they have left for work, and forwarded to them by Dabbawalas (people who carry boxes)
who use a complex system to get thousands of tiffin-boxes to their destinations. The lunches are packed in
tin boxes, also sometimes called tiffins or tiffin-boxes. A common approach is to put rice in one box, dal in
another and yet other items in the third or fourth. The other items could be breads, such as naan, vegetable
curry and finally a sweet. In Chinese cultures, the stacked porcelain or metal round trays with handles are
called tiffin carriers. People also refer to cups of tea as "a cup of tiffin".

PRACTICE 1. Answer the following questions:


1) What is Tiffin?
2) Where is the difference between lunch and Tiffin?
3) How can you explain the flowing: Dabbawala, tiffin, tiffin-boxes, a cup of tiffin?

PRACTICE 2. Complete each sentence with one of the endings.


A
B
1) There is nothing more refreshing on a hot a) I'm sure you would like them if you only tried
summer day
them.
2) The steak looked tender
b) it is weak coffee.
3) The smell was so bad
c) as the food and the service had been
excellent.
4) These vegetables are very tasty
d) but was afraid of making a scene.
5) I wouldn't eat those strawberries if I were you e) if you had put more garlic in it.
6) Please put some more water in my tea
f) but it was as tough as old boots.
7) "If there is one thing I don't like,
g) as there's been yet another increase in
prices.
27

8) The sauce would be more tasty


h) is keeping it in a fridge.
9) We must leave now.
i) than a glass of ice-cold fruit juice.
10)My father decided to leave the waiter a big tip j) consists of some eggs and several rashers of
bacon.
11)Food is very expensive now
k) I had a second helping.
12)The customer wanted to complain to the 1) because it is too strong.
waiter
13)A good way of preserving food
m) they don't look ripe to me.
14) As the cake was delicious,
n) that it completely put us off our food.
15) A traditional English breakfast
o) Would you mind asking the waiter for the
bill?

7.3. Future Simple Tense.


Future Simple is used to describe future actions and events. We use I'll (- I will) when we decide to do
something at the time of speaking. E.g.: Oh, I've left the door open. I'll go and shut it. What would you like
to drink? Ill have an orange juice, please.'
In spoken English the negative of will is usually won't (- will not. E.g.: I can see you're busy, so I won't stay
long.
We often use will in these situations:

Offering to do something: That bag looks heavy. Ill help you with it.

Agreeing to do something: A: You know that book I lent you. Can I have it back if you've finished
with it? B: Of course. I'll give it to you this afternoon.

Promising to do something: Thanks for lending me the money. I'll pay you back on Friday. I won't
tell anyone what happened. I promise.

Asking somebody to do something (Will you..-?) Will you please be quiet? I'm trying to concentrate.
Will you shut the door, please?

Shall I...? Shall we...?


Shall is used mostly in the questions shall I...? / shall we...?
We use shall I...? / shall we...? to ask somebody's opinion (especially in offers or suggestions)- Shall I
open the window? Where shall we go this evening?

We often use will ('ll) with:


probably

I'll probably be home late this evening.

expect

I haven't seen Carol today. I expect she'll phone this evening.

(I'm) sure

Don't worry about the exam. I'm sure you'll pass.

(I) think

Do you think Sarah will like the present we bought her?

(I) don't think

I don't think the exam will be very difficult.

I wonder

I wonder what will happen.


28

I shall... / we shall...
Normally we use shall only with I and we. You can say I shall or I will (I'll), we shall or we will
(we'll): I shall be tired this evening, (or I will be...}. We shall probably go to Scotland for our holiday, (or
We will probably go...) In spoken English we normally use I'll and we'll: We'll probably go to Scotland.
The negative of shall is shall not or shan't: I shan't be here tomorrow, (or 1 won't be...) Do not use
shall with he/she/it/you/they: She will be very angry, (not 'she shall be')
Study the table
Question
word

Auxiliary
Verb/ to
be

Question

Negative

Positive

Sent.
type

When
Why
Where
How
What
(kas,k?)
Whom
(k?)
Who (k?)

shall
will

Subject
I
You
We
They
He, she, it
My brother
Her friend
The cake
You
They
He, she, it
My brother
Her friend
The cake
I
We
We
I
you
we
they
he, she, it
my brother
her friend
the cake

Auxiliary
Verb

___

will not
(wont)

shall not
(shant)

____

Will/
shall +
Verb
love
make
bring
write
taste
smell
be

Object

love
make
bring
write
taste
smell
was not
were not
love
make
bring
write
taste
smell

me
you
him
her
them
us
my
dog
a letter

Adverbial Modifier
Manner
Place

Time

nicely
beautifully
tasty
loudly
precisely
happily
greatly
bitterly

in the morning
in the evening
in the afternoon
during the day
at night
in summer
in winter
at 8 oclock

at work
in the kitchen
at home
at the restaurant
at school
in prison
in the caf
on the table

_____

PRACTICE 3. Read the situations and write sentences with I think I'll... or I don't think I'll... .
1) It's a bit cold. You decide to close the window. You say: I think Ill! close the window.
2) You are feeling tired and it's quite late. You decide to go to bed. You say: I think
.........................................................
3) A friend of yours offers you a lift in his car but you decide to walk. You say: Thank you
but.........................................................................................................................
4) You arranged to play tennis today. Now you decide that you don't want to play. You say: I don't
think.............................................................................................................................
5) You were going to go swimming. Now you decide that you don't want to go.
..
29

PRACTICE 4. Put in will ('ll) or won't.


1) Can you wait for me? I hope I wont be very long.
2) There's no need to take an umbrella with you. It................................rain.
3) If you don't eat anything now, you................................be hungry later.
4) I'm sorry about what happened yesterday. It................................happen again.
5) I've got some incredible news! You................................never believe what's happened.
6) Don't ask Margaret for advice. She................................know what to do.

8. TEA. DINNER. SUPPER


8.1. Tea
Tea is the afternoon/evening meal, called that even if the diners are drinking beer, cider, or juice. It
traditionally takes place at sometime around 6pm (though these days, it often takes place as late as 9pm).
In Scotland, Northern England, a significant part of the English Midlands, New Zealand, and sometimes in
Australia and Northern Ireland, tea as a meal is synonymous with dinner in Standard English. Under such
usage, the midday meal is sometimes termed dinner, rather than lunch.
8.2. Dinner
Dinner is a term with several meanings. Around North America in general, dinner
may be a synonym of supper that is, a large evening meal. However, in parts of
Canada and the United States, dinner can be a synonym of lunch, with the evening meal
in turn called supper. For the most part these terms only persist in rural areas,
particularly in the Southern United States and among older Americans. In the United Kingdom, dinner
traditionally meant the main meal of the day. Because of differences in custom as to when this meal was
taken, dinner might mean the evening meal (typically in the higher social classes) or the midday meal
(typically in lower social classes, who may describe their evening meal as tea). There is sometimes snobbery
and reverse snobbery about which meaning is used.
"Dinner", especially outside North America, is any meal consisting of multiple courses. The minimum is
usually two but there can be as many as seven.
Possible dinner courses are:
1) Hors d'oeuvres (also known as appetizers, starters) refer to the food served before or outside of the main
dishes of a meal. The purpose of the hors d'uvre is to whet the appetite; if there is a long waiting period
between when the guests arrive and when the meal is served might also serve the purpose of sustaining
30

guests during the long wait. Hors d'uvres may be served at the table; for example, as a part of the sit-down
meal; or they may be served before sitting at the table.
Hors d'oeuvre might include canaps, snack foods, cheeses, sausages.
2) Soup course. Traditionally, soups are classified into two broad groups: clear soups and thick soups. The
established French classifications of clear soups are bouillon and consomm. Thick soups are classified
depending upon the type of thickening agent used: pures are vegetable soups thickened with starch; bisques
are made from pured shellfish thickened with cream; cream soups are thickened with bchamel sauce; and
velouts are thickened with eggs, butter and cream. Other ingredients commonly used to thicken soups and
broths include rice, flour, and grain.
3) Fish course. Some commonly harvested and eaten fish species include: salmon, cod, anchovy, carp, tuna,
trout, mackerel, snapper, dogfish. Other water-dwelling animals such as mollusks, crustaceans, and shellfish
are often called "fish" when used as food.
4) Salad course. A salad is a food item generally served either before or after the main dish
as a separate course, as a main course in itself, or as a side dish accompanying the main dish.
Salad also commonly refers to a blended food item often meat, seafood or eggs blended
with mayonnaise, finely chopped vegetables and seasonings which can be served as part of a green salad,
but is often used as a sandwich filling. Salads of this kind include egg, chicken, tuna, shrimp, and ham salad.

5) Main course (also known as meat course)


A main course is the featured or primary dish in a meal consisting of
several courses (a full course dinner can consist of ten or even twelve
courses). The main course can also be called the entre; however, in
some menus the main course follows the entre, or entry, course, and the
salad course. It is sometimes called the meat course. The main course is
usually the heaviest, heartiest, and most complex or substantive dish on a menu. The main ingredient is
usually meat, fish or fowl; in vegetarian meals, the main course sometimes attempts to mimic a meat course.
In formal dining, a well-planned main course can function as a sort of gastronomic apex or climax. In such a
scheme, the preceding courses are designed to prepare for and lead up to the main course in such a way that
the main course is anticipated and, when the scheme is successful, increased in its ability to satisfy and
delight the diner, with the courses following the main course acting as a sort of denouement or anticlimax,
calming both the palate and the stomach. It is most often preceded by a starter or a salad, and followed by a
dessert. Formal meals can consist of many more courses.

31

6) Cheese course.
Cheeses are eaten raw or cooked, alone or with other ingredients. As they are heated, most cheeses melt
and brown. Some cheeses, like raclette, melt smoothly; many others can be coaxed into doing so in the
presence of acids or starch. Fondue, with wine providing the acidity, is a good example of a smoothlymelted cheese dish. Other cheeses turn elastic and stringy when they melt, a quality that can be enjoyed in
dishes like pizza and Welsh rabbit. Some cheeses melt unevenly, their fats separating as they heat, while a
few acid-curdled cheeses, including halloumi, paneer and ricotta, do not melt at all and can become firmer
when cooked.
7) Dessert
Dessert is a course that typically comes at the end of a dinner, usually consisting of sweet food but
sometimes of a strongly flavored one, such as some cheeses. The word comes from the
Old French desservir, meaning "to clear the table". Dessert as a standard part of a
Western meal is a relatively recent development. Before the 19th-century rise of the
middle class, and the mechanization of the sugar industry, sweets were a privilege of the
aristocracy, or a rare holiday treat. As sugar became cheaper and more readily available,
the development and popularity of desserts spread accordingly.
Some cultures do not have a separate final sweet course but mix sweet and savoury dishes throughout the
meal as in Chinese cuisine, or reserve elaborate dessert concoctions for special occasions. Often, the dessert
is seen as a separate meal or snack rather than a course, and may be eaten some time after the meal (usually
in less formal settings). Some restaurants specialize in dessert.
Common types of desserts:

Biscuits or cookies In British English, Australian English and New Zealand English, a biscuit is a
hard baked product like a small cake which in North America may be called a "cookie" or "cracker";
it should be noted, however, that it has become increasingly more common within England and
Australia for "cookie" to be used to differentiate between the softer, more chewy "cookie" and the
harder, more brittle "biscuit".

Cakes. Cake is often the dessert of choice for meals at ceremonial occasions, particularly weddings
or birthday parties. In some traditions the bride and bridegroom are the first to eat their wedding
cake, often serving each other a piece in their fingers. For birthdays, a frosted (iced) cake, often with
inscriptions in frosting and figural decorations, is covered with candles, which are blown out after
the celebrant makes a wish. Cake is considered delicious in many cultures.

Crumbles. A crumble is a dish of typically British origin containing stewed fruit topped with a
crumbly mixture of fat, flour, and sugar. The crumble is baked in an oven until the topping is crisp.
It is often served with custard, cream or ice cream as a hearty, warm close to a meal. Popular fruits
used in crumbles include apple, blackberry, peach, rhubarb, and plum. Sometimes sour milk (vinegar
and milk) is added to give the crumble a more extravagant taste. Also, brown sugar is often sprinkled
32

over the crumble topping. A similar dish, without sugar, can be made with a filling of minced beef or
lamb.

Custards. As a dessert, it is made from a combination of milk or cream, egg yolks, sugar, and
flavourings such as vanilla. Sometimes flour, corn starch, or gelatin are also added.

Fruit. When discussing fruit as food, the term usually refers to just those plant fruits that are sweet
and fleshy, examples of which include plum, apple and orange. However, a great many common
vegetables, as well as nuts and grains, are the fruit of the plant species they come from.

Gelatin desserts. By far the most popular use for gelatin products is as gelatin dessert, in the
United Kingdom and Australia gelatin desserts are referred to as jelly, and in the United States and
Canada (where "jelly" is a clear preserve stiffened by pectin and spread on bread) by its trademarked
name, Jell-O.

Ice cream (originally iced cream) is a frozen dessert made from dairy products such as cream (or
substituted ingredients), combined with flavourings and sweeteners. This mixture is cooled while
stirring to prevent large ice crystals from forming. Although the term "ice cream" is sometimes used
to mean frozen desserts and snacks in general, it is usually reserved for frozen desserts and snacks
made with a high percentage of milk fat. Frozen custard, ice milk, sorbet and other similar products
are often also called ice cream. Governments often regulate the use of these terms based on
quantities of ingredients.

Meringue is a type of dessert, originally from France, made from whipped egg whites and caster
sugar. Some meringue recipes call for adding a binding agent such as cream of tartar. Meringues are
often flavoured with a small amount of essence, e.g., almond or coconut. They are very light and airy
and extremely sweet. It is believed that Meringue was invented in the Swiss town of Meiringen by
an Italian chef named Gasparini (legend varies in regard to the date of invention, between 1600 and
1720).

Pastry is the name given to various kinds of dough made from ingredients such as flour, butter and
eggs, that are rolled out thinly and used as the base for baked goods. Common pastry dishes include
pies, tarts, and quiches. A good pastry is very light and airy, but firm enough to support the weight
of the filling. The shortening is distributed between the flour-and-water in many thin layers or
sheets; when baked, the resulting pastry is delicate and flaky. Good pastry must be uniformly mixed
to achieve this layering, and should not have any large bubbles of air in it, as these will expand
during cooking and spoil the texture. However, overworking of the pastry will cause long gluten
chains to form, resulting in a tough product. Thus the manufacture of good pastry is something of a
fine art.

Pies or tarts. A pie is a baked dish, with a baked shell usually made of pastry that covers or
completely contains a filling of meat, fish, vegetables, fruit, cheeses, creams, chocolate, custards,
nuts, or other sweet or savoury ingredient. Pies can be either "one-crust," where the filling is placed
in a dish and covered with a pastry/potato mash top before baking, or "two-crust," with the filling
33

completely enclosed in the pastry shell. Some pies have only a bottom crust, generally if they have a
sweet filling that does not require cooking. These bottom-crust-only pies may be known as tarts or
tartlets. One example of a savoury bottom-crust-only pie is a quiche. Tarte Tatin is a one-crust fruit
pie that is served upside-down, with the crust underneath. Blind-baking is used to develop a crust's
crispiness, and keep it from becoming soggy under the burden of a very liquid filling. If the crust of
the pie requires much more cooking than the chosen filling, it may also be blind-baked before the
filling is added and then only briefly cooked or refrigerated. Pie fillings range in size from tiny bitesize party pies or small tartlets, to single-serve pies (e.g. a pasty) and larger pies baked in a dish and
eaten by the slice. The type of pastry used depends on the filling. It may be either a butter-rich flaky
or puff pastry, a sturdy shortcrust pastry, or, in the case of savoury pies, a hot water crust pastry.
Occasionally the term pie is used to refer to otherwise unrelated confections containing a sweet or
savoury filling, such as Eskimo pie or moon pie. A pie crust is an important component of many
pies.

Pudding is either of two general types of food, the second deriving from the first. The older
puddings were foods that were presented in a solid mass formed by the amalgamation of various
ingredients with a binder, which might include batter (as in Yorkshire pudding), blood (black
pudding), eggs (bread pudding), or a mixture of suet and flour or some other cereal (plum pudding).
These kinds of puddings could be either baked, steamed, or boiled. This older type of pudding, still
commonly made today in the British Isles, was often a main-course type of dish. Boiled puddings, in
particular, were a common meal on board ships in the British Navy in the 18th and 19th centuries,
and the usual manner in which daily rations of flour and suet were prepared. The newer type of
pudding is almost exclusively a dessert-type dish. The usual form is for milk with sugar and other
added ingredients to be solidified by means of some gelling or structural agent, including cornstarch,
gelatin, eggs, tapioca (cassava), and other starches. Forms of these include custard and blanc-mange.
They are available in forms which require cooking or in instant form. Related foods include gelatin
desserts such as Jell-O and aspics. The Danish society Royale Danske Buddingentusiaster (Royal
Danish Pudding Enthusiasts) was founded in 2005 and is organizing the promotion of the Danish
type of pudding, i.e. using boiled milk, sugar and starch or gelatine as the base of flavours ranging
from the classic vanilla and chocolate to the newer tequila and ginger.

Sorbet (or sorbetto, sorbeto) is a frozen dessert made from iced fruit puree and other ingredients.
The term "Sherbet" is derived from the Turkish word for Sorbet, Sherbat. Sorbet is a form of gelato
that contains no milk, unlike ice cream. Sorbets may contain alcohol (which lowers the freezing
temperature, resulting in a softer sorbet). Unlike ice cream, the machinery used whips almost no air
into the sorbet, resulting in a dense and extremely flavorful product. This allows sorbet to match and
sometimes exceed dairy-based gelato or ice cream for taste. Sorbets are traditionally served between
the starter course and main entre in order to cleanse the palate.
34

A souffl is a light, fluffy baked dish made with egg yolks and beaten egg whites combined with
various other ingredients and served as a main dish or sweetened as a dessert. The word souffl is
the past participle of the French verb souffler which means "to blow up" or more loosely "puff up" an apt description of what happens to this combination of custard and egg whites. Every souffl is
made from 2 basic components: a base of flavored cream sauce or pure; beaten egg whites. The
base provides the flavor and the whites provide the "lift". Common varieties include cheese,
chocolate, and lemon (the last two made as desserts, with a good deal of sugar). Souffl is
considered a great delicacy. When it comes out of the oven, a souffl is generally very large and
fluffy, and will 'fall' after 20 or 30 minutes (as risen dough does). For best results, souffl should be
eaten quickly, while hot and before it falls. Souffle can be made in containers of all shapes and sizes,
but the best are tall cylindrical containers which conduct heat well. It is traditional to make souffle in
"souffle cups" or ramekins.

Trifle is an English dessert dish made from thick (or often solidified) custard, fruit, sponge cake,
fruit juice or, more recently, gelatin dessert and whipped cream, usually arranged in layers with fruit
and sponge on the bottom, custard and cream on top. Some trifles contain a small amount of alcohol
(port, or, most commonly sweet sherry or madeira wine) - non-alcoholic versions use fruit juice
instead, as the liquid is necessary to moisten the cake. Trifle containing sherry is sometimes called
"Sherry Trifle" or referred to as being "High Church". One popular variant has the sponges
soaked in liquid-gelatin dessert when the trifle is made, which sets when refrigerated. The cake and
jelly bind together and produce a uniquely pleasant texture if made in the correct proportions (there
should not be too much jelly added, or nucleation will not occur). A well-made trifle is often used
for decoration as well as taste, incorporating the bright, layered colours of the fruit, jelly, jam, and
the contrast of the creamy yellow custard and white cream. Trifles are often served at Christmas
time, sometimes as a lighter alternative to the massively dense christmas pudding. A Creole trifle
(also sometimes known as a Russian cake) is a different but slightly related dessert item consisting
of pieces of a variety of cakes mixed together and packed firmly, moistened with alcohol (commonly
red wine or rum) and a sweet syrup or fruit juice, and chilled. The resulting cake contains an
arabesque of color and flavor. Bakeries in New Orleans have been known to produce such cakes out
of their leftover or imperfect baked goods.
----------------Dinner is generally followed by tea or coffee, sometimes served with mint chocolates or other

sweets, or with brandy or a digestif. When dinner consists of many courses, these tend to be smaller and to
be served over a longer time period than a dinner with only two or three courses. Dinners with many courses
tend to occur at formal events such as dinner parties or banquets.
This formal version of the meal is generally served in the evening, starting some time between 7.30
and 8.30 (in the Netherlands typically at 6.00). It may be served at midday or shortly afterwards. However
this tends to be more common practice in Scotland than in other countries.
35

PRACTICE 1. Summarize the texts read filling-in the table below:


Dinner courses
starter

soup

fish

salad

main

cheese

dessert

PRACTICE 2. Answer these questions yourself and ask your friends:


What are your favourite dinner courses? Why?
What are your favourite desserts?
PRACTICE 3. Can you recognize the following desserts? Use the hints: meringues, Christmas pudding,
cake, cherry ice cream, gelatine dessert, American honey biscuits, custard, pie, pastries.

36

PRACTICE 4. Study the examples below and compose your own menu for dinner. Ask your friends:
whats on the menu today/ what was on the menu yesterday.

8.3. Supper
Supper is the evening meal - ordinarily the last meal of the day. In the United Kingdom, supper is a
small meal just before bedtime, often preceded by high tea; what a Canadian or American would refer to as
supper, then, would be called dinner. However, "dinner" can be used to refer to lunch in Britain and parts of
the United States and Canada.
In English-speaking countries such as Britain, Canada, and the United States, the evening meal is
usually served in the early evening, sometime between five and nine p.m. However, supper customs vary in
European cultures. In Spain, supper can be as late as ten or eleven p.m.
In Britain and Ireland, the understanding of "supper" is typically a meal taken in the evening
(between 6pm and midnight) when one's main meal or "dinner" has been eaten during the day; in place of
"dinner", when the main meal of the day is usually taken in the evening, or distinct from "dinner" in that it is
another light meal taken several hours later on the same evening. "Supper" is typically a lighter meal, often
served cold and unlikely to involve either elaborate preparation or more than one or two courses.
PRACTICE 5.
1) What type of a meal is supper?
2) What is there in common among lunch, dinner and supper in Britain, Canada and the United States?
3) What do like for supper?
37

9. HEALTHY FOOD.
DIETARY AND VEGETARIAN FOOD
9.1. Healthy food.
You are going to read a magazine article about food and old age. Eight paragraphs have been
removed from the article. Choose from the paragraphs A-I the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one
extra paragraph, which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0).
Eat Greek and Live Longer
If you want to live to a healthy old age and eat well along the way, then perhaps you should move to the
Greek mainland or Crete. These are the areas of Europe whose population -live longest, thanks to their
varied diet.

0-C
But although these people are healthy and live longer, this surprises some experts. A study of several villages on Crete and the Greek mainland showed that fat made up 40 per cent of the average person's calories,
well over what most experts consider to be healthy.
1Researchers cannot yet explain why, though all of these products are produced by cows, they should have
such different effects on people. It is possible that a chemical change could take place during the process of
making cheese and yoghurt.
2Whether it's lactose or not, national patterns in other parts of Europe appear to confirm this theory. For
example, Finns have one of Europe's highest rates of heart disease, and it could be because they consume
four times more milk and butter than the Greeks do. Another puzzle has come out of the study. This
concerns tobacco.
3But it appears that their diet is so good that it can even overcome the dangers of smoking. This kind of diet
could account for the surprising health of one of the study's subjects, an 82-year-old Greek carpenter. He

38

has enjoyed food and wine all his life and has never dieted or taken special exercise. He starts the day with
bread and milk. At midday he eats a large ; lunch with lots of vegetables and feta cheese.
4He says he hardly ever eats butter and his, favourite dessert is full-fat natural yoghurt with walnuts, honey
and fruit. There is a high level of chemicals which resist poisons in this kind of diet and it could be the
chemicals that limit the effects of smoking.
5The study also suggests that wine is an important part of the Greek formula, but only at certain times and in
certain amounts. The people who were studied drank wine regularly, but in moderate amounts and always
with meals. This backs up a recent study, this time done in Italy.
6Or could the secret be in olive oil? All the people studied consumed large amounts of olive oil, although
experts are still not certain it could be the oil, which helps them live longer. A final part of this mystery
could be a vital fatty acid, which according to research can prevent heart disease.
7But the search for a single magic ingredient may not be the answer. It may be that it is the whole diet that
helps people to stay healthy and live longer, not just one of its individual parts.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I

But most of this fat comes from cheese and yoghurt and very little from butter or milk. This could be
the T"- factor which makes the difference.
The resistant chemicals and many vitamins that are found in fruit and vegetables have been shown to
reduce the risk of heart disease and other illnesses.
There seem to be similarities between the Greek mainland and Cretan traditional diets that may offer
scientists a clue as to their beneficial effects.
Cretans consume 68 per cent more of this acid than the average European. Walnuts contain a great
deal of this acid, and these are eaten in large quantities by Cretans and rural Greeks.
He eats all kinds of meat but mostly chicken. Everything is cooked in olive oil, and he also puts it on
just about everything: salads, vegetables and cheese.
Many of the people studied, who are in their eighties, are smokers. Tobacco is a big risk factor for
heart disease as well as cancer.
It has been proved that some foods prevent illness. Some other foods however, encourage it.
A Greek professor who worked on the study believes it may have something to do with lactose,
which is the protein found in milk.
Men who drank between meals had a higher death rate than those who only drank when they were
having a meal, in women there was an even greater difference.

39

PRACTICE 1. Fill in the appropriate word(s) from the list. Use the word(s) only once.
confirms
to live

high
whether

to take
the effects

heart
to overcome

hardly

1 ........................level of fat

4 ............................disease

7 He ...............ever drinks.

2 ..............................longer

5 .....................the dangers

8 ......................of smoking

3 ............it's lactose or not

9 It....................the theory.

..............regular exercise

PRACTICE 2. Read the text about Genetically engineered food and summarize it. Be ready to present
the summary to your friends.
You didn't ask for it, and you might not know about it. But you've probably already eaten some of it.
It's genetically engineered food. Perfectly round tomatoes all exactly the same size, long straight cucumbers
and big fat chickens are now a normal part of our diets. They are made that way by genetic engineering - not
by nature. Their genes have been changed.
Every living thing has genes. They are passed on from generation to generation. They make sure
that humans give birth to humans and cows give birth to cows. They also make sure that a dog cannot give
birth to a frog, or an elephant to a horse. Genetic engineers take genes from one species for example, a
scorpion, and transfer them to another - for example, corn. In this way a new life form is created.
Genetic engineers put duck genes into chickens to make the chickens bigger. They put hormones
into cows to make them produce more milk. They put genes from flowers into soya beans and from
scorpions into corn. This does not make them cheaper, tastier or healthier. It makes them easier and faster
for the farmer to grow.
The effects of genetic engineering on our health are not known. Many of the genes which are used such as those of scorpions, rats, mice and moths are not part of our diet so we do not know how
dangerous they may be. For example, people can develop allergies to food, which has been genetically
engineered.
The effects of genetic engineering on the natural world may be disastrous. The engineers may create
life forms - monsters - that we cannot control. The new life forms have no natural habitat or home. They
will have to find one, fight for one or kill for one. Moreover, the effects of these experiments can often
be cruel. In America, pigs were given human genes to make them bigger and less fatty. The pigs became
very ill and began to lose their eyesight.
Greenpeace is trying to prevent all such food experiments. Some but not all food companies
are refusing to use genetically engineered foods. We must all be aware of what is happening.
Some people believe, though, that genetic engineering could be the solution to the problem of
famine. Plants, which grow faster, or cows which produce more milk, can save the lives of starving people.
40

We would all like a better, healthier and longer life, and genetic engineering might give us this. On
the other hand, it may be a dangerous experiment with nature. In the story, Frankenstein created such a
terrible and dangerous monster that he had to destroy it. We must make sure that it remains a story and
no more than that.
PRACTICE 3.
1) Did you know anything about genetically engineered food before reading the text?
2) What is your personal opinion about genetically engineered food? Is it good or bad to apply this method?
3) Ask your friends opinion.
9.2. Dietary food.
Some people can keep slim without any effort, but a lot of people do put on too much weight and
don't like it. Some of the people put their faith in exercise, but the problem here is that you can sweat off a
couple of pounds playing tennis or jogging but you put it all back again with a big plate of macaroni, cheese
or stake and chips or bread and jam. The only reliable solution is dieting. Some people stick to milk and
bananas. Others keep to the theory that if you eat things like hard-boiled eggs, apples with their skins on,
and lean meat, you get thinner because they are hard to digest. This is because you use up the fat in your
body to get the energy to digest the food. For most of us these methods are too eccentric. The simplest
system is to cut down on the carbohydrates or, if possible, to cut them right out, That means avoiding bread,
potatoes, cake, biscuits, jam, sugar, rice, spaghetti, macaroni and so on. Still others like to be more
scientific. They are the calorie-counters. They get a table which tells them that, for example, lOOg of roast
leg of lamb gives you 330 calories and a 50g helping of Yorkshire pudding gives you 130. lOOg of raw
cabbage is only 15, a 100ml glass of wine is 75 and a pint (568ml) of beer is 160. A fried egg will cost you
145 calories, but a boiled one will give you only 65. The calorie-counter will then allow himself say 1000
calories a day. A well-balanced diet should provide all the vitamins we normally require. Vitamins are vital
for growth, good health and maintenance of the normal functions of the body. Modern methods of
preserving, freezing and long-term storage of food, together with overcooking, destroy many of the
vitamins, Everybody knows that vitamins A, B, C, D are essential for our body. Dairy products, vegetables,
margarine, liver, fruit contain a lot of vitamin A; meat, milk, fish, whole cereals contain vitamin B and fresh
green vegetables, fruit, potatoes, tomatoes contain vitamin C.
People who are overweight are more likely to become ill as they get older. Poor diet has also been
linked with heart disease, cancer, blood pressure and strokes.
A healthy diet is one, which gives us all the nutrients we need to stay fit and well. To get all the
nutrients we need we should eat a balanced diet containing a range of different foods.
Most people eat too much fat, salt and refined sugar. In order to improve our health we should:
try to avoid becoming overweight
increase out intake of dietary fibre and starch
41

eat less fat, sugar, salt and alcohol


Here is a list of some foods, which are good for us:
Cereal foods. These are a good source of starch and protein as well as a good source of vitamins and
minerals. Cereals include: wheat, rice, oats, barley, maize and rye. Bread is the main product made from
wheat. Breakfast cereals are made from a variety of different cereals.
Starchy vegetables. These contain a lot of starch. Examples are potatoes and sweet potatoes.
Fruit and vegetables. Fruit and vegetables are important for good health because of the dietary fibre
and vitamins they contain. It is important to eat at least three portions of vegetables or fruit a day.
Pulses and nuts. These are a good source of protein.
Here is a list of some foods which are bad for us:
Sugar, sugary foods and drink. These foods provide very little in the way of useful nutrients. They
have a damaging effect on teeth and should only form a small part of our diet. Examples are: cans of fizzy
drinks, sweets and sweet cakes.
Fats. Although we do need some types of fat in our diet we do not need very much. Fat is found in
chocolate, butter, cream, cakes, cheese, some meat (often in beef burgers and sausages). More and more
teenagers (and indeed whole families) are eating fast food or convenience food rather than food cooked
from fresh ingredients.
If you would like to have a healthier diet here are some simple, positive steps you can take:

Cut down on fizzy drinks, sweets and chocolate.

Eat a healthy breakfast before you leave for school in the morning.

Eat fresh food when you want a snack.

Don't eat chips and hot-dogs every day.

PRACTICE 4. Discuss the following points with your friends.


1) What is a healthy diet?
2) What food is good for us? Bad?
3) What would you advise a person who wants to lose weight?
4) What are your eating habits:

how much meat or fish you eat on a typical day

what you eat a lot of


what you eat a little of
how much you drink
42

whether you think you have a healthy diet (give reasons)?


PRACTICE 5. Look at the Checklist in the text for Healthy Eating and discuss with your partner what you
eat too much of? What you dont eat enough of? Compose dialogs in pairs.
PRACTICE 6. Study the Vegetarian food pyramid and compose a vegetarian food menu.

10. NATIONAL FOOD AND CUISINE


10.1. National food and cuisine
PRACTICE 1. Read the text. Summarize each paragraph into 1-3 sentences. Be ready to present it to your
friends.
Bread. One of the oldest and most fundamental Lithuanian food products was and is rye bread. Rye
bread is eaten every day for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Bread plays an important role in family holiday
rituals and agrarian ceremonies. Two kinds of bread are traditional, plain fermented and scalded.

43

Soup. Lithuanians eat soup every day. Soup is the main dinner and supper food. In olden times, soup
was also eaten for breakfast. Rich soups are served for dinner and easily digested milk soups are supper fare.
Most popular are sour soups, sauerkraut, beet and sorrel, with smoked meat stock as the base. Sauerkraut
soup is also made with goose pieces. Meat cooked in soup is often eaten as a second course. Meatless soups
are eaten on fast days. Most soups are served with bread or potatoes. Sauerkraut and beet soups are eaten in
winter, while sorrel, beet greens and milk soups are eaten in spring and summer. Cold beet soup with hot
potatoes is a very popular summer fare. Cold sweet soups are also popular, especially in summer. In olden
times and now, sweet soups made with berries, fruit and tiny dumplings are a treat. Another summer soup,
mutinys, made with dried black bread, water, sugar and crushed fruit is very refreshing on hot summer days.
Meat. Lithuanians consume a lot of meat and meat by-products. Pork has always been the most
widely used meat, fresh, brined or smoked, and continues to be so to this day. The greatest variety of pork
dishes is prepared by Aukstaiiai, the Highlanders and Suvalkieciai, people of the southwestern region.
December, January and early spring months are traditional pig slaughtering times. Bacon and hams are
salted and cold smoked. The lesser cuts are cooked during slaughtering time because the meat is softer,
more tender. Juniper branches are added towards the end of smoking, to give the meat a special flavor.
Meat curing by smoking is not practiced in Dzkija, the south eastern region. Instead the salted cuts remain
in brine or are hung and air dried. For longer keeping, many varieties of sausage are made. One of them,
skilandis, was mentioned as early as 16th century. Skilandis, also known as kindzius, is made of coarsely
chopped, top quality pork meat, highly seasoned, tightly stuffed into a pig's stomach and intensely smoked.
Skilandis and other smoked meats are robust and delicious, very popular foods. These sausages are served to
visitors, eaten during holidays and during busy summer days. Each homemaker works hard to prepare the
best tasting skilandis. The taste depends on choice, quantity of seasonings, quality of meat and method and
duration of drying and smoking. The traditional smoked meat technology has remained the same throughout
the years. Fowl meat is also popular. Domestic birds are cooked, smoked and baked. Game birds appear
rarely in the Lithuanian kitchen. They are the domain of hunters.
Potatoes came to Lithuania relatively recently, in the eighteenth century and soon became popular.
Now every farm grows potatoes. Potatoes have become Lithuania's second bread, an essential starch staple
and are eaten throughout the year. Many delicious, tasty dishes are made with potatoes. They are eaten alone
or as an accompaniment to a main course of soup, meat, fish, mushrooms, eggs and dairy products. The
most popular potato dishes are "zeppelins", potato sausages, potato casserole and pancakes. Lithuanian
recipes reflect the diversity of potatoes.

Milk. Lithuanians eat sweet and sour milk. Milk is used to whiten soups, make cheese, cottage
cheese and churn butter. Milk products have been popular since ancient times. However, in some regions
44

milk products are more popular. Dishes prepared with cottage cheese are favored among the Highlanders,
Auktaiciai. The Samogitians, emaiciai, prepare an ancient, original butter, kastinis, with butter, sour cream
and a variety of seasonings. Most popular is Lithuanian cheese, fresh or dried, which can be sour, sweet or
flavored with caraway seed.
Mushrooms. Lithuania is rich in mushrooms, more than four hundred edible varieties are found in
the forests. The most popular are boletes, the kings of all mushrooms. Also collected are chanterelles,
blevits, morels and many others. Mushroom season begins early spring and continues till late autumn,
autumn being most abundant season. Then entire families go mushrooming and return with overflowing
baskets.The most abundant forests are in Dzukija, the south eastern region. Traditionally the inhabitants of
this part of the country are the most prolific mushroom gatherers and this region's cooks are known for the
most creative mushroom recipes. All over Lithuania mushrooms are used in many dishes, to add special
flavor to meat, fish and potato dishes. Mushrooms are used fresh, dried, salted or marinated.
Fish. In Lithuania most fish eaters live along lakes or the sea coast. Along with fresh water fish, salt
water fish are also popular. Fish are much used for food reserves, small fish are dried, while larger ones are
salted. Some salted fish are hot smoked for immediate use. Fish for salting are seasoned with black pepper,
powdered bay leaf, crushed juniper berries and ground cardamom. Herring are popular throughout
Lithuania.

Vegetables. The most popular vegetables have always been cabbages, beets, carrots, cucumbers,
onions, turnips, radishes, parsnips and horseradish. Cabbage is eaten fresh and fermented, seasoned with
caraway seed, cranberries, apples and salt. Beets are used fresh, fermented and are available all year round.
In summer, cucumbers are eaten fresh and in autumn and winter, fermented and pickled. Onion is the
traditional, primary, aromatic vegetable. Other popular aromatic plants are dill, caraway, marjoram, garlic
and horseradish. Almost every household in Lithuania has an orchard where the apple is the main tree.
There are also pear, plum and cherry trees and gooseberry and currant bushes. The forests are full of
goodies: raspberries, wild strawberries, blueberries, cranberries and nuts. Fruits and berries and some
vegetables are seasonal. During summer they are eaten fresh. For winter supplies, fruit and berries are dried,
made into preserves, sauces, fruit leathers and fruit cheeses.
Grain. Another basic Lithuanian food is grain. Lithuanian agrarian traditions are ancient, farmers
have always planted a large variety of grain, such as rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, peas, beans and oil crops
(hemp, poppies, flax seed). Rye was and still is the most important crop, used mainly for rye bread. Second
place goes to barley, which is used to make groats and flour. Wheat is in third place and oats in fourth place.
Buckwheat was and is grown in the hilly regions of northern and southern Lithuania. Peas and beans are
45

eaten raw, cooked and are also ground into flour. Dishes made with peas and pea flour are popular in
Auktaitija, the northeast region. Among oil crops, hemp and poppy seeds have always been used to make
hemp and poppy milk, which replaces cow's milk during fast days and special holidays. Flax seed is fried
with different seasonings and this mixture is used as a flavoring for many foods, especially potatoes. Hemp
seed is also used for similar flavorings. Peoples' well being always depended on the grain harvest. To assure
an abundant harvest, certain traditions were observed. The farmer never went to work in the fields on an
empty stomach, for then the ears of grain will grow empty. Even better, when preparing to sow barley, it is
best to have eaten a pig's tail. According to legend then the barley ears will grow long, like the pig's tail.
Groats have been used in Lithuania since olden times. Farmers used wooden mortars and pestles and hand
grinders to make groats. Today groats are available commercially. The biggest gruel eaters are the
Samogitians, emaiiai. Pancakes are also an ancient food and a popular breakfast food among the
Highlanders, Auktaiiai. Rye and wheat flours are most commonly used throughout the country.
Eggs. Lithuanians use eggs in many dishes because of their versatility and because eggs adapt well
to a variety of cooking techniques and combine well with many ingredients. Chicken eggs are more popular
than other eggs. Eggs are boiled and baked. They are the basis of many recipes and are included in meat,
fish, vegetable dishes and baked goods. Today the traditional omelet remains a favorite dish among
Lithuanian cooks, especially when an unexpected guest arrives.
Baked goods and sweets. Lithuanian people do not have a sweet tooth. Baked goods and sweets are
not a part of daily eating. However each homemaker does her very best to be creative and to pamper the
family especially during holidays and special occasions. Formerly, for holidays and weddings a variety of
cakes, cookies and sweet rolls was baked. Tables were laden with beautifully decorated, delicious
masterpieces. At wedding receptions, all eyes would be on the ''karvojus'', a large wedding tart which was
decorated with a variety of dough birds and animals. Earlier all cakes and dainties were baked by the
homemaker herself or a person, famous for her culinary prowess would be hired. At the beginning of this
century, many new foods came to Lithuania, among them tortes and the famous baumkuchen from
Germany, which now is a must for every special occasion. Today Lithuanian homemakers have many
recipes for all occasions. Most popular baked goods are made commercially from recipes based on
traditional and newly arrived sweets. However, the most appreciated baked goods are homemade and for
this reason each homemaker is intent on creating recipes which will awe everyone and will please her
family.
Drinks. Mead and beer are ceremonial and traditional drinks. Mead, midus is the oldest and noblest
drink, served during banquets and special occasions. Travellers and chroniclers wrote about the manufacture
and use of mead by Lithuanians and Prussians as early as the eleventh century. Good conditions existed to
46

make mead because Lithuanians since early times took honey from wild bees in tree hollows. Today people
have several hives on their farmsteads, to satisfy their family needs. Mead ten or more years old was the
landlord's pride, for mead's quality increases with age. Often to celebrate the birth of a child, the father
made a batch of mead. This batch was kept and aged until the child's wedding. There was a time when mead
took second place to vodka. However about 30 years ago there was a revival and mead was made again,
using ancient recipes. Mead is again found on holiday tables, together with songs about mead and its
traditions. Beer has been brewed in Lithuania since ancient times and even today is a popular, traditional
drink. It is always brewed for family celebrations, feast days, barn raisings and funerals. Beer is brewed
from sprouted barley malt. The most popular malt beer is made in Central and North Eastern Lithuania,
where a strong beer is popular. In Samogitia, emaitija, beer is brewed using dried bread, hops and sugar.
Most often the man of the house brews his own beer. However, for special occasions, to brew extra good
beer, a well known brew master is hired. During festivities, the brew master's other job is to make sure that
pitchers are always full. The making of home made wine in Lithuania was begun at the beginning of the
twentieth century. Most wine was made in the South Western region, Suvalkija, from forest and orchard
fruits and berries. Another ancient drink is made from birch and maple sap, collected in early spring. Sap is
drunk fresh and fermented for summer drinking. To satisfy thirst, Lithuanians brew a semi sour drink, gira kvass. Much appreciated from ancient times are linden, thyme, caraway seed, mint, raspberry, strawberry,
camomile, dill seed and other herb teas, which not only refresh but also have healing properties.

PRACTICE 2. Discuss your favourite national food with your friend. What food dont you like?

PRACTICE 3. Classify the most popular Lithuanian food filling- in the table. Discuss what particular
food is used on special occasions (Christmas, birthday party, wedding etc.)

The most popular Lithuanian National food and drink


Bread

Soup

Meat

Potatoes

Milk

Mushrooms

Fish

Vegetables

Grains

Eggs

Sweets

Drinks

47

10.2. Present Continuous Tense


Present Continuous Tense is used to describe events, which are in progress now, at the moment of speaking
and are not finished. Study the table:
Question
word

To be:
am
are
is

Negative
Question

Subject

I
You
We
They
He, she, it
My brother
Her friend
The cake
You
They
We
He, she, it
My brother
Her friend
The cake
I

Positive

Sent.
type

When
Why
Where
How
What
(kas,k?)
Whom
(k?)
Who (k?)

am
are
is

I
you
we
they
he, she, it
my brother
her friend
the cake

To be:
am
are
is
am
are

Verb

Adverbial Modifier
Manner
Place

Time

making
bringing
writing
tasting
smelling
cleaning
crying

is

are not
(arent)
is not
(isnt)
am not
(Im not)

____

Object

making
bringing
writing
tasting
smelling
cleaning
crying

me
you
him
her
them
us
my
dog
a letter

nicely
beautifully
tasty
loudly
precisely
happily
greatly
bitterly

at work
in the kitchen
at home
at the restaurant
at school
in prison
in the caf
on the table

at 10 oclock
during the day

look

make

start

stay

try

at 8 oclock

making
bringing
writing
tasting
smelling
cleaning
crying

PRACTICE 4. Complete the sentences with one of the following verbs in the correct form: come
happen

at night

get

work

1) 'You're working hard today.' 'Yes, I have a lot to do.'


2) I...................................................for Christine. Do you know where she is?
3) It...................................................dark. Shall I turn on the light?
4) They haven't got anywhere to live at the moment. They...................................................with friends until
they find somewhere.
48

5) 'Are you ready, Ann?' 'Yes, I....................................................'


6) Have you got an umbrella? It...................................................to rain.
7) You................................a lot of noise. Could you be quieter? I................................to concentrate.
8) Why are all these people here? What...................................................?

PRACTICE 5. Use the words in brackets to complete the questions.


1) 'Is Colm working this week?' 'No, he's on holiday.' (Colin/work)
2) Why...................................................at me like that? What's the matter? (you/look)
3) 'Jenny is a student at university.' 'Is she? What...................................................?' (she/study)
4) ...................................................to the radio or can I turn it off? (anybody/listen)
5) How is your English?...................................................better? (it/get)

PRACTICE 6. Put the verb into the correct form. Sometimes you need the negative.
1) Im going (go) to bed now. Goodnight!
2) We can go out now. It isn't raining (rain) any more.
3) 'How is your new job?' 'Not so good at the moment. I................................. (enjoy) it very much.'
4) Catherine phoned me last night. She's on holiday in France. She ........................................
(have) a great time and doesn't want to come back.
5) I want to lose weight, so this week I...................................................(eat) lunch.
6) Angela has just started evening classes. She................................................... (learn) German.
7) I think Paul and Ann have had an argument. They................................................... (speak) to each other.

49

10.3. Past Continuous Tense


Past Continuous Tense is used to describe events, which were in progress in the past at a certain time. Study
the table.
Question
word

To be:
was
were

Question

Negative

Positive

Sent.
type

When
Why
Where
How
What
(kas,k?)
Whom
(k?)
Who (k?)

was
were
was

Subject
I
You
We
They
He, she, it
My brother
Her friend
The cake
You
They
We
He, she, it
My brother
Her friend
The cake
I
I
you
we
they
he, she, it
my brother
her friend
the cake

To be:
was
were
was
were
was

were not
(werent)
was not
(wasnt)

____

Verb

Object

Adverbial Modifier
Manner
Place

Time

making
bringing
writing
tasting
smelling
cleaning
crying
making
bringing
writing
tasting
smelling
cleaning
crying

me
you
him
her
them
us
my
dog
a letter

nicely
beautifully
tasty
loudly
precisely
happily
greatly
bitterly

at work
in the kitchen
at home
at the restaurant
at school
in prison
in the caf
on the table

at 10 oclock
during the day
at night
at 8 oclock

making
bringing
writing
tasting
smelling
cleaning
crying

PRACTICE 7. What were you doing at the following times? Write one sentence as in the examples.
The Past Continuous is not always necessary (see the second example).
1) (at 8 o'clock yesterday evening) I was having dinner with some friends.
2) (at 5 o'clock last Saturday) I was on the train to London.
3) (at 10.15 yesterday morning) ......................................................................................................................
4) (at 4.30 this morning)...................................................................................................................................
5) (at 7.45 yesterday evening) .........................................................................................................................
6) (half an hour ago) ........................................................................................................................................

50

PRACTICE 8. Put the verbs into the correct form, Past Continuous or Past Simple.
1) Jane was waiting (wait) for me when I arrived (arrive).
2) 'What...................................................(you/do) this time yesterday?' I was asleep.'
3) '................................................... (you/go) out last night?' 'No, I was too tired.'
4) 'Was Carol at the party last night?' 'Yes, she............................(wear) a really nice dress.'
5) How fast........................................(you/drive) when the accident.......................................(happen)?
6) John...................................................(take) a photograph of me while.........................................(not/look).
7) We were in a very difficult position. We...............................................(not/know) what to do.
8) I haven't seen Alan for ages. When I last...................................................(see) him, he ..
................(try) to find a job in London.
9) I.............................................(walk) along the street when suddenly I......................................... (hear)
footsteps behind me. Somebody..............................................(follow) me. I was frightened and I
.............................................(start) to run.
10)When I was young, I...................................................(want) to be a bus driver.

11. METHODS OF COOKING AND PREPARING FOOD


11.1. Methods of cooking and preparing food
There are a lot of various ways to prepare food. Look at the table and decide which of them are the most
familiar, usual to you and which ones you do not use in every day life. Translate the unknown words.
Method of cooking/
preparing food

ways of cooking food

ways of preparing food

English

Translation

to steam
to simmer
to boil
to fry
to bake
to roast
to grill
to stew
to barbecue
to smoke
to mix
to peel
to stir
to mince
to cut
to chop
to slice
to grate
51

to crack
to season
to sprinkle
to dry
to pickle
to marinate
PRACTICE 1. Answer the questions:
1) Do you like cooking?
2) Does your friend like cooking?
3) What are you cooking on Sundays?
4) What were you cooking yesterday?

PRACTICE 2. Match the method of cooking with its definition.


1) baking

a) cooking in steam; used for puddings, fish, etc

2) boiling

b) cooking meat or fruit in a small amount of water and its own juices

3) frying

c) cooking foods in enough water to cover them, at a temperature lower than 100C

4) roasting

d) cooking in fat; used for chips, doughnuts, etc

5) simmering

e) the food is placed in the oven; used for preparing cakes, breads

6) steaming

f) is done by placing the food in the oven or oven coals and cooking until it is tender;

7) stewing

used for cooking meats


g) cooking foods in enough water to cover them, at 100C

PRACTICE 3. Fill in the blanks with the words given on the right.
(1).....the crab into large pieces. Then fry black beans, garlic, ginger and (2).....onions

a) minced

e) fry

very quickly before adding (3)..... meat. (4)..... again for one minute and then (5).....

b) cut

f) stir

the crab pieces, half a pint of chicken stock or water, and a little dry sherry or rice

c) add

g) chop

sprinkle wine, (6)..... for ten minutes and then add two beaten eggs. (7)..... slowly for

d) serve

h) heat

one minute and then (8)......


11.2. Present Perfect Tense.
Present Perfect is used when we want to describe that something has happened/ has been done but do not
indicate the time of the event - it is only the fact that is important. But the action in the past has a result now:

52

The present perfect is have/has + past participle. The past participle often ends in -ed (finished/decided
etc.), but many important verbs are irregular (lost/done/been/written etc.). For a list of irregular verbs, see
pages 23 and study the table below.
Question
word

To have:
have
has

You
They
We
He, she, it
My brother
Her friend
The cake
I

Negative
Question

Subject
I
You
We
They
He, she, it
My brother
Her friend
The cake

Positive

Sent.
type

When
Why
Where
How
What
(kas,k?)
Whom
(k?)
Who (k?)

have

has

I
you
we
they
he, she, it
my brother
her friend
the cake

To have:
have
has
have

has

have not
(havent)
has not
(hasnt)

____

Verb
been
made
brought
written
tasted
smelt
cleaned
cried
seen
been
made
brought
written
tasted
smelt
cleaned
cried
seen
been
made
brought
written
tasted
smelt
cleaned
cried
seen

Object

Adverbial Modifier
(Manner)
Place

the cake
drunk
to me
the room
them
my dog
his brother
him
them

Time

at work
beautifully in the kitchen
tasty
at home
loudly
precisely
happily
greatly
bitterly

at the restaurant
at school
in prison
in the caf
on the table

PRACTICE 4. You are writing a letter to a friend. In the letter you give news about yourself and
other people. Use the words given to make sentences. Use the Present Perfect.
Dear Chris,
Lots of things have happened since I last wrote to you.
53

1) I / buy / a new car. I've bought a new car.


2) my father / start / a new job............................................................................................................................
3) I/give up / smoking..........................................................................................................................................
4) Charles and Sarah /go / to Brazil..................................................................................................................
5) Suzanne / have / a baby...............................................................................................................................

PRACTICE 5. Read the situations and write sentences with just, already or yet.
1) After lunch you go to see a friend at her house. She says 'Would you like something to eat?' You say: No,
thank you. Ive just had lunch. (have lunch)
2) Joe goes out. Five minutes later, the phone rings and the caller says 'Can I speak to Joe?' You say: I'm
afraid........................................................................................................................(go out)
3) You are eating in a restaurant. The waiter thinks you have finished and starts to take your plate away.
You say: Wait a minute!................................................................................ (not/finish)
4) You are going to a restaurant this evening. You phone to reserve a table. Later your friend says 'Shall I
phone to reserve a table?' You say: No,...........................................................it. (do)
5) You know that a friend of yours is looking for a job. Perhaps she has been successful. Ask her. You
say:......................................................................................................................................? (find)
6) Ann went to the bank, but a few minutes ago she returned. Somebody asks Is Ann still at the bank?' You
say: No,.............................................................................................................(come back)
PRACTICE 6. Put in been or gone.
1) Jim is on holiday. He's gone to Italy.
2) Hello! I've just................................to the shops. I've bought lots of things.
3) Alice isn't here at the moment. She's................................to the shop to get a newspaper.
4) Tom has................................out. He'll be back in about an hour.
5) Are you going to the bank?' 'No, I've already................................to the bank.'
PRACTICE 7. You are asking somebody questions about things he or she has done. Make questions
from the words in brackets.
1) (ever / ride / horse?) Have you ever ridden a horse?
2) (ever/ be / California?) .................................................................................................................................
3) (ever / run / marathon?)..................................................................................................................................
54

4) (ever / speak / famous person?)......................................................................................................................


5) (always / live / in this town?)..........................................................................................................................
6) (most beautiful place / ever / visit?) What .............................................................................................

12. SERVING THE CLIENT

PRACTICE 1. Study the vocabulary:


restaurant
snack bar
caf
pub
bar
canteen
self-service / help-yourself
fast food
service
waiter
waitress
menu
on the menu There's no roast beef on the menu
to choose (chose, chosen)
to decide
to order Please, take my order. What would you like to order?
bill
receipt I paid the bill and he gave me a receipt.
change
tip
service charge
to treat sb to sth She treated us to a very delicious cake.
to pass Pass me the salt, please.
to help oneself to Please, help yourself to some more cake.
helping
to do with / manage another helping / think I could do with another helping, the pie is so delicious.
hearty eater - megejas gerai pavalgyti.
55

to have a sweet tooth My friend has a sweet tooth.


to pour May I pour you some wine?
to recommend What would you recommend?

PRACTICE 2. Put the following events into the correct order. The first has been done for you.
a) look at the menu......

f) decide to go out for a meal ..1...

k) sit down......

b) give the waiter a tip......

g) leave the restaurant......

1) order the meal......

c) have dessert.......

h) have the starter......

m) ask for the bill......

d) pay the bill......

i) go to the restaurant......

e) book a table......

j) have the main course......

PRACTICE 3. Read the story. Choose the most suitable word


- I'm not very hungry. I think I'll skip the first course /dish/serving. Ill order just one plate/dish. I might
have fowl/chicken /poultry/hen, sheep/lamb or hog/pig/pork.
- It isn't good for you to have so much flesh /meat. I'm going to have fish, Alice said to me.
- I'll have a veal / steak / mutton, I said.
- This is a wonderful restaurant..-Mice said, looking round.-The food/kitchen is very good here. My meal
was very tasty/tasteful.
We enjoyed the meal and finished with fruits / fruit, followed by cafe / coffee.
-

The account / bill / receipt was quite reasonable, I said, as we were leaving.- We should come here more
often.

Alice didn't agree.- From tomorrow, she said, we'll be back on a diet!

PRACTICE 4. Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence.
1) You are refusing food that is offered. You say, ....."

a) Thank you b) No, thank you c) Thanks

2) "Waiter, could you bring me my.....?"

a) addition b) bill c) account

3) You want some coffee. You say, "..... a cup of coffee, please,"

a) I like b) I love c) I'd like d) I may like

4) Do you drink coffee? -1 do, but I don't..... now, thank you.

a) want b) want any c) want some d) want i

5) A lot of people don't eat......

a) pig b) pork c) hog

6) This ..... is a speciality of our restaurant.


7) This chicken is not what I.....

a) plate b) serving c) dish


a) called b) ordered c) commanded

56

8) Have you decided what to have for your main.....?

a) course b) helping c) food

9) I avoid eating biscuits and cakes because I don't want to......

a) get fat b) fatten c) get fatty

10) That was fantastic. Could I have a second..... please?

a) plate b) helping c) course

11) I bought this bread five days ago and now it's......

a) bad b) rotten c) stale d) hard

12) Can you give me the ..... for these biscuits. They're delicious.

a) receipt b) ingredients c) recipe

13) This salad should be dressed ..... oil.

a) with b) in c) by d) to

14) You like ice-cream, and......

a) me too b) I too c) so do I d) also I

15) Would you like.....?

a) a fruit b) some fruits c)fruits d) some fruit

PRACTICE 5. Complete each sentence with one of the endings.


1) There Is nothing more refreshing on a hot summer day

a) I'm sure you would like them if you only tried them.

2) The steak looked tender,

b) it is weak coffee.

3) The smell was so bad

c) as the food and the service had been excellent.

4) These vegetables are very tasty;

d) but was afraid of making a scene.

5) I wouldn't eat those strawberries if I were you,

e) if you had put more garlic in it.

6) Please put some more water in my tea,

f) but it was as tough as old boots.

7) If there is one thing I don't like,

g) as there's been yet another increase in prices.

8) The sauce would be more tasty

h) is keeping it in a fridge.

9) We must leave now.

i) than a glass of ice-cold fruit juice.

10)My father decided to leave the waiter a big tip

j) consists of some eggs and several rashers of bacon.

11) Food is very expensive now

k) I had a second helping.

12)The customer wanted to complain to the waiter

1) because it is too strong.

13)A good way of preserving food

m) they don't look ripe to me.

14)As the cake was delicious,

n) that it completely put us off our food.

15)A traditional English breakfast

o) Would you mind asking the waiter for the bill?

PRACTICE 6. Write the sentences in the correct order to make a conversation between a waiter and
a customer.
1) Here you are. Would you like anything to drink?
2) Good evening, madam. Have you reserved a table?
3) Thank you. Could I see the menu?
4) I'm sorry, madam. The restaurant is no smoking only. Can I take your order?
5) Yes, I think so. Come this way, please. May I take your coat?
6) Yes, could I have a gin and tonic? Oh, and an ashtray please.

57

7) No, I'm afraid not. Could I possibly have a table near the window?
8) Yes, I'd like the crab salad, a beefsteak with vegetables and an ice - cream for dessert.

PRACTICE 7. Work in pairs. Compose your own dialogs and present to the rest of your group.
PRACTICE 8. Put the words in the right order to make a dialogue. Capitalize the words where
necessary.
A: must / some / have / chicken / you / more.

A: with / you / have / tonic / won't / a / me / gin / and.

B: you / no / thank. I / too / had / already / much/ have.

B: kind /1 / that's / you / but / don't / will / very /

A: it / to / me / take / just / please.

A. think /1 / of.

B: OK/1 / manage/ a/ piece/ maybe/ small/ could/ very.

B: think / time /1 / off / it's / was /1.

A: about / a / coffee / you / before / cup / how / of / go?

A: So soon? stay / a / longer / can't / little / you?

B: if / having / you / one / are / only.

B: could /1 / mustn't / too / wish / late /1 / but / be /1.

A: take / milk / do / sugar / and / you?

A: pity / a / what!

B: much / and / too/ milk/ not/ just/ a/ spoonful/ please.

B: much / for / thanks / the / very / party / enjoyable.

A: you / to / what / like / drink / would?

A: was / to / pleasure / it / have / a / you. coming /

B: light / just / please / a / beer.

driving / am / I / know / you.

for / you / thank.

PRACTICE 9. Work in pairs. Discuss the following questions with your partner:

Where do you usually have your meals?

When do you eat out?

What do you prefer: eating out or eating at home? Why?

PRACTICE 10. Read the conversation and make notes under the following headings:
Starter

Main course

Drinks

58

In a Restaurant
Waiter: Good evening, sir... madam. Shall I take your coats?
Mr Brown: Thank you. Where shall we sit, Jane?
W:

Oh, would you like to sit over here, sir? Near the window!

Mr B: Ah, yes... Could we see the menu?


W:

Yes, certainly. Here it is.

Mr B: What would you like for a starter?


Mrs B: Mm....I think I'll have the prawn salad. I'm very fond of prawns. What about you?
Mr B: Fm not sure. I can't decide.
Mrs B: Oh, Fd have the trout, if I were you. You always say that you like trout, and you haven't had it for a
long time.
W:

Are you ready to order, sir?

Mr B: Yes... a prawn coctail for my wife and the trout for me.
W:

And the main course, sir?

Mr B: Veal for my wife. I can't decide between the veal and the chicken. What do you recommend?
W:

Oh, if I were you, I'd have the veal

Mr B: OK! I'll take it And two mixed salads, please.


W:

Any vegetables, sir?

Mr B: Yes. Some cauliflower, some tomatoes and some boiled potatoes, please.
W:

Anything to follow?

Mr B: Yes, we'd like a bottle of dry white wine.


W:

May I suggest something?

Mr B:

Of course.

W:

Why don't you try a bottle of English wine? You'll be surprised... it's very good.

PRACTICE 11. Using the above dialogue as an example compose your own dialogues In a Restaurant/
Whats on the menu today?.

59

13. ORDERS ON THE PHONE


PRACTICE 1. Study the vocabulary and compose sentences with the following words:
telephone/ phone
to phone
to call/ make a call
to dial
to contact/ reach up
tax
to send a fax
emergency call
call collect
to lift/ pick up the receiver
to be on the phone
hold the line/ hold on
line
the line is engaged
to order/ make an order
to delay the order
to change the order
to accept an order
to reserve/ make a reservation
account
cash/ to pay in cash
credit card/ to pay by credit card

60

PRACTICE 2. Read the dialogues A-C in pairs.


A.
A. Browns Restaurant. Can I help you?
B. Good morning. I would like to reserve a table for 3 people for tomorrow dinner.
A. I am happy to reserve you a table for tomorrow. What time exactly are you coming?
B. I think at 6 p.m.
A. I see. Smoking or non-smoking?
B. Non-smoking please.
A. Would you like to sit near the window or it would be a better variant to have a table in the corner for
you? Corner tables are usually a quieter place.
B. It would be good for us to sit in the corner I suppose as we are having a business meeting tomorrow.
A. Fine! I have just made a reservation for a corner table! Would you like us to set the table for dinner
before you come?
B. That would be nice!
A. And would you like anything to drink as soon as you come?
B. No, thank you. We will have a look at the menu and decide tomorrow.
A. Great! So we will set a nice table especially for you!
C. Thank you!
A. Thank you for calling! We will wait for you tomorrow at 6 p.m. Have a nice day!
B. You too! Bye!
A. Good-bye!

B.
A. Sweetie Rose. Good afternoon!
B. Good afternoon. Do you accept orders?
A. Yes. What would you like to order?
B. I would like to order a couple of birthday cakes for my anniversary.
A. I am glad to help you! What kind of cakes would you like to order?
B. I would like to have 2 fruitcakes. Biscuit and fruit, you know.
A. Sure. They are very delicious. And what time would you like to receive your order?
B. I would like to get it at 5 oclock tomorrow evening.
A. I see. Let me note your order onto the register. Yes, I have just placed it. Your fruitcakes will be
ready to collect at 5 oclock tomorrow. Would you like to pay in cash?
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B. No. I would prefer paying by credit card.


A. Fine. So we will fix that tomorrow then.
B. Thanks! Bye!
A. Thank you! Have a nice anniversary!

C.
A. John and Jane. Can I help you?
B. Hello. I would like to make money transfer into your account but I am not sure about the exact
number of it.
A. I see. And what kind of service would you like to pay for?
B. I ordered 20 baked wedding decorations last month and I havent paid for that yet.
A. Thats OK. You can successfully transfer money into our account No. xxx xxx xxx xxx.
B. Fine. Ill do that this afternoon.
A. No problem. Your orders are always welcome!
B. Thank you! Bye!
A. Good bye!
PRACTICE 3. Compose your own dialogues

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14. REVISION
PRACTICE 1. Work in groups. Choose a topic covered and ask your friends 10 words from the topic you
have chosen. Give 1 point/ a word. The winner is the group having received the biggest number of points.
PRACTICE 2. Answer the following questions. Pay attention to the structure of the questions.
1) What is the time now?
2) What are your working hours?
3) Do you work full time/ part-time/ shifts?
4) What kitchenware can be found there in your kitchen?
5) Whats on the menu today?
6) How much does cappuccino coffee cost in your caf?
7) Whats your favourite food/ drink?
8) What do you usually like for breakfast?
9) What will you have for lunch today?
10) What did you have for dinner yesterday?
11) What dinner courses do you know?
12) What would you like for supper this evening?
13) What meals are included into traditional English breakfast?
14) What is traditional Lithuanian food?
15) What is healthy food?
16) What methods of food cooking/ preparing can you name?
17) Do you like eating out? Why?

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REFERENCES
1. B. Imbrasien LITHUANIAN TRADITIONAL FOODS, Vilnius, 1998
2. D. Guiuvien, L.Lenkauskien 14 ENGLISH TOPICS, Kaiiadorys, 1998
3. L.Soars, J. Soars HEADWAY STUDENTS BOOK, Oxford,1999
4. L.Soars, J. Soars HEADWAY WORKBOOK, Oxford,1999
5. R. Murphy ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE, Cambridge, 1997
6. V. Evans, J. Dooley ENTERPRISE 3 COURSEBOOK, Swansea, 1998
7. V. Evans, J. Dooley ENTERPRISE 3 WORKBOOK, Swansea, 1998
8. V. Evans, J. Dooley MISSION COURSEBOOK, Newbury, 2000
9. V. Evans, FCE USE OF ENGLISH, Newbury, 2000
10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
11. http://www.vegsource.com/nutrition/pyramid.htm
12. www.bicyclegermany.com/german_food_&_drink.htm

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