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Criteria for Process Selection

Criteria

Rating
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3
2
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Environmental Effects and Impact


Process and Plant Economics
Product Quality and Yield
Safety and Security of Operation
Process Integration and Smooth Operation

Separation
Process

Azeotropic
Distillation

Extractive
Distillation

Description

Advantages

Ratin
g (+)

Involves
the Can efficiently
formation of an
remove dilute
azeotrope,
or
concentrations of
the use of an
more volatile
existing
components
azeotrope,to
effect
the
desired
separation. The
azeotrope can
be formed by
the addition of a
third component
or entrainer to
the system.

Based on the Complete,


introduction of a
standalone
selective solvent
operation.
that
interacts More degrees of
differently with
freedom in design
each of the
than the other
components of
options, allowing
the
original
greater flexibility in
mixture
and
implementation.

Disadvantages
Relatively large
amount of entrainer.
Entrainer and volatile
components must
be vaporized and
be obtained as
distillate product.
Higher energy
demand because of
the vaporization of
the entrainer.

Ratin
g (-)

Overal
l
Rating

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1

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3

Molecular
Sieve

Pervaporatio
n

which generally Can process a


shows a strong
higher capacity.
affinity with one Heat integration
of
the
key
technology can be
components.
applied between in
both columns.
Easy operability and
controllability.
Products are
obtained free of
solvent.
Amount of solvent
used is usually
lower than
azeotropic
entrainer in AD.
Not all solvent needs
to be
vaporized(solvent
obtained as bottom
product).
Lower energy
requirements than
in AD.

Involves
High degree of
adsorption
on
dehydration
the
molecular Low energy
sieves.
This
consumption
process takes Permeance of the
advantage
of
bed
the difference of Absence of harmful
molecular size
emissions to the
of ethanol and
environment
water molecules
to adsorb in a
selective
way
water molecules
and
allowing
ethanol
separation.

A
membrane No additional water
separation
or salts that have

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2

process which
negative effect on
uses
vapor
the product quality.
No impact on the
pressure
environment, since
difference
as
neither wastewater
the
driving
nor salt solutions
force.
containing
methanol have to
be treated.
Low energy
consumption.

PressureSwing
distillation

Process
in Energy saving by
which
heat integration of
separation
is
the system.
done by altering No need to add an
the pressure. It
entrainer or a
is based on the
solvent for the
fact
that
separation.
azeotrope
is
pressure
dependent.

Lack of experimental
VLE data in the
literature for binary
systems at different
pressures.
Higher complexity of
the process and a
more complex
automation.
Uneconomical

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