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Simulation of Calibrating a particle beam using silicon sensors.

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Professor: Matthew Jones

Author: Samuel Higginbotham

December 19, 2014

Abstract

The focus of this project is the analysis of a proton beam incident on an array of Commercial

BPW34FS silicon p-i-n Diodes to profile a particle beam. The goal of the experiment was to obtain

values of the forward voltage and compare the results before and after irradiation in order to map a

spatial intensity distribution to the cross-section of the beam based on the forward voltage. The prospect

of even equivalence in the beam for an arbitrary part is discussed. Further investigation and the start

of the analysis used Equivalence Fluence of 5 1014 neq /cm2 and the diodes were read out at room

temperature in both reverse bias and forward bias regions up to a compliance limit of 1mA.

Introduction

semiconductors behave in a beam that is mostly used

The effect of radiation on silicon diodes is for rare isotope measurement. The prospect of future

recorded well, and their properties examined in great research and development at Purdues beam line can

detail even at higher radiation dosages/higher equiv- be entertained.

alent fluences [1]. When Silicon Diodes are radiated

their dark current - an intrinsic current that is meaMeasurement

sured at different voltages when there is no excita- 2

tion of the diode - increases. This phenomena can

The diodes have been fixated to a circuit board

be attributed to a damage of the crystal lattice,

in

an

array of 20 with a separation of 6.72mm in the

or for a more thorough explanation, the radiation

horizontal

direction and 4.20mm in the vertical direcdamage produces traps that cause the semiconduction.

tor to have high resistivity and dense generationrecombination centers, visit the sources listed for further information[1] & [2]. Radiation and Semiconductors is a rich study with copious amounts of material;

however, this study is interested in the before and

after behavior of the diodes in order to map an intensity distribution. The BPW34FS silicon p-i-n diodes

in use are extremely stable semiconductors with well

known distributions that follow solid-state semiconductor theory. The forward and reverse bias regions

are invariant under measurement assuming same temperature and other environmental conditions. Once

the diodes are irradiated they can be measured at

the same temperature as they were before irradiation

to observe the changes that the radiation caused in

the dark current. Room temperatures may be used if

the experimentalist is careful to measure voltage at

Array of Diodes No Pitch and Spacing:6.724.20mm

or under 1mA of current for fluences on the order of

1 1015 neq /cm2 [1].

The IV curves of each diode are measured before and

The sensitivity of radiation and the ease of use after dosage in a temperature controlled room with a

provides enough motivation to use these silicon p-i- light sealed testing area. A Keithley 2410 Source men diodes as a measurement tool for the beam profile ter was used to precisely measure the dark current at

at the location where dosage parts would be placed. different bias voltages. To be thorough, the forward

1

diode. The forward region was scanned from 0 Volts

to 3 Volts with a step size of 0.05 Volts and Delay

of 2 seconds and the reverse region from 0 Volts to

300 Volts with a step size of 10 Volts and Delay of 2

seconds. The compliance limit was set to 1mA. Once

the current is measured in the forward region, the associated IV curve can be fitted to return a function

that can be used to find the forward voltage at any

particular current.

In order to measure the change in fluence the

diodes are to be radiated at the end of the beam pipe

at normal incidence to ensure that the cross section

has no spatial dispersion effects. The full experimental setup would place several of these, on separate

runs, at different distances from the Beryllium window. Placing multiple diodes will allow the analysis

of how the beam disperses outward in the direction

of the beam line.

After irradiation the diodes were measured once

again to find the change in the dark current which can

then be normalized and mapped to a spatial intensity

distribution.

DATA

the reverse bias measurement and extrapolating the

flat line or taking an average of those points in the

neighborhood before breakdown.

Current A

0.001

0.0008

0.0006

0.0004

0.0002

0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Voltage V

has been fitted with the Shockley diode equation and

the forward voltage can be obtained easily from the

fitted function. The diodes are rather invariant before the irradiation. To show this quality, below is a

picture of all 20 diodes from array 2 graphed together.

Data

diodes before and after the radiation. Shown below is

the readout of Diode 2. The readout graph for the 20

diodes are superimposed to show the low variance.

The graph can fitted by a simple exponential relationship and inverted to find the particular voltage

at a specified current.

The current to the voltage in a semiconductor can

be modeled with the Shockley diode equation[4]:

V0 q

I = IS e kT 1

0.001

0.0008

0.0006

0.0004

charge of the electron, k the Boltzmann constant, and

T the temperature in kelvins.

0.0002

0

Current A

Reverse Bias

0

0.0002

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.0004

where they are located on the array is also possible:

0.0006

0.0008

0.001

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

Voltage V

ANALYSIS

Analysis

cross section it is natural to calculate a Bivariate Normal Distribution to fit to the array of diodes in order

to calculate the probability density function that can

be used later for contour analysis and fitting for even

equivalence flux.

0.52

0.518

0.516

0.514

0.512

T 1

1

1

p

e( 2 (~x) (~x))

n

(2) ||

10

0.51

5

10

5

0

0

5

5

10

10

Note: The bin widths dont directly correlate to the

dimensions of the diode

the function that should describe an x-y spatial intensity distribution with weights of the intensity at

each point corresponding to the dark current readout.

The bivariate case is as follows[3]:

not found in time, so the formula below can be used

to generate theoretical data. The forward voltage relative to the fluence can be described in the following

way[1]:

f (x, y) =

B

p

2x y

1 2

eA

V0 = eq

(x x )2

1

A=

2(1 2 )

x 2

2

2(x x )(y y )

(y y )

+

y 2

x y

beam would die off over a Gaussian distribution. In

[1] the and parameters were found to be:

= 4.27 1018

= 1.289

voltage

in x, and similar for the y direction. Thus

The forward voltage as a function of fluence can be

ROOT

can

be used to find the spatial distribution

computed assuming the fluence dies off radially like

on

the

diode.

The fitting function in the data sec14

a 2D gaussian. Here eq = 5 10 Note: Gaussian

tion

can

have

parameters

returned and the contour

may be more skewed and sharper in practice.

mapped effectively:

Simulation of Radiation

h4

Entries

20

Mean x 3.037

Mean y 2.078

RMS x

3.744

RMS y

2.606

30

10

25

20

15

0

10

5

0

10

10

5

10

10

10

Simulation with Fit

10

10

REFERENCES

be measured a bivariate distribution can be fitted and

the values of the means and standard deviations can

be obtained. The fitting function can then be used

as a guide to place a sensor for a particular amount

of fluence. The parameters for this simulation would

be:

***********************************

X Mean -3.0825

X Standard Deviation 14.743

Y Mean -2.08

Y Standard Deviation 6.71281

Correlation Parameter Sig.xy 3.38e-05

***********************************

Even Equivalence

interested in an even dosage. After mapping out the

forward voltage to the spatial cross section of the

beam, the fitting parameters may show exactly where

the experimenter should place the sensor for the desired equivalence fluence.

If the experimentalist was very ambitious then a

contour on the fitting function can be picked to find

the equivalence fluence of interest and the part can be

traced along the contour to over the dosage time to

obtain an even amount of radiation. In practice this

would be rather difficult, because a motor would have

to be constructed to traverse the contour effectively.

Discussion

Conclusion

profiling tool was explored. The diodes are invariant before irradiation at room temperature, in a light

sealed environment. Due to time constraints, the irradiated data had to be simulated; however, with the

valuable fitting parameters obtained from [1] the data

could be simulated rather easily. The irradiated forward voltage can then be fitted with a bivariate distribution, which will indicate where the desired fluence or dosage can be obtained, assuming the beam is

not moved between subsequent runs. Therefore using

Commercial BPW34FS silicon p-i-n Diodes to profile

PRIME Labs particle beam seems completely feasible. Further investigation and further study with real

data should be implemented.

indeed hypothetical. The measurements for the forward voltage were real for the unirradiated diodes,

but because of time constraints, the data generated from the equivalence fluence was purely fictitious. Even though the data is generated, the analysis should work in a real run, and there is enough

motivation to complete this analysis.

The science and relationships behind these semiconductors are well known to the point where if the

particle beam can be used to dose these diodes then

the chance in the voltage and the equivalence flux can

be measured, because both can be easy measured as

shown in the study [1].

Given that the relationships themselves are likely

in a real run, there is reason to believe that the distribution should be similar to what is seen here, which

means that the analysis is quite plausible for the real

scenario. This analysis has quite a few advantages

over other techniques which should be discussed.

Using an array of diodes to calibrate or profile

a beam has some advantages to other methods. The

diodes are placed where a silicon sensor may be placed

if the beam is being used for new physics, which

means that the radiation would be extremely similar to what parts place in the beam would see. The

accuracy of a beam profiler up the beam line is different because there may be dispersion of the beam

as it comes to the part. Also using the diodes creates

vital experience for those who havent been familiarized with silicon sensor lingo and technology, not to

mention that the array of diodes is probably less expensive than a beam profiler.

References

[1] J. Mekki, M. Moll, M. Fahrer, M. Glaser, and L.

Dusseasu, Senior Member, IEEE. Prediction of

the Response of the Commercial BPW34FS Silicon p-i-n Diode Used as Radiation Monitoring

Sensors up to Very High FluencesIEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 57, No. 4, August

2010.

[2] H. Spieler, Chinese Physics C 33.7. Semiconductor detectors November 2013. Vol. 38, No. 9,

September 2014.

[3] Hamedani, G. G.; Tata, M. N. (1975). On the determination of the bivariate normal distribution

from distributions of linear combinations of the

variables. The American Mathematical Monthly

82 (9): 913?915. doi:10.2307/2318494

[4] All

About

Circuits(2014).http

ROOT CODE

ROOT Code

double a = p[0];

double ux = p[1];

double uy = p[2];

double sx = p[3];

double sy = p[4];

double sxy = p[5];

double det = sx*sy-sxy*sxy;

double wx = sy/det;

double wy = sx/det;

double wxy = -sxy/det;

double arg = (x[0]-ux)*(x[0]-ux)*wx+

2*(x[0]-ux)*(x[1]-uy)*wxy+

(x[1]-uy)*(x[1]-uy)*wy;

return a*exp(-0.5*arg);//(2*3.141592654)/sqrt(det);//took out the normalization factor...

}

/*****************************************************************************************

***********************************************************************************/

double fit1(double *x, double *p){

double a = p[0];//the saturation current for the reverse bias region.

double k = 1.3806488e-23;

double T = p[1];

double q = 1.60217657e-19;

return a*(exp(x[0]*q/(k*T)) - 1);

}

/********************************************************************************

*******************************************************************************/

void parsegraph2(){

//This program attemps to read multiple files

//based on the input file as the following convention:

//array#.diode#.biasDirect.ext

//The following doubles and constants are for reading out each diode

//...find the iv curve fit it, then use the inverting function in

//ROOT to obtain the forward Voltage.

Double_t SpatCur[20];

Double_t SpatVol[20];

Double_t Posx[20] = {1,1,1,1,1,2,2,2,2,2,3,3,3,3,3,4,4,4,4,4};

Double_t Posy[20] = {1,2,3,4,5,1,2,3,4,5,1,2,3,4,5,1,2,3,4,5};

Double_t VD[20];

//The current that will correlate to a forward voltage for the fit1 function

ROOT CODE

double ID = 100e-6;

double Is = 2.5e-10;//2.5e-6;//The saturation current for the diodes.

double Temp = 283;//The temperature in kelvin...Room temp here at 20 degrees celcius.

//Graphing each of the IV Curves

TCanvas *c1 = new TCanvas("Diode Readout","Diode Readout",200,10,600,400);

//c1->Divide(3);

TGraph *g[20];

TMultiGraph *mg = new TMultiGraph();

//Declaring the fitting function to fit the iv curves

TF1 *f1 = new TF1("f1",fit1, 0, 0.6, 2);

f1->SetParameters(Is,Temp);

/*************************************************************************************/

for(int fo = 1; fo<21;fo++){

//character strings for reading the file names and creating multiple graphs.

char buffer[32];

char name[20];

snprintf(buffer, sizeof(char) * 32, "array2.%i.f.txt",fo);

g[fo-1] = new TGraph();

const char *file;

file = fopen(buffer,"r");

char line[64];

ifstream in(buffer);

in.getline(line,sizeof(line));

int n = 0;

while ( ! in.eof() ) {

in.getline(line,sizeof(line));

if ( ! in.eof() ) {

char *p = line;

while ( isspace(*p) ) p++;

if ( *p == \0 ) break;

double x = strtod(p,&p);

while ( isspace(*p) ) p++;

double y = strtod(p,&p);

g[fo-1]->SetPoint(n,-x,-y);

n++;

//mg->Add(g[n++]);

}

}

g[fo-1]->SetLineColor(fo);

mg->Add(g[fo-1]);

g[fo-1]->Fit("f1");

g[fo-1]->GetXaxis()->SetTitle("Voltage V");

g[fo-1]->GetYaxis()->SetTitle("Current A");

ROOT CODE

VD[fo-1] = f1->GetX(100e-6,0.4,0.6,1e-11,100,false);

cout<<"The Forward Voltage at "<<ID<<" is: "<< VD[fo-1]<<"\n";

cout<<"Reading File "<<buffer<<"\n";

//fclose(file);

}

/******************************************************************************/;

//this section will graph only the diode readouts separately.

//c1->cd(3);

mg->SetTitle("Forward Bias Read Outs");

//mg->Draw("a fb l3d");

//g[2]->Draw("A*");

g[2]->Fit("f1");

//f1->Draw("L Same");

g[2]->GetXaxis()->SetTitle("Voltage V");

g[2]->GetYaxis()->SetTitle("Current A");

//g[2]->SetTitle("Example of Diode IV Readout");

//mg->Draw("AL");

//c1->cd(2)

/***************************************************************************************/

//This section fills a histrogram for the data we have to show that we can

//these are unirradiated.

TH2 *h2 = new TH2D("h2","Foward Voltage at 100e-6A",4,-12.33,12.33,5,-10.4,10.4);

int index = 0;

for ( int i = 1; i<=4; i++ ) {

for ( int j= 1; j<=5; j++ ) {

h2->SetBinContent(i,j,VD[index++]);

}

}

/***************************************************************************************/

//Calling the fitting function and histrogram to fill it.

//This should simulate the data we need.

//This represents the data for the irradiated forward

double vr = (4.27e-18)*pow(5e14,1.289);

voltage...this value will be passed into the double gaussian.

cout<<"Irradiated forward voltage: "<<vr<<"\n";

TH2 *h3 = new TH2D("h3","simulated data",4,1,5,5,1,6);

TF2 *fn = new TF2("fn",func,-12.33,12.33,-10.4,10.4,6);

fn->SetParameters(vr,0,0,5,5,1);

TGraph2D *g2 = new TGraph2D(20,Posx,Posy,VD);

TRandom *r = new TRandom();

TH2 *h4 = new TH2D("h4","Simulation of Radiation",4,-12.33,12.33,5,-10.4,10.4);

//h4->FillRandom("fn",1000);

Double_t VS[20];

for(int i = 0; i<20 ; i++){

VS[i] = vr*exp(-((double)i-10)*((double)i-10));

}

index = 0;

for ( int i = 1; i<=4; i++ ) {

for ( int j= 1; j<=5; j++ ) {

h4->SetBinContent(i,j,(4.27e-18)*

pow((5e14)*exp(-(j-2.5)*(j-2.5))*exp((-(i-2)*(i-2))),1.289));

//h4->SetBinContent(i,j,vr*exp(-(j-2.5)*(j-2.5))*exp((-(i-2)*(i-2))));

}

}

//Drawing the various histograms and/or contours.

//fn->Draw("surf1");

//h4->Draw("lego2");

h4->Fit("fn");

fn->Draw("cont");

fn->SetTitle("Fitting Function Simulation");

//Getting the fitting paramters:

cout<<"***********************************"<<"\n";

cout<<"X Mean "<<fn->GetParameter(1) <<"\n";

cout<<"X Standard Deviation "<<fn->GetParameter(3) <<"\n";

cout<<"Y Mean "<<fn->GetParameter(2) <<"\n";

cout<<"Y Standard Deviation "<<fn->GetParameter(4) <<"\n";

cout<<"Correlation Parameter Sig.xy "<<fn->GetParameter(5)<<"\n";

cout<<"***********************************"<<"\n";

//c1->cd(1);

//h2->Draw("Lego2");

//c1->cd(2);

//g2->Draw("Surf1");

}

This research project has expanded my understanding in multiple ways and some key concepts and

software utilized were:

Familiarization with C++

Familiarization with ROOT

Familiarization with Latex

Partical Beam Concepts

Solid State Semiconductor Theory

Partical Physics Statistics

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