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Amalanaathipiraan : Introduction 1
Paasurams and Commentary 7
Taniyan 1 & 2 9 - 10
Paasuram 1 11
Paasuram 2 15
Paasuram 3 18
Paasuram 4 21
Paasuram 5 24
Paasuram 6 27
Paasuram 7 30
Paasuram 8 33
Paasuram 9 36
Paasuram 10 39
Appendix - Sri.K.Sridharan's Tamil Commentaries 43
MunivAhana BhOgam : Introduction 93- 95
Paasuram 1 97
Paasuram 1 99
Paasuram 3 101
Nigamanam 107
C O N T E N T S
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ThiruppANAzhwAr

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1

+ ~l-+
+ ~lP6 ¹lPl+ =l4 +P-+

II INTRO DUC TIO N NTRO DUC TIO N NTRO DUC TIO N
ThiruppaaN Azhwaar is the ninth among the 12 Azhwaars. He has ten
paasurams among the divine collect Four Thousand revered as
"Amalanaadhipiraan" Prabhandham. His Bhagavad anubhavam moved many of
the Vaishnava Acharyas.
This Azhwaar's prabhandham is different from all the other aazhwaar's
prabhandhams in that it does not contain any upadesams, critique of Veda-
Baahya Mathams, messages sent to the Lord as His Naayaki et al.
Thiruppaanar's prabhandham is an aanandha-lahari (limitless outpourings of the
bliss of aanandham) at the anubhavam of the Lord's Sarvaanga Soundharyam
and its redeeming effect. Azhwaar is totally lost in that blissful anubhavam
and the ten paasurams arose from him as "the revelational hymns"
Swami Desikan was so overwhelmed by the profound Bhagavad Anubhavam of
the Azhwar that he declared the ten verse compendium to be the essence of
countless Vedic texts. He went on to compose a sthothram in Sanskrit known
as “Sri Bhagavad Dhyana Sobhaanam" eulogizing Lord Ranganatha in the manner
in which ThiruppANar enjoyed the Lord inside the garbha gruham at
Srirangam.
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2
Swami Sri Vedanta Desikan described ThiruppANAzhwAr's prabhandham as
“sukavi sookti” and was so moved by it that he wrote a 60 plus palm-leaves long
commentary on these uniquely beautiful 10 paasurams that celebrate the
Sarvanga Soundharyam and the anantha kalyANa guNams of NamperumAL.
HISTO RY HISTO RY HISTO RY
ThiruppaaNAzhwAr by tradition is considered to be Ayonija or one, who is not
born of mortal human beings. He is also considered as an Amsa (Sri Vatsa
mark, the Mole on the chest) of Sriman Narayana. He was brought up however
as a foster-child by a childless couple of the Paanar caste (wandering minstrel
caste like that of Neelakanta Yazhpaanar, who accompanied Thiru Jn~Aana
Sambhandar).
ThiruppaaNaar was a resident of one of the 108 divya desams known as Kozhi
or Nisulapuri, which is on the banks of Cauveri River, very close to Sri Rangam.
Because of His caste, he felt unqualified to enter into Srirangam to have the
darsanam of Sri Ranganathan that he longed for. Hence, He used to come to
the banks of Cauvery and close his eyes and sing with deep anubhavam about
the kalyana gunams of the Lord every morning.
A great scholar by the name of Loka Saaranga Muni was the temple servant at
that time at Srirangam and was assigned the duties of bringing Thirumanjanam
water (holy water for the bath of the iconic form of Lord Ranganaathan) every
morning. During the collection of the water from cauvery, Loka Saaranga Muni
will have a cloth over his mouth and will not speak to anyone until he brought
the Cauvery waters to the Lord's sannidhi.. He was called a Muni by the
residents of Sri Rangam because of his piety and scholarship. He devoted
every moment of his life to the service of the Lord at Sri Rangam.
On one particular day, when Muni came to fetch water for Ranganaathan's
Thirumanjanam, Thiruppaanar was singing on the banks of Cauvery as usual
totally unaware of the fact that the place he was singing from was very close
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3

to the site, where Loka Saaranga Muni fetched water for the Lord. Since Muni
could not speak, he threw a small stone at the Azhwaar signaling him to move
away.
That stone hit Thiruppaanar's forehead and blood began to ooze out of the
wound. Recognizing his mistake, Thiruppaanar moved away to permit the
uninterrupted access to the river by Muni to collect thirumanjanam water for
the Lord.
Muni collected the water, reached the temple and the sacred bath was
conducted for the Lord. That night, Muni had a dream in which Lord
Ranganaatha ordered him (Muni) to carry His dear Bhakthan on his (Muni’s)
shoulders to His sannidhi. Next morning, Muni rushed to the site, where
Thiruppaanar was engaged in singing with his lute and begged him to ride on his
shoulders as commanded by Lord Ranganaathan.
Although Thiruppaanar was uncomfortable, he obeyed the Lord's command and
rode on the shoulders of Muni with closed eyes until he reached the Lord's
sannidhi. The Azhwar was thus transported to the sanctum and earned the
title as Munivahana.
When he opened his eyes at the Sannidhi to see the Lord's auspicious and
majestic Thirumeni, he (Thiruppaanar) was overwhelmed by that blissful
experience. He began to salute the beauty of the Lord from Thiruppadhams
(Sacred Feet) to His crown in ten most moving paasurams.
At the end of his salutations through the ten paasurams of Amalanaadhipiraan,
he (Thiruppaanar) declared that his eyes will not care to see anything else
anymore and he merged right away in the divine jyothi of Periya Perumaal at
His aasthaanam.
SRI VA ISHNA VITE A C HA RYA ’ SRI VA ISHNA VITE A C HA RYA ’ SRI VA ISHNA VITE A C HA RYA ’ SS S TRIBUTES TO THIRUPPA A NA A ZHWA R TRIBUTES TO THIRUPPA A NA A ZHWA R TRIBUTES TO THIRUPPA A NA A ZHWA R
Mahapurna or Periya Nambi composed the Taniyan (invocatory Verse) in
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4
Sanskrit in Praise of this work of the Azhwar, which begins with the words:
Hl9l7¬7P+¬4 r|¹ H4l+
P\4 T4¹T|r6P|76l-6¹ltPl·
Hã7 6l +4+4l |4 94l-6¹lTl
4l |+|¾Tl4 P+4 P|+4lr+ 6P+
.uaa =Lu=µm ea|u mmanu
ua a ßmaßea se|sa maiaan aaaa ua
.a ao Lmaau nmnßmaa e|oman aaamu
ßmanim aiaam unee mnieaenn au .
ApAdacUDamanubhUya hariM shayAnaM
madhye kavareduhiturmuditAntarAtmA |
adraSTRRitAM nayanayorviSayAntarANAM
yo nishchikAya manavai munivAhanaM tam ||
Dr. V. K. S. N. Raghavan’s translation of this Taniyan is as follows:
“Let me contemplate on TiruppaanaAzhwar (Munivahana, the saint who was
carried to the precincts of the shrine of Lord Ranganatha, by
Lokasarangamamuni on his shoulders), whose inner soul (antaratma) became
enraptured at the sight of the reclining Lord Hari (Ranganatha) betwixt (the
two streams of) the river Kaveri, and who, having experienced (the vision of
the Lord) from the feet to His head declared that his eyes would not see any
other objects (except the Lord).
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5

The second Taniyan in Tamil is said to be composed by Thirumalai Nambi or
Srisaila Purna, who summarized the Azhwaar’s composition in a quintessential
manner.
aaL Lße ae L uaa au­u n­ ­aeL vn ai,
ßaL Lmu vaa un au aimuaa u ae Lu Cae eam ,
eaL Lu|­ ae am ßu«| m«|ßmm|a a«|uæn s,
uaL Ls­ ae ( eamu uaea aam uae|ßsßu.

kAttavE kaNda pAdha kamalam nallAdai undhi,
thEttarum udhara bandham thirumArbu kaNdam sevvAy,
vAttamil kaNkaL mEni muniyERith thanipugunthu,
pAttinAl kaNdu vAzhum pANarthAL paravinOmE.

The translation given by Sri Raghavan for this verse is as follows:
“Let us sing in praise of the holy feet of Sri ThiruppaanaAzhwar, who entered
(the holy shrine of Lord Ranganatha) riding on the shoulders of the sage
(Lokasaranga-Mahamuni) saw(the Lord in full) and sung (in praise) HIM limb by
limb, as the Lord showed to him, i. e., the lotus feet, the silk garment, the
navel, the waist band of rare excellence, the holy chest, the neck, the red
mouth (with rosy lips), the eyes of unfading (red lotus charm) and the (whole
divine) Archa form.”
Sri Vedantha Desikan was so moved by the ten verses of Amalanaadhipiraan
that he paid multiple tributes to the Azhwar and called him as "PaaN
PerumAL". He (Swamy Desikan) wrote a beautiful commentary for the
Prabhandham of ThiruppANar. It is pertinent to observe that this is the only
prabhandham among the assembly of 24 dhivya Prabhandhams that Swamy
Desikan has chosen to comment upon in extensive detail (muni Vaahana
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6
BhOgam). The other commentaries relating to the Dhivya Prabhandhams by
Swamy Desikan such as Madhura Kavi Hrudhayam, Nigama ParimaLam are no
longer available to us.
Let us fall at the feet of PANar who experienced the beauty of the lotus feet,
dress, navel, the chest, neck, red lips, eyes, ThirumEni on seeing the Lord and
expressed his joy about seeing them through his Prabhandham.













7













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8






Amalan - AthipirAn





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9

TT TANIYAN ANIYAN ANIYAN 11 1
Hl9l7¬ 7P+ ¬ 4 r|¹ H4l+
P\4 T4¹ T|r6 P |76l-6¹ltPl·
Hã7 6l +4+4l |4 94l-6¹lTl
4l |+|¾Tl4 P+4 P |+4lr+ 6P +
.uaa =Lu=µm ea|u mmanu
uaaßmaßea se|samaiaan aaaaua
.a ao Lmaau nmnßmaa e|omanaaamu
ßmanimaiaam unee mnieaennau .
ApAdacUDamanubhUya hariM shayAnaM
madhye kavareduhiturmuditAntarAtmA |
adraSTRRitAM nayanayorviSayAntarANAM
yo nishchikAya manavai munivAhanaM tam ||

This Taniyan is about the enjoyment of Lord RanganAtha from Lotus feet to
Crown (AapaadhachUdam) by the AzhwAr.



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10
TT TANIYAN ANIYAN ANIYAN 22 2
aaLLße aeL uaa au­u n­ ­aeL vnai,
ßaLLmu vaa unau aimuaau aeLu Caeeam ,
eaLLu|­ aeam ßu«| m«|ßmm|a a«|uæns,
uaLLs­ ae( eamu uaeaaam uae|ßsßu.

kAttavE kaNda pAdha kamalam nallAdai undhi,
thEttarum udhara bandham thirumArbu kaNdam sevvAy,
vAttamil kaNkaL mEni muniyERith thanipugunthu,
pAttinAl kaNdu vAzhum pANarthAL paravinOmE.

In this Taniyan, the limb by limb MangaLAsAsanam of the AzhwAr of Lord
RanganAtha through His Prabhandham is saluted.










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11

PP PAASURAM AASURAM AASURAM 11 1
.u­« .aiu|aa« + .Lmaa aæ e« 2« .L u(a a-
e|u­« , +e|e eea ßaa« +e|eamaa Cuau|­ ßemaLe« ,+
niu­« ni« u­« nai ea«e« , +nmuaim .amaas .u ua« ,+aima-
au­ uaau en s+ e«aee|em m« qa ai« mßa.

amalan AthipirAn adiyArkku ennai Atpaduththa-
vimalan viNNavar kOn viraiyAr pozil vEngkadavan
nimalan ninmalan nIthi vAnavan, nILmathiL aranggaththu ammAn,
thiruk kamala pAtham vanthu enkaNNinuLLana okkinRathE.

"neeL mathil arangan"
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MM M EA NING EA NING EA NING
As mentioned earlier, all the ten paasurams are pure aanandham (bliss)
experienced by ThiruppAnAzwar, on having the darshan of Sri Ranganatha. He
calls him Amalan - pure and perfect and AdhipirAn- the first and foremost of
all. He, the radiant one who made me a humble slave of the servants of the
AdhipirAn, He, the king of the Devas, the one who resides among the fragrant
gardens in ThiruVenkatam, the blemishless one who never sways from justice,
the one who resides in the long and lofty walls of Thiruvanrangam – His sacred
lotus feet seem to have on their own will entered my eyes.
WW WO RD O RD O RD BY BY BY WW WO RD O RD O RD CC C O M M ENTA RY O M M ENTA RY O M M ENTA RY: : :
Let us comment on the words of Paasuram one at a time:
1. Amalan: The Rangasaayee is perfection itself; He is the opposite of
every kind of blemish. He removes the sins of His adiyArs and grants
them Moksham.
2. Aadhi: He is the cause of all the Universes and its beings (Jagath
KaaraNan). He is the creator of every thing and no one creates Him.
3. PirAn: He has the power of granting every thing from Svaroopam to the
jeevan to Moksham. He is thus a MahOpakAran. He protects us in so
many ways. All of these are elaborations of the letter “A” of PraNavam.
4. AdiyArkku yennai Aatpaduttha: He is the One who made me the dhAsan
of His adiyArs. Who is an adiyAr ? All the jeevans are sEshAs to the
Lord in reality but only those who are cognizant of being sEshars to the
Lord are classified as adiyArs or BhAgavathAs or lieges of the Lord.
5. Vimalan: One without blemish at all times.
6. ViNNavarkkOn: The Lord of Nithya Sooris (eternally liberated souls).
7. VirayAr Pozhil Venkatavan: He is the One standing on top of
Thiruvenkatam Hills amidst fragrant (virayAr) groves (pozhil). One does
not need to worry that He is at a difficult-to-reach place such as
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13

Parama Padham; One can enjoy Him easily at the ThiruvEnkatam hills
populated by fragrant groves.
8. Nimalan: He is SarvEswaran and yet does not want His adiyars to be
hesitant to approach Him because of His SarvEswarathvam. He makes
Himself easy to approach by hiding His SarvEswarathvam.
9. Ninmalan: He is the abode of all KalyANa guNams. He will not find fault
with His adiyArs since He is their rakshakan.
10. Neethi Vaanavan: He is the Master of both the Leelaa VibhUthi (this
world) and Its Iswaryams as well as the Lord of Nithya VibhUthi
(Parama Padham). We should serve Him in this world just as Nithya
Sooris do at Sri Vaikuntam. He is The Lord who rules justly at His
supreme abode of Parama Padham.
11. NeeL MathiL Arangatthu AmmAn: This Lord who rules justly at Sri
Vaikuntam is now present at Srirangam. This Supreme Master of all
rests at Sriranga KshEthram surrounded by tall ramparts (NeeL MathiL
Arangam). This Supreme Lord, who is Sarva PrAkAra Svatantran has
become Sarva Sulabhan and rests at Srirangam as the limit of
Soulabhyam.
12. Thirukkamala Paadham: Those sacred feet of Sri RanganAthan are both
UpAyam (Means for Moksham) and Phalan (Goal). They are most
enjoyable and are very sacred. They chase away the sins of the adiyArs.
They are beautiful and soft like the Lotus flower.
13. Vanthu: Sri RanganAthan’s sacred feet of such mahimai have followed
adiyEn, who was running around everywhere without knowing their
glories and are in front of adiyEn now without any effort on my part.
14. Yenn kaNNinuLLana okkinrathE: What a wonder it is ! Those sacred
feet, which are not visible even to Brahma and other dEvAs even if they
have divine vision stand right in front of my fleshy eyes (maamsa
Chakshus) without any special effort on my part.
The fifteen KalyANa guNams of the Lord at their ascendancy are Mosha
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14
Pradhathvam, Jagath KaaraNathvam Rakshakathvam et al. These are described
in detail at the end of this section dealing with the meanings of the ten
Paasurams Of ThiruppANar.
The First Paasuram starts with the letter "A” (Amalan). The second and Third
Paasurams start with the letters "U” and “M”. Together A, U and M form the
PraNavam.
VV VA IKUNTA VA A SI A IKUNTA VA A SI A IKUNTA VA A SI SS SRI RI RI D. R D. R D. RA M A SWA M Y A M A SWA M Y A M A SWA M Y II IYENG YENG YENG AA A RR R'' 'SS S A NUBHA VA A NUBHA VA A NUBHA VA PA RIV PA RIV PA RIVAA A HA M HA M HA M : : :
He is:
1. Ever Pure/Amalan
2. The Primordial Being/ Aadhi
3. The Great Benefactor/Piraan
4. The ever Blemishless One consigning me to the service of the devoted/
adiyArkennai Aadpadutthum Vimalan
5. the Lord of the Celestials/ViNNavar kOnn
6. The Resident of Vengadam with fragrant groves / Virayaar Pozhil
7. the One who has no fault / Nimalan
8. the One ever remaining unaffected by the fault of the devotees /
Ninmalan
9. the One residing in righteous Parama Padham/Neethi Vaanavan
10. my Lord and Liege of Arangam with long ramparts/neeL mathiL Arangan
-His radiant lotus feet appear as if they have come into, and are in my
eyes.
The AzhwAr's focus in the first Paasuram is on Thirukkamala Paadham of Sri
RanganAthan. The remaining portion of the Paasuram salutes Lord RanganAtha
with TEN chosen epithets quoted above.

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15

PP PAASURAM AASURAM AASURAM 22 2
vena vm maasm + v­au .mns .eLmm,+
nien a nm mLm«+ .«m ßnana niaaaaea,+
aean a Cema2ea aaæaa« +aLmaaCuau|­ .amaa au ua« ,+
.eaa aien a .eLm|« ßu­ + Ca« maau e« aina2«ßm.

Uvantha uLLaththanAy ulagam aLanthu aNdamuRa,
Nivantha nILmudiyan anRu nErntha nisAsararai,
Kavarntha vengkaNaik kAkuththan kadiyArpozil arangaththammAn,
Ariachchivantha Adaiyin mEl senRathAm en sinthanaiyE.


‘His piercing arrows destroyed the demons’
Artwork courtesy of Madhavapriya www.glimpseofkrishna.com
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16
MM M EA NING EA NING EA NING :: :
ThiruppANAr now shifts his gaze from the sacred feet of the Lord to the red
dress of Sri Ranganatha. In it he sees Thrivikraman – the one whose golden
crown reached the top of the Universe, Kaakusthan – Lord Rama, who
destroyed the Rakshasa clan through his arrows. He declares: “With my heart
filled with delight, my thoughts go to the red dress (PeethAmbharam) on your
waist – to you, the Lord that lives among the fragrant groves of
Thiruvarangam”.
WW WO RD O RD O RD BY BY BY WO RD WO RD WO RD CC C O M M ENTA RY O M M ENTA RY O M M ENTA RY: : :
1. Uvantha uLLatthanAi ulaham aLanthu aNDam uRa: with a joyous heart as
Thrivikraman, He measured the universe all the way upto the roof of
the world (aNDam). His foot hit the roof of the aNDam (aNDam uRa).
2. anDam uRa nivantha neeL mudiyan: as His (Thrivikraman’s) foot grew
and His tall crown (nivantha neeL mudiyan) collided against the ceiling of
the Universe (aNDam uRa nivanthathu); His extended foot touched
every one’s head on the way and removed their sins. Brahma dEvan
washed that foot with water from his KamanDalu as Padhyam and Sivan
placed that Sri Paadha Theertham on His head and got purified.
Thrivikrama avathAram was to retrieve the riches from MahA Bali and
return them to the legitimate owners (devAs). He was joyous (uavntha
uLLathanAi) at the thought of helping th dEvAs. He blessed the dEvAs
with ishta prApthi. Next, ThiruppANar focuses on the anishta nivrutthi
(removal of sorrows of those tormented by the asurAs) in he
RaamAvathAram.
3. anRu nErntha niSAchararai kavarntha VenkaNai Kaakutthan: “anRu”
here refers to the day when the dEvAs performed SaraNAgathy to the
Lord to save them from the misery caused by asurAs like RaavaNan.
“nErntha nisAchararai" refers to the asurAs who fought with the dEvAs
and threatened them. Raamachandran gave the supplicating dEvaas His
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assurance of protection and took RaamAvathAram. He killed the asurAs
with His fierce arrows (nisAchararai kavarntha venkaNai Kaakutthan).
That Raamachandran is now presenting Himself at Srirangam as Archaa
Moorthy adorning the most beautiful red PeethAmbharam. ThiruppAnar states
that his mind left him and went on its own after the most beautiful
PeethAmbharam adorning the waist (arai) of the Lord of Srirangam surrounded
by fragrant groves (kadi Aarr pozhil Arangatthu AmmAn Arai sivanth aAadayin
mEl yen chinthanai senRathAm). AzhwAr says that his mind was fully
subjugated by the beauty of the Lord’s red PeethAmbharam.
VV VA IKUNTA VA A SI A IKUNTA VA A SI A IKUNTA VA A SI SS SRI RI RI D. R D. R D. RA M A SWA M Y A M A SWA M Y A M A SWA M Y II IYENG YENG YENG AA A RR R'' 'SS S JO YO US JO YO US JO YO US SUM M A RY SUM M A RY SUM M A RY O F O F O F THE THE THE
SS SEC O ND EC O ND EC O ND PP PA A SURA M A A SURA M A A SURA M : : :
The Lord of Arangam, with tall and erect head ornament, which pierced the
higher worlds when with great delectation is His heart, He measured the
world; who is the scion of the race of Kakut (an early king of solar race) whose
sharp and stinging arrows devoured the RaakshasAs, who confronted Him
(then), my mind has gone towards the reddish peethAmbharam worn by Him in
His waist.
Here AzhwAr acknowledges that his mind left him and went after the
enjoyment of the Lord's red dress. Azhwar was not aware of his mind reaching
towards the Lord's PeethAmbharam. He noticed it after the happening. The
hold of the beauty of the PeethAmbharam carries over into the next Paasuram
as well.
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PP PAASURAM AASURAM AASURAM 33 3
unai uam+ eL ßem aL uau2­,+ ea«eaam ,-
anai Cam m ni«+« + .amaas .ae|« .2ema« ,+
.nai ßua­ nimas .eLæu +.a«ßu­ .m2«u ueLa aßaaa eu|­ +
vnai ßu­a«ß++ .Lßm« vmmas G« em|ßa.

Manthi pAy vada vEnkata mAmalai, vAnavarkaL, -
Santhi seyya ninRAn aranggaththu aravin aNaiyAn,
anthi pOl niRaththu Adaiyum athanmEl ayanaip padaiththathOr ezil
unthi mElathanRO adiyEn uLLaththu innuyirE.
MM M EA NING EA NING EA NING :: :
He looks now above
the sunset hued red
dress on to the navel
from where appears
the lotus seat of
Brahma. He stands
a m o n g t h e
Thiruvenkatam hills
where monkeys are at
play, to enable the
Devas to worship Him
with flowers. He rests
on the Adhiseshan at
Thiruvarangam with
that sunset hued red
dress, above which is
‘mandhi pAi vadavenkatam’
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the beautiful navel – that divine beauty of the navel which created Brahma
dEvan, has captivated my heart and spirits.
WW WO RD O RD O RD BY BY BY WO RD WO RD WO RD CC C O M M ENTA RY O M M ENTA RY O M M ENTA RY:: :
1. Manthi Paay Vada Venkata Malai: The Northern boundary for the home
of Tamil speaking people is Venkatam and hence it is called Vada
Venkata Malai. Here, the monkeys jump from one branch to the other to
gather edible fruits.Their act is similar to the Jeevans jumping from
one perishable phalan to the other as Bhaddha chEtanams. This
mountain (malai) of ThiruvEnkatam is saluted as Maa malai (the great
One) because its stature approaches that of the Lord, who resides on
It.
2. VaanavarhaL santhy seyya ninRAn: Lord stood on His Vada Venakta Maa
Malai to receive the kaimkaryams by VaanavarhaL (nithya Sooris).
3. ArnagattharavinaNayAn: Thirumala is tall and takes effort to climb to
reach the top to perform Kaimkaryams for the Lord. Srirangam on the
other hand can be accessed easily and there the leader among the
nithya Sooris (Adhi Seshan) is performing kaimkaryam as bed, umbrella
and PaadhukA. Sri RanganAthan is resting on the fragrant, cool bed of
Adhi Seshan.
4. anthi pOl niRatthu Aadayaum: The hue of the red PeethAmbharam
around His waist is like the evening sky at sunset (Saayam sandhyA).
One who has the sevai of this PeethAmbharam will have all of his
ajn~Anam and thApa Thrayams banished.
5. "athan mEl Ayanai padaithathOrezhil unthi": near the PeethAmbharam,
the navel of the Lord and the Lotus that arose from there comes into
sight.This is The unthi that created Brahma dEvan on the lotus for lOka
srushti. This enchanting PeethAmbharadhAri, EmperumAn with His
PirAtti, is the sole UpAyam and UpEyam for Moksham .
6. “mElathanRO adiyEn uLLatthin uyirE": My soul is ready to enjoy this
celebrated navel of the Lord at Srirangam. Our Lord is Parama
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KaruNeekan. With His grace, adiyEn has been blessed to know about my
seshathvam to Him in His role as Sarva Seshi (Supreme Lord to all). My
mind’s sathva aspect has been enhanced and in the middle of it shines
the svaroopam of my jeevan. My prAnan and the Aathma (jeevaathmA)
residing in my heart vie with each other to enjoy the sacred navel of
the Lord of Srirangam.
VV VA IKUNTA VA A SI A IKUNTA VA A SI A IKUNTA VA A SI SS SRI RI RI D. R D. R D. RA M A SWA M Y A M A SWA M Y A M A SWA M Y II IYENG YENG YENG AA A RR R’’ ’ SS S FLO O D FLO O D FLO O D O F O F O F A NUBHA VA M A NUBHA VA M A NUBHA VA M : : :
Enjoyment of the PeethAmbharam continues and AzhwAr's gaze shifts upto
the navel above the Vasthram now. Out of the navel arises a lotus flower and
Brahma dEvan is going about his duties of creation assigned to him by his Lord
(ayanai padaitthathOr yezhil undhi). He is seen at Srirangam in the reclining
position; erstwhile, He was standing on ThiruvEngada Malai. Here for the first
time, AzhwAr uses the word “adiyEn” to show his dAsyathvam to His Swamy.

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PP PAASURAM AASURAM AASURAM 44 4
asaua uaim=u+ G­meaa æ Geme« a2­uas-
vaia ßeaL L,+ qa Cema2e+ vm aae« qa eee« +
usaua ee ( uaL+ uaum|­ .Lamaa s .uua« ,+aimem|m m-
vaa unau+ e« vmmasm ni«m v­aai« mßa.

chathuramA mathiLsUz ilanggaikku iRaivan thalaipaththu-
uthira vOtti Or vengkaNai uyththavan Otha vaNNan
mathuramA vaNdu pAda mAmayil Adaranggaththu ammAn,
thiruvaRRu-uthara bantham en uLLaththuL ninRu ulAkinRathE.

MM M EA NING EA NING EA NING :: :
AzhwAr’s gaze moves
further up to the belt on
his waist. He, the one
who destroyed the walled
fortress of Lanka and
killed the ten headed
mighty Ravana with his
powerful arrows, the
ocean colored one, is
reclining among the
drones of bees and
dances of peacocks at
Thiruvarangam. The belt
that adorns your waist is
fill ing his(AzhwAr’ s)
‘vatarangam-Ranganatha’
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22
heart with ecstasy.
With the above three Paasurams, the meaning of PraNavam (the first padham
of Moola mantram was covered.The next padham is “nama:" meaning annaya
sEshathvam (I am not my Master and I am not the Master of anyone). Our
Lord alone is the Seshi for this sEsha bhUthan. This meaning of “nama:"
sabdham (na mama) is covered in the 4th paasuram with the example of
RaavaNan, who was destroyed by Chakravarthy Thirumahan as punishment for
his offenses arising from ahankAra mamakArams. The middle portion of
Thirumanthiram is connected to the middle portion of the Lord’s ThirumEni
(udharam: waist) and the udhara bhandham (belt) there.
WW WO RD O RD O RD BY BY BY WW WO RD O RD O RD CC C O M M ENTA RY O M M ENTA RY O M M ENTA RY: : :
1. Chathura MaamathiL soozh Ilankaikku iRaivan: RaavaNan, the Lord of
Lankai surrounded by strong walls for its defense. RaavaNan was inside
this “invincible” fortified residence as the king of LankApuri.
2. "Ilankaikku iRaivan Talai patthu uthira Otti Ohr VenkaNai uytthavan”:
Our Lord sent a fierce arrow (venkaNai) to cut off all the ten heads of
RaavaNan (talai patthu uthira uytthavan).
3. "Odha VaNNan VenkaNai uytthavan": That Lord with the hue of the
blue ocean sent the fierce arrow that destroyed the VaNangAmudi,
RaavaNan in the battle field.
4. "Madhura MaavaNDu paada, Maa Mayil aada arangatthammAn, Odha
VaNNan": The ocean-hued beauty of this Lord of Srirangam (Odha
VaNNan) with Veera Lakshmi after destroying RaavaNan is enjoyed by
the nithya Sooris, who took the forms of Peacocks dancing to the music
of the bees. Our Lord listens to the Hari nAma sankeerthanam of the
Bramarams (bees) and enjoys the dance of the Peacocks at His dhivya
dEsam of Srirangam.
5. "ThiRu VayiRRu udhara bhandham yen uLLatthuL ninRu ulaa ninRathE":
The captivating waist band seen on the Lord’s ThirumEni stays firmly in
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23

adiyEn’s mind and roams there as veethi ulaa. The reference here is to
the darsanam of the waist of the Lord, which displays the three welt
marks from the ropes with which YasOdhaa tied Him up. His name
DhAmOdharan arose from those welt marks. His waist band (udhara
bhandham) is adjacent to those welt marks. Azhwar acknowledges that
the udhara bhandham has created a firm abode for itself in his mind
and is engaged in roaming there.



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PP PAASURAM AASURAM AASURAM 55 5
uaauam+ uue|2« um mma s,+ e« 2«a a«-
eaauaaai eea aa« + eeaaa«m| e« em uænaa« ,+
ßaaa uaaeu Cama«« Caa­ .m|ßm«+ .am aas .uua« ,+aim-
eaa uaa ua«ß++ .Lßm2« .LCaae Lßa.

pAramAya pazavinai paRRaRuththu ennaiththan-
vAramAkki vaiththAn vaiththathanRi ennuL pugunthAn,
gOra mAthavam seythanan kol aRiyEn aranggaththu ammAn,
thiru-vAra mArbathanRO adiyEnai AtkoNdathE.


‘1000 Pillar Mandapam– Srirangam’
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MM M EA NING EA NING EA NING :: :
He relieved me of the burden of my earlier sins; He made me adore him as a
devotee; not only that, He has now completely entered into me – have I done
great penance to deserve this? - I don’t know. The garland filled chest of
Thiruvarangan where the divine Mahalakshmi resides has mesmerized me now.
AA A VA TH VA TH VA THAA A RIKA I RIKA I RIKA I A ND A ND A ND THE THE THE WW WO RD O RD O RD BY BY BY WW WO RD O RD O RD CC C O M M ENTA RY O M M ENTA RY O M M ENTA RY:: :
In this fifth paasuram and the next one, AzhwAr focuses on the meanings of
“NaarAyaNa" sabdham of Thirumanthiram. Fifth paasuram focuses on the
matchless chest of the Lord, where Mahaa Lakshmi resides and the next
Paasuram moves upto the sacred neck of the Lord of Srirangam.
1. "PaaramAhiya pazhavinaikaL paRRu aRutthu": after cutting to their very
roots my heavy load of ancient sins.
2. “yennai tann Vaaram-AkkinAn": He made me His adimai (servant like one
of His antha: Pura Sthrees (ladies of the inner chamber) and put an end
to the sway of my indhriyams. He gave me the bliss of Kaimkarya SrI.
He made me enjoy this bliss for ever.
3. "VaitthathanRi yennuL puhunthAn": Not only did He transform me into
His adimai (Vaitthathu anRi) but also He entered into my mind and took
up residence (yennuL puhunthAn) there.
4. "kOra maatavam seythaNnan koll aRiyEn": for time memorial, adiyEn had
strayed away from Him.He was filled with desire to repossess me. Did
he do powerful penance to regain me and chose Srirangam as the
suitable place for that penance? adiyEn does not know. That grand
sankalpa tapas (kOra maa tavam) resulted in the destruction of all of
my ancient bundle of sins and made adiyEn’s SaraNAgathy fruitful.
adiyEn does not know how I came to be blessed this way. adiyEn did not
do any hard tapas and neither did I know whether He did such a tapas
to regain me, His property.
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26
5. "ArangatthammAn ThiruvAra Maarbhu anRO adiyEnai AatkkoNDathE":
How can adiyEn express my gratitude to this most compassionate Lord.
who condescended to bless this neechan. He is not one of the dhaivams
without their PirAttis. He is Sridharan, who is never ever separated
from His Devi, Mahaa Lakshmi. She has taken up permanent residence
on His vast and beautiful chest. He accepted adiYEn’s kaimkaryams in
unison with His PirAtti displaying yEka sEshithvam. It is this sErtthi
sEvai with His dEvi on His incomparable chest and With Her as His
lakshaNam (defining mark), the Lord of Srirangam blesses adiyEn with
His sevai. That vakshasthalam is adorned by Mahaa Lakshmi and a
haaram (Aaram/Vaijayanthi Maalai). That unique chest with these
lakshaNams have made adiyEn’s mind a slave to Him.
The thoughts for reflection from the meditation on the padhams of this
Pasuram are:
1. Sri Ranganathan’s chasing away of our natural enemies (virOdhi/anishta
nivrutthi),
2. Ishta prApthi (attainment of Moksham and nithya kaimkarayam),
3. His vyApakathvam as VishNu (pervasive presence inside and outside),
4. His ever-present dayaa to Jeevans,
5. His Sriya: Pathithvam
6. His soulabhyam (ease of access), which forms the basis of Him
standing as UpAyam (means for Sathgathi),
7. His Parathvam, which is the root of His being Phalan / PrApyam/
upEyam
8. His ThirumEni, which bears the chEtanAchEtanams, weapons and
AabharaNams
9. Being the svaroopam (inner nature) of the Sesha Jeevan
10. Being the phalan for the Sesha Jeevan (viz)., prayer for the boon of
Nithya Kaimkaryam.
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PP PAASURAM AASURAM AASURAM 66 6
seL Ceeu|emma«+ sma a aaae«+ .maiemm-
ee(eau Cuau|­=u+ .am anaa ßum .uu« +
.eLa .e L uaiae Las+ qm uani­u emua­eea, +mm mu-
veL ae Lu ae L a +.Lßm2« vm maCaae Lßa.

thuNda veNpiRaiyAn thuyar thIrththavan anjiRaiya-
vaNduvAz pozilsUz aranganagar mEya appan
aNdar aNda pagiraNdaththu oru mAnilam ezumAlvarai,
muRRum-uNda kaNdam kaNdIr adiyEnai uyyakkoNdathE.

‘Holy Srirangam Surrounded by Groves’
AA A VA TH VA TH VA THAA A RIKA I RIKA I RIKA I: : :
In the previous Paasuram, AzhwAr described the Lord’s mercy in destroying
VirOdhis (enemies) that interfered with the performance of Kaimkaryams to
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28
the Lord. Here, AzhwAr dwells on the need for Aakinchanyathvam of the
jeevan as the necessary mind state for becoming the object of Lord’s Dayaa
(Dayaa Paathram).
MM M EA NING EA NING EA NING : : :
Our Lord of Srirangam is the one who removed the sorrow of Sivan adorning
the crescent Moon on His JaDai (thuNDa VeNN PiRayan thuyar theertthavan).
He resides permanently at Sriranga dhivya dEsam known for fertile groves
filled with the bees (Acharyans) performing Hari Naama sankeertthanam
(anjiRaya vaNDu vaazh Pozhil soozh Aranga nahar mEya Appan) . He becomes
visible to our human eyes at Srirangam. He performs the mahOpakAram of
putting an end to the roaming of our indhriyams in pastures of vishaya sukham.
adiyEn has the darsana soubhAgyam of His powerful neck that swallowed the
dEvAs of the aNDam, the bhagiraNDam and AavaraNams beyond our aNDam,
the seven kula Parvathams and all else during the Mahaa PraLayam. This
darsanam of the neck of this Sarva sakthan at Srirangam blessed adiyEn to
realize my svaroopam as DhAsa bhUthan to Him and blessed adiyEn with
Sathgathi.
WW WO RD O RD O RD BY BY BY WO RD WO RD WO RD CC C O M M ENTA RY O M M ENTA RY O M M ENTA RY:: :
1. “ThuNDa VeNN piRayan thuyar theertthavan": Lord Siva adorns the
crescent Moon on His Jadai and hence is known as Chandra Sekharan
(ThuNda VeNN PiRayan). ThuNda means a small portion. VeNN PiRai
means, the while crescent Moon. This Chandra Sekharan's Thuyar
(sorrow) was the Kapaalam that got stuck to his palm and the curse of
his father that required him to move like a nomad from place to place
begging for food. Sriman narayana blessed Sivan as Hara Saapa
vimOchana Murthy and there after the skull fell from Sivan’s palm and
he resumed his normal life. AzhwAr reminds us that Sivan could not
take care of his problems and if so how can he help others ? AzhwAr
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reminds us that Sivan was a Karma vasyan, who got his exalted position
due to his austerities and it is Sriman Narayanan alone, who can bless us
with all kinds of PurushArTams including Moksham.
2. "anjiRaya VaNDu vaazh pozhil soozh Aranganahar mEya Appan": Our
Lord of such vaibhavam is present as ArchAvathara RanganAthan.There
are many groves in and around Sriranga kshEthram. There are many
honey bees enjoying the fragrant flowers in those groves. Their wings
are beautiful to look at. They use those wings to arrive at Bhagavath
sannidhAnam. They are really AchArya PurushAs, who arrive at the
Lord’s sacred feet to unite ChEtanams with the Lord, who is ready to
accept the sipArisu of the AchAryAs and bless the Jeevans with
Parama PurushArTam.
3. “aNDaraNDa BahiraNDatthu oru Maanilam yezhumAl varai muRRum
uNDa kandam kandeer adiyEnai uyyakkoNDathE": During the Mahaa
PraLayam, our Lord holds inside His stomach all the Kaarya vasthus for
their safety. Otherwise, they might be destroyed thru drowning in the
dangerous PraLayam waters. Brahma, Sivan, aNDam, dEvAs, chEtanams,
achEtanams inside the aNDam, Kula Parvathams et al were all kept
inside His stomach. AzhwAr is rapturous over the sight of the magical
throat, which swallowed all of the above kaarya vasthus during
PraLayam out of His infinite compassion for safe keeping them.
4. "kaNDam adiyEnai yuyyakkoNDathE": This throat of the Lord doing
such a miraculous feat has helped me with my ujjevanam (upliftment
from samsAram).



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PP PAASURAM AASURAM AASURAM 77 7
eam|sa +aa| ama«­ .u|ma ,+ nm eea ßua­-
Cummsa +smu e|eamaa auu nm mLCmu
qmsa ,+ .e|mamasa +.ae|« .2eu|ea ßum uamsa ,+
Camm eam qßma1+ e« 2«a ain ea aean asße1 (1)

kaiyinAr suri sangganal Azhiyar nILvarai pOl-
meyyanAr thuLapa viraiyAr kamazh nIL mudiyem
aiyanAr, aNiyarangganAr aravin aNaimisai mEya mAyanAr,
seyya vAy aiyO ! eannais sindhai kavarnthathuvE !

‘Kalkunte Ranganathar’
AA A VA TH VA TH VA THAA A RIKA I RIKA I RIKA I: : :
From the 7th to the 10th (concluding) Paasuram, AzhwAr sings about the state
of rapture (Bhakthi paravasam) arising from the enjoyment of the Lord’s
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dhivya soundharyam. The"Aaya" sabdham over "NaarayaNa" in Thiru Manthiram
is in the fourth case (Chathruthi Vibhakthi) and implies Kaimkarya PrApthi.
Bhagavath anubhavam is the cause behind the prayerful request for
Kaimkaryam. Kaimkaryam follows after the anubhaavm. In the 7th Paasuram,
AzhwAr enjoys the beauty of the Lord’s ripe red lips resembling bhimbhA
fruit.
MM M EA NING EA NING EA NING :: :
On His hands He wields the conch – sanku, and the fire breathing chakkaram,
He has the body of a dark mountain, He wears the fragrant Thulasi on his
crown. My Lord! the jeweled Thiruvarangan, who rests on the serpent bed!
Your coral red lips and their smile have completely stolen my heart.
WW WO RD O RD O RD BY BY BY WO RD WO RD WO RD C C C O M M ENTA RY O M M ENTA RY O M M ENTA RY:: :
1. "Kaiyinal surisanakanal AazhiyAr”: The Lord of Srirangam carries the
Valampuri Sankham and Sudarsana chakram serve which as both as
weapon and AbaraNam. "Suri Sankham" and "anal Aazhi” refer to
Paanchajanyam and Sudasana chakram. The sound emanating from
Paanchajanyam is Veda Mayam and is hence takes mantra roopam for
the listener. The enemies of the Lord, who hear that dhvani are
destroyed by that sound. Sudarsana chakram represents the Manas
tathvam of the Lord or sanklapa sakthi. It also destroys the enemies of
the Lord effectively. Our Lord has both mantram (sankhu) and Manas
(Chakram) in His hands to help the chEtanam.
2. "NeeL varai pOl meyyanAr": The dhivyAthma savarropam is not easy to
see except by those Yogis with sharp Jn~Ana dhrushti. The dhivya
mangaLa vigraham however is readily seen even with our fleshy eyes
(Maamsa Chakshus). He is Seen as clearly as a tall (neeL) mountain
(varai).
3. "TuLabha virayAr kamazh NeeL mudi yemm IyyanAr": The fragrance
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from the TuLasi garland reveals that He is superior to every one. A
different kind of fragrance emanates from the divine, tall crown of the
Lord. That Crown reveals that He is the Lord of both LeelA and Nithya
VibhUthi. With this divine crown, the Lord of Srirangam shines as the
Father of all the worlds.
4. “aNi AranganAr”: The reference here is to Sriranga VimAnam, which is
superior in glory to His other sthAnams like Sri Vaikuntam and the
Milky ocean. Sriranga VimAnam is much easier to approach and enjoy
than Sri Vaikuntam and the Milky Ocean. Here Sri RanganAthan rests
on His bed of Adhi Seshan.
5. "aravinaNaimisa mEya MaayanAr": AdhisEshan appears like the union of
Jn~Anam and Bhalam of the Lord. He is the most enjoyable bed for the
Lord and the adiyArs enjoy this beautiful anubhavam of seeing the Lord
resting on this unique bed.
6. "seyya Vaay IyyO ! yennai chinthai kavarnthathuvE": This wonderous
Lord’s mouth appears like a fruit ready for enjoyment from its color
and sweetness. Inside that mouth, we can see all the seven lOkams. This
wonderous mouth has captivated adiyEn’s mind. This anubhavam is so
sweet and at the same time difficult to fully digest.
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PP PAASURAM AASURAM AASURAM 88 8
ua|msai ena+ .ee« vL­ae L,+ .uaaaæ-
.a|m .aiu|aa«+ .amaa s .u­« maas,+
aa|meaaiu ueLuan s+ u|m|a ns Cae ea|ßmaL,+ n eLeu-
Cua|m eam ae am + e« 2«u ßueaeu Cam a«ße1

pariyanAki vantha avuNan udalkINda, amararkku-
ariya AthipirAn aranggaththu amalan mugaththu,
kariyavAkip pudaiparanthu miLirnthu sevvariyOdi,
nINdavap-periya vAya kaNkaL ennaip pEthamai seythanavE!



'Ranganatha in veNNaikkAppu'

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AA A VA TH VA TH VA THAA A RIKA I RIKA I RIKA I: : :
The charming eyes of the Lord took over and made me a slave of them. Their
beauty defeated adiyEn and made me fall at His Thiruvadi. Those eyes made
AzhwAr enjoy the dhivya soundharyam of His other limbs. Azhwar uses the
story of his becoming the adimai for those beautiful eyes of the Lord as a
preface to the main message of this Paasuram that salutes the heroism of The
Lord in destroying the enemies of His adiyArs.
MM M EA NING EA NING EA NING :: :
The one who came down as a lion to tear down Hiranyakasipu, the first Lord -
who even the Devas find hard to reach, that Arangan whose face holds the
dark eyes, twinkling with the red lines, Oh those long big eyes are captivating
me to a state of losing myself.
WW WO RD O RD O RD BY BY BY WO RD WO RD WO RD CC C O M M ENTA RY O M M ENTA RY O M M ENTA RY:: :
1. "PariyanAhi vantha avuNan udal keenDa amararkku ariya AadhippirAn":
Pariyan means one with a big body resembling a mountain. HiraNyan
(avuNan) ran towards the Lord with his huge, strong body. Our Lord
grabbed this mighty asuran in a flash, put him down on His lap and tore
him apart (udal keeNDAr). Bhaktha PrahlAdhan, the small child of
HiraNyan stood near the Lord and enjoyed the Lord’s valour.
DevAs were frightened and ran away. ThiruppANar salutes the
SthambhAvathara Narasimhan in this context as "amararkku ariya
AadhippirAn". He is indeed AadhppirAn, The Jagath KaaraNan, Jagath
Rakshakan and JagannAthan. He is the primordial PirAn without Aadhi
and antham.
2. "Arangatthamman Muhatthu kariyavAhi puDaip-paranthu miLirnthu
sevvariyOdi neeNDa apperiyavAya KaNkaL" : “Arangatthu Amalan
Muhatthu": Why did this Parama Padha Naathan, who is difficult to be
seen even by the DevAs took archAvathAram to be seen and worshipped
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readily at Srirangam ? He vowed to come to the rescue of the helpless,
struggling samsAris to attain His sacred feet and be redeemed. He
chases away the doubts of SamsAris loaded with heavy bundles of sins
about His rakshakathvam in their cases and presents Himself as the
embodiment of great beauty with a face containing the united
soundaryam of the Moon and the lotus flower.
3. "Kariyavaahip-pudai paranthu miLirnthu": In that Thirumukha
MaNDalam, the devotees see the two matchless beautiful eyes, which
are like like blue gems with a black admixture (hue of Karuneythal
flowers). They appear like just blossomed blue lotuses as a result of the
joy of seeing the adiyArs and express great affection for them. Inside
the eyes, there are beautiful red lines, which appear as measuring units
of the Lord’s love for His adiyArs. The glory and the sweetness of the
Lord’s compassion and affection for the devotees are expressed by
those eyes .
4. "Yennai pEthamai seythavE": AzhwAr now expresses the effect of
those beautiful eyes of the Lord on him. He says that he got lost in the
enjoyment of those beautiful eyes and that blissful experience made
him incapable of recognizing anything around him or to engage in any
other activity.

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PP PAASURAM AASURAM AASURAM 99 9
.­ua uaaai« G2­ßu­ + qm ua­asm ,+
ma­u emu veLa«+ .am aas .ae|« .2ema« ,+
ßaa­ uaue| .amu+ masa aaumu mLe|­­ ßaaCau|­+
n ­ ßu«| qßma1 + niem CaaeLs e« Cnmai2«ßm1

AlamA maraththin ilaimEl oru bAlaganAy,
njAlam Ezum uNdAn aranggaththu aravin aNaiyAn,
kOla mAmaNi Aramum muththuth thAmamum mudivilla thOrezil
nIla mEni aiyO! niRai koNdathu en nenjinaiyE!



‘Gopuram– Vimanam of Srirangam’
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MM M EA NING EA NING EA NING :: :
Now ThiruppAnAzhwar sings the praise of the whole ThirumEni. That little boy
who dwells on a tiny banyan leaf, and can swallow all the seven worlds, that One
who rests on a serpent at Thiruvarangam, the One who wears gem studded
garlands and pearl necklace on his blue ThirumEni, has an infinite beauty, that
has completely filled my heart.
AA A VA TH VA TH VA THAA A RIKA I RIKA I RIKA I
Until now, AzhwAr enjoyed the soundharyam of every limb of the reclining
Lord at Srirangam one by one and broke out into wonderful paasurams
expressing that Aanandhaanubhavam. Until now, Azhwar was under the
impression that he was contented with the enjoyment of the individual limbs of
the Lord. After experiencing the unmatched beauty of the entire Thirumeni of
the Lord, Azhwar concedes that his sense of contentment has left him and
asks what can he do now ?
WW WO RD O RD O RD BY BY BY WO RD WO RD WO RD MM M EA NING EA NING EA NING :: :
1. "Aala Maa maratthin ilai mEl oru BalaganAi Jn~alam yEzhum uNDAn
Arangatthu aravinaNayAn": During the praLayam (deluge) that comes
between BhagavAn’s srushti of the naama-roopa prabanjam, one sees a
huge peepal tree with countless branches and innumerable leaves. It is
hard to tell whether that tree is inside the oceans or in the upper world
or has its roots in this earth. On one leaf of the tree, Sage
MarkaNDEyar saw a child resting and getting adrift in the fiercely
swirling waters of avAnthara PraLayam. That child has swallowed all the
worlds and kept them in a small portion of its stomach for protection.
That little infant was recognized by Sage MarkaNDEyar as the Jagath
kaaraNan and Rakshakan. That mysterious child is now seen inside the
Koil Azhwar of Ranga VimAnam at Srirangam reclining on AdhisEshan.
His subjects, Brahma dEvan and VisbhishaNan perform AarAdhanam for
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38
Him there.
2. "Kola MaamaNi Aaramum, Mutthu thAmum, mudivillathOr yezhil neela
mEni”: On the broad chest of this reclining Lord, Mahaa Lakshmi has
Her residence. Her Sannidhi is circumscribed by a beautiful nava rathna
necklace, which appears like a prAkaaram for Her sannidhi. Outside the
gem necklace are seen single, triple and five strand pearl
necklaces.With all these AabharaNams, Sri RanganAthan gives the
sEvai like a huge rainy season cloud with His dark blue hue and destroys
the taapams of SamsAris.
3. "aiyyo niRai koNDathu yen nenjinayE": Azhwar now reveals the impact
of the samudhAya sevai of the angams of the Lord; earlier, he had
enjoyed those limbs one at a time and sung about them in ecstasy. His
mind was contented about its Good fortune. Now, the effect of the
integrated sevai of all the avayavams of the Lord has created
PoorNAnubhavam and with that bliss an anxiety over any obstacles that
may arise in the future that will interfere with that full experience.
Azhwar says that nagging worry has made him worried and has led to
his singing PallANDu for the Lord.

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PP PAASURAM AASURAM AASURAM 10 10 10
Caae L­ eee2«a+ ßaae­sm Cee Cem-
veL eam«+ e«emmu aean aa2«,+
.eLa ßaa« .e| .ama«+ e« .mai2«a -
aeL ae am ,+ umCma«m|2«a + aamße.

koNdal vaNNanaik kOvalanAy veNNey-
uNda vAyan ennuLLam kavarnthAnai,
aNdar kOn aNi arangan en amuthinaik-
kaNda kaNkaL maRRonRinaik kANAvE.



‘Beautiful Eyes, Crown, Chest..’

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AA A VA TH VA TH VA THAA A RIKA I RIKA I RIKA I: : :
The darsana soubhAgya anubhavam of ThiruppANa AzhwAr is a special
adhbhutha anubhavam. Until this paasuram, he was prefacing his anubhavam
with "adiyEn, adiyEn". The overwhelming impact of the samudhAya anubhavam
made AzhwAr forget his name and place of birth. He finds his soul enjoying
the Lord without interference/distraction from anything else due to the
Lord’s grace. He expresses his joy over the relief from all the samsAric
sorrows and celebrates his attainment of Satgathi. Just like a MukthAthma
making Saama GhAnam, AzhwAr was engaged in eulogizing the Lord at His
sannidhi and declared that his eyes have no desire to see anything else
anymore.
MM M EA NING EA NING EA NING :: :
Having experienced utmost delight in the darshan of Sri Ranganatha, we can
enjoy the last paasuram where he does not want to see anything more. His
heart, and mind are filled with the Arangan’s beauty that there is nothing more
to delight him. The dark cloud colored one, the one who stole butter as a cow
boy, the king of the Universe, the beautiful Arangan – after having seen you,
my eyes refuse to see anything else.
WW WO RD O RD O RD BY BY BY WO RD WO RD WO RD MM M EA NING EA NING EA NING :: :
1. "KoNDal VaNNanai": The mental sufferings of the adiyArs, who have
the darsana soubhAgyam of Sri Ranganathan will be banished. He rests
in the island formed by the two rivers like a dark rainy cloud touching
ground.He is like a KaaLa mEgham drenching the chEthanams and
achEthanams with the rain of His kaaruNyam. His vaNNam (hue) is like
that of KoNDal (dark blue rain-laden cloud).
2. "KovalanAi VeNNai uNDa Vaayan": As GopAlan, our Lord protected the
simple cowherdesses (Gopis) of Gokulam and BrundhAvanam, who did not
know that eight and two adds upto ten (AshtAsharam, Dhvayam and
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Charama slOkam). He stole away from Vaikuntam before the nithya
Sooris could complete their AarAdhanam for Him and present Him with
delectable chithrAnnams and arrived at Gokulam to steal VeNNai from
the houses of the Gopis and moved in AaypAdi as one of their kulam.
For Him, the consumption of the VeNNai of samsAra maNDalam was
like enjoying the VeNNai of aprAkrutha Sri Vaikuntam. He ate the
VeNNai to demonstrate that whatever is dear to His adiyArs are dear
to Him as well.
3. “Yenn uLLam kavarnthAnai": Just as He consumed stolen VeNNai at the
houses of the Gopis, Sri RanganAthan has stolen adiyEn’s heart also as
another piece of navaneetham and is enjoying it. adiyEn can not
describe this as stealing of MY heart. The use of the word, "MY"
implies mamakAram. After being blessed by Him and gaining vivEkam,
the words like "MY" and "MINE" have to be jettisoned. Lord
RanganAthan used His dhivya soundharyam, got me under His spell and
overpowered adiyEn with His souseelyam and Soulabhyam. There is
nothing anymore that I can identify as "ME" or "MINE".
4. "andar kOnn": He is the Master of the Lord of all Andams, Brahma and
all the dEvAs, who populate the andams. Sri Ranganathan is holding all
of them under His sway and is recognized as their Swami and Svatantra
Purushan. This great Lord revered by the andar kulam now has been
tied up to a mortar as punishment for stealing VeNNai at the neighbor’s
houses. He permits Himself to be tied up by the Gopi, while He is not
the easiest to comprehend even by the dEvAs. Such is the soulabhyam
of the andar kOnn.
5. "aNiyarangan": That Periya PerumAL who draws the nithya sooris from
their lovely abode of Parama Padham to Srirangam for His sevai is now
blessing me with His enchanting darsanam.
6. "yen amudhinai kaNDa KaNkaL maRRonRinaik-KaaNAvE": He is
delectable to me like the nectar. He stays at Parama Padham, Milky
ocean and Soorya MaNDalam to be enjoyed exclusively as nectar by the
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42
residents of the three sites(sTAnams). Now, He has blessed adiyEn,
who is inferior in svaroopam and SvabhAvam, to enjoy Him as the nectar
effortlessly. After being blessed with this rare boon, how can adiyEn
look at anything a subjects worthy of attention and acquisition as
bhOgya vasthus ? adiyEn’s eyes will not see anything other than this
nectar at Srirangam with anantha kalyANa guNams and matchless
Iswaryam (VibhUthis). adiyEn wil not be interested to see Parama Padha
Naathan or Para VaasudEvan or VyUha forms of the Lord or Vibhava
avathArams. adiyEn’s eyes will not choose to see any one of those forms
of the Lord except RanganAthan at Srirangam. adiyEn has no other
desire. This is the height of Tanmayathvam experienced by the
AzhwAr. After completing the tenth paasuram of Amalan Aadhi PirAn,
ThiruppANAzhwAr merged with the Lord in front of all.
திரபபாணாழவார திரவடகேள சரணம
ThiruppANAzhwAr ThiruvadigaLE SaraNam












43








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mtfEy kEvrThiT@ Mtitanftratfma
`tfrxfRtamf nynEyarf vixyanftra]amf
Eya nicfcikay mnAv Mnivahnmf tmf

epaRqf - 'nft oR tiRpfpa]azfvarf, kaEvriyi[f nDvilf k]fvqRmf
epriyepRmaAq tiRvF etadgfki tiRMFvAr `{pvitfD, t[T
tiRkfk]fkqf, `nftpf epRmaAqtf tvirftfT EvB 'nft vixygfkAqy<mf
ka]aT '[fB uBtiyakkf Pbi[aEra - `pfpFpfpdfdvRmf, Elaksargfk[f
'[fb M[ivA[tf t[T vak[makkf eka]fdvRmf ~kiy tiRpa]azfvaAr
na[f 'pfEpaT cinftikfkkf kdEv[f.

piqfAqElakmf jIyrf `Rqicf ecyft t[iy[f vfyakfya[mf

`vtariAk


(~patVdmitfyati) ;tilf ekRdvak[{mf nibfk, `wfciAbpfp<dfpakA[ya[f
k]fdT et[f[rgfktfEt '[fBmf ecalfLkibpFEy epriy epRmaAq EsvitfT
`Wpvitft MnivahnAr mnsfsaEl `WpvikfKmfpF ecalfLkibT.
kRdvahntfvMmf EcxcayitfvMmf !y@ptitfvMmiEb srfvEcxiya[
srfvatikvsfTv<kfK lX]mf, ;pfpF srfvatikvsfTvi{Ady
srfvavyvgfkAqy<mf sgfkfrmmak `{pvitftpF ecalfLkibT.

viqkfkmf - ;nfttf t[iy[ilf ekRd vak[{mf nibfk(tiRmaAl-10),
`wfciAbpf p<dfpakA[ ya[f k]fdT et[f `rgfktfEt(epriy tiRemazi-5-6-
6) '[fB PBki[fbpF, epriyepRmaAq EcvitfT `{pvitftvRmf,
Elakcargfk[f '[fb M[iyi[f Etaqfkqilf epriyepRmaqi[f ~A]kfK "bfp
`mrfnfT, `nft M[iAytf t[T vak[mak uAdyvRmf ~kiy
tiRpfpa]azfvaArtf ta[f(;nfttf t[iy[f `Rqicf ecyft epriy nmfpikqf)
`{pvitftAtkf PBkibarf.





47
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vfyakfya[mf

(~patVdmf) tiRpfpatEkctfAt

(`Wp>y) `ml[atipira[AdEv `{pvitfT

`ml[f ~tipira[f '[fB etadgfKmf paCrmf Mtlf `{pvitfT


(hrimf cyanmf) !manfsHksHpft@prnftp@ '[f{mfpFyayfkf kidkfAk. kidnft
kiAdyiEl udfKAdyCryierlflaM]fdvriEb. hrtItihri@ `WPlrf
mnsfAsy<mf pfrtiPlrf pfra][fkAqy<mf hrikfKmver[fkibT. `WPlAr
tfRxfF citftapharmf p]f}mfpFyaFRkfAk. kidnftEtarf kidkfAk
k]fDemgfg[mf mbnfT vazfEk[f, "rarfkfEkalmf tikzkfkidnftayf k]fEd[f
'[f{mfpF taphrra[vAr. `vrftamf, `rvi[A] miAc Emymay[ara[
Mkilf v]f]riEb. ;pfpF `WPl pfrtiPlrX] ciX]gfkAqpf
p]f}mvra[vAr.


viqkfkmf - ;ramay]mf sHnftr ka]fdmf (38-25) - !manf sHk sHpft@
prnftp@ - viEratikAq vadfDmf ;ram[f Ckmakkf k]fvqrfnfta[f - '[fB
PbiypFEy epriyepRmaqf cy[itfTqfqa[f. nmfmazfvarf tiRvayfemaziyilf (7-2-
3) PbiypF - udfKAdyCrrf uyierlflamf u]fd - ;ram[f Epa[fB
`gfKmigfKmf eclflamlf, cy[itftpFEy `A[vAry<mf t[T `zkalf
vIzftfti[a[f. hrtItihri '[fpT naray]A[kf KbitftT. hri '[fb
tiRnammf, t[f mI T `[fp< eka]fdvrfkqf m[Aty<mf, t[fA[y<mf
`FyarfkAqy<mf 'tirfpfpvrfkqf uyiAry<mf vadfDpv[f '[fpAtkf PBmf.
;ramay]mf `Eyatfya ka]fdmf(3-29) - tfRxfF citftapharmf - ka]fpvrfkqf
k]fA]y<mf m[Aty<mf ;ram[f `pkritfta[f - '[fbpF ;v[f ;Rnfta[f.
eta]fdrFpfepaFyazfvarf tiRmaAlyilf (23) - kidnftEtarf kidkfAk
k]fDemgfg[mf mbnfT vazfEk[f - '[fBmf, nmfmazfvarf tiRvayfemaziyilf (5-
8-1) - "rarfkfEkalmf tikzkfkidnftayf k]fEd[f - '[fBmf PbiyT Epa[fB,
t[fA[kf k]fdvrfkqi[f tapgfkAq nIkfKpv[f '[fB kRtfT.
;pfpFpfpdfdv[f yarf '[fbalf, `v[f - ~tiEcx[f mIT k]fvqrfnftpF,
viypfpa[ ecylfkAqcf ecyftpF, nIrf eka]fd Emkmf Epa[fb nibmf eka]fdpF
uqfq epriyepRmaqf ~va[f. ;pfpFyak t[f{Ady `zAk mdfDEm eka]fD
`FyarfkAqy<mf, viEratikAqy<mf oREcr vIzftfTpv[f ~va[f.


(kvErThiTrfmtfEy) kvErknfAyya[ kaEvri mtfEy. kgfAkyibf p<[itmay
kaviri nDv< padfFElyiEb pDkaD kidkfkibT. v]fepa[f[i
tiRkfAkyalFvRd tiRvaq[i[itakvayftfTtf tiRkfk]fkqf vqRkibT.
;pfpF (kvErThiTrfmtfEy cyanmf hrimf ~patVdmf) '[fB KdtiAc
MFAy AvtfTkf K]tiAc patmf nIdfF vdtiAc pi[fp<kadfFtf
et[ftiAcyilgfAk Enakfkikf kdlfnibkf kdv<eqnfAt `rvA]tf TyiLma
k]fD `Wpvitftaer[fAk. (Mtitanftratfma) ;pfpF `WpvitfT
hfRxfdmnava[arf, `kmkizpfepbfbarf. uvnftv<qfqtftra[arf. SnfTxfd
citftsmahitra[arf. mkizfnftT cinfAt '[f [kfkdvtiEb.


viqkfkmf - kvErrf '[f{mf M[iv[i[f ep]f kaEvri ~vaqf. `nftkf
kaEvriyi[f nDvilf, kgfAkAyvidpf p<[itma[ kaEvriyi[f nDvilf ;v[f
cy[itfTqfqa[f. Kqirfnft kaEvri (v]fepa[f[i - epRmaqf tiRemazi - 2-3)
t[T `Alkqf '[f{mf tiRkfkrgfkqalf ;v[T tiRvFkAq vRFypF
uqfqaqf (tiRkfAkyalf `F vRd - epRmaqf tiRemazi - 1-1). `nft
vRdlilf t[fA[ mbnfT tiRvrgfk[f ;[fpmakkf k]fkAq YMFypF
cy[itfTqfqa[f. ~k - kvErThiTrfmtfEy cyanmf hrimf ~patVdmf -
'[fpt[f YMlmf, eta]fdrFpfepaFyazfvarf t[T tiRmaAlyilf (19) -
KdtiAc MFAy AvtfTkf K]tiAc patmf nIdfF vdtiAc pi[fp<kadfFtf
48
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et[f tiAcyilgfAk Enakfkikf kdlf nibkf kdv<eqnfAt `rvA]tf
TyiLmak]fD - '[fB `{pvitftT Epa[fB ;vRmf `{pvitftarf. ;vfvitmf
`{pvitfttalf ~[nftmf Vzfnft m[mf epbfbarf, uqfqmf mkizpf epbfbarf.
mikv<mf uyrfnft ukpfp< `Adnftarf. `Amtiya[ cIriy m[mf epbfbarf.
p>ttftazfvarf ;r]fdamf tiRvnftatiyilf (32) - mkizfnftT cinfAt - '[fbT
Epal ;vRmf ;Rnftarf.


;[i `vfvqvilf nilflaEt (`tfrxfRtamfnynEyarf vixyanftra]amf)
'[f{mfpF ka]akf k]fA]y<Adyra[arf. `]iyrgfke[[f[MtiA[kfk]fd
k]f kqf mbfeba[fbiA[kf ka]aEv '[fbayftfT ;vrf vixytftiEl
`sftmitanfypavrayiRpfpT, "tEtvamfRtmf tfRxfdfvatfRpfynfti@ `rgfkma
Ekayilfeka]fd kRmfpiA[kf k]fD eka]fed[f k]f]iA] kqikfKmaEb,
rammf EmWkta tfRxfF@, ntfvapcfyami yiEb. esqnftrfy sakrtftiEl
mkfnra[arf, ;vrfkfK `zK `jfwantfAt viAqtfttayftfT. `tfRxfdmf
tfRxfdmaAkyaEl tfRxfdmf `tfRxfdmayftfT. `[fbikfEk, cinfAt
mbfeba[fbi[f tibtftlfla, paEva nanfytfr kcfcti '[f{mfpF
prtfvatikqayftfT pEraX vixymakibet[f{tlf, kdfkilI '[f{mf vFAvyiEb
k]f]alf k]fdWpvitftT. ka]atAvy<mf k]fd vsfTvilf u]fFEb. ;pfpF
AmpfpF Em[iAyyWpvitfT mbfb vixygfkAqkf ka]akf
k]f]ayiRkfKmvArcf ecalfLkibT.


viqkfkmf - `tfTd[f mdfDmf nibfkvilfAl. `rgfkA[kf k]fd pi[f[rf EvB
'tA[y<mf ka]at k]fkAqpf epbfbvra[rf. `]iyrgfke[[f[MtiA[kf
k]fd k]fkqf mbfeba[fbiA[kf ka]aEv- '[fB ;vEr PBmfpF ~[arf. mbfb
niA[v<kqf `A[tfTmf nIgfkpf epbfbarf. canfEtakfy up[ixtf -
'tEtvamfRtmf tfRxfdfvatfRpfynfti@ - prmfepaRqf '[fb `mirfttfAt
k]fkqalf pRKki[fb[rf - '[f{mfpF ;vrf ~[arf. eta]fdrFpfepaFyazfvarf
t[T tiRmaAlyilf (17) - `rgfkma Ekayilfeka]fd kRmfpiA[kf k]fD
eka]fed[f k]f]iA] kqikfKmaEb - '[fb niAlAy `Adnftarf.
;ramay]mf `Eyatfya ka]fdmf(42-34) - rammf EmWkta tfRxfF@
ntfvapcfyami - tcrt[f ekqsAlyidmf ;ram[f pi[fpak mdfDEm t[T
k]fparfAv ;RnftT, u[fA[y<mf ka]vilfAl - '[fbT Epa[fB ;vRmf
epriyepRmaqi[f `zK '[fb kdlilf YMzfki[arf. ;nft `zkilf YMzfkiytalf,
mbfb ulk vixygfkqilf ;vRkfK `biyaAmEy u]fda[T. 'qitilf
ka]kfkiAdkfkat epaRAqkf ka] Enridfdtalf, 'qitilf ka]kfPFy
epaRqfkqf ;vRkfKkf ka]amlf Epayfvidfd[. nmfmazfvarf tiRvayfemaziyilf(7-
10-10) - cinfAtmbfeba[fbi[f tibtftlfla - '[fB PBvT Epa[fBmf, `{m[f
;ramay]mf utftr ka]fdtftilf(40-15) - paEva nanfytfr kcfcti - EvB
't[f mITmf '[T cinftA[ eclflvilfAl - '[fB PBvT Epa[fBmf ;vrf
`rgfk[i[f mIT :Dpdfdarf. ;t[alf k]fkqilf et[fpDmf mbfbAvkQmf
`biyta[T. tiRvayfemazi(7-2-3) - kdfkilI - '[fB PBvT Epa[fB,
;TvAr k]fFrat epriyepRmaAq `lflva k]fdarf. ;vralf ka]pfpdat
`A[tfT vixygfkQmf `rgfk[i[f tiREm[iyilf uqfqT `[fEba?
;pfpFyak `zkiy m]vaq[i[f tiREmA[ `zAk `{pvitft
kar]tfti[alf, mbfb vixygfkqf 'tA[y<mf ka]amlf uqfq ;vrf yarf?


(Eya nicfcikay mnAv Mnivahnmf tmf) '[fB yaveraRvrf k]fdk]fkqf
mbfeba[fbiA[kf ka]aEv '[fB `Btiyidfdarf `pfpFpfpdfd `nft
MnivahnAr. (mnAv) mnsfsaEl pfrtiptfti p]f}kiEbe[[fbpF.
`y[lrfkfekaDetaZEttft '[f{mfpF hmfsvahn[a[ cTrfMk[f
phHMkmak `WpvitftapfEpaEl Mnivahnra[ ;vRmf "kMkmak ;r]fD
k]f]aLmf k]fdWpvitftarf.

viqkfkmf - 'nft Orf ~zfvarf - k]fdk]fkqf mbfeba[fbiA[kf ka]aEv -
'[fB tqrat uBtiy<d[f Pbi[aEra, `pfpFpfpdfd M[ivak[ra[
tiRpfpa]azfvaAr m[T niAby<mfpF `{pvikfkiEb[f '[fB
49
`ml[atipira[f 'qiy tmizf viqkfkgfkqf Page 6 of 47
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kRtfT(tiRvrgfk[i[f kdfdAqkfK "bfp, Elakcargfk[f '[fb M[ivrf, ;nft
~zfvaArtf t[T Etaqfkqilf "bfB `rgfk[i[f EkayiLkfK vnfttalf,
M[ivak[rf '[pfpdfdarf). epriytiRemazi (4-2-6) - `y[lrfkf
ekaDetaZEttft - PBkibpF, `[f[tfAt vak[mak uAdy pfrmfm[f
(na[fMk[f) tfrivikfrmA[tf t[T na[fK MktftaLmf `{pvitftT Epa[fB,
M[ivA[tf t[T vak[mak uAdy ;vrf t[T oR MktftaLmf ;r]fD
k]fkqaLmf nmfepRmaAq `{pvitftftarf.


kfrIdEky>rk rtfnK]fdlmf pfrlmfpMkftam]i Ehmp>xitmf vical vXsfsftl
EcapiekqsfTpmf !yac Etvfyatfy<xiEtaRvikfrhmf pfrtpft camIkr
caRvassmf sHEmklaW\p<r Ecapitagfkfrikmf sfpnfTrIjat mfR]aq Ekamqmf
ttanmcfccfcviyjfw sJtfrkmf p<Ejaptanmf pfrsfRtakfyhsftmf niKwfci
Etatftanit paty<kfmmf sHtIrfkfkMrfvmfsMtkfrEvxmf p<jgfktlfpmf p<Rxmf
ttrfc '[fB pfrhfmava[v[f `pimaniyaAkyaEl, MFEy etadgfkiyW
pvitfta[f, ;vrf `FyaraAkyaEl `FEy etadgfki `Wpvitftarf. `v[f
k]fdvnnftrmf vixygfkAqy<mf k]fda[f, ;vrf vixygfkAqkf k]fFlrf,
tiRkfkml patmf vnfet[f k]f]i{qfq[, "k]fd k]fkqf mbfeba[fbiA[kf
ka]aEv" '[fbarf. vIA]y<mf Aky<mayf Esvikfkib ;vrfkfK EcmMAd
nart[aRmf oRvAkkfK opfpakarf.


viqkfkmf - !hsftikiri mhatfmfymf '[fb W\lilf, kIEz uqfqT Epa[fB
pfrmfm[f kawfci vrtA[ `{pvitfta[f.

kfrIdEky>rk rtfn K]fdlmf
pfrlmfp Mkftam]i Ehmp>xitmf
vical vXsfsftl EcapiekqsfTpmf
!yac Etvfyatfy<xiEtaRvikfrhmf
pf rtpftcamIkrcaRvassmf
sHEmklaW\p<r Ecapitagfkfrikmf
sfpnfTrIjat mfR]aq Ekamqmf
ttanmcfccfcvi yjfw sJtfrkmf
p<Ejaptanmf pfrsfRtanfy hsftmf
niKwfciEtatftanit paty<kfmmf
sHtIrfkfkMrfvmf sMtkfrEvxmf
p<jgfktlfpmf p<Rxmf ttrfc

;t[f epaRqf - kfrIdmf, Etaqilf uqf q vAqkqf, rtf[ K]fdlgfkqf
Epa[fbfvbfAbkf eka]fdv[f, MtfTmaAl, rtf[gfkqf, epa[f ~kiyAv
uAdyv[f, `zka[ prnft tiRmarfpfpilf ekqsfTp m]i uAdyv[f,
!Etviyalf 'pfEpaTmf vasmf ecyfypfpdfd `zkiy tiREm[i eka]fdv[f,
uRkfkiy tgfkmf Epa[fb `zka[ pItamfprmf `]inftv[f, EmkAl mbfBmf
cilmfp<kQd[f PFy tiRvFkqf uAdyv[f, tamAryi[f t]fD Epa[fB
nI]fDmf ev]fAmya[Tmf ~kiy yjfEwapvItmf `]inftv[f, oR
tiRkfkrtfAttf tAlyA]yakkf eka]fdv[f, mbfebaR tiRkfkrtfAt
nIdfFypF uqfqv[f, oR pkfkmakcf cy[itfT virinfTqfq tiRvFkAqkf
eka]fdv[f, nI]fd EtaqfkAq uAdyv[f, ~tiEcx[f '[fb pDkfAkAy
uAdy p<RxA[ pfrmfm[f k]fda[f - '[fptaKmf. ~k pfrmfm[f `v[T
upask[ak uqfqtalf tiRMFyiliRnfT tiRvFvArkf k]fda[f, ;vrf
`Fyarak uqfqtalf tiRvFyiliRnfT `{pvitftarf. pfrmfm[f prmfepaRQd[f
ulk vixygfkAqy<mf EcrftfEt k]fda[f. ;vrf epriyepRmaAqtf tvir EvB
'tA[y<mf ka]vilfAl. `t[alfta[f - tiRkfkml patmf vnfet[f
k]f]i{qfq[ '[fBmf, k]fd k]fkqf mbfeba[fbiA[kf ka]aEv '[fBmf -
Pbi[arf. nartrf Pd, vIA]y<mf Aky<mak uqfq ;vRkfK opfpilfAl.




50
`ml[atipira[f 'qiy tmizf viqkfkgfkqf Page 7 of 47
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epriyazfvarf `vtartftilf `Wpvmf ;vrfkfK `rfcfcavtftiEl, `vrf
patkfkmlmf '[fbtfAt tiRkfkmlmf '[fbarf, pItkcfcibfbaAdeyaDmf '[fbAt
`Arcfcivnft ~Adyi[fEmlf '[fBmf, `zkiyv<nftiAy `yA[pf
pAdtftEtaerzilf unfti '[fBmf, pznftamfpalarftft utrtfAt tiRvyibfB
utrpnftmf '[fBmf, KRmam]ipfp>]f KlavitftikZmf tiRmarfAv tiRvarmarfv<
'[fBmf, `]fdMmf naDmf `dgfk viZgfkiy k]fdtfAt MbfBmf u]fd k]fdmf
'[fBmf, enyftftAl Enmiy<mf cgfKmf nilaviy AktftltfAt Akyi[arf
Cricgfk[lf ~ziyrf '[fBmf, ecnfeta]fAd vaAy ecyfyvayf '[fBmf, k]fkqf
;Rnftvaer[fbAt `pfepriyvay k]fkqf '[fBmf, uRv<kriy oqi
m]iv]f][f '[fbAt 'zilf nIlEm[i '[fBmf, Kzlfkqf ;Rnftva '[fbAt
TqvviAryarf kmzf nI]fMF '[fBmf `Rqicf ecyftarf. Ekavl[ayf
ev]fA]y<]fd vay[iEb epriyepRmaqf. ~Akyalf `Wpvtftilf ;RvRmf
sEkatfrikqayayftftiRpfpT. ;pfpF m[pfrIti pibkfKmfpF `{pvitft ~zfvaAr
;gfK m[pfrIti pibkfKmfpF (mnAv) '[fB m[sfsaEl EsvikfKmfpF
ecalflibfB.


viqkfkmf - epriyazfvarf k]f][i[f `vtartftiEl mygfkikf kidnftarf, ;vrf
epriyepRmaqi[f `rfcfcavtartftilf mygfki[arf. epriyazfvarf - patkfkmlmf -
'[fB PbiyAt, ;vrf - tiRkfkml patmf - '[fbarf. `vrf -
pItkcfcibfbaAdeyaDmf '[fbAt, ;vrf - `Arcfcivnft ~Adyi[fEmlf '[fBmf
- '[fbarf. `vrf - `zkiyv<nfti '[fbAt, ;vrf - `yA[pf pAdtftEtaerzilf
unfti '[fbarf. `vrf - pznftamfpalarftft utrmf - '[fbAt, ;vrf -
tiRvyibfB utrpnftmf '[fbarf. `vrf - KRmam]ipfp>]f KlavitftikZmf
tiRmarfv< - '[fbAt, ;vrf - tiRvarmarfv< '[fbarf. `vrf - `]fdMmf naDmf
`dgfk viZgfkiy k]fdmf - '[fbAt, ;vrf - MbfBmf u]fd k]fdmf '[fbarf.
`vrf - enyftftAl Enmiy<mf cgfKmf nilaviy Aktftlmf - '[fbAt, ;vrf -
Akyi[arf Cricgfk[lf ~ziyrf '[fbarf. `vrf - ecnfeta]fAd vayf -
'[fbAt, ;vrf - ecyfyvayf '[fbarf. `vrf - k]fkqf ;Rnftva - '[fbAt,
;vrf - `pfepriyvay k]fkqf '[fbarf. `vrf - uRv<kriy oqi m]iv]f][f -
'[fbAt, ;vrf - 'zilf nIlEm[i '[fbarf. `vrf - Kzlfkqf ;Rnftva
'[fbAt, ;vrf - TqvviAryarf kmzf nI]fMF '[fBmf `Rqicf ecyftarf.
Ekavl[ayf ev]fA]y<]fd vay[akpf epriyepRmaqf uqfqtalf,
tiRpfpa]azfvaRmf k]f][akEv epriyepRmaAq `{pvitftarf '[lamf.
~Akyalf, pkvtf `Wpvtftilf ;RvRmf oEr Epa[fB m[mf eka]fEd
;Rnft[rf. ;pfpFyaktf t[T m[tilf ;[fpmf pibkfKmfpF epriyepRmaAq
`{pvitft ~zfvaAr, ;gfK m[tilf ;[fpmf pibkfKmfpF `{pvitftAtkf
Pbi[arf.

tiRmAl nmfpi `Rqicf ecyft t[iy[f

kadfdEv k]fd patkml nlflaAd unfti
EtdfdRmf utr pnftmf tiRmarfv< k]fdmf ecvfvayf
vadfdmilf k]fkqf Em[i M[i "bitf t[ip<KnfT
padfF[alf k]fD vaZmf pa]rf taqf prviE[aEm


epaRqf - tamAr Epa[fb tiRvFkqf, civnft pItamfpr ~Ad, `zka[
etapfp>zf, mikv<mf `riyta[ `Arna]f, epriypiradfF `mRmf tiRmarfp<,
`zka[ kZtfT, civnft vayf, Ecarfv< ;lflat tiRkfk]fkqf, nI]fd tiREm
~kiyvbfBd[f PFy epriyepRmaAq, Elaksargfk[f '[fb M[ivri[f
Etaqfkqilf `mrfnfT ec[fB tiRpfpa]azfvarf v]gfki ~[nftmf `Adnftarf.
`nft ~[nfttfAt, t[T paCrgfkqf YMlmaktf etrivitfT mkiZmf
tiRpfpa]azfvari[f tiRvFkAqtf TtipfEpamak.




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`vtariAk



epriyepRmaAqpf pattiEkcanftmayf `{pvikfkpf epbfb pa]fepRmaAq
sfEtatfrmf p]f]i hrfxikfKmfpF ecalfLkibT.


viqkfkmf - epriyepRmaAq, tiRvF etadgfki tiRMFvAr ni[fB
`{pvitft tiRpfpa]azfvaArtf TtitfT, m[mf ~[nftmf `Ady<mfpF ;nfttf
t[iy[f PBkibT.

vfyakfya[mf


(kadfdEv k]fd patmf) `rgfktftmfma[f tiRkfkmlpatmf vnfet[f
k]f]i{qfq[ evakfki[fbEv '[fB !rgfEkcypatpgfkjy<kmf '[fb
!rgfkraj cr]amfp<jgfkAqcf ecalfLkibT. (nlflaAd) `rgfktftmfma[f
`ArcfcivnftvaAd '[fB rgfkTrnftr{Ady pItamfprtfAtcf ecalfLkibT.
(unfti) `rgfktftrvi[A]y[f `yA[pf pAdtftEtaerziLnf ti '[fB
viticivnitama[ napIptfmtfAtcf ecalfLkibT.


viqkfkmf - (kadfdEv k]fd patmf) - `rgfktftmfma[f tiRkfkmlpatmf vnfT
'[f k]f]i{qfq[ okfki[fbEv '[fBmf, !rgfkrajsftvtftilf (1-125)
!rgfEkcypatpgfkjy<kmf - `zkiyta[ epriyepRmaqi[f tamAr Epa[fb
tiRvFkqf - '[f Bmf PbpfpDmf !rgfkraj[i[f tiRvFkqf PbpfpdfdT.
(nlflaAd) - `rgfktftmfma[f `Arcfcivnft ~Ad '[fB tiRvrgfktfAt
niymitftpF uqfqv[i[f pItamfprmf PbpfpdfdT. (unfti) - `rgfktf
trvi[A]y[f `yA[pf pAdtftT Orf 'zilf unfti '[fB pfrhfm{kfKmf
Rtfr{kfKmf kar]mak uqfq etapfp>zf PbpfpdfdT.


(EtdfdRMtpnftmf) EtdfdRmf tiblf Et[a[ et[f[rgfk{Ady Etdbfkriy
utrpnftmf. `rgfktftmfma[f tiRvyibfBtrpnftmf '[fB pdfdmfkiElatrpnftnmf
'[fbAtcf ecalfLkibT. (tiRmarfv<) `rgfktftmfma[f tiRvarmarfp< '[fB
lXfmIlqit kfRhma[ vXsftltfAtcf ecalfLkibT. (k]fdmf) `rgfknkrf
Emyvpfp[f MbfBM]fd k]fdmf '[fB !rgfkEntavi[f k]fdtfAtcf
ecalfLkibT. (ecvfvayf) `]iyrgfk[arf ecyfyvayf '[fB, `trmTramfEpajmf
'[fB `R]atr plflvtfAtcf ecalfLkibT. (vadfdmilfk]fkqf)
XE]ajfjfvlmayf `zla[iAyy<Ady tamArpf p>vilf vfyavfRtftmayf,
sAtkYRpmayf, `rgfktftml[f MktfTkf kriyvakipfp<Ad prnfT miqirfnfT
ecvfvriEyaF nI]fdvpf epriyvay k]fkqf '[fB vical sfpItaytfRcircicirtamfr
tvqma[ !rgfk pfr]yi nynapfjgfkAqcf ecalfLkibT. (Em[i) "vmfvitma[
tivfymgfkq vikfrhtfAt.


viqkfkmf - (EtdfdRmf utr pnftmf) - epRmaqf tiRemazi(2-1) EtdfdRmf
tiblf Et[a[ et[f[rgfk[f '[fB `Rqicf ecyftpF, yaraLmf 'qitilf
(tgfkqf Mybfciyalf) EtF `Ady ;ylat epa[f[ala[ `Arwa]f kyiB.
;tA[ ;nft ~zfvarf - `rgfktftmfma[f tiRvyibfBtrpnftmf - '[fB
`{pvitftarf. ;tA[Ey pracrpdfdrf rgfkraj sftvtftilf(1-115) -
pdfdmfkiElatrpnftnmf - epriyepRmaqi[f utrpnft[mf '[fpT `v{kfK
uqfq prtfv K]mf mbfBmf esqlpfy K]mf ~kiy ;r]fFbfKmf kdfdpfpdfd
pdfdmf - '[fbarf. (tiRmarfv<) - ~zfvarf `rgfktftmfma[f tiRvarmarfp< '[fB
PbiyAt pdfdrf rgfkraj sftvtftilf(1-111) lXfmIlqit kfRhMpaEs -
mhalXfmi viAqyaDmf '[fB Pbi[arf. (k]fdmf) - `rgfknkrf Emyvpfp[f
MbfBM]fd k]fdmf '[fB ~zfvarf `{pvitft !rgfknat[i[f tiRkfkZtfT
PbpfpdfdT. (ecvfvayf) - `]iyrgfk[arf ecyfyvayf '[fB ~zfvarf
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`{pvitftAt, pdfdrf rgfkraj sftvtftilf(1-103) - `trmTramfEpajmf -
tiRpfpvqmf Epa[fb `zka[ tamAr mlrf '[fbarf. (vadfdmilf k]fkqf) -
cibiTmf kAqpfpbfbtayf, oRvitma[ VD uAdy tamAr mlAr vid
EvBpdfdtak, 'pfEpaTmf oEr Epa[fB uqfqtak, `rgfktftml[f MktfTkf
kriyvakipfp<Ad prnfT miqirfnfT ecvfvriEyaF nI]fdvpf epriyvay k]fkqf
'[fB PBvtbfK "bfbpF prnfTmf virinfTmf nI]fDmf `zka[takv<mf civpfp<mf
evQpfp<mf klnfT uqfq !rgfknat[i[f k]fkqf Pbpfpdfd[. (Em[i)
;pfpFpfpdfd tivfyma[ vikfrhtfAt


(M[iEybi) - Mnivahnrayf. (t[ip<KnfT) - ;nft mhaEpaktftiEl tamf
"krayf uqfp<KnfT. (padfF[alf) `{pvtfTkfKpf paCrmidfDpf Epci[
`ml[atipira[f '[fkib pfrpnfttfti[f padfDkfkqaEl `]fdrfEka[
]iyrgfkA[kf k]fD vaZmvrayftfT ;vrf. pi[fp< ;vfv{pvtfTkfK pdfdrf
Etcikra[arf. (k]fDvaZmf) kadfciEy vazfcfciyak vaZkib. (pa]rftaqf)
vI]apa]iyayfpf epriyepRmaqf tiRvFkfkIEz nirnftr EsAv p]f]ikfeka]fD
nibfkib tiRpfpa]azfvarf tiRvFkAq. (prviE[amf) sfEtatfrmf p]f]iE[amf.
`lpfylapma[T lpikfkv<mf epbfEbamf, ;[ieyaR KAbkQmilfAley[fkibT.


viqkfkmf - (M[iEybi) - Elaksargfk M[ivArtf t[T vak[makkf
eka]fD. (t[ip<KnfT) - epriyepRmaQAdy `{pvmf '[f{mf uyrfnft
Epakmf epbtf t[iyakcf ec[fB. (padfF[alf) - t[T `{pvtfAt
paCrgfkqakkf Pbiy `ml[atipira[f '[f{mf pfrpnfttfti[f paCrgfkqaEl,
`rgfkA[kf k]fD, `v[idEm vazfkibarf. ;nft `{pvtftibfK pracrpdfdrf
vzikadfFyaktf t[T rgf kraj sftvtftilf viqkfki[arf. (k]fD vaZmf) -
`rgfkA[kf ka]fpT mdfDEm t[T vazfkfAk '[f{mfpF uqfq ~zfvarf.
(pa]rftaqf) - ;vfvitmak vIA]y<mf Aky<mak epriyepRmaqi[f tiRvFkqi[f
kIzf, 'pfEpaTmf Akgfkrfymf ecyftpF uqfq tiRpfpa]azfvari[f tiRvFkAq.
(prviE[amf) - TtitftpF ni[fEbamf. ;t[alf 'qitilf epb ;ylat epRmfEpB
epbfEbamf. ;[i 'nftkf KAby<mf ;lfAl.

piqfAqElakmf jIyrf `Rqicfecyft
`ml[atipira[f t[iy[f vfyakfya[mf Mbf bibfB.


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`ml[atipira[f 'qiy tmizf viqkfkgfkqf Page 10 of 47
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epriyvacfca[fpiqfAq `Rqicfecyft
`ml[atipira[f vfyakfya[mf

`vtariAk


pfrv]mf EpaEl `tisgfKcitmayiRtftlf, EvtMmf EvEtappfRmfh]ma[
mhapartMmf EpaEl prnfT TBpfp<kf PdayiRtftlf ecyfyaEt ptfTpfpadfdayf
sHkfrhmayf srfvatikarMmayiRkfKmf. EvEtappfRmfh]arftftay tavkfrahyt
pfrp<@ '[fBmf, Evtantfyapyamas mhapartpwfcman '[fBmf ecalfLkibpFEy
EvEtappfRmfh]ma[ mhapart ramay]gfkQmf, naray]ktamimamf
;tfyatikAqcf ecalfli AvtfT pkvtfkAt `lflatvbfAby<mf ecalfli
AvtftT.


viqkfkmf - `ml[atipira[f '[fb ptfTpf paCrgfkqf eka]fd ;nfttf
tivfypfpfrpnftmf - pfr]v mnftfrmf Epa[fB mikv<mf CRkfkma[T `lfl, Evtmf
Epa[fBmf, Evtgfkqi[f udfepaRAq viqkfkvlfl mhapartmf Epa[fBmf
mikv<mf viriva[Tmf `lfl, `A[vRmf p<rinfT ekaqfq ;ylatpF
kF[ma[Tmf `lfl, ;tA[kf kbfptbfKtf tKtiAy (`tikari) 'tirffparfpfpTmf
`lfl. ;ramay]mf - EvEtappfRmfh]arftftay tavkfrahyt pfrp<@ -
EvttfAt `vrfkqi[f critmf YMlmak vivripfptak valfmIki MFv< ecyftarf -
'[fbT. mhapartmf - Evtantfyapyamas mhapartpwfcman - Evtvfyasrf
_nftavT Evtma[ mhaparttfAt - '[fbT. ;pfpFyak uqfq
;ramay]Mmf, mhapartMmf, naray]ktamimamf - naray][i[f kAtkAqkf
Pbiypi[f, mbfb kAtkAqy<mf Pbi[. (;T Epa[fb KAb "Tmf
`ml[atipira{kfK ;lfAl, kar]mf ;nftpf pfrpnftmf naray]A[pf pbfbi
mdfDEm PBkibT '[fB kRtfT).






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`ml[atipira[f 'qiy tmizf viqkfkgfkqf Page 11 of 47
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tiRvayfemaziy<mf `mrfCAvyayirmf, paEladMt[f[vayirmf, uArekaqi[femazi
'[fB "tmilayirmayiRnftEtyakiLmf `nfyapEtc sfvapEtcem[f[,
samanatikr]fy nirf]aykem[f[, tfriYMrftftisamfy tTtftIrf] ttfv
niExtem[f[ ;Av etadkfkma[ `RAmkAqy<AdtftayiRkfKmf,
tiRenDnfta]fdkMmf prpfpbfB MpfpT padfdayiRnfEtyakiLmf `TkfKmf
`vfvRAmkQ]fD, tiRmaAlkfK `vfvRAmkqilfAlEyyakiLmf tmfMAdy
lapalapYRpma[ pfriya pfriygfkAq pfrtipatiya nibfKmf, tiRpfplfla]fDkfK
;kfKbfbgfkqilfAlEyyakiLmf `TkfKemaR KbfbM]fD, tfrivitati
karikQAdy K]aK]gfkAq pfrtipatikfAkyaEl, pfr]vmf EpaEl `lfl.
`tisgfKcitmayf TrfjfEwymayiraAmyaEl ytihasfti ttnfytfr ynfEn
hasfti n ttfkfvcitf '[fkibpFEy ~yirtftiela[fBmf kdlilf KqpfpFy<mf
EpaEl p<bmfpilflatAveylflamf ;tiEly<]fdayf ;tililflat eta[fBmf
p<bmfpi[fbiEyyiRkfKmf.

viqkfkmf - tiRvayfemaziya[T, (1-3-11) - `mrfCAvyayirmf, (8-6-11) -
paEladMt[f[vayirmf, (6-5-3) - uArekaqi[femazi '[fbpF 'nftvitma[
EtaxgfkQmf `bfbtakEv uqfqT. ~[aLmf tiRvayfemaziyilf - prmatfma,
jIvatfma, YM[fB YMrftftikAqy<mf vid uyrfnft pfrhfmmf u]fD '[fpAttf
tqfQmf kRtfTkqf - Epa[fb pl cikfkla[ vixygfkqf u]fD, ~kEv
p<rinfT ekaqfQmf cikfklf u]fD. tiRenDnfta]fdkmf '[fpT tiRvayfemazi
Epa[fB virivak ;lflamlf uqfqEpatiLmf, MpfpEt padfDkqf uqfqtak
;RnftEpatiLmf, tiRvayfemazikfKkf Pbpfpdfd kF[tft[fAmkqf ;tbfKmf
uqfq[. tiRmaAlkfK EmEl Pbiy Etaxgfkqf ;lflatEpatiLmf, `tilf
~zfvarf t[kfK u]f da[ py[f KbitfT (`rgfkA[ `{pvit py[f '[lamf)
mkizfvTmf, ta[f M[fp< `{pvitft T[fpgfkqf KbitfT p<lmfp<vTmf
EtaxgfkqakEv uqfq[. tiRpfplfla]fFlf ;TEpa[fB 'nftvitma[
EtaxgfkQmf ;lfAl '[fbaLmf, `tbfKmf oR Etaxmf u]fD. `T
'[f[ev[fbalf - YM[fB vitma[ `tikarikqi[f (_cfvrfymf mdfDEm
viRmfp<pv[f, Akvlfymf viRmfp<pv[f, pkvtfcr]akti viRmfp<pv[f) K]gfkqf
pbfbikf PBvEt ~Kmf. EmLmf tiRpfplfla]fD pfr]vmf Epa[fB mikv<mf
cibitakv<mf ;lfAl.(`ml[atipira[i[f cibpfp< '[f[ '[fB PBkibarf)
mhapartmf - ytihasfti ttnfytfr ynfEnhasfti n ttfkfvcitf - ;nft
W\lilf PbpfpdfdAv mdfDEm mbfb W\lfkqilf uqfq[, ;tilf ;lflatT
mbfbtilf ;lfAl - '[fpT Epa[fB, ~yirmf '[fptilf o[fB `dkfkmf
'[fptakv<mf, kdlf nIrilf `A[tfT Kqgfkqi[f nIRmf uqfqT Epa[fBmf, mbfb
pfrpnftgfkqilf ;lflatTmf ;tilf uqfqtakv<mf, ;tilf ;lflatT mbfbvbfbilf
;lfAl '[fptakv<mf `AmnfTqfqT.

prvfy>hvipvgfkAq pfrtipatikfAky[fbikfEk `rfcfcavtarYREp] vnftv
tritfT tiRvrgfkpf epRnkRqf et]f]Irfpf epa[f[i tiArkfAkyalF vRdpf
pqfqi ekaqfQmf kRm]iAykf EkamqtfAtkf k]fD eka]fD, m]tfT\E]
pbfbi ni[fB vayar vazftfTkib pfrpnftmaAkyaEl 'lflapf pfrpnf tgfkqiLmf
;pfpfrpnfttfTkfK AvlX]fyM]fD. mbfAbyazfvarfkqibf kadfFLmf ;vrfkfK
enDvaciy<]fD. plfla]fD, Epabfbi '[fB pavikfk Ev]fFbfB `vrfkQkfK.
`T Ev]fdaEt j[fmsitftmayftfT ;vrfkfK. Klgfkqay vIrir]fFela[fbiLmf
pibnftiEl[f '[fkibpFEy ;vrf tmfAm naL vrf]tftiLmf p<bmfpak
niA[tftiRpfprf. epriyepRmaQmf `pfpFEy niA[tftiRpfprf. nitfyVrikqf
naLvrf]tftiLMqfqarlflEr. ~zfvarfkqf ;RkAryrf '[f{mfpFyiEb
!eta]fdrFpfepaFyazfvarf _kanftfymf. `vriLmf ;vrf pErapEtcMmf
;trnirs[Mmf `{pvviErati '[fB evBmf epriyepRmaAqEy `FtftAl
ecvfvitakv{pvikfkibarf.

viqkfkmf - namf ka] ;ylat pr, vfy>h niAlkAq mbfb W\lfkqf
PBki[fb[. `vbfAbpf Epa[fB `lflamlf namf k]fkqalf k]fD kqikfKmfpF
`rfcfAcyak epriyepRmaqf `vtritfta[f. ;pfpFpfpdfd `rgfkA[, epRmaqf
tiRemaziyilf KlEckrazfvarf - tiRvrgfkpf epRnkRqf et]f]Irfpf epa[f[i
tiArkfAkyalF vRdpf pqfqi ekaqfQmf kRm]iAykf EkamqtfAtkf k]fD
eka]fD, m]tfT\E] pbfbi ni[fB vayar vazftfti[arf. ;nftpf epRmaqf
55
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tiRemazi Epa[fB, `rgfkA[pf pbfbipf paDvtalf, mbfb pfrpnftgfkAqkf
kadfFLmf `ml[atipira{kfK miKnft cibpfp< u]fD. `t[alf mbfb
~zfvarfkfkAqkf kadfFLmf ;vrfkfKcf Em[fAm u]fD. `vrfkqf uyrfnft
Kltftilf `vtritfttalf plfla]fD '[fBmf, Epabfbi '[fBmf tgfkAqtf
tazftftikfeka]fD padEv]fFytak ;RnftT. ~[alf ;vrf pibpfpiElEy
tazfnft Kltftilf vnfttalf, t[fA[tf taE[ EmLmf tazftftipf padEv]fFy
`vciymf ;lflamlf EpayibfB. tiRcfcnftviRtfttftilf tiRmziAcyazfvarf -
Klgfkqay vIrir]fFela[fbiLmf pibnftiEl[f - '[fB PBvT Epa[fB, ;vrf
tmfAm na[fK vrf]gfkqiLmf EcratvrakEv ']f]iyiRnftarf.
epriyepRmaQmf ;vAr `pfpFEy niA[tftiRnfta[f. nitfyVrikqf 'vfvitmf
na[fK vrf]tftibfK udfpdfdvrfkqf `lflEra `T Epa[fB ;vRmf '[
epriyepRmaqf kRti[a[f. mbfb ~zfvarfkqf - ;gfK oR kalf, `gfK oR
kalf - '[fbpF, pl `rfcfcavtargfkAqpf paF[arfkqf. ~[alf
eta]fdrFpfepaFyazfvarf nmfepRmaAq mdfDEm paF[arf. `vrT
(eta]fdrFpfepaFyazfvarf) paCrgfkqilf - mbfbvrfkfK upEtcmf ecyftlf, mbfb
mtgfkAqkf k]fFtftlf - Epa[fb vixygfkqf ;Rnft[. `Av
epriyepRmaAq MZvTmak `{pvikfktf tAdyak uqfqAv ~Kmf.
'[Ev ;vrf `T Epa[fB ecyfyamlf, epriyepRmaAq tiRvF etadgfki,
tiRMFvAr `{pvipfpTd[f niBtfTkibarf.

sfEnEhaEmprm@, '[fb[qv[fbalf ya{Adyv[fp<, rajmfsfvyi ;Tta{mf
'[f[alf vnftt[fB, `Tv<mv[ti[f[REq. nitfymf pfrtixfFt@ ;[fb[fbakilf
mbfebaREpaT ekaDEpakiEbaem[f[, `gfg[f ecyfy<mt[fB. trfmiAypf pbfbi
vRkibtaAkyaEl ni[f[laliEl[fka]f '[f{maEpaEl. pkfticfc niyta
sfEnhmavet[f? pkftiyavet[fe[[f[ilf epRmaAqeyaziycf eclflaAm
pibnfT vfytiErktftilf MFnft ckfrvrftftiniAl sfEnhmf. pkftiyavT nilf
'[f[ KRxfv '[f{mfpFyayf MAbybinfT pbfbi[ ;AqyepRmaqf niAl.

viqkfkmf - (`rgfk[idmf t[kfKqfq `[fApkf PBkibarf) `{m[f ;ram[idmf
- sfEnEhaEmprm@ - '[kfK umfmidmf uqfq `[fp< mikv<mf cibpfpa[T -
'[fba[f, p>ttftazfvarf ;r]fdamf tiRvnftatiyilf(100) - '[fb[qv[fbalf
ya{Adyv[fp< - '[fbarf, `{m[f - rajmfsfvyi - `rcE[. u[f[idmf '[kfK
uqfq `[fp< '[fBmf uqfqT - '[fba[f. ;TEpa[fB '[kfKmf u[f mIT
uqfqT(tiRpfpa]azfvaRkfK `rgfk[f mIT). ;gfK oR Ekqfvi 'zlamf -
;nft `[fp< tamakEv ~zfvaRkfK u]fda[ta? tiRvayfemaziyilf(8-8-3) -
`Tv<mf `v[T ;[f[REq - '[fpT Epa[fB, ;nft niAl u[f[aEl
vnftT, '[f[alf "bfpdvilfAl - '[fbarf. ;nft `[fp< - nitfymf pfrtixfFt@ -
'pfEpaTmf niAlyak uqfqT - '[fbarf. ;gfK epriyepRmaqf ~zfvaridmf -
;[fB `lflamlf EvB oR naqilf umfAm prmptmf `AztfTcf eclfEvamf -
'[fB Pbi[a[f. `tbfK ~zfvarf - `vfvitmf ec[fbaLmf u[fA[ viDtfT
'[f cinfAtya[T `gfK :DpdaT - '[fbarf. nmfmazfvarf (2-3-7) - ni[f[lalf
;El[f ka]f - umfAm vidfD na[f ;lfAl - '[fpT Epalf ;vrf niAly<mf
uqfqT. `{m[f ;ram[idmf - pkfticfc niyta - pkftiy<mf '[fBmf uqfqT
'[fba[f. ;gfK oR Ekqfvi - `[fp<mf pkftiy<mf EvBEvba? pkfti '[fpT
`vA[ vidfD `klamlf uqfq niAlEy ~Kmf. ;ramA[pf pirinft tcrt[f
uyirfvidfdT `[fp< kar]maKmf. ;ram[i ;lkfKv[idmf - nI `EyatftiyiElEy
;Rpfpayak - '[fB Pbiy<mf, ;lkfKv[f - KRxfv - Akgfkrfymf
ecyfpv[ak ;RpfEp[f - '[fB pi[f etadrfnftT pkfti ~Kmf.

vIr t[fA[tf Etabfpitft TAb. umfMAdy vIrgfeka]fD p<bmfEp ev[fbIer[fB
;gfK evlflMFyT. ta{mf vIr[aAkyaEl Etabfpitft TAbAypf piFtfTpf
EpCkiba[f. paEva nanfytfr kcfcti - '[fA[ mIdfGrakiLmf '[f{Ady
enwfAc mIdfkpfEpakaT. `nfytfr - '[fkibT. mbfbara{M]fed[fparf
'[f{maEpaEl ekaDEpak niA[tft Etctfti[f EpRgfPdtf t[kfK
`shfymayiRkfkibpF. ;pfpF ramavtarmlfltbiyat tiRvFAypf
EpaElyayftfT ;vRmf, ;vrf Etvarma[ epriyepRmaAqylflaT
prvfy>hvipvgfkAq `biyatpF.

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`ml[atipira[f 'qiy tmizf viqkfkgfkqf Page 13 of 47
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viqkfkmf - `{m[f - vIr - vIrE[ - '[fB PBvt[f YMlmf ta[f ;ram[i[f
vIrma[ K]tftibfKtf EtabfbAt u]rftfTkiba[f. `v[f ;ram[idmf -
umfMAdy vIrtftalf viEratikAq nIrf vI zftftlamf, ~[alf umT pkft[a[
'[fA[ vizftft ;ylaT - '[fba[f. ta{mf oR cibnft vIr[aAkyaEl
;vfvitmf EpCkiba[f. paEva nanfytfr kcfcti - '[f m[mf EvB epaRqfkqilf
eclflaT - '[fptalf '[fA[ nIvirf ev[fbaLmf, '[T m[At evlfl
;ylaT - '[fba[f. prmptnat[i[f tiRnamtfAtkf Pd ucfcrikfk viRpfpmf
;lflat tiRmgfAkyazfvarf(cibiy tiRmdlf) - mbfbara{mf u]fed[fparf -
'[fB PbiyT Epa[fB, `{m{mf - `nfytfr - EvB ;dmf - '[fba[f. ~k
;ramA[ viDtfT EvB 'tA[y<mf viRmfpat `{m[f Epa[fB `rgfk[f
`lflaT EvB 'tA[y<mf viRmfpamLmf `biyamLmf ;vrT niAl ;RnftT.
epriyepRmaAq `lflamlf mbfb pr-vfy>h-vipvgfkAq ;vrf `biy
viRmfpvilfAl.

!AvK]fdmf tiRpfpabfkdlf tiRvvtarsftlmf uknftRqi[ tiRpfptikqf
;Aveylflamf epriyepRmaEqya[apfEpaEl `vfEvavidgfkqiL]fda[
esqnftrfy K]EcxfFtatikeqlflamf epriyepRmaqf pkfklilf ka]lamf.
epriyepRmaqzKmf _cfvrfyMemlflamf prmpttftiEl MKqitmayiRkfKmf,
`vtartftilf :riAlEpaRmf, ;gfEk vnft pi[fp< tAztftT. 'gfgE[ey[f[ilf
- epagfEkatcf Vzfnft p<v[iy<mf vi]f}lKmgfkaTmf EcaraEmyaqfki[fb
'mfepRma[f ecgfEkaLAdy tiRvrgfkcf eclfv[araAkyaEl
`vfEvavidgfkqf sgfKcitmayiRnfttiEb.

viqkfkmf - ;vfvazfvaRkfK !AvK]fdmf, tiRpfpabfkdlf, mTra Epa[fb
`vtar ;dgfkqf, mbfb `rfcfcavtar tivfy Etcgfkqf ~kiy `A[tfTmf
epriyepRmaqakEv Eta[fBki[fb[. ;T Epa[fB `nftnft ;dgfkqilf
ka]pfpDmf `zK Mtla[ plfEvB K]gfkAqpf epriyepRmaqidmf ka]lamf.
epriyepRmaqi[f `zKmf, _cfvrfyMmf prmpttftilf emadfdak mdfDEm
;RkfKmf. `vtargfkqilf o[fB-;r]fD ;Alkqf TqirftftT Epa[fB mdfDEm
;RkfKmf. ~[alf tiRvrgfktftilf mdfDEm tAztfT, mlrfnfT ka]pfpDmf.
'pfpF '[fbalf - nacfciyarf tiRemazi(11-3) - epagfEkatmf Vzfnft p<v[iy<mf
vi]f}lKmf `gfkaTmf EcaraEm ~qfki[fb 'mfepRma[f ecgfEkalf uAdy
tiRvrgfkcf eclfv[arf - '[fB PBvT Epa[fB epRAm ;gfK uqfqtalf,
mbfb ;dgfkqilf `Av cibitqEv ka]pfpDmf.

t[fA[y<knftaAr `{pvikfAky[fbiEy ta[f '[fbalf viMkrayiRpfpaRmf
k]fd{pvikfklamfpF ;RkfAkyaEl nIrfAmyi[alf vnft "bfbmigfEky<]fD.
K]atikfytftaElyiEb vsfTv<kfK utfkrfxmf. K]mf viAlepBvT
;gfEkyiEb. K]tftilkpfpdfdarf ;vfvixymf Epakfki `biyarfkqiEb.

viqkfkmf - t[fA[ mikv<mf viRmfp<pvrfkqf mdfDEm `{pvikfKmf ;dgfkqak
cil uqfq[(prmptmf Epa[fbAv). `pfpF `lflamlf, t[f[idmf mikv<mf :DpaD
;lflatvrfkQkfKmf :DpaD u]fdakfKmfpF t[f{Ady 'qiAmyalf vnfT
cy[itft "bfbmf tiRvrgfktftibfK u]fD. oR epaRqi[f uyrfv< '[fpT
`nftpf epaRqidmf uqfq K]gfkqalf `lflEva? ~[alf K]gfkqf uyrfv<
epBvT epriyepRmaqf YMlmak `[fEba? `v[T K]tftilf mygfkiyvrfkqf,
epriyepRmaAq `lflamlf EvB 'tA[y<mf `biyatvrfkqf `lflEva?

yEta vaEca nivrftftnfEt '[fB EvtgfkQkfekdfdat srfEvcfvrA[, ~bfbilf
t]f]IErapati ~bfBkfKqfEq k]fd{pvikfklamfpF ;RkfkibvidmiEb.
mAzkfk[fBvArME[nfTmf Amnft[fmTrvaba[ `vfvaB ;vfvabayftfTkf
ka}mf. ;vrf tmkfK pfrapfyRmf pfrapkRmf RcijnkRmf viErati
nivrftftkMemlflamf epriyepRmaEq '[fbiRkfkibarf.

viqkfkmf - AttftirIy up[ixtf - yEta vaEca nivrftftnfEt - vakfKmf
m[Mmf pfrhfmtfAt `qvid ;ylamlf tiRmfpi[ - '[fB PbiyT. ;pfpFpfpdfd
`nft srfEvcfvrA[, ;r]fD kaEvri ~bfbi[f nDvilf, `nfttf t]f]Irf
Epa[fB 'qitakkf k]fD `{pvikfKmfpFya[ ;dmf tiRvrgfkmf `lflEva?
tiRmaAlyilf(36) - mAzkfK `[fB vAr ME[nfTmf AmnftE[ mTr ~Eb
57
`ml[atipira[f 'qiy tmizf viqkfkgfkqf Page 14 of 47
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- '[fB PbpfpDmf ;[iy ~B(kfRxf][f) `lflEva ;gfK epriyepRmaqak
uqfqT. ;pfpFpfpdfd epriyepRmaAqtf tiRpfpa]azfvarf t[f[alf
`AdykfPFy pfrapfymay<mf, pfrapkmay<mf, ;vfvitmf `AdvtbfK "bfb
RciAy(viRpfpmf '[lamf) viAqvipfptakv<mf eka]fdarf.


plEpakftfRtfvmf tmfmtayiRkfk 'lflamvEr '[fkibpF 'gfgE[ey[f[ilf
pfrtmsHkfRtMmf ta[ayf EpbfBkfK Ev]fDv[ nirfvhitfTpfEpanft
esqharftftMmf `tftAlyiEl kidkfAkyaEl, EpbfBkfK ;tftAlyiLqfqT
ecalflpfpatftmf EparatiEb uqfqT]fdakilf `{kfrhtfTkfK
EhTvamitftA[. ;tr vixygfkqilf `Rciy<mf pkvtf vixytftilf
`pfrtiExtMmf viAqnft ;mfmatfrtftiEl epriyepRmaqf tmf MAdy sfvYRp
YRp K]vip>tikAqkf kadfdkf k]fd{pvitfT pfrItrakibarf. ~nAynmf
hricfErxfd '[fB mharajAryidfD !vipIx]azfvaA[ `Rqf paFdfdapfEpaEl,
tazfcfci mbfebgfKmf tvirfnfT kAdtftAlyiRnfT vaZmf EcamfprayiRkfkib
Elaksargfk mhaM[ikAq `Rqf paFdfD, nmf paDEvaA[ `AztfTkf
eka]fD vaRmf '[f[, `vRmf `RqfpadRqfpaD '[fB ecalfl, ;vRmf
`FEy[f `Fpfpa][Fpfpa][f '[fB ;bayfkfk, `vRmf vidaEt Etaqf EmEl
'ZnftRqpf p]f}vitfTkf eka]fDEpak, vziyiEl o[fpT padfDpfpaFtf
tiRpfpirmfp<kfKqfEq ni[fB ptftamf padfDpf paFtf tAlkfkdfDkibarf.

viqkfkmf - epriyepRmaAq ;vrf `{pvitftpF uqfqEpaT, `A[tfTmf
epriyepRmaEq '[fB PBvT 'pfpF? epriyepRmaqf, t[f[idmf oRv[f vnfT
EcrfvtbfK uBpfpa[ Mtlf p<]f]iytfAt, `vE[ "bfpDtfti Avkfkiba[f.
EmLmf `vfvpfEpaT t[f[idmf Ect[{kfK uqfq uBti tqramlf niAl
niBtfTmfpFyak ~zma[ ndfApkf eka]fdpF uqfq t[fAm epriyepRmaqidmf
uqfqT. ~k epriyepRmaAq `Ady Ect[[idmf "Tmf ;lfAl '[fEb
Pbividlamf. `pfpF uqfqEpaT epriyepRmaqi[f `RQkfK oRv[f patftirmf
~vtbfK '[f[ kar]mf? ulk vixygfkqilf pbfB ;lflaAmy<mf,
epriyepRmaqf ;vA[tf t[f pkfkmf ;Zkfk MA[y<mfEpaT, ;v[f
tDkfkamlf ;RnftaLEm EpaTma[T. ;nft ;r]fAd mdfDEm mikv<mf
uyrfnftT '[fB epriyepRmaqf t[f{Ady sfvYRpmf, YRpmf, klfya]
K]gfkqf ~kiyvbfAb evqipfpDtftiviDkiba[f. ;tA[kf k]fD ~zfvarf
mikv<mf mkizfnfT Epakibarf. ~nAynmf hricfErxfd - va[rrfkqilf cibnft
CkfrIvE[, `vA[ `AztfT va - '[fB CkfrIv[f YMlmak vipIx]A[
;ram[f `Aztfta[f, `TEpa[fB tiRvayfemazi(3-2-4) PBvT Epa[fB -
tazfcfci mbfebgfKmf tvirfnfT - mbfb vixygfkqilf :Dpdamlf uqfqvRmf,
tiRmaAlyilf(38) PBvT Epa[fB - kAdtftAlyiRnfT vaZmf Ecamfprf -
Ekayilf eta]fFlf mdfDEm :DpdfdpF uqfqvRmf ~kiy Elaksargfk
mhaM[ivA[ `rgfk[f `Aztfta[f, `vridmf - nmfAmpf paDpv[a[
tiRpfpa]A[ `AztfTkf eka]fD vaRmf - '[fba[f. `vrf ~zfvaridmf
ec[fB - `RqpfpaD - '[fB epriyepRmaqi[f utftrAvkf Pbi[arf.
;tA[kf Ekdfd ~zfvarf - `FEy[f `Fpfpa][f `Fpfpa][f - '[fB t[T
tKtiAykf kadfF mBtftarf. ~yi{mf M[ivrf vidamlf, t[T Etaqfkqilf
~zfvaAr 'ZnftRqpf p]f]icf ec[fbarf. eclfLmf vziyilf ~zfvarf o[fpT
paCrgfkqf `Rqicf ecyftarf. epriyepRmaqf tiRM[fpak ni[fB ptftavT
paCrtfAtkf Pbi ;nftpf pirpnfttfAt niAbv< ecyftarf.

1. `ml[f ~ti pira[f `FyarfkfK '[fA[ ~qfpDtft
viml[f vi]f]vrfEka[f viAryarf epazilf Evgfkdv[f
niml[f ni[fml[f nIti va[v[f nIqfmtiqf `rgfktfT `mfma[f tiRkf
kml patmf vnfT '[f k]f]ilf uqfq[ okfki[fb[Ev

epaRqf - mikv<mf T\yfAmya[v[f, ;nft ulki[f kar]ma[v[f, '[kfK
`A[tfTmf ecyfpv[f, mikv<mf tazfnft '[fA[ `v[T `FyarfkQkfKtf
eta]fd[ak mabfbiytalf u]fda[ mkizfcfci '[f{mf oqiy<Adyv[f,
nitfyVrikqi[f tAlv[f, nBm]mf vICmf EcaAlkqf niAbnft tiRmAlyilf
vacmf ecyfpv[f, '[f[idmf "Tmf 'tirfparamlf utv<mf epRAm uqfqv[f,
'[kfK utv<vAttf t[T EpB '[fb ']f]iypF uqfqv[f, 'jma[-`FAm
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`ml[atipira[f 'qiy tmizf viqkfkgfkqf Page 15 of 47
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ubv<MAb mabamlf ;RkfKmf prmpttfti[f nayk[f - ;pfpFpfpdfdv[f yarf
'[fbalf - uyrfnft tiRmtiqfkqf Vzfnft tiRvrgfktfti[f epriyEkayililf
k]fvqRmf `zkiym]vaq[f ~va[f. `v[T tiRvFtftamArkqf '[T
k]fkqilf ta[akEv vnfT p<Knft[.



nmfepRmaqf uAby>rilf kmlvlfli nacfciyaRd[f EsAv catikfkibpF

vfyakfya[mf

(`ml[f) - nitfysmfsariyayftf t]f]iyrayiRkfkib tamf kidfDAk
`tftAlkfK `vtfyem[fbiRnftarf. vnfT kidfF[ pi[fp< epriyepRmaQkfKpf
pibnft AvlX]fytfAtkf k]fD `ml[f '[fB eka]fdaDkibarf. `ml[f
'[fbT Ehy pfrtfynIke[[fbpF. `phtpapfmtfvatiK]gfkqf
~tfmav<kfK]fdayiRkfkcfecyfEty<mf Ehysmfpnftavhmayf, pkvtf
pfrsattftaEl u]fdak Ev]fFyiRkfKmf. ;v[f `gfg[[fbikfEkyiRkfAk.

viqkfkmf - 'pfEpaTmf smfsartftilf Cz[fbpFy<mf, tazfnft Kltftilf
uqfqvrakv<mf ;RnftpFyalf, ta[f epriyepRmaqidmf eclfvT `v{kfKtf
tazfAv "bfpDtftiviDmf '[fb ']f]i, `vA[cf ec[fbAdyamlf ;Rnftarf.
~[alf (epriyepRmaqi[f utftrvi[f Eprilf) epriyepRmaqidmf ta[f
ec[fbTmf, `v[T tiRMktftilf u]fda[ mkizfAvy<mf mlrfcfciAyy<mf k]fD,
`v[f Kbfbmbfbv[f '[fB p<kzfnftarf. `ml[f '[fb ptmf tazfv<kfK
'tirftdfdak uqfqv[f '[fb epaRqf `qipfptaKmf. prmatfmaAvpf Epa[fEb
jIvatfmav<kfKmf pavmf `bfbv[f Mtla[ t[fAmkqf u]fD, ~[alf jIv[f
eka]fDqfq udlf etadrfp< kar]mak `nfttf t[fAmkqf pkva[i[f `Rqalf
mdfDEm evqipfpDmf. ~[alf prmfepaREqa ;vfvitmf `nfttf t[fAmkqf
evqipfpd Ev]fFy `vciymf ;lflamlf, `vbfAb 'pfEpaTmf
evqipfpDtftiypFEy uqfqa[f.



59
`ml[atipira[f 'qiy tmizf viqkfkgfkqf Page 16 of 47
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(`ml[f) Ctfte[[fbpF. ;v[f Ctft[aAkyavT ta[f oRtft[f
Ctft[aAky[fB, t[fE[aD smfptftitftaAry<mf Ctftrakfkvlfl `Fy<AdAm.
TyrB CdrFyiEb. pavnsf srfvElakanamf tfvmf "v rKnnftn '[f{maEpaEl.
(`ml[f) '[fkibT - j[fmvfRtftanftikqalf KAby ni[fb tmfAm
vixyIkritft pi[fp< t[fpkfklf Etaxmf tdfdaEt `ncfnnfnnfEya `picakcIti
'[fkibpFEy viqgfKkibpF. '[fk]f pacmf Avtft prwfCdrfcf EcatikfEk.

viqkfkmf - mikv<mf T\yfAmya[v[f. T\yfAm '[fpT, ta[f mdfDmf
'nftvitma[ KbfbMmf ;lflamlf ;RpfpEtaD `lflamlf, t[fA[
carfnftvrfkAqy<mf `vfvitEm mabfbvlfl tib[f eka]fdv[f '[fptaKmf.
;tA[ tiRvayfemaziyilf(1-1-1) - TyrB CdrF - '[fbarf. ;ramay]mf(utftr
ka]fdmf@82-9) - pavnsf srfvElakanamf tfvmf "v rKnnftn - rama. ;nft
ulkgfkqf `A[tfAty<mf T\yfAmpfpDtft vlflv[f nIEy - '[fbT. EmLmf,
pibviyalf, oZkfktftalf mikv<mf tazfnft '[fA[, `v[f "bfBkf eka]fd
pi[f[Rmf, ta[f 'nftvittftiLmf tazfnfTvidamlf uqfqa[f. M]fdk
up[ixtf(3-1-1) - `ncfnnfnnfEya `picakcIti - k[iAy u]f]amlf
pfrkacmakEv uqfqT - '[fB PBvT Epa[fB uqfqa[f. ;T "[f '[fbalf,
nmfmazfvarf(3-3-4) - '[fk]f pacmf Avtft prwfCdrfcf EcatikfEk - '[fbarf.

(~ti) ~tIyt ;ti ~ti@ - sfpfRh]Iye[[fbpF. tmfAm vixyIkrikfAkkfK
`Fya[ae[[fB ~ti '[f[v<mamf. jktfkar]tfvatikAqcf ecalflv<mamf.
~k ;r]fD pttftaLmf EhypfrtfynIktfvMmf klfya]K]EyakMmf
ecalfLkibT.

viqkfkmf - ~tIyt ;ti ~ti@ - `A[vraLmf "bfkpfpDpv[f ~ti - '[fB
PbpfpdfdT. `A[vraLmf viRmfppfpDpv[f ~va[f. t[fA[(~zfvaAr)
:DpDtftikfeka]fdtbfKkf kar]mak uqfqtalf ~ti '[fbarf. ;nft ulki[f
kar]mak uqfqtalf ~ti '[pfpdfda[f. ~kEv `ml[f mbfBmf ~ti ~kiy
;r]fD ecabfkqaLmf epriyepRmaqf tazfv<kqalf tI]fdpfpdamlf uqfqa[f
'[fBmf, tiRkfklfya] K]gfkqi[f ;Rpfpidmak uqfqa[f '[fBmf
u]rftftpfpdfdT.

(pira[f) - ;vfEvaniAlkAq '[kfkbivitft upkark[f. (pira[f) upkartfAtcf
ecalfli, ecalflpfpbfbaEm 'tftibmf '[fkibarf.

viqkfkmf - `vA[pf pbfbi ;vfvitmak '[kfKtf (~zfvarf)
etriypfpDtftiyv[f, ;pf pFpfpdfd utvi ecyftv[f. EmLmf pl utvikQmf
ecyfytf tyarak uqfqv[f.

(`FyarfkfK) - rtfnharI c prftftiv@ '[fkibpFEy ;vfvsfTvi[f cIrfAmyaEl
;T nmfmqvildgfkaT, nmfmFyarfkfkamitftA[ey[fB `vrfkQkfkakfki
[ae[[fkibarf. (`Fyarf) - t[f pkfkliEl niXipftprrayiRkfKmvrf kqf.

viqkfkmf - ;ramay]tftilf - rtfnharI c prftftiv - ;rtfti[kfkbfkAq
uriAmy<d[f `rc[f 'DtfTkf ekaqfqlamf - '[fB PBvT Epa[fB '[fA[
uriAmy<d[f Akkfeka]fda[f. '[f[idmf '[f[ epRAm k]fda[f '[fB
'[kfKpf p<riyvilfAl, '[fA[tf t[kfK mdfDmf `lflamlf t[f{Ady
`FyarfkQkfKmf `FAmyakfki[a[f.

('[fA[yaqfpDtft viml[f) - t[f[iAdyadfdMmbiyatev[fA[tf
t[f[FyarfkfK Ecxp>t[akfki[ Ctfte[[fkibarf. ('[fA[) pfrkfRtikfkFAm
ecyfT Epanftev[fA[. tnft t[tfti[f cIrfAm `biyat '[fA[. ('[fA[) -
Ethatfmapimanikqf tI]fdatev[fA[. n[fAmkfKtf t[kfkvfvR
kilflatapfEpaEl tIAmkfK '[kfkvfvRkilflat '[fA[. (~qfpDtft) -
`vrfkEqaEd opfp>}]f] Avtftil[f. `vrfkQkfK Ecxmakfki[a[f. pkvcf
EcxtfvtftqviEl ni[fbalf mIqcgfAky<]fD, pakvt Ecxtfvtftqv<mf
ec[fbalf mIqpfEpakaEt. ukpfpaEl vRmtaAkyaEl. oR EXtfrmf ptfetdfD
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kfrymf ec[fbalf mIq virkilfAl. !vipIx]azfva{kfK MtlikQAdy
vixyIkarmf epRmaQAdy vixyIkartfTkfK MbfpdfdapfEpaEl ;vrfkfKtf ttIy
vixyIkarmf MbfpdfdpF. ttfRV@, ~nAynmf hri cfErxfd `gfK. ;gfK
ElaksargfkmhaM[ikAqpf Epayf ~zfvaAr `AztfTkf eka]fD
vaRem[fba[f.

viqkfkmf - ('[fA[yaqfpDtft viml[f) - `v[T vixymf KbitfT "Tmf
`biyamlf uqfq '[fA[ `v[T `Fyarfkqi[f eta]fd[akfkiy T\yv[f
'[fbarf. ('[fA[) - ;nft ulk vixygfkQkfK mdfDEm `FAmyak ;Rnft
'[fA[. `v[f '[kfK `qitfTqfq eclfvtfti[f epRAm `biyat '[fA[.
('[fA[) - ;nft udAlEy ~tfma '[fB niA[kfKmf tazfnftvrfkqf Pd
oTkfKmf `qvibfKtf tazfnftv[a[ '[fA[. (~qfpDtft) - pkva[idmf
`FAmyak ;RnftalfPd nZv vayfpfp<]fD, ~[alf `v[f `FyarfkQkfK
`FAmya[alf nZv vayfpfpilfAl - kar]mf, ;nft niAl `v[f mIT
eka]fd ukpfpalf vRvtaKmf. vipIx]{kf K ;ram[i[f `biMkmf
kidfDvtbfK M[fpak, ;ram[i[f `Fyara[ CkfrIv[i[f `biMkmf kidfFyT.
;EtEpa[fB ~zfvaRmf epriyepRmaqidmf eclfvtbfK M[fpak `Fyari[f
`biMkmf kidfdpfepbfbarf. CkfrIv[idmf vipIx]A[ `AztfT vRmfpF
'mfepRma[f ;ramay]tftilf Pbi[a[f. ;gfK ElaksargfkmhaM[ikqidmf
~zfvaAr `AztfT vRmfpFpf p]itfta[f.

(`Fyarfkfek[fA[ ~dfpDtft) - ta[f Ecxitfvtfti{Ady 'lfAlyiEl
ni[fbapfEpaEl Ecxtfvtftie[lfAlyiEl '[fA[ Avtfta[f. (viml[f) - '[f
ciBAm paraEt ttIyrfkfK EcxmakfKAkyalf vnft oqjfvlfymf. 'tirikAq
trmfparaEt cIriyrf tnftamqviElyiEb ekaDpfpT.

viqkfkmf - (`Fyarfkfek[fA[ ~dfpDtft) - 'jma[tft[tfti[f 'lfAlyak
`v[f uqfqT Epa[fB '[fA[kf Akgfkrfytft[tfti[f 'lfAlyilf Avtfta[f.
(viml[f) - '[f{Ady tazfAm "Tmf paramlf `v[T `FyarfkQkfKkf
Akgfkrfymf ecyfy<mfpF AvtftT `v[T oqjfvlfy K]mf. vnftvrfkqf
viEratikqayi{mf n[fAm ecyfvT nlflvrf K]mf `[fEba?


(vi]f]vrfEka[f) - ~qilflatv[f kiGrf ;pfpF vixyIkritfta[f. nitfyVrikqf
'DtfTkf AknIdfDmfpF ;Rkfkibv[f kiGrf ktirf epaBkfki jIvipfpaArpfEpaEl
nitfysmfsariyayiRkfkibev[fA[ nitfyMkftEraedakf k vixyIkritfta[f.
;vfevqtarfymf kbfbTmf `vrfkEqaEd kiGer[fBmamf. `sfmapisfTlfEyapvT
'[fbarfkqiEb. (vi]f]vrfEka[f) - ;gfKtfAtkf KzatfAteyaziy
`gfKtfAtkf KzatfAty<mf kadfFtftnfta[f. ud[f PDvet[fB ekaEla
'[fB ;vrf ~AcpfpdEv]fDvtilfAl. (Eka[f) - `vrfkqaLmf 'lf Al
ka]eva]f]aT. (viAryarf epazilf Evgfkdv[f) - primqmf niAbnftiRnfTqfq
EcaAlAyy<Ady tiREvgfkd mAlAyy<Adv[f. epriyepRmaAqpf
padanibfktf tiRmAlyiEl Epavae[[fe[[f[ilf - oRvA[kf kvipaDmfEpaT
`v{Ady vrtfTcfecalfliyiEb kvipaDvT. prmpttftilf ni[fBmf
!mTAryiEl tgf kitf tiRvayfpfpaFkfK vnftapfEpaEl, !AvK]fdtfti[i[fBmf
tiRmAlyiEl tgfkikfka}mf EkayiLkfK vnftT '[fB pdfdrRqicfecyfy<mfpF.
`[fbiEy, Ekayilf EpakfyAt tmkfK nilmlflaAmyaEl tiRmAlyiElEpayf
trikfkpfparfkfkibaer[fBmamf. (viAryarf) - nitfysJrikAqy<Ady[avTkfK
EmEl Orf _cfvrfymf.

viqkfkmf - (vi]f]vrfEka[f) - ;vfvitmf tazfnftv[a[ '[fA[ `v[f pkfkmf
EcrftftT EvB yaRmf kidfdaAmyala? `lfl. nitfyVrikqf plRmf Vz
uqfqv[f `v[f. `[fbadmf jIv[tfTkfkak enlf EckritftpF uqfqv[f
Epa[fB, '[fBmf smf sartftilf cikfkiypF uqfq '[fA[, nitfyMkftrfkQd[f
Ecrftfta[f. ;ramay]mf y<tftka]fdtftilf - `sfmapisfTlfEyapvT - CkfrIv[f
;ram[idmf vipIx][f nmT n]fp[ak ;RkfkdfDmf - '[fB Pbi[a[f.
'mfepRma[f, '[fA[ nitfyVrikQd[f EcrftfT AvkfKmf oqtarfy K]tfAt
CkfrIv[idmiRnfT kbfba[f EpaLmf. ;gfKqfq `FyarfKzamf mdfDmf `lflamlf,
prmpttftilf uqfq `FyarfKzatfAty<mf kadfF[a[f. nmfmazfvarf
61
`ml[atipira[f 'qiy tmizf viqkfkgfkqf Page 18 of 47
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tiRvayfemaziyilf (2-3-10) - ud[f PDvT '[fB ekaEla - '[fB "gfkiyT
Epa[fB tiRpfpa]azfvarf ~AcpfpdkfPd Enrmf ;lflatpF EcrftfT Avtfta[f.
(Eka[f) - `nft nitfyVrikqaLmf ;v[T K]gfkAqpf pbfbiy 'lfAlkqf
ka] ;ylatpF uqfqv[f. (viAryarf epazilf Evgfkdv[f) - primqmf kmZmf
EcaAlkqf 'gfKmf Vzfnft ;dmakiy tiREvgfkdmAlAytf t[T
;Rpfpidmak uqfqv[f. ;gfK Orf _ymf "bfpdlamf - epriyepRmaAqpf pbfbipf
paFkfeka]fDqfqEpaT, tiGer[ tiRmAlAypf pbfbikf PBvT "[f -
;vfvitmf pdfdridmf oR cilrf Ekdfd[rf. `tbfKpf pdfdrf - oRvA[pf pbfbikf
PBmfEpaT `v[f 'gfkiRnfT vnftv[f '[fB p<kzfnfT PBvT vzkfkmf.
prmpttftiliRnfT p<bpfpdfD mTra nkrilf tgfki, pi[f[rf tiR~yfpfpaFkfK
vnfta[f. `T Epa[fB, !AvK]fdtftiliRnfT p<bpfpdfD, tiRmAlkfK vnfT,
tiRvrgfktfTkfK vnfta[f - '[fbarf. `lflT tiRvrgfkpf epriyEkayilf
t[f[alf 'qitakcf ec[fB `{pvikfk ;ylamlf uqfqtalf, tiRmAlkfKcf
ec[fB uyirf trikfkpf parfkfkibarf. (viAryarf) - nitfyVrikqf '[fb epRmf
_cfvrfymf uqfqv[f, `vrfkAq vid ;vAr uyrfnft _cf vrfymf '[fB
ekaqfpv[f.

(vi]f]vrfEka[f viAryarfpfepazilf Evgfkdv[f) - ~bfbiEl `ZnfTvarf
~zgfkaliEl ;Aqpfpabtf EtDmaEpaEl `vrfkQmf vnfT `FAm
ecyfy<midmf. (Evgfkdv[f) - `rfcfcavtartfTkfKpf epabfkalf epaliyvidfdvidmf.
(niml[f) - ;tftAlyilf `rftftitfvMmf Pdvi[fbikfEkyiRkfk, ;pfpF
upkrikfAkyalf vnft oqjfvlfymf. ;v{mf OrFyidpfparftf tiraetaziAk.
`citfvyavfRtftiyaEl OrFyidfdaR]fdakilf ptfpfyampik macfAcv
sfEnhsnftrfcEnnc. (ni[fml[f) - ;tftAlkfK upkritfta[a
yiRkfAky[fbiEk t[f EpbayiRkfAk. `ml[f '[fB t[kfkakfki[pF, viml[f
'[fB t[f[Fyarfkfkakfki[pF, niml[f '[fB na[f pcfAcyidatiRkfk
'[fkarfymf ecyftae[[fkibarf. (ni[fml[f) - ;T t[f Epbakcf
ecyftae[[fkibarf. kfRtfkfRtfysfttaram@ '[fkibpFEy.

(nItiva[v[f) - EcxEcxitfvgfkqf MAbmabat nitfyvip>tiyiEly<qfqv[f.
:cfvErahmf '[fB 'tiridfFRkfKmidmiEb ;vfvidmf, `gfK klkfKvaRmilfAl,
klgfKvaRmilfAl, ;gfK klkfKvaRM]fD, klgfKvaRM]fD.
(nIqfmtiqrgfktftmfma[f) - nItiva[v[f '[f[a, nI]f mtiqrgfktftmfma
e[[fkibarf, `qpfpriyvarMAt `rgfkEmyvnft]A[ '[f{maEpaEl
(nI]fmtiqf) - rXktfvtfTkfKpf EpaRmf pFya[ mtiAqy<Ady epriyEkayiliEl
k]fvqrfnftRQkib prmEcxi. (`mfma[f) - :rrC tvirftftaliEb Ecxitfvmf
p>rf]mavT. tiRmAlyilf EpakfyAt nilmlflaAmyaEl mIqv<mf EkayiliEl
p<Kkibarf. evqfqtfAtkf kqfqmAdyaEl pqfqtfEt viDmaEpaEl,
tiREvgfkdMAdya[f vdkfKtf tiRvaclaEl vnfT p<Knfta[tftA[
'[fBmamf. (tiRkfkmlpatmf) - ecvfviy<mf Kqirftftiy<mf vikasMmf primqMmf
etadkfkma[Av.

viqkfkmf - (nItiva[v[f) - 'jma[[f -`FAm '[fb MAb mabamlf uqfq
prmpttftilf uqfqv[f. ;nftpf p>miyilf mdfDEm - :cfvErahmf - naE[ :cfvr[f
- '[fB vatmf ecyfy<mf t[fAm uqfqT. prmpttftilf ;T Epa[fb tvba[
kRtfTkfkqf eka]fD yaRmf mykfKvTmf ;lfAl, `vfvitmf mygfKpvrfkQmf
;lfAl. ~[alf ;nftpf p>miyilf ;T Epa[fb tvba[ vatgfkqf eka]fD
nmfAm mygfkcf ecyfpvrfkQmf u]fD, ;nft vattfti[alf mygfKpvrfkQmf
u]fD. (nI]fmtiqf `rgfktf T `mfma[f) - nItiva[v[f '[fpTd[f nilflamlf
nI]fmtiqf `rgfktfT `mfma[f '[fbarf. (nI]fmtiqf) - kapfptbfKpf p>r]ma[
mtiqfkAqkf eka]fd tiRvrgfkmf epriyEkayililf k]fvqrfkfki[fbv{mf,
`A[vRkfKmf 'jma[{mf. (`mfma[f) - ;R `rcrfkqf ~dfci ecyftalf,
oRv[f mdfDEm MZAmya[ 'jma[[f '[fB 'vfvitmf Pb ;yLmf?
`TEpa[fB ;gfK tiRmAly<mf, tiRvrgfkMmf PbpfpDmfEpaT,
epriyepRmaEq 'jma[[f '[fB 'vfvitmf Pb ;yLmf? tiRmAlyilf ;[iAm
niAbvak ;lflat kar]tftalf, mI]fDmf epriyEkayiLkfEk vnfT viDkibarf.
(tiRkfkmlpatmf) - `zK, Kqirfcfci, nBm]mf ~kiy `A[tfTmf pibkfKmf
;dmak uqfq tiRvFkqf.

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`ml[atipira[f 'qiy tmizf viqkfkgfkqf Page 19 of 47
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~titfyA[kf k]fdaliEb tamArylRvT, ;tftamArkfK ~titfy[f ;vrf.
piradfF tiRMAltftdgfkqiLmf tiRkfk]fkqiLmf obfbikfekaqfQmf tiRvFkqf.
;vRAdy tqirfp<Ary<mf tiRvFkqiRkfkibpF. (`mfma[f tiRkfkmlpatmf) -
etadrfnfT vRAkkfK pfrapfti. (vnfT) - tfvIpanftrtftilf crkfKcf
EcrEv]fF[alf patipfpati vziyakiLmf vRtlf, oRtAlpfpbfBtlf
ecyfyEv}miEb, `gfg[[fbiEy, vnfT[tFEy[f m[mf p<Knftayf '[fkibpFEy
vzivnfta{mf taE[, pbfbi[a{mftaE[ '[fkibT. (nItiva[v[f -kmlpatmf -'[f
k]f]i{qfq[) - statrf cnmf p]f}kibvrfkqf k]f}kfkilkfka[TkiGrf '[f
k]f}kfkilkfkakibT. vlfltA[ naQmf viEratmf p]f]iE[[f,
EpakfkbfbvaEb '[f k]fA]cf ecmfpqitfEt[f, etadrfnfT vnfT ecmfpqitft
k]fA]y<BtfT uqfEq p<KnfT nibfAkyaEl '[f k]f]i{qfq[ '[fkibarf.
`[fbiEy tmf k]f]aEl parfkfAk `vtfyem[fB k]fA]cf ecmfpqitftarf,
k]f]i{qfEq pfrkacikfktf etadgfkibfB.

viqkfkmf - VriyA[kf k]fdalf tamAr mlrfvT ;ylfp< `lflva?
tamAryakiy 'mfepRma[i[f tiRvFkqf mlrfvtbfka[ Vriy[ak ~zfvarf
uqfqarf. ;nfttf tiRvFkqf epriypiradfF t[T sft[gfkqiLmf,
tiRkfk]fkqiLmf obfbikf ekaqfQmf tiRvFkqf ~Kmf. (vnfT) - oR tIvilf
uqfqvrfkqf tgfkQkfK "bfb epaRqf Ev]fDmf '[fbalf, nadfFlf
uqfqvrfkAqkf kdlilf pati T\rmf vrcfecalfli, tagfkqf patiT\rmf vnft,
epaRqfkAqpf epBvrf. ;gfK `pfpF ;lfAl. epriy tiRemazi (3-5-1) -
vnfT[tFEy[f m[mf p<Knftayf - '[fB PBvT Epa[fB, ta[akEv vliy
vnfT, ;vArpf pbfbv<mf ecyfta[f. 'pfEpaTmf tricitftpF uqfq nitfyVrikqi[f
k]fkQkfK ;lkfkak uqfqv[f ;[fB '[f k]fkQkfK ;lkfka[a[f.
~yi{mf `tA[kf ka]amlf ovfevaR naQmf tkat ecylfkAqEy
ecyfEt[f. `T mdfDm[fbi '[T k]fkAq YMFkf ekaqfqv<mf ecyfEt[f.
~[alf `v[f YMFy '[T k]fkAq vliytf tibnfT uqfEq p< KnfT ni[fba[f.
`lflT EvB epaRQmf Pblamf. `vA[pf parfkfktf t[kfKtf tKti ;lfAl
'[fB k]fkAq YMFkfeka]fdarf, ~yi{mf `v[f YMFy k]fkqi[f uqfEq
pfrkacitfta[f.

(okfki[fb) - pfrEyajnmf ;r]fD tAlkfKmf otftira ni[fbT. `gfKtfAtkfK
cIlsitfti, ;gfKtfAtkfK sfvYRpsitfti. (okfki[fb) - pfrtfyX smanakar
mayiRnftet[f{tlf. '[f k]f}kfkilkfka[ vidtftiLmf pAzy niAl
KAlyatiRnftet[f {tlf. smfcarikAqpf parftfT ugfkQkfKmf okfKEma
ev[fkibaratlf. ;nft lapmf `tftAlkfKmf okfKEmaev[fkibaratlf.

viqkfkmf - (okfki[fb) - ;vrf 'mfepRmaA[ `Adnftt[f YMlmf
;RvRkfKEm py[f u]fda[T. ;vrf `vA[ `Adnftt[f YMlmf, `v[T
cIl K]tfAt ulkibfK evqipfpDtfTmf vayfpfp< `v{kfK u]fda[T.
;vRkfK t[f{Ady sfvYRptfAt `binfT ekaqfqkfPFy vayfpf p<
u]fda[T. ;vrf t[f{Ady m[tarkf k]fdAtEy, t[T k]fkqilf `v[f
ni[fba[f '[fB PBkibarf. tazfva[f t[T k]fkqilf p<Knft pi[f[Rmf, t[T
pAzy epaliv< mabamlf uqfqa[f. smfsarikqidmf - ugfkQkfK ugfkqf ulk
vixytftilf "bfpDmf niAlya[T, ;nft u[f[t niAlAy 'dfDma - '[fbarf.

(`ml[f) - uyrfvb uyrf nlmf uAdyv[f. (~ti) - yv[f. (pira[f) - myrfvb
mtinlmf `Rqi[a[f. (`FyarfkfK) - pyiLmf Cderaqi. (vi]f]vrfEka[f) -
`yrfvBmf `mrrfkqf `tipti. (vnfT) - `vrf etaZetZ '[fbarf, ;vrfkfK
`Av taE[ vnfT ni[fb[.

viqkfkmf - (`ml[f) - t[fA[ vid uyrfnftT '[fB "Tmf ;lflatv[f.
(vnfT) - nmfmazfvarf `A[vridMmf, `v[T tiRvFkAqcf ec[fB
etazEv]fDmf '[fbarf. ;vRkfEka `nfttf tiRvFkqf tamakEv vnfT 'tiEr
ni[fb[.



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`ml[atipira[f 'qiy tmizf viqkfkgfkqf Page 20 of 47
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2. uvnft uqfqtft[ayf ulkmf `qnfT `]fdMb
nivrfnft nI]fMFy[f `[fB Enrfnft nicacrArkf
kvrfnft evmf kA]kf kaKtft[f kFyarf epazilf `rgfktftamfma[f
civnft ~Adyi[f Emlf ec[fbtamf '[f cinftA[Ey.


epaRqf - '[fA[tf t[T `Fyarakkf eka]fdtalf mikv<mf mkizfv<d[f
uqfqa[f. YM[fB ulkgfkAqy<mf t[T tiRvFyalf `qnfT 'Dtfta[f. `nft
Enrtftilf, `]fdtfti[f 'lfAlAy 'dfDmfpFyak uyrftftiy<Ady tiRMFAykf
eka]fda[f. M[fp< oR kaltftilf, ;ram[ak ni[fB, t[fA[ 'tirftfT vnft
`rkfkrfkqi[f uyiArtf t[f{Ady ekaFy `mfp<kqalf kvrfnfta[f.
;pfpFpfpdfdv[f ;[fB `zka[ EcaAlkqf Vzfnft tiRvrgfktftilf
k]fvqrfkiba[f. `v[T `zka[ ;Dpfpilf kdfdpfpdfd pItamfprtfti[f mIT
'[f{Ady niA[va[T niAl ni[fbT.



~zfvarf PBvT Epa[fB civnft pdfdaAd cabfbikfeka]fD cinfAt kvRmf
nmfepRmaqf



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`ml[atipira[f 'qiy tmizf viqkfkgfkqf Page 21 of 47
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`vtariAk


MtbfpadfFlf `v[f etadrfnfT vnftpF eca[f[arf. ;pfpadfFlf tamf Emlf
viZnftpF ecalfLkibarf. tiRvFkqiEl etadrfnft tiRv<qfqmf
tiRpfpriyvdfdtfti[f Emlf EcrfnftpF 'gfgE[ey[f[ilf, ta[binfT Ecrilf
vixytfti[f EpakfyAtkfKkf Kbfbmamf. ~AkyaEl EpakfyAt
`qv<pdfdTmlfl, ~Ac tAlmFnftTmlfl, kdElatmf kiqrftAl kpfp<kfkalf
uqfEq kidnftetaR TRmfp< kdAl `qvidfdllflEv kArEyBvT. oR
tiAr oR tiAryiEl "b vICmtftA[yiEb.

viqkfkmf - kdnft paCrtftilf, `v[f ;vArpf pi[f etadrfnfT vnftAtkf
Pbi[arf. ;nftpf paCrtftilf, ta[f `v[f pkfkmf ec[fB viZnftAtkf
PBkibarf. tiRvFkAqkf PbiypF ;Rnft ;vrf, tiGer[ ;Dpfpilf uqfq
~AdAypf pbfbikf Pb vnftT "[f ? ta[akEv ovfevaR pKtiyakpf
epriyepRmaAq `{pvitftiRnftalf, `vbfbi[f ;[iAmkfKkf KAb
"bfpdlamf. ~Akyalf tiRvFkqi[f mIT ;vRkfK ;[iAm KAbnfttalf,
`DtfTqfq ~Adyi[f mIT ;vrf k]fkqf ec[fbT '[fpT `lfl. kdlilf
`Alkqf vICmfEpaT, `t{qfEq uqfq cibiy epaRqa[T, Orf
`AlyiliRnfT mbfEbarf `AlkfKtf tqfqpDmf `lflEva? kdlf MZvTmak
`binfT eka]fd pi[f[Er `nftpf epaRqf kArEyBmf '[fptlfl. `TEpa[fB
;vRmf epriyepRmaqi[f '[fb kdlilf cikfki, `v[T `zka[ uBpfp<kqf
'[fb pl `Alkqalf `gfKmigfKmf tqfqpfpDkibarf '[fB kRtfT.

vfyakfya[mf

(uvnftv<qfqtft[ayf) - ~zfvaAr `kpfpDtfTAkyalf vnft pfrIti,
srfEvcfvr[ayf !y@ptiyayf `vapftsmsft kam[ayiRkfkibv[f `rftftiyayf
vnfT, t[f tiRvFkAqtf tAlyiEl Avya ni[fbalf mtIy Ymrftftanm
lgfkrixfyti '[fB ukkfk Ev]fFyiRkfk, `Avybiyaetaziy pfrAj palf
KFkfkkfk]fD ukkfKmf mataAvpfEpaEl uknft tiRv<qfqtfAt
uAdyv[ayf. ;vbfAbpf pirinftalf vfysnMmf t[f[EtyiEb vfysEnxH
m{xfya]amf pfRcmf pvti '[fkibpFEy.

viqkfkmf - (uvnftv<qfqtft[ayf) ~zfvaArtf t[kfK vcpfpDtftiy
kar]tftalf u]fda[ mkizfcfciyilf uqfqv[f. srfEvcfvr{mf, epriypiradfFyi[f
nayk{mf, t[T viRpfpgfkqf `A[tfTmf niAbEvbpf epbfbv[ak
uqfqv{mf ~kiy epriyepRmaqf, yackmf epBpv[ak vnfT t[T
tiRvFkAq `A[vrf tAlyiLmf Avtfta[f. `vfvitmf AvtftEpaT,
~qvnftarf sfEtatfr rtf[tftilf (31) - mtIyYMrftfna mlgfkrixfyti - u[T
tiRvFtftamArkqf 'pfEpaT '[T tAlAy `lgfkrikfkpf Epaki[fb[ -
'[fB "gfkiy niAl nmkfKkf AkPFyT `lflEva? ~k namf `lflEva
mkiz Ev]fDmf? mabak ;v[f mkizkf kar]mf - '[fA[ ;vrfkqf tgfkqf
`biyamlf evBkfkamlf ;Rnft[Er - '[fB ']f]i, t[f[idmf palf KFkfKmf
KznfAtAykf k]fD tayf mkizf vT Epa[fB, ;v[f mkizfnfta[f. namf `vA[
vidfDpf pirinftalf, t[f{Ady uAdAmkAq ;znfEtamf '[fB `v[f
`lflEva T[fpmf ekaqfkiba[f? ;ramay]mf (`Eyatfya ka]fdmf 2-40) -
vfysEnxH m{xfya]amf pfRcmf pvti - m[itrfkqi[f T[fpmf k]fD,
T[fppfpDmf m[itrfkAq vid `tikmak ;ram[f Tyrmf ekaqfkiba[f - '[fbT
ka]fk.

(ulkmqnfT) - vKtft tiRvFkqf tAlyiEl vnftiRnftaLmf ukkfkvbiyat
ElaktfAtkf kiGrf ta{mf vidaEt `qnftT. ukkfkvbiyaAmkfK
v[fmaAvymiEb. K]aK] niYRp]mf p]f]aEt 'lfElarf tAlyiLmf okfktf
tiRvFkAq AvtftpFyaEl, pkftima[fkQmf patkikQmf okfk vazfnfT
EpayftfT.

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viqkfkmf - (ulkmqnfT) - tgfkqT 'jma[[f tiRvFkqf tgfkqf tAlyilf
vnfT ni[fbEpaT `tA[kf k]fD ;nft ulkilf uqf qvrfkqf ukpfp<
`Adyamlf ;Rnft[rf. ;vfvitmf ;vrfkqf uqfqEpatiLmf - na[f
AkvidmadfEd[f - '[fB uBti eka]fD `lflva `qnfta[f? "[f ukpfp<
`Adyamlf ;Rnft[rf? tiRvayfemazi (3-2-2) - v[fma - PBvT Epa[fB
;nft ulktfti[rf mikv<mf vliAmya[ m[mf eka]fdvrfkqak uqfq[rf.
`vfvitmf t[T tiRvFkAq AvtftEpaT - nlflv[a, tazfnftv[a -
'[fB ~rayamlf `A[vri[f tAlyiLmf oEr Epa[fB t[T tiRvFkAq
Avtfta[f. ;t[alf `v[f mIT pkfti eka]fdvrfkqf, pavmf ecyftvrfkqf '[fb
Eptmf ;lflamlf, `A[vRmf cibpfpa[ vazfv< epbfb[rf.

(`]fdMb nivrfnft nI]fMFy[f) - `]fdkdahtftiEl ec[fB Ecrfnft
tiRvpiExktfAt uAdyv[f. `]fdkdahmf evFtfT `Adkdfd
Ev]fDmfpFyiEb `EpXitmf epbfB vqrfnftpF. (`]fdMb) - `]fdmf
EmaAzeyz.

viqkfkmf - (`]fdMb nivrfnft nI]fMFy[f) - pfrmfma]fdtfti[f 'lfAlvAr
ec[fB vidfd tiRMFAy uAdyv[f. ulktfAt `qnfT mI]fDmf 'DtfTkf
ekaqfqEv]fDmf '[fb t[T viRpfpmf niAbEvbiy kar]tftalf tiRvayfemazi
(7-4-1) - `]fdmf EmaAzeyz - '[fB PBvT Epa[fB, `]fdmf evFtfT
vidaT tDkfkEv]fDmfpF `lflva ;v[f uyrfnfta[f.


(nivrfnft) - nimirfnft p>vlrfnftapfEpaEl. (nI]fMFy[f) - upyvip>tikfKmf
nirfvahe[[fB EtabfBmfpFyiRkfkib tiRvpiExktfAty<Adyv[f.
rXfyvrfkfktfAt Enakfki[aliEb rXk[f MFtripfpT. (`[fbitf yati) - k]fd
kadfciyiEl jitmf '[f[ Ev]fDmfpFyiRkfKmv[iEb. 'tiridfd ApylfkAq
MFkfAkkfK evvfviy crtfAty<Ady ckfrvrftftitf tiRmk[f.

viqkfkmf - (nivrfnft) - `zka[ mlrf mlrfnftT Epa[fB nimirfnft. (nI]fMFy[f)
- nitfyvip>ti, lIlavip>ti ~kiy ;r]fF[f ckfrvrftfti ;vE[ '[fB
`bivikfKmf vitmak nI]fd kfrIdmf uAdyv[f. t[f[alf kapfpabfbpfpd Ev]fFy
mkfkAqkf kapfpabfbi[alf `lflEva Orf `rc[i[f tAlyilf `v[f m]iMF
tgfkiyiRkfKmf? (`[fB ;tfyati) - ;vA[kf k]fdv<dE[Ey ;v[T evbfbi
nicfcymf '[fpTmf, tgfkqf Etalfvi nicfcymf '[fpTmf viEratikqf u]RmfpF
uqfqv[f. 'tiEr ni[fb `rkfkrfkqf `ziy<mfpF evmfAmya[ `mfp<kAq 'yft
ckfrvrftftitf tiRmk[f.

(`[fB) - rXk[a[v[f rXfytfAt Enakfkkfkdvtak vnfT ni[fbv[fB.
(Enrfnft nicacrAr) - 'tiridfd nicacrAr. Enrfnft nicacrAr '[fkibT
tiRpfplfla]fD padEv]fDmf `zAkkf k]fDmf 'tirmfp< EkapfpEt '[fB.
nicacrrf - evqiyilf Mkgfk]fdbiyat Apylfkqf. (kvrfnft) - p<bpfpDmfEpaT
vinytfEtaD p<bpfpdfD, EvdfAd nayfkqf OF Emlf viZmaEpaEl viZAk.
(evgfkA]) - viDmfEpaT `mfpayf, pDmfEpaT kalakfniEpaElyiRkfAk. tIpft
pavk sgfkaAc@ ciAt@ kawfc[p>xA]@ '[fkibpFEy epRmaqf k]f
parfkfkiLmf MFtftlflT nilflat evmfAm.

viqkfkmf - (`[fB) - t[f[alf kakfkpfpdEv]fFy mkfkQkfkak,
kakfkEv]fFy epaBpfp< uAdy 'mfepRma[f ;ram[aktf `vtritft `[fB.
(Enrfnft nicacrAr) - t[kfK 'tiEr ni[fb `rkfkrfkAq. Enrfnft nicacrAr
'[fpt[f epaRqf '[f[? ;ramA[kf k]fdv<d[f `v[T `zkilf mygfki
`v{kfKtf tiRpfplfla]fD pad Ev]fFyT ;Rkfk, `v[f M[fpak ni[fB
`mfp<kAq viDki[fb[rf '[fB kRtfT. nicacrrf '[fbalf evqicfcmf niAbnft
;dgfkqilf nibfk ;ylamlf ;Rqilf mdfDEm uqfq `rkfkrfkqf '[fptaKmf.
(kvrfnft) - ;ram[i[f vilfliliRnfT evqipfpDmf `mfp<kqf, p<bpfpDmfEpaT
mikv<mf `dkfkmapf p<bpfpDki[fb[, ~[alf `Av `Crrfkqf mIT
EvdfAdnayfkqf Epa[fB payfki[fb[. (evgfkA]) - ;ram[i[f vilfliliRnfT
kiqmfp<mfEpaT `mfp<kqak uqfqAv, `Crrfkqf mIT viZmfEpaT
pfrqykaltfti[f enRpfp< Epa[fB viZki[fb[. ;ramay]mf - tIpft pavk
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sgfkaAc@ ciAt@ kawfc[p>xA]@ - enRpfp< Epa[fbAvy<mf,
PrfAmya[Avy<mf, tgfktftalf ecyfypfpdfdAvy<mf - '[f{mfpF `mfp<kqf
'vfvqv< `zkak ;RnftaLmf, ;ram[f ;rkfkmf eka]fD ni[fbaLmf, `nft
`mfp<kqf 'tirikAq `zipfptilf kRA] kadfdat evpfpmf uAdyAv.

(kaKtft[f) - KFpfpibpfpaEl trmf paraEt vixyIkritftpFy<mf vIrvatiy<mf.

viqkfkmf - (kaKtft[f) - kKtft[f '[fb ckfrvrftftiyi[f Kltftilf
`vtritfttalf uyrfnftvrfkqf -tazfnftvrfkqf '[fB Eptmf ka]amlf,
`A[vRkfKmf `Rqf p<rinft t[fAm.


(kFyarfepazilf) - tiRv<lkqnftRqi[vidEm piFtfT `Feyabfbi, rav]vtmf
p]f]itf etbfKtf tiRvaclaEl p<KnfT cayfnftRqi[a[f. ;[f[Mmf
EvrfpfpdgfkibfbilfAl, tiRcfEcaAlyilf primqmf vidayfkfK ciciErapcarma[pF.
(`rgfktftmfma[f) - `vtartfTkfKpf pibfpadrf kfKmf ;zv< tIrkf EkayiliEl
vnfT k]fvqrfnftRQkibpF. (`mfma[f) - ;gfEk vnft pi[fp< :cfvrtfvmf
niAlnibfAk.

viqkfkmf - (kFyarfpfepazilf) - tiRv<lkmf `qnfT '[fB Pbi vidfD,
`tA[tf etadrfnfT kaKtft[f '[fB ;ramA[kf Pbi[arf. ;t[f YMlmf,
ulkmf `qnft kAqpfp< nIgfKvtbfkakv<mf, ;rav]A[ vtmf ecyft kAqpfp<
nIgfKvtbfkakv<mf, ;ram[f etbfK vaclf YMlmakpf epriyEkayiLkfK vnfT,
nBm]mf vICmfpFya[ tiRvrgfktftilf cy[itfTqfqa[f '[fB kRtfT.
;v{kfK ;[f[Mmf kAqpfpalf vnft viyrfAv `dgfkvilfAl.
tiRvrgfktfAtcf VzfnfTqfq EcaAlkqf ;v{kfK KqiYRdfF, kAqpfp< nIgfKmf
vitmak uqfq[. (`rgfktftmfma[f) - t[T `vtar kaltftilf ;lflamlf,
pi[f[rf pibnftvrfkQkfK 'nftkf KAby<mf Enramlf ;Rkfk, tiRvrgfktftilf
cy[itfta[f '[fB kRtfT. (`mfma[f) - tiRvrgfktftibfK vnft pi[f[Er
`vE[ :cfvr[f '[fb tKti niAlya[T.

(`ArcfcivnftvaAd) - uAdyarfnftvaAd, eckfkrfmaMkilf, tiREm[ikfKpf
pfrpakma[ tiRpfpItamfprmf. (civnftvaAdyi[f Emlf ec[fbtamf) -
Ecabfbi[fEmEl '[kfK m[mf ec[fbT '[f{maEpaEl ~cfcrfypfpDkibarf.
('[cinftA[) ~RAdy PAby<AdAykf k]fD ukkfkkf kdv enwfC
;tiElykpfpdfdT. ('[cinftA[) - tiRvFkqi[f Cvdbinft pi[fp< p<bmfp<
Epakmadfdat enwfC. tIrftftmada nibfktf TAbyiEl piqfAqAypf ekDtfTtf
tiREvalkfktftiEl ka]fpaArpfEpaEl tiRvFkqilf ni[fBmf tiRpf
pItamfprtftiEl tiRv<qfqtfAtkf k]fdpF.

viqkfkmf - (`ArcfcivnftvaAd) - nmfmazfvarf tiRvayfemaziyilf (3-7-4) -
uAdyarfnftvaAd - '[fBmf, tiRvaciriytftilf - eckfkrfmaMkilf - '[fBmf
`RqicfecyftpF, `v{Ady kBtft tiREm[ikfK "bfb nibmf eka]fdtak
uqfq tiRpfpItamfprmf '[fbarf. (civnftvaAdyi[f Emlf ec[fbtamf) - miKnft
pciy<qfq oRv{kfK u]vi[fmIT mdfDEm k]fkqf eclfvT Epa[fB, '[T
m[mf `v[T ~Adyi[fmIT ec[fbT '[ viypfpAdkibarf. ('[cinftA[) -
ep]fkqi[f ~AdkAqkf k]fD mdfDEm ;[fpmf `AdnftpF ;Rnft '[T
m[mf, ;pfEpaT ;v[T ~Adyilf cikfK]fdT. ('[cinftA[) - kdnft
paCrtftilf `v[f tiRvFkAqkf k]fd '[T m[mf Eveba[f biLmf eclflaT
'[fEbamf, ;pfEpaT `v[f ~AdAykf k]fD klgfkiyT '[fbarf. ntiyilf
nIraFy pi[f[rf t[f{d[f vnft KznfAtAykf ka]amlf, `kfKznfAt
mbfebaR Pdfdtftilf ;RpfpAtkf ka}vT Epa[fB - t[T m[mf `zkiy
m]vaq[i[f tiRvFkqilf ka]amlf Epayfvid, ;pfEpaT `tA[ ~Adyilf
k]f edDkfkibarf.





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3. mnfti payf vdEvgfkd mamAl va[vrfkqf
cnfti ecyfy ni[fba[f `rgfktfT `rvi[f `A]ya[f
`nfti Epalf nibtfT ~Ady<mf `t[fEmlf `yA[pf pAdtftT Orf 'zilf
unfti EmlT `[fEba `FEy[f uqfqtfT ;[f uyiEr.


epaRqf - KrgfKkqf oR kiAqyiliRnfT mbfebaR kiAqkfKtf taviypF
uqfq tiREvgfkdmAlyilf nitfyVrikqf mlrfkqf T\vi v]gfk nibfkiba[f.
;pfpFpfpdfd `v[f, tiRvrgfktftilf ~tiEcx[f '[fb pDkfAkyilf
epriyepRmaqakkf k]fvqrfkiba[f. `v[T tiRpfpItamfpr ~Adya[T
`nftipfepaZtilf Eta[fBmf civnft va[mf Epa[fB uqfqT. `nft ~Adyi[f
mIT pfrmfmA[pf pAdtft `zka[ tamArmlrf Epa[fb napikfkmlmf uqfqT.
;vbfbi[f mIT '[T nlfm[mf niAlepbfB ni[fbT.



`nftiEnrtfT vi]fEpa[fB nibmf eka]fd ~Ad cabfbiypF nmfepRmaqf

`vtariAk

tiRpfpItamfprtfti[f `zK tiRnapI kmltftiEl vIcibfB.


viqkf kmf - `rgfk[i[f pItamfprtfti[f `zka[T ;vrT m[At `v[T
napiyi[fmIT `FtfTtf tqfqiyT.






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vfyakfya[mf


(mnftipayf) - tiRmAlyilf plakfkqf EvEr piFtfTtf tAlyqv<mf pZtfTkf
kidkfAkyaEl `gfKtfAtkf KrgfKkqf jatfy<cit capltftaEl oR pztfAt
p<jikfkpf p<k mbfAb Emlilf pztftiEl k]fA]EyadfF ;tfAt vidfD `tiEl
payfnfT tava nibfKmf `tftA[yayftfT. epriyepRmaQAdy
tivfyavyvgfkqiEl tamf ~zgfkalf pDkibapf EpaElyayftfT `AvkQmf.
ka[Mmf va[rMmf EvDMAd EvgfkdmiEb. (mnftipayf) - o[fAbeya[fB pbfbi
maAlyak nalanibfKmf. tiRcfci[f[kfKrlf EkdfdvaEb payfnfEtada
nibfKem[fBmamf. prmptMmf tiRmAly<mf EkayiLmf tiRvEyatfAyy<mf
tiRcfEcaAly<mf oR EpakiyayiRkfkibpF. 'gfKmf mabimabitf tgfKAk.
(mnftipayf) - plakfkqf EvEraD pA]EyaD vaciybpf pZtfTkf kidkfAkyaEl
o[fbiEl vayf Avkfkpf epbaEtta[f Ev]fF[pFEy tiriy<mfpFyayftfT.

viqkfkmf - tiRmAlyilf uqfq pla mrgfkqilf Evrf etadgfki ucfci vAr,
mrmf MZvTmf plapfpzgfkqf uqfq[. `gfKqfq KrgfKkqf `vbfAb
u]fptbfkak oR mrtftibfKtf tav<mf. `pfEpaT mbfebaR mrtftilf uqfq
plapfpzmf k]f]ilfpd, ;tA[ vidfD `tbfKtf tav<mf. ;tA[ ;gfK
PBkibarf. ;vrT m[ma[T epriyepRmaqi[f tivfyma[ uBpfp<kfkqilf
:DpDvT ;T Epa[fEb ~[T '[fB kRtfT - oR uBpfp< vidfD mbfebaR
uBpfp<kfK m[mf tav<kibT. ;tA[Ey tiRmziAc ~zfvarf na[fMk[f
tiRvnftatiyilf (47) - ka[Mmf va[rMmf EvDmf uAd Evgfkdmf - '[fbarf.
(mnftipayf) - epriyEkayili[f mtiqfkqilf KrgfKkqf o[fAb o[fB pbfbiypF,
ka]fptbfK maAl Epa[fB etagfKmf. nmfepRmaqi[f tiRcfci[f[ oli
Ekdfdv<d[f payfnfT OdanibfKmf. ~zfvaRkfK prmptmf, tiRvrgfkmf, tiRmAl,
`Eyatfya, tiRmaliRwfEcaAl ~kiy `A[tfTmf oEr Epa[fB uqfqT.
;vrT m[ma[T KrgfK Epa[fB ;nft EXtfrgfkqilf mabimabicf eclfkibT
'[fB kRtfT. (mnftipayf) - tiRmAlyilf uqfq pla mrgfkqilf Evrf etadgfki
ucfci vAr, mrmf MZvTmf plapfpzgfkqf uqfq[. `gfKqfq KrgfKkqf
`vbfAb u]fptbfkak oR mrtftibfKtf tav<mf. `pfEpaT mbfebaR mrtftilf
uqfq plapfpzmf k]f]ilfpd, ;tA[ vidfD `tbfKtf tav<mf.

(vdEvgfkdmf) - tmizfEtctfTkfK 'lfAl nilmf. EpakfyAt `qvbfbiRkfAk.
upyvip>tiy<mf oR YMAlyiEl `dgfKem[fBmamf.

viqkfkmf - (vdEvgfkdmf) - tmizfnadfF[f 'lfAlyak uqfq ;dmf. 'lfAlyak
uqfqtalf `qvbfb ;[iAmy<d[f uqfq t[fAm. ;nft mAlyi[f oR cibiy
pKtiyiElEy nitfyvip>tiy<mf, lIlavip>tiy<mf `dgfkiviDmf.

(va[vrfkqf cnfti ecyfy ni[fba[f) - 'tftA[Ey{mf t]f]iyarfkfKmf
MkgfekaDtfT nibfkib ;nfnIrfAmAy `{snftitfT, nitfysJrikqf vnfT
pDkaD kidpfpT ;gfEkyayftfT. Em[fAmAy `{pvikfKmtftA[yiEb `gfK.
cIla{pvmf p]f]lavT ;gfEkyiEb. nitfysJrikqf tiRmAlyiEl nibfkib
cIlvtfAtyiEl :DpdfD vnfT ~cfryikfk, KRdrfkfK Avtft `bcfcaAlyiEl
vizik]f]rf p<KrlaEmaev[fB, ta[f ~A[kfKpfpaDvaArpf EpaEl mnftikqf
pkfkliEl tiRv<qfqtfAt Avtfta[f '[fBmamf.

viqkfkmf - mikv<mf tazfnftvrfkQmf t[T `zka[ tiRMktfAt mikv<mf
'qitakkf ka}mfpF tiRmAlyilf vnfT ni[fba[f. ;nft 'qiAmAy ']f]i
viynftpF nitfysJrikqf `[fbadmf tiRmAlkfK vnfT :DpdfdpF nibfparfkqf.
prmpttftilf ;v[T Em[fAm mdfDEm evqipfpD. ~[alf tiRmAlyilf
`lflva ;v[T cIlmf evqipfpDkibT? ;vfvitmf ;v[T cIltfAtkf k]fD
nitfysJrikqf vnfT ni[fb[rf. ;tA[kf k]fd tiREvgfkdv[f -
KRdrfkQkfkak uqfq ;dtftilf, k]f parfAv uqfqvrfkqf vnfT
`{pvipfpT criya - '[fB ']f]i[a[f. ~kEv ;vrfkqf pkfkmf tiRmfpamlf,
KrgfKkqi[f pkfkmf t[T m[At Avtfta[f.


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(`rgfktftrvi[A]ya[f) - `gfK ni[fBmf ;gfEk cayfnftpF.
prmpttfti[i[fBmf `Feyabfbi[a[f, tiRmAlyqv<mf py]M]fdayiRnftT.
`gfK ni[fBmf vdkfKtf tiRvaclaEl EkayiliEl cayfnfta[f. ramavtartfEt
piFtfT `Feyabfbi[a[f. rav]vtmf p]f]itf etbfKtf tiRvaclaEl vnfT
cayfnftvitftA[yayiRnftet[fBmamf. (`rvi[A]ya[f) - tirikibv[f
cayfnftRqi[alf uqfqvzK. (`rv<) - nabfbmf, Kqirftfti, em[fAmy<mf.

viqkfkmf - (`rgfktftrvi[A]ya[f) - tiRmAlyilf ni[fBmf, tiRvrgfktftilf
cy[itfTmf uqfqa[f. prmpttftiliRnfT p<bpfpdfda[f. tiRmAlkfK vnfT
Ecrfnfta[f. `gfkiRnfT p<bpfpdfD, vdkfK vaclaEl tiRvrgfkpf
epriyEkayililf p<KnfT, ;gfK cy[itfta[f. ;ramavtar kaltftiElEy ;gfK
vnfta[f. ;rav]A[ vtmf ecyft pi[f[rf, etbfK vaclaEl epriyEkayililf
p<KnfT, cy[itfta[f. (`rvi[A]ya[f) - 'gfKmf cwfcarmf ecyftpF uqfqv[f
t[T kAqpfp< nIgfk ;gfK vnfT cy[itfttalf vnft `zK. (`rv<) - ;[iy
m]mf, Kqirfcfci, em[fAm Mtla[ t[fAmkqf uAdy ~tiEcx[f.

(`rgfktftrvi[A]ya[f) - EcxfEy p<rsftacfcalayamf !prtazfvaA[
vAqpfp<kf kidkfk vidfDpfEpanfT kdbfkAryiEl vAqpfp<kf kidnftabfEpaEl
smfsarikAqpf epbfballflT EpaEke[[fB vAqpfp<kf kidkfkiba[f.
ckfrvrftftitf tiRmkA[pf EpaEl Mtlilf cr]mfp<kfK MkgfkadfdavidfdvaEb -
capmany - '[fB cIBmvrlflrf. ~bfbaAmAykf kadfFcf cr]mf p<kfKkf
kidkfKmvriEb ;vrf. (`nftiEpalf nibtftaAdy<mf) - snftfyarakmf
EpaElyiRnfTqfq tiRpfpItamfprMmf, `ArcfcivnftvaAd '[fbT
pi[f[adfDkibpF.

viqkfkmf - ;ramay]mf `Eyatfyaka]fdmf (114-14) - EcxfEy
p<rsftacfcalayamf - ;ramA[ `EyatftikfK `AztfTcf eclflamlf
prf]caAlAy vidfD `klmadfEd[f '[fB prt[f ;Rnfta[f. ~[alf
;ramE[a kdAlkf kdpfpT '[fB MFv< ecyfT kdbfkArAy vidfD
`klvilfAl. ;EtEpa[fB smfsarikqf t[fA[ `Adyamlf ta[f ;gfkiRnfT
kiqmfp<vtilfAl '[fB epriyepRmaqf cy[itfTqfqa[f. ~[alf ;ram[f
`Aztft pi[f[Rmf sMtfrraj[f vramlf ;RkfkEv, ;ram[f Ekapmf eka]fD
- capmany - ;nftkf kdAl vbfbcf ecyfT viDkiEb[f - '[fba[f.
epriyepRmaEqa t[f[idmf smfsarikqf vramlf ;RnftaLmf, ;ram[f Epa[fB
Ekapmf ekaqfqamlf uqfqa[f. (`nftiEpalf nibtftaAdy<mf) - maAl EnrtfT
va[mf Epa[fB civnft tiRpfpItmfprmf. kdnft paCrtftilf k]fd - `Arcfcivnft
~Ad - ;[f[Mmf t[T m[At vidfD nIgfkatpF uqfqtalf ;gfK mI]fDmf
Pbi[arf.

(`t[fEmlf) - ;vfvzki[i[fBmf kalfvagfk madfFkibilrf. (`y[itfyati) -
cTrftftcp<vn sfrxfdava[ pfrhfmav<kfK utfptfti sftanma[ tiRnapI
kmltfti[f Emlt[fEba. cTrfMksfRxfF p>rfvkaltftiElyakiLmf ;pfEpaT
pfrhfmav<kfK utfptfti sftanem[fB Ekaqfecalflitftara ni[fbT,
tiRnapIkmlmf ('ziLnfti) - ;qkipfpFkfAk pfrsvanftwfc eyqvnmf
'[fkibpFy[fbikfEkyiRkfAk.

viqkfkmf - (`t[fEmlf) - ~Adyi[f `zkiliRnfT ;vralf mIq ;ylamlf
uqfqtalf, `tA[Ey mI]fDmf PBkibarf. (`yA[pf pAdtftT Orf ) -
pti[a[fK ulkgfkAqy<mf pAdtftv[f pfrmfm[f. `v{kfKmf ubfptfti ;dmak
uqfqT epriyepRmaqi[f tiRnapI. `t[f `zkilf m[mf ni[fbT `lflEva.
;nft unftiya[T sfRxfF kaltftilfta[f pfrmfmA[pf pAdtftT, ~yi{mf
;pfEpaT ka}mfEpaT, ;TEv pfrmfmA[pf pAdtft unfti '[fb cinftA[
EmElagfKmfpF uqfqT. ('ziLnfti) - pfrsvanftwfc eyqvnmf - KznfAt
pibnftv<d[f eyqvnmf mAby<mf - '[fb viti epriyepRmaqf vixytftilf
epaRnftamlf, pfrmfmA[pf pAdtft pi[f[Rmf `zK KAbyamlf uqfqT '[fB
kRtfT.


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`ml[atipira[f 'qiy tmizf viqkfkgfkqf Page 27 of 47
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(`FEy[f) - ptimf vicfvsfy, ysfyasfmi '[fkib pfrma]tftaEl `FEy[f
'[fkibarlflrf, `zKkfKtf EtabfB `FEy[f '[fkibarf.
(`FEy{qfqtfti[f{yiEr) - '[f{Ady nbfcIv[a[T tiRnapI
kmltftt[fEbaev[fkibarf. vidaAmkfKpf pbfbak, mRFEyLmf viEdlf k]fdayf
'[f{maEpaEl. ;pfpadfFlf epriyepRmaqf pkfkliEl tiREvgfkdMAdya[f
t[fAmy<M]fed[f kibT.

viqkfkmf - (`FEy[f) - ptimf vicfvsfy - ulki[f nat[ak uqfqv[f,
ysfyasfmi - yaRkfK na[f tasE[a - Mtla[ pfrma]gfkAq m[tilf
eka]fD ;gfK ;vrf - `FEy[f - '[fB PbvilfAl. epriyepRmaqi[f
`zkilf t[fA[ ;znft kar]tfti[alf ;vfvitmf PBkibarf. (`FEy[f
uqfqtfT ;[f uyiEr) - '[f{Ady cibnft ~tfmsfvYRpmf, ;v[T `zka[
tiRnapIkf klmtftilf :DpdfdT '[fbarf. nmfmazfvarf tiRvayfemaziyilf (2-7-10)
- mRFEyLmf viEdlf k]fdayf - m[Em, 'mfepRmaA[ 'pfEpaTmf vidkfPdaT
- '[fB PBvT Epa[fbtaKmf. ;gfK epriyepRmaQkfKtf
tiREvgfkdMAdya[i[f t[fAmkQmf u]fD '[fbarf.


4. cTrmf ma mtiqf Vzf ;lgfAkkfK ;Abv[f tAl ptfT
utir OdfF Orf evmfkA] uyftftv[f Otv]f][f
mTrma v]fD pad mamyilf ~d `rgfktftmfma[f tiRvyiB
utrpnftmf '[f uqfqtfTqf ni[fB ulaki[fbEt.

epaRqf - na[fK tiAckqiLmf uyrftftikf kdf dpfpdfd mtiqfkqalf Vzpfpdfd
;lgfAkyi[f `rc[a[ ;rav][i[f ptfTtf tAlkAqy<mf oEr `sftfrmf
eka]fD, tAryilf uR]fD ODmfpFcf ecyfta[f. `v[f, miKnft OAc eka]fd
kdlf Epa[fb nibmf uAdyv[f ~va[f. `v[f, v]fDkqf ;[iAmyakpf
paFypFy<mf `nftpf padlfkAqkf EkdfD `zkak myilf kqf ~FypFy<mf uqfq
tiRvrgfktftilf 'ZnftRqiy<qfqa[f. ;pfpFpfpdfd epriyepRmaqf, t[T
`zka[ vyibfbilf `]infTqfq utrpnftmf '[fb ~pr]ma[T, '[T
enwfctftilf p<KnfT eka]fD, `gfEkEy niAltfT ni[fbT.


71
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`vtariAk

tiRnapI kmltfEtaEd Ecrfnft tiRv<trpnfttfAt `{pvikfkibarf.

viqkfkmf - kdnft paCrtftilf `{pvitfT ni[fb tiRnapI kmltfTd[f Ecrfnft
utrpnft[mf '[f{mf tiRvapr]tfAt ;pfEpaT `{pvikfkibarf.

vfyakfya[mf

(cTrmamtiqf) - kdfdAqpfpdfFRkfAk. (mamtiqf) - Trfkfktfrymf. :cfvr[f
'[fbbiycfecyfEt 'tirfkfkpfp]f]i[ mtiqf. (;lgfAkkfkiAbv[f) - MzwfciEl
simfhgfkidnftet[f{maEpaEl. lgfkamf rav] palitamf.
(;lgfAkkfkiAbv[f) - srfEvcfvr[f !AvK]fdtfAtkf klviRkfAkyakkf
eka]fD vIbfbiRnftapfEpaEl ka}mf ;v{mf ;lgfAkkfK
:cfvre[[fbiRnftpF. vIrkft[a[ tiRvFy<gfPd mtitft _cfvrfymiEb.
ytfytrfEma n plvanf sfyatymf raXEscfvr@ sfyatymf sHrElaksfy
ckfrsfyapi c rXita '[fba[iEb. yave[aRv{kfkak ;vA[ `ziycfecyfy
niA[kfkibarf, `v[fb[fA[Ey ;vfvr}kfKkf kavlak AvpfprfkiGrf
`lfpmf{Plitfta[akilf.

viqkfkmf - (cTr ma mtiqf) - cibnft kavLd[f `AmkfkpfpdfDqfq ;lgfAk
nkrmf. (ma mtiqf) - srfEvcfvrE[ ;ram[ak ni[fBqfqa[f '[fpAt
`binftiRnfTmf, t[f{Ady mtiqfkAq nmfpi `vA[ ;rav][f 'tirftfta[f.
(;lgfAkkfK ;Abv[f) - KAkyilf cigfkmf uqfqT Epa[fB ;rav][f
;lgfAkyilf `rca]fda[f. `{m[f ;ramay]mf Cnftrka]fdtftilf (1-34) -
lgfkamf rav] palitamf - ;rav][alf kapfpabfbpfpDmf ;lgfAk - '[fba[f
`lflEva? (;lgfAkkfK ;Abv[f) - srfEvcfvr[f t[T ;r]fD
vip>tikAqy<mf ~qfvtbfkak 'vfvitmf !AvK]fdtfAt mkizfv<d[f "bfB
`mrfnfTqfqaE[a, `T Epa[fB ;rav][f taE[ ;lgfAkyi[f ;Abv[f
'[fbpF ;Rnfta[f. mikv<mf vIr[a[ `{m[aLmf mtikfkpfpdfd eclfvmf
;rav][T _cfvrfymf `lflEva? `{m[f valfmIki ;ramay]mf Cnftr
ka]fdtftilf (49-17) - ytfytrfEma n plvanf sfyatymf raXEscfvr@
sfyatymf sHrElaksfy ckfrsfyapi c rXita - ;v[f `Crrfkqi[f
tAlv[akv<mf ;Rkfklamf, ;nftfr{d[f PFy<qfq EtvElaktfti[f
tAlv[akv<mf ;RkfkkfPDmf - '[fB ']f]i[a[f `lflEva? ;rav][f
mdfDmf ;ram[f vixytftilf cibiT :DpdfFRnftalf, `zikfk niA[tft
`vA[Ey ;ram[f ;lgfAkyi[f tAlv[ak niymitftiRpfpa[f.

(tAlptfTtir) - p[gfKAl utirfnftapfEpaEly<tir. `BkfkvBkfk MAqtft
cdgfK. (OdfF) - `{PlikfKmakilf `ziycfecyfy Ev]fdaviEbey[fB p>cliEl
;AqpfpitfT vidfdpF. kcfca{janami '[fkibpFEy.

viqkfkmf - (tAl ptfT utir) - p[gfkayfkAq `BtfTtf tqfQvtalf
`Av niltftilf utirfvT Epa[fB ;ram pa]gfkqalf ;rav][i[f tAlkqf
tAryilf utirfnft[. tAlkqf evdfdpfpd evdfdpfpd mI]fDmf MAqkfKmf '[fb
vrmf epbfbtalf mI]fDmf mI]fDmf Mqtft[. (OdfF) - ;v[T tAlkAq
`BpfpAttf t[T viAqyadfdakkf eka]fD, ;rav][f tiRnftividfdalf
`vA[ `zikfk Ev]fdamf '[fb ']f]tfTd[f, ;nft viAqyadfFlf nI]fd
Enrmf :Dpdfda[f. `v[idmf - kcfca{janami - nI kAqtfT vidfdayf,
;pfEpaT eclfl na[f `{mtikfkiEb[f - '[fba[f.

(OrfevgfkA]y<yftftv[f) - pibfAbnaAqpf p>cliEl jyapjygfkqf
`vfyvsftitm[fEbaev[fB pfrhfmatikqf kRti[vaEb, `tftAlkQkfK
Evrfpfpbfba[ enwfciEl `tfvitIyma[ pfrhfmasftfrtfAt vidfdv[f. `v[f
pf ratiPlfytftilf niAl ni[fbae[[fB `binftpi[fp< pfrhfmasftfrtfAt vidfdpF.

viqkfkmf - (OrfevgfkA]y<yftftv[f) `pfEpaT pfrmfm[f MtlaE[abf
;ram[idmf - ;vfvitmf kaltamtmf ecyftalf evbfbi-Etalfvi pbfbi "Tmf
72
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`biy ;ylamlf EpayfviDmf - '[fB Pbi[rf. ;tA[kf Ekdfd ;ram[f `nfttf
tAlkQkfK uyirak ;Rnft ;rav][i[f enwfctftilf pfrhfmasftfrmf
etaDtfta[f. `v[f ;BtivArtf t[T viEratiyakEv uqfqa[f '[fpAt
MFv< ecyft pi[f[Er pfrhfmasftfrmf etaDtfta[f '[fB kRtfT.

(Otv]f][f) - rav]vtmf p]f]i !vipIx]azfva{kfK MF ekaDtfT
kfRtkfRtfy[ayf pfrhfmatikqf p<xfpvfRxfFy<mf sfEtatfrMmf p]f] vIr!Etabfb
cfrmhrma[ vFEvaEd ni[fb niAl.


viqkfkmf - (Otv]f][f) - ;rav]A[ `zitfT, vipIx]A[ ;lgfAkyi[f
`rc[akfki `v{kfK m]iMF VF, t[T `vtar Enakfkmf MFnftv[ak,
pfrmfm[f Mtla[ Etvrfkqf mlrfkAqtf T\vitf TtitftpF nibfk, vIrmf '[fb
eclfvmf evqipfpd, ka]fpvrfkqi[f kAqpfAppf EpakfKmf vitmak cy[itft
tiREm[i eka]fdv[f.

(mTrmav]fDpad) - viA[ybfbvaEb ~dlf padLkfK ;dgfekaDtftpF. cilrf
paF[alf ~DvaRmf Ev}Em, myilfkqf ~dpfp<kfk[. (mamyilf) - oR myilf
EtaAk viritftalf `tftiRcfEcaAlkfK `}kfk[idfdapfEpaliRkfAk. Rxikqf
eka]fAdkfEkalf eka]fdaDAk tvirfnfT myilfkqf ~dpfp<kfk[. KrgfKkqf
Ptftadfdatlf, ;vbfbi[f Ptftadfdatlf '[fBmf tirfykfEyanikQkfK nilmaAk.
(v]fDpad mamyilad) - !AvK]fdnat[f epriyepRmaqa[vaEb,
nitfysJrikQmf v]fDkqf mamyilfkQma[pF. srfAv@ privfREta EtAvrf
vanrtfvmf upakAt@ '[f[kfkdvtiEb. raja evqfAqcfcdfAdyidfdalf `Fyarf
kBpfp<cfcdfAdyiDmitftA[yiEb.

viqkfkmf - (mTr mav]fD pad) - Eparilf evbfbi epbfbv<d[f `r]fmA[yilf
~dlf padLkfK `rc[f ;dmf `qipfpT Epa[fB, `rgfk{mf `{mtitfta[f.
~k v]fDkqf EcaAlyilf paFypF ;Rnft[. paDmfEpaT oR cilrf ~d
Ev]fdama? '[Ev `gfkiRnft myilfkqf ~dtfetadgfki[. (mamyilf) - oR
myilf t[T EtaAkAy MZvTmak viritfT ni[fbalf, `gfKqfq EcaAl
MZvtbfKmf KAd piFtftabfEpa[fB uqfq niAl. M[ivrfkqf
eka]fAdkfEkalf eka]fD ~dfDvikfk myilfkqf ~F[. KrgfKkqi[f ~dfdmf,
myilfkqi[f ~dfdmf '[ vilgfKkQmf mkiZmfpF uqfqT `rgfk[f Ekayilf.
(v]fDpad mamyilad) - prmpttftilf uqfqv[f epriyepRmaqak
tiRvrgfktftilf cy[ikfk, nitfyVrikqf `A[vRmf v]fDkqakv<mf
myilfkqakv<mf vnft[rf '[fB kRtfT. ;ramay]mf y<tftka]fdtftilf (114-17)
- srfAv@ privfREta EtAvrf vanrtfvmf upakAt@ - va[r uRvmf eka]fd
Etvrfkqf Vz ;ram[f - '[fbT Epal ~Kmf. `rc[f oRv[f evqfAq ~Ad
`]inftalf, `v{d[f uqfqvrfkqf `v{Ady nibcfEcrftftikfkakkf kBpfp<
~Ad `]ivarfkqf `lflva?

(`rgfktftmfma[f) - epriyEkayiliEl k]fvqrfkib prmEcxiyiAdy.
(tiRvyibfBtr pnftmf) - ~pr]tfTkfkapr]mf. epbfb vyibfBkfKpf
pdfdgfkdfF[pF. ('[f{qfqtfTqf ni[fBlaki[fbEt) - '[fe[wfci{qfEq `zK
ec]fEdba ni[fbEt. enwfcmf naFEb. `kl ni[fbaLmf pAcyilfAl.
;pfpadfFlf tcrtatfmj[fpFy<mf ;gfEk u]fed[fkibarf.

viqkfkmf - (`rgfktftmfma[f) - epriyEkayilf k]fvqrfpv{mf, `[AvRkfKmf
sfvamiyak uqfqv{mf ~kiy epriyepRmaqf. (tiR vyibfB utr pnftmf) -
;vE[ ;nft ulkibfK Orf ~pr]mak uqfqv[f. ;pfpFpfpdfd ~pr]tftibfK
Orf ~pr]mf `]ivitftT Epa[f Bqfq utrpnftmf '[f{mf ~pr]mf. ;nft
ulkmf MZvAty<mf epbfebDtft vyiB ;TEv '[fB `bivikfKmfpF,
`v[T vyibfbilf kdfdpfpdfd pdfdymf Epa[fB. ('[f{qfqtfTqf ni[fB
ulaki[fbEt) - '[T uqfqtftilf t[T `zKd[f ulviypF uqfqT.
tiRvayfemaziyilf (8-6-4) - enwfcmf naD - '[fbarf `lflEva? `k[fB
eclfl My[fbaLmf odfFkfekaqfQmf `zK. ;nftpf paCrtfti[f YMlmf tcrt[i[f
Kmar[akiy ;ram[i[f t[fAmkqf `A[tfTmf epriyepRmaqidmf u]fD
'[fbarf.
73
`ml[atipira[f 'qiy tmizf viqkfkgfkqf Page 30 of 47
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5. parmay pzviA[ pbfB `BtfT '[fA[tft[f
varmf ~kfki Avtfta[f AvtftT `[fbi '[f{qf p<Knfta[f
Ekar ma tvmf ecyft[[f ekalf `biEy[f `rgfktftmfma[f tiR
~rmf marfp< `T `[fEba `FEyA[ ~dfeka]fdEt.

epaRqf - '[T pzviA[ kar]mak u]fda[ pavgfkqf '[kfKpf epRmf
CAmyak ni[fb[. `nftpf pavgfkqi[f etadrfAp nmfepRmaqf MbfbiLmak
`Btfta[f. `t[f pi[f[rf '[fA[ `v[idmf mikv<mf `[fp<d[f ;RkfKmfpFcf
ecyfta[f. ;vfvitmf ecyftTd[f nibfkvilfAl. '[T enwfctftilf MZAmyak
WAznfT `gfEkEy niAl eka]fDvidfda[f. ;vfvitmf `v[f '[kfKcf ecyft
n[fAmkQkfkak na[f '[f[ tvmf ecyfEt[f '[fB `biyvilfAl.
!rgfknacfciyarf '[f{mf ~pr]tfAty<mf eka]fd `v[T `zka[ tiRmarfp<
`lflEva '[fA[ `v[idmf `FAmpfpDtftiyT?



~zfvaAr ~dfeka]fd nmfepRmaqi[f tiRmarfp<


`vtariAk

'[kfKpf pbfbaca[ epriypiradfFyariRkfkib tiRmarfp<kiGrf '[fA[
sfvYRpa{YRpma[ Akgfkrfygfeka]fdet[fkibarf.

viqkfkmf - na[f ~trvakpf pbfbkfPFy !rgfknacfciyarf 'pfEpaTmf
`mrfnfTqfq `v[T tiRmarfp< `lflEva '[fA[, '[T sfvYRptftibfK
"bfbpF, `v{kfKkf Akgfkrfymf ecyfy<mfpF vititftT - '[fbarf.




74
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vfyakfya[mf


(parmay) - srfvckftiya[ srfEvcfvrE[ tqfQmidtftiLmf oR niAl ni[fB
tqfqEv]fDmfpF ;RkfAk. smfhripfpTmf nrktftiElyayf sfRxfFpfpTmf
nrktftiElyayiRkfAk.

viqkfkmf - (parmay) - `A[tfT vliAmy<mf eka]fd srfEvcfvrE[ mikv<mf
My[fB tqfq MbfpdfdaLmf, cbfEb mAltfT nibfKmfpF '[T viA[pfpy[fkqf
uqfq[. nrktftiElEy oR pibvi MFnftaLmf, mI]fDmf `gfEkEy mbfebaR
pibvi 'DkfKmfpF '[T viA[kqf uqfq[.

(pzviA[) - kalmnati. ~tfmaEva nitfy[f. `citfsmfsrfkfkMm[fEby<]fFEb.
;kfkalemlflagfPdkf PDp>ritfttayiRkfKmiEb. srfvpaEppfEya EmaXyixfyami
'[fbv[fbaE[ tqfq Ev]fDmfpFyiRkfAk.

viqkfkmf - (pzviA[) - kalmf 'lfAlybfbtak uqfqT, ~tfma '[fBmf
uqfqtak ;RkfkibT, `citf epaRqa[ udLd[f etadrfp< 'pfEpaTmf
uqfqT. ;pfpFyak viA[kqf 'lfAlybfb kalmak uqfqT '[fbarf. !mtf
pkvtf kIAtyilf (18-66) - srfvpaEppfEya EmaXyixfyami - `A[tfTpf
pavgfkqiliRnfTmf viDvitfTkf kArEybfBkiEb[f - '[fb uBtiyakkf Pbiy
`vE[ ;[fB mikv<mf My[fB tqfQmfpF niAlAm uqfqT.

(pbfbBtfT) - `FyBtfT enDwfCvrf tqfQmaEpaEl svasnmakpf Epakfki,
nitfysJrikQkfKpf papcgfAk u]fdakiLmf ;vrfkfkilflatpF p]f]i.

viqkfkmf - (pbfbBtfT) - CvArtf tqfq Mybfci ecyfpvrfkqf, Mtlilf Cvri[f
`Fyilf epriytak pqf q Eta]fDvarfkqf. ;T Epa[fB, Mtlilf pavmf
ecyfytfT\]fDmf cinftA[Ay `zikfkiba[f. nitfysJrikQkfKpf pavmf '[fpT
u]fda '[fB yaravT Ekdfparfkqa? `TEpalf, ;nft ~zfvaRkfKpf pavmf
;Rnftta '[fb cnfEtkmf "bfpdatpFcf ecyfta[f.

('[fA[) - paptfTkfKpf EpakfkFybiyat '[f A[. papmf pDmf ~karma[
'[fA[ey[fBmamf. `kmEhatti@. (t[f varmakfki Avtfta[f) - ta[f
'[fbalf pXptikfKmfpF p]f]i[a[f. '[f karfymf t[kfKkfPbak '[fEpriEl
t[kfK ;Rpfep[fB t[fEpriEl '[kfkiRpfpakfki[pF. `[fbiEy,
vixyanftrgfkAq vidfDtf t[fA[Ey Pbakpf pbfBmfpF p]f]i[a[f.
(Avtfta[f) - ;cfcnftancfcapmf Avtfta[f. (Avtftt[fbi) - ;nft
n[fAmkQkfK EmEl. ('[f{qf p<Knfta[f) - pi[fA[y<mf t[f[abfbaAmyaEl,
vidayftftv[f tdaktfAt nIkfki uqfEq MZKmaEpaEl, '[f{qfQmf p<Knfta[f.
vali p<kfkvidtfEt mAlyidfdAdtfT, mharajriRnfT KBmfp<
ecLtfti[apfEpaElyak o]f]aet[fB '[f sfvYRp `jfwanmf KAlyatpF
'[fe[wfciEl vnfT p<Knfta[f. `ncfnnfnnfy@ '[fkibpFEy ;tfEta
edadfdbfbiRkfKmv{kfKmf ;tftallflT eclfLkibtilfAl '[fkibT.



viqkfkmf - ('[fA[) - '[T pavgfkAq 'vfvitmf nIkfKvT '[fB p<riyamlf
ni[fb '[fA[. `A[tfTpf pavgfkqi[f ;Rpfpidmak ;Rnft '[fA[.
`kmEhatti - pavmf '[f{mf epRmfkdlf naE[ '[f{mfpFya[ '[fA[.
(t[f varmakfki Avtfta[f) - epriyepRmaqf '[fbv<dE[Ey '[kfK :DpaD
`tikrikfKmfpFcf ecyfta[f. '[T pavgfkqf `A[tfAty<mf nIkfKvAttf
t[f{Ady epaBpfp< '[kfeka]fda[f. '[T CAmkqf `A[tfAty<mf t[T
'[fB eka]fda[f. '[fA[tf t[kfK uriyv[akfkikf eka]fda[f, `v{kfK
`dgfkiyiRkfKmfpFcf ecyfta[f. ulk vixygfkAq na[f AkvidfD `vA[Ey
pbfBmfpFcf ecyfta[f. (Avtfta[f) - '[fA[ t[f{Ady cnfttiyak
mabfbi[a[f. (AvtftT `[fbi) - ;tftA[ upkargfkqf ecyfT, `tfTd[f
nibfkamlf. ('[f{qf p<Knfta[f) - `tfTd[f `v[alf ;Rkfk MFyvilfAl.
paAlv[ uxf]tftilf tvikfKmf oRv[f, oR KqtfAtkf k]fdalf `tilf
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udE[ p<KvT Epa[fB, '[fA[pf pirinfT ;Rkfk ;ylamlf, '[f{qf p<KnfT
vidfda[f. TnfTpi '[f{mf `rkfkA[ `zikfk vali oR KAkkfKqf
p<KnfTvid, `nft `rkfk[f evqivratpF KAkyi[f vayiAl YMFvidfD
CkfrIv[f ~]fda[f `lflEva? `T Epa[fB '[f{Ady sfvYRptftibfK "bfb
wa[tfAt na[f mI]fDmf ;zkfkkfPdaT '[fB kRti, '[f ;tytftilf
ni[fba[f. M]fdk upnixtf PBvT Epa[fB, krfm etadrfp< ;lflamlf
uqfqv[f ~yi{mf, '[fA[ vid ;ylatpF '[f{qf ni[fba[f.


(Ekarmatvmitfyati) - ;pfEpbfBkfkF '[fe[[fB parftftarf. ;nftfriygfkAq
eyaBtfT mhatpsfAspf p]f]iE[E[a `bikiEl[f. na[biyeva[fBmilfAl.
;pfpF cgfkipfpae[[fe[[f[ilf, epbfb EpB `pfpFpfpdfdarfkfKkf kiAdkfK
mtaAkyaEl. `v[fbaE[ ntItIrtftiEl kidnfT tpsfsHp]f]i[aE[a
`bikibiEl[f. Ekarma[ tpsfsakibT - `tftAlyaktf tmfAmyziy mabi[
epriyv<AdyaArpf EpaEl ;RkfAk. 'nfn[fbi ecyfEtE[a '[fe[wfcilf
tikzfvTEv '[f{maEpaEl.

viqkfkmf - (Ekarmatvmf) - ;tftA[ epriy n[fAm t[kfKkf kidfDvtbfKkf
kar]mf '[f[ '[fB ~rayfnftarf. '[T ;nftfriygfkAq `dkfki na[f epBmf
tvmf ecyftv[f '[kf Pb ;ylaT, `tA[ na[f `biyv<mf ;lfAl.
;vfvitmf ;vrf cnfEtkmf ekaqfqkf kar]mf '[f[? kar]mf - ;vrf epbfBqfq
Epba[T, mikv<mf epriy tvmf ;ybfbivrfkQkfK mdfDEm kidfdkfPFytaKmf .
`lflT, '[fA[pf epBvtbfkakkf kaEvriyi[f kAryilf `v[f tvmf
p<rinftaE[a? Ekarmatvmf '[fpT - ;ram{kfkaktf t[T uyiArEy `qitft
jday<vi[f tfyakmf Epa[fbtaKmf. nmfmazfvarf tiRvayfemaziyilf (10-6-8) -
'nfn[fbi ecyfEtE[a '[f enwfcilf tikzfvTEv - '[fpT Epalf, ;vRmf
PBkibarf.


(`rgfktftmfma[f) - ;pfEpbfBkfK ~bfbgfkArAypf pbfbikfkidnfT tpsfsH
p]f]i[aLmf `v[ayiRnftT. ;cfcIriy EpbfBkfK EvB
upayM]fdakmadfdaEt.

viqkfkmf - (`rgfktf tmfma[f) - ;pfpF oR EpB epBvtbfkakkf kaEvri
~bfbi[f kAryilf `v[f tvmf p<rinfta[f '[fEb PbEv]fDmf. kar]mf,
;tftA[ epriy EpB kidfDmf `qvibfK '[f[idmf upaygfkqf "Tmf
;lfAlEy.


(tiRvarmarfpt[fEba) - epriy piradfFyaAry<mf hartfAty<MAdtfta[
marfv[fEba. tmkfKpf pbfbaktf tayf nizliEl oTgfKkibarf. ;vA[kf KbitfT
Etn AmtfrI pvT '[fBmf, `vA[kf KbitfT n kcfcitf n `pratfyti '[fBmf
ciAbyiliRnfEt Ecrvidpfparfkfkibvqf, marfpiEl ;Rnftalf Ecrvidcf
ecalflEv}Ema? `zkiy marfvilarmf. ~rtfTkfK `zK ekaDkfk
vbfbayiRkfAk. ~rmf `zAk mAbkfAkkfKdlamitftA[yiEb. Srfv
p>x]p>xarfha@ '[f{maEpaEl.

viqkfkmf - (tiRvarmarfvt[fEba) - !rgfknacfciyaAry<mf, hartfAty<mf t[T
tiRmarfpilf eka]fdv[f `lflva? ta[f ec[fB EcrfvtbfK "bfb p<klidmak
t[T tayara[ !rgfknacfciyaridmf oTgfKkibarf. `vqf ;rav][idmf - Etn
AmtfrI pvT - nI uyirf piAzkfk viRmfpi[alf ;ram{d[f ndfp< ekaqfvayak -
'[fB Pbi[aqf, ;ram[idmf - n kcfcitf n `pratfyti - ;nft ulkilf
yarfta[f tvB ecyfyamlf uqfq[rf - '[fB cmata[mf ecyftaqf. ;pfpFyak
;rav][i[f ciAbyilf ;RnftEpaT cipariCkqf ecyftvqf (p<Rxkarmf),
t[kfK ;[iAmya[ ;dmak uqfq ;v[T tiRmarfpilf uqfqEpaT
;cfecyAlcf ecyfvaqf '[fB Pbv<mf Ev]fDEma? `zka[ tiRmarfpilf uqfq
~rmf '[lamf. `nft ~rma[T epriyepRmaqi[f tiRmarfp<kfK `zK
Ecrfpfptak uqfqT. ~[alf cbfB cinftitftalf, `T `zKkfkak `lfl,
;v[T tiRmarfApkf k]fD ka]fpvrfkqi[f tfRxfF pdfDvidkfPdaT '[fB
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mAbtfTkf ekaqfvtbfkak '[fEb Eta[fBkibT. ;ramay]tftilf -
srfvp>x]p>xarfha@ - ;ram[i[f nI]fd Akkqf "[f `lgfkargfkqalf
mAbkfkpfpdvilfAl - '[pfpdfdT ka]fk.


(`FEyA[) - M[feplflamf PlicfEcvkArpfEpaEl `zKkfKtf Etabfb
`FAm, ;T pibnfTAdyvFAm. MnfTb T\Eta ramsfy '[fbv[f, piradfF
kdaXmf epbfbvaEb taEsahmf EkasElnftfrsfy '[fba[iEb. (~qfeka]fdT)
- ;znft EcxtfvtfAttf tnftT.

viqkfkmf - (`FEy[f) - M[fp<, Plikfkak EvAl ecyfpvrfkqf Epa[fB,
`v[T `zAkkf Pliyakpf epbfB `v{kfK `FAmtf etazilf ecyfvtak
;Rnftarf. ;pfEpaT, t[T sfvYRpmf `binftv<d[f, ta[f ;ylfpakEv, pibpfpi[f
YMlmakEv `v{kfK `FAm '[ u]rfnftarf. `{m[f cIAtyi[f parfAv
kidfdpf epBvtbfK M[fpakEv - T\Eta ramsfy - ram[i[f T\t[f - '[fB
Pbi[a[f. `vqT kdaXmf kidfFypi[f - taEsahmf EkasElnftrsfy -
EkasAl nadfF[f tAlv[a[ ;ram[i[f tas[f na[f - '[fba[f.
(~qfeka]fdT) - epriyepRmaqi[f tiRmarfpa[T, ;tftA[ kalmak,
'lfAlybfb pibvikqak na[f ;znftiRnft `FAmtft[tfAt mI]fDmf
"bfpDtftiyT.

(`FEyA[yadfeka]fdEt) - rajfymiznft rajp<tf rA[yAztfT
MFVdfDmaEpaEl, `zkiEl `Znfti[ '[fA[ `v[f K]gfkiGrf
piAzpfpitftet[fkibarf. `zkiEl `Znfti[aAr K]tfAtkf kadfFpf
piAzpfpikfklamf, K]tftiEl `Znfti[arfkfK K]Em Ev}mf. nIriEl
`Znfti[arfkfK nIAryidfDpf piAzpfpikfk viDmitftA[y[fEba uqfqT.

viqkfkmf - (`FEyA[yadfeka]fdEt) - evKnadfkqaktf t[T nadfAd
;znfT Cbfbikf eka]fFRnft `rcKmarA[ `AztfT MFVdfDvT Epa[fB,
Akgfkrfymf '[fb ptvi ;znfT Cbfbiy '[fA[ `v{Ady tiRmarfp< mI]fDmf
`tilf :DpDtftiyT. `v[T `zkilf mygfki, `v{kfKkf Akgfkrfymf
ecyfyv<mf mbnfT ni[fb '[fA[, t[T klfya] K]gfkAqkf kadfF mI]fDmf
`tilf :DpDtftiyT `v[T tiRmarfEp ~Kmf. `zkilf mygfki ni[fbalf
K]tfAtkf kadfF mIdfklamf, K]tftilf mygfki ni[fbvrfkAq K]mf
eka]fEd mIdfk Ev]fDmf. nIrilf YMzfki mykfkmf `AdnftvrfkAq, nIrf
etqitfEt 'Zpfp<vT Epa[fbaKmf.

;pfpadfdalf `nftrfyami pfrahfm]tftilf ecalfLkibpFEy srfv
vfyapktfckftiy<mf ;gfEk u]fed[fkibarf.

viqkf kmf - ;nftpf paCrmf YMlmf, `nftrfyami pfrahfm]tftilf PBmf kRtfta[
- `A[tftiLmf vfyapitfT nibfpv[f ;vE[ - '[fpAt evqipfpDtfTkibarf.


6. T]fd ev]fpiAby[f Tyrf tIrftftv[f `mf ciAby
v]fD vazf epazilfVzf `rgfknkrf Emy `pfp[f
`]fdrf `]fd pkir]fdtf etaRmanilmf 'Zmalf vAr MbfBmf
u]fd k]fdmf k]fGrf `FEyA[ uyfykfeka]fdEt.


epaRqf - oR cibiy T]fdak uqfqTmf, ev]fAmyak uqfqTmf ~kiy
piAbcfcnftfrA[tf t[T tAlyilf eka]fd civ{Ady capmf '[f{mf pavmf
nIgfKmfpFcf ecyftv[f, `zka[ cibKkAq uAdy v]fDkqf epaRnfti
vaZmfpFyak uqfq EcaAlkqalf Vzpfpdfd tiRvrgfktftilf 'pfEpaTmf vasmf
ecyfpv[f, ;nft `]fdmf, `]fdtftilf uqfq Ectnrfkqf, mbfb `]fdgfkqf,
prnft p>mi, "Z mamAlkqf, '[f{mf Pbpfpdat plvbfAby<mf pfrqy kaltftilf
`MT ecyftv[f - ;pfpFpfpdfd epriyepRmaqi[f tiRkfkZtfT '[fA[
uyfy<mfpFcf ecyftT.

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~zfvaAr uyfy<mfpFcf ecyft nmfepRmaqi[f tiRkfkZtfT

`vtariAk

srfvElaktfAty<mf `MT ecyftRqi[ k]fdtfti[zK '[fA[y<]fdakfkibf
eb[fkibarf. tiRmarfpi[zK tiRkfkZtftiEl "bidfdet[f[v<mamf.

epaRqf - `A[tfT ulkgfkAqy<mf pfrqytfti[fEpaT u]fD, t[T
tiRvyibfbilf AvtfTkf kapfpabfbiy epriyepRmaQAdy tiRkfkZtfti[f `zK
t[fA[ u]fdakfkiyT '[fbarf. kdnft paCrtftilf ;vrf `{pvitft
tiRmarfpi[f `zka[T, ;vArtf tqfqikfeka]fDEpayf, tiRkfkZtftilf
niBtftiyT '[lamf.

vfyakf ya[mf

(T]fdmitfyati) - klamatfrmayf evQtf tiRnfTqfq piAbAy jAdyiEl
y<Ady[a[ Rtfr[f t[kfKpf pitav<mayf ElakKRv<mayiRnfTqfq
pfrhfmavi{Ady tAlAyyBkfAkyalf vnft paptfAtpf Epakfki[v[f.
CAmyrayiRpfparf CmfmadfDkfKqfEq taAzmdAlcf ecaRKmaEpaEl,
satk[ayiRkfkcfecyfEt sHkpfrtan[ak `pima[itftiRkfKmayftfT. ~[aLmf
~ptfT vnftalf `v[lflT p<klilfAlEy. cnftfr{Ady XytfAtpf
Epakfki[ae[[fBmamf. `v{Ady TrittfAtpf Epakfki[apfEpaEl tmfMAdy
TrittfAty<mf EpakfKem[fB kRtfT.

viqkfkmf - (T]fdmf) - MZAmyak ;lflamlf oR T]fdak mdfDEm
uqfqTmf, evQtftiRpfpTmf ~kiy cnftfrA[tf t[T tAlyilf uqfq
cAdMFyilf eka]fdv[f civepRma[f ~va[f. `v[f, t[T tnfAty<mf,
;nft ulkmf `A[tfAty<mf pAdtftv{mf ~kiy pfrmfm[i[f tAlAy
`Btfttalf pfrhfmhtfti Etaxmf `Adnfta[f. ;v[T ;nftpf paptfAt
nIkfkiyv[f epriyepRmaqf ~va[f. tAlyilf epRmf CAmAycf CmnfT
eclfpvrfkqf, `zKkfkak `nftcf CAmyi[f `FyiLmf tazmfp>Avcf ecaRki
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AvtftiRpfparfkqf. ;TEpa[fB civepRma[f, ta[f 'mfepRmaA[kf KbitfT
'pfEpaTmf tvmf ecyfpv[f '[fB kadfFkfeka]fdaLmf, ;[fptftilf viRpfpmf
uqfqv[f '[fb niAl evqipfpDmfvitmaktf tAlyilf cnftfrA[cf
VdfFy<qfqa[f '[fB kRtfT. ;pfpF ;RnftaLmf `v{kfK Orf ~ptfT
vnftEpaT, epriyepRmaAq `lflamlf p<klidmf EvB "Tmf
`kpfpdvilfAlEy. cnftfr{kfK u]fda[ paptfAty<mf epriyepRmaqf
nIkfki[a[f. ~k ;vrfkQAdy pavgfkAq nIkfkiyT Epa[fB, t[T
pavgfkAqy<mf nIkfKva[f '[fB kRtfT.

(`wfciAby v]fD vazfepazilfVzf `rgfknkrf Emyvpfp[f) - Elaktftilf
pfrtanra[vrfkqf pfrhfmhtfAyAypf p]f]i `AlnfT ekaDkidkfkpfp<kfkvaEb
ta[f kdkfk nibfkeva]f]aet[fB ;vrfkQAdy rX]arftftmakkf
kidfdvnfT k]fvqrfnftRQkib upkark[f. `zkiy cibAk uAdtfta[
v]fDkqf vaza ni[fb EcaAl Vzfnft epriyEkayiliEl k]fvqrfnftRQkib
pitava[v[f.

viqkfkmf - (`wfciAby v]fD vazfepazilfVzf `rgfknkrf Emyvpfp[f) - ;nft
ulkilf mikv<mf Mkfkiysftrfkqilf civepRma[f Epa[fB pfrhfmhtfti Etaxmf
eka]fD `AlvAtkf k]fda[f. `vrfkAqkf kakfk, `vrfkqf vr ;ylat
prmpttftilf ta[f ;RkfkkfPdaT, `vfvitmf namf ;Rnftalf `vrfkqi[f papmf
nIgfkaT '[fB cinftitfta[f. ~kEv ;vrfkAqpf Epa[fbvrfkAqkf kapfpabfBmf
epaRdfD, tiRvrgfktftilf vnfT cy[itfta[f. `zka[ cibKkqf eka]fd
v]fDkqf Pdfdmak `mrfnfTqfq EcaAlkqf, ;nftcf EcaAlkqalf Vzpfpdfd
tiRvrgfkmf, ;tftAky epriyEkayililf k]fvqrfpv{mf, `A[vRkfKmf
tnfAty<mf ~[v[f.

(v]fDvazfepazilf) - v]fDkqf `v[f pkfklf eclflaT, tiRcfEcaAlyi[f
EyakfyAtyiEl ;qm]lf payfnfT kalfvagfkmadfdaEt nibfKmf.
`vfv]fDkAqpfEpaEl tmfAmy{pvipfpitfT vidayf ekDtftae[[fkibarf.

viqkfkmf - (v]fDvazfepazilf) - v]fDkqf epriyepRmaqf uqfq ;dmfvAr
eclflamlf, EcaAlkqi[f `zkilf mygfki, ~bfbi[f p<Atm]lilf kalfkqf
cikfK]fdvrfkqf nkr ;ylamlf ;RpfpT Epa[fB, `gfEkEy ;Rnft[. `nft
v]fDkqf Epa[fB t[fA[ `v[f pkfkmf niAlniBtfti, `v[f mIT :DpaD
ekaqfQmfpFcf ecyfta[f. ;t[f YMlmf t[T viRpfptfAt
niAbEvbfbikfeka]fda[f '[fbarf.

(`]fdr]fdmitfyati) - `]fdanftrfvrftftikQAdy `]fdmf. pkir]fdmf -
p<bv]fdmf. `tfvitIyma[ mhapfRtivi. p>mikfK ~]iyFtftapf EpaElyiRkfkib
"ZvAkpfpdfd Klkirikqf. o[febaziyaEm ~Fkfkabfbilf p>AqEpaEl pbnfT
tiRvyibfbiEl p<KmfpFy<]fd kZtfTkfkiGrf. ;vbfAbtf t[itft[iEy
ecalfLvae[[fe[[f[ilf - t[iEy ecalfLAk EpakfymayiRkfAkyaEl.
epriyepRmaqf tiRkfkZtfAtkf k]fdalf pfrqyaptftiEl jktfAt 'DtfTtf
tiRvyibfbiEl AvtftAm Etabfba ni[fbtayftfT. viDkaT EtaFdfD
vqrfnftet[fB etriy<maEpaEl.

viqkfkmf - (`]fdr]fd) - `]fdtfti[f uqfEq ;Rpfpvrfkqf vazfki[fb
pfrmfma]fdmf. pkir]fdmf '[fbalf `]fdtftibfK evqiyilf uqfq prnft ;dmf.
p>miya[T pbnfT vidamlf ;RpfptbfK `FtfT Avtft ~]ikqf Epa[fb "Z
mAlkqf. ;Av `A[tfTmf, ~Fkfkabfbilf `FtfTcf eclflpfpDmf
pwfCkfKviylf Epa[fB, pfrqy kaltftilf ;v[T tiRvyibfbi{qf p<KmfpFyak
;v[T `zka[ kZtfT `lflEva `vbfAb u]fdT? ;vbfAb "[f
t[itft[iyakkf Pbi[arf? `pfEpaTta[f mikv<mf ;[iAmyak ;RkfKmf
'[fptalf ~Kmf. epriyepRmaqi[f `zka[ kZtfAtkf ka}mfEpaT, pfrqy
kaltftilf `A[tfT ulkgfkAqy<mf u]fD, t[T tiRvyibfbilf AvtfTkf
kapfpabfbiy nikzfv< ;vRkfK niA[vilf vRkibT. TAqy<d[f uqfq kaAtkf
ka}mfEpaT, EtaD `]infttalf vqrfnftEta '[fB Eta[fBkibT.


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(`FEyA[ uyfykfeka]fdEt) - M[fp< epbfb AkgfkrfytfTkfK vicfEctmf
pibvatpF EnakfkibfB. '[fA[ smfsartftilf oR naQmf `kpfpdatpF
p]f]ibfB.

viqkfkmf - (`FEyA[ uyfykfeka]fdEt) - M[fp< ;vrf epbfb Akgfkrfymf
tAd ;[fbi etadr ;v[f kapfpabfbi[a[f. ;nft ulk vazfkfAkyilf na[f
:DpdfD, cikfK]fD vidatpF kapfpabfbi[a[f.

;pf padfdalf ~ptfsk[a[ srfEvcfvr[fpFy<mf ;gfEk u]fed[fkibarf.

viqkfkmf - ;nftpf paCrmf YMlmf, ulkmf `A[tfAty<mf kapfpabfbiy
:cfvrtft[fAm epriyepRmaqidmf u]fD '[fbarf.

7. Akyi[f ~rf Cri cgfK `[lf ~ziyrf nIqfvArEpalf
emyfy[arf Tqp viAryarf kmzf nI]fMF 'mf
_y[arf `]i `rgfk[arf `rvi[f `A]miAc Emy may[arf
ecyfyvayf _Eya '[fA[cf cinfAt kvrfnftTEv.

epaRqf - `zka[ tiRkfkrgfkqilf epaRnftiy<qfq tiRcfcgfK mbfBmf `[lf
vICmf ckfkrmf ~kiyvbfAbkf eka]fdv{mf, mikv<mf epriy mAl Epa[fb
tiREm[i uAdyv{mf, tiRtfTzayf 'pfEpaTmf VzfnfTqfqtalf, `t[f
nBm]mf vIciypF uqfq tiRMF eka]fdv{mf, '[f{Ady sfvamiyak
uqfqv{mf, ;nft ulki[f ~pr]mak uqfq tiRvrgfktftilf k]fvqrfpv{mf,
~tiEcx[f mIT ;[iAmyak epaRnftiy<qfqv{mf, viypfpa[ ecylfkqf
ecyfpv{mf ~kiy epriyepRmaqi[f civnft tiRpfpvqmf '[T cinfAtAykf
kvrfnfT eka]fdT.


~zfvari[f cinfAt kvrfnft nmfepRmaqi[f tiRpfpvqcf ecvfvayf
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`vtariAk

tiRvtrtftiEl `kpfpdfdpF ecalfLkibarf. nIwfcpfp<kfKtf etpfptfAtyiznfEt
e[[f{maEpaEl.

viqkfkmf - epriyepRmaqi[f tiRvayf `zkiEl ta[f cikfK]fD ni[fbAtkf
PBkibarf. ~bfAbkf kdkfk MA[y<mf oRv[f, pati ~bfbilf ta[f vnft
pdAk ;znfT nibfpT Epal - `vA[ `{pvikfkpf p<Knft ;vrf, pativAr
`{pvitfTvidfD, ;pfEpaT t[f{Ady m[Atpf pbi ekaDtfT ni[fEb[f
'[fbarf.

vfyakfya[mf


(Akyi[aritfyati) - evBmfp<btftiEl pdvFkfkvlfl AkyiEl `zK niAbnft
CriAyy<Adtfta[ !pawfcjnfymf, pfrtipXtfti[f EmEl `[Aly<miza
ni[fBqfq tiRvazi, ;vbfAby<AdyrayiRkfAk. !pawfcjnfytfTkfKcf Cri
sfvpavma[apfEpaEl tiRvaziyazfva{kfKmf pfrtipXtfti[fEmEl `[LmizfAk
sfvpavmf. tiRkfEkadfFy>riEl `[nftazfva[f pdfdAr - !AvK]fdnat[f
tfvip<jE[a, cTrfpfp<jE[a - '[f[, ;RpFkQmDkfKem[f[,
;r]fFLmzkiEtet[f[, tfvip<j[akilf epriyepRmaAqpf EpaEl ;RkfkibT,
cTrfpfp<j[akilf nmfepRmaAqpf EpaEl ;RkfkibT - '[fbarf.

viqkfkmf - (Akyi[arf) - epriyepRmaqi[f tiRkfkrtfAt evBmE[
k]fdaEl, `t[f `zkilf mygfki viZvarfkqf. ;pfpFpfpdfd tiRkfkrtftilf
mikv<mf `zKmf, `zka[ ErAkkQmf uAdyta[ pawfcj[fymf '[f{mf
cgfAk AvtfTqfqa[f. `Fyarfkqi[f viEratikqf mIT enRpfApkf kkfKmf
ckfkrtfAty<mf AvtfTqfqa[f. cgfkibfK ErAkkqf ;ylfpak uqfqT Epa[fB,
ckfkrtftibfK enRpfp< kkfKtlf ;ylfpak uqfqT. tiRkfEkadfFy>rilf
`[nftazfva[f '[fpvrf pracrpdfdridmf - !AvK]fdnat[f ;r]fD
tiRkrgfkQd[f uqfqa[a `lflT na[fK tiRkfkrgfkQd[f uqfqa[a -
'[fB Ekdfdarf. `tbfki pdfdrf - ;r]fD vitmakv<mf uqfqT `v{kfK
"bfbEt, ;r]fFLmf `zkakEv uqfqa[f, ;r]fD tiRkrgfkQd[f uqfqEpaT
epriyepRmaqf Epa[fB ;Rpfpa[f, na[fK tiRkrgfkQd[f uqfqEpaT
nmfepRmaAqpf Epa[fB ;Rpfpa[f - '[fbarf.

(nIqfvAr) - mAlAykf kdAl opfpakcf ecalfLmitfAtA[yiEb.
nIdfciEpakfytapfrkrfxmf. pcfAcmamAlEpalf Em[i, `TkfK EmEl
opfpA[yzK.

viqkfkmf - (nIqfvAr) - epriyepRmaqi[f tiREm[ikfK kdlf `lflT
mAlAy mdfDEm uvAmyakkf Pb ;yLmf. nIqf '[f{mf ecalfla[T
;[iAmyak uqfqT '[fB u]rftfTkibT. eta]fdrFpfepaFyazfvarf,
tiRmaAlyilf - pcfAcmamAl Epalf Em[i - '[fbarf `lflva? ;v{Ady
tiREm[iEy `zK, `nft `zKkfK `zK EcrfpfpT Epa[fB ~pr]gfkqf
uqfq[.


(TqpviAryarf kmzfnI]fMF) - primqmf mikfkiRnfTqfq tiRtfTzayf
maAlyaEl `lgfkfRtmayf ~tirajfy sJckma[ tiRvpiExktfAt
uAdyRmayf. ('mfAmy[arf) - ubv< EtabfBAk, '[kfK j[kra[vrf.


viqkfkmf (TqpviAryarf) - miKnft nBm]tfTd[f PFy Tqciyalf
epriyepRmaqi[f tiREm[i `lgfkrikfkpfpdfDqfqT. `tftAky kfrIdmf
;vA[, `A[tfT EtvAtkQkfKmf Emla[v[f '[fpAt u]rftftiypF
uqfqT. ('mf _y[arf) - ;vA[kf ka}mfEpaEt, ;vE[ '[f tnfAt '[f{mf
ubv<MAb k]fM[fE[ nibfkibT.

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(`]iyrgfk[arf) - pfrapft vixymayiRkfkkf kdkfkviraEt smfsartfTkfK
~pr]ma[ EkayiliEl vnfT `]f]iyRmayiRkfkibpF.

viqkfkmf - (`]iyrgfk[arf) - smfsar kdlak uqfq p>mikfK ~pr]mak
uqfq tiRvrgfktftilf vnfT nmT `RkaAmyilf, nmfAm vidfD `klamlf
cy[ipfpv[f.

(`rvi[A]miAc) - rtf[gfkAqeylflamf tgfktftiEl p<AttfTkf
kadfDmaEpaEl t[f[zK etriytf tiRv[nftazfva[f EmEl cayfnfT
kadfDkibpF. (Emymay[arf) - mi[fmi[i pbkfkibpF. s mya Epatit@ !manf -
'lflarfkfKmf o[fbiEl cayfnftvaEb epalflagfKkqf etriy<mf, ;gfK
pAzyvzKkQmf nibmf epBmf.

viqkfkmf - (`rvi[f `A] miAc) - ;rtfti[kfkbfkqf pl tgfktftilf
ptikfkpfpdfdalf `t[f `zK PDvT Epa[fB, t[T tiREm[iyi[f `zK
`A[vRkfKmf p<lpfpDmfpF ~tiEcx[f mIT cy[itfTqfqv[f. (Emymay[arf) -
;v[T tiREm[iAykf k]fdalf, k]fkqilf mi[fmi[i pbpfpT Epa[fB uqfqT.
;ramay]tftilf - s mya Epatit@ - '[f[alf k]fvqrfnftv[f - '[fB
PBvT Epalf, ubgfKmfEpaT ;v[f `zkak uqfqa[f. oRvRkfK `vrT
vikarmf `A[tfTmf, `vrf ubgfKmfEpaT mdfDEm evqipfpDmf. ;v{kfK,
cy[ikfKmfEpaT PDtlak `zK evqipfpDkibT.


(ecyfyvayf) - sftfrIkQAdy epayfcfciripfpiEl TvkfK]fdarfkfK ;cfciripfp<kf
k]f dalf epaBkfkeva]f}Ema.

viqkfkmf - (ecyfyvayf) - ep]fkqi[f epayfya[ ciripfApkf k]fD mygfkiyv[f
na[f. ;pfpFpfpdfd '[fA[ ;v[T emyfya[ p<[f[Ak :rftf Tkfeka]fdAt
viypfpakkf Pbv<mf Ev]fDma?

(_Eya) - tiRvtrMmf civpfp<mf `{pvikfk `ritayf _Eya '[fkibarf. ('[fA[)
- p]fEd enwfC pbiekaDtft '[fA[ `nfyaymf ecyfvEt '[fB PpfpiDkibarf.
('[fA[) - klfAl nIrakfki, nIAry<mf taE[ eka]fdT.

viqkfkmf - (_Eya) - tiRvayi[f `zki, `t[f civpfp< ~kiyvbfAb
`{pvitfT MFkfk ;ylaAmyalf _Eya '[fbarf. ('[fA[) - '[T m[At
M[f[Er 'DtfTkfeka]fdayf, ;vfvitmf u[T tiREm[iAykf kadfF '[fA[
EmLmf vAtpfpta '[fbarf. ('[fA[) - klf Epa[fb '[fA[ nIrakfki[ayf,
`nft nIAry<mf vidfDAvkfkamlf pRkividfdayf.

;pfpadfFlf !AvK]fdnat[fpFy<mf ;gfEk ka]laem[fkibarf.

viqkfkmf - ;nftpf paCrmf YMlmf !AvK]fdnat[i[f t[fAmkAq
epriyepRmaqidmf ka]lamf '[fbarf.


8. priy[aki vnft `v<][f udlf kI]fd `mrrfkfK
`riy ~ti pira[f `rgfktfT `ml[f MktfT
kriyvakipf p<Ad prnfT miqirfnfT ecvfvri OF nI]fd `pf
epriyvay k]fkqf '[fA[pf EpAtAm ecyft[Ev.

epaRqf - miKnft pRm[a[ udlf eka]fD vnfT, pfrhflatA[ vRtftiy
`Cr[a[ ;r]iy[i[f udAlkf kizitftf 'binftv[f, pfrmfm[f Mtla[
EtvrfkqaLmf `pfEpaT 'qitilf `}k ;ylatpF ;Rnftv[f, ;nft
ulkibfKkf kar]mak uqfqv[f - ;pfpFpfpdfdv[f tiRvrgfkmf epriyEkayililf
cy[itfTqfq epriyepRmaqf ~va[f. `v{Ady tiRMktftilf kBtft nibmf
eka]fD, vicalmak, ecvfvrikqf niAbnfttak, kaTkqf vAr nI]fD
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uqfqtak, epRAm epbfbtak ;RkfKmf `v[T tiRkfk]fkqf, '[fA[
`v[f mIT pitfTpf piFtftv[f Epa[fB ecyft[.

~zfvari[f `biAvkf ekDtft epriyepRmaqi[f tiRkfk]fkqf

`vtariAk

tiRkfk]fkqf '[fA[ `biv<ekDtftet[fkibarf.

viqkfkmf - `v[T tiRkfk]fkqf t[f{Ady `biAvkf klkfkiyT '[fbarf.

vfyakfya[mf

(priy[aki vnft) - pkvtf K]gfkAq `{snftitfT AnnftiraEm,
EcxtfvtfAtybinfT emlinftiraEm, srfEvcfvrA[ ~AcpfpdfDtf
tqrfnftv<dmfpaeyacinftiraEm. (priy) - nrsimfhtfTkfKmf pibfkalikfk
Ev]fDmfpF ;RkfAk. UdfFyidfD vqrftft p[fbi EpaEl udmfAp
vqrftfta[itftA[. (vnft) - ;pfEpaT tamf vyiB piFkfkibarf.

viqkfkmf - (priy[aki vnft) - epriyepRmaqi[f tiRkfklfya] K]gfkAq
']f]i ']f]i udLmf uqfqMmf kAryamlf ;Rnftv[f, ta[f `v{kfK
`FAmpfpdfdv[f '[fpAt `binfT udlf emliyamlf uqf qv[f, t[T
'jma[[akiy `vA[kf kidfdEv]fDmf '[fb ~Ac u]fdaki, `t[alf udlf
;Aqkfkamlf uqfqv[f - ;Av `A[tfTmf ;r]iyA[kf KbipfptaKmf.
(priy) - ;vA[ `zikfk vnft nrsimfh[f Pd ;v[T udlf pRm[f k]fD
cbfB pi[fvagfKmfpF ;Rnftv[f. n[fbak u]v< ekaDtfT vqrfkfkpfpdfd p[fbi
Epal t[T udAl vqrftfta[f.

(`v<]{dlfkI]fd) - nrsimfhtfti{Ady emabanft MkMmf, namFkf eka]fd
utDmf, ecBtfT Enakfki[ EnakfKmf, KtftMBkfki[ Aky<mf k]fdEpaEt
epaCkfki[ p[fbi EpaEl mgfKnaArkf kizikfKmaEpaEl kizitftpF.

viqkfkmf - nrsimfh[i[f EkaptfTd[f PFy Mkmf, nakfAk uqfEq mFtfTkf
eka]fFRnft tiRvayf, tIAykf kkfKmfpFya[ parfAv, oEr `Fyilf uyiAr
'DkfKmfpFyak mFtft tiRkfkrmf - ;Av `A[tfAty<mf k]fdv<dE[Ey
;r]iy[f tIyilf CdfD 'Dtft p[fbi Epal ~kividfda[f. `pfpF ni[fb `vA[,
nIrilf nA[nfT mkfkiy naArkf kizipfpT Epa[fB kizitfta[f.




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(`mrrfkfK `riy ~tipfpira[f) - EtvrfkQkfK utfpatk[a[ matfrEm,
Akyaq[ayf nibfpT ~!trfkfK. ciBkfk{kfK utvi nibfkib niAl t[f[iEl
pfrhfmatikQkfKpf pricfEctikfkeva]f]atpF nibfkib pfrtan[f. kfvahmf rj@
pfrkfRtirIc tEmatiEk `sfminf jatsfsHErtrKEl kfv tva{kmfpa n
pfrhfmE]a n c pvsfy n Av rmya Eya Emrfpit@ cirsi ptfmkrpfrsat@.

viqkfkmf - (`mrrfkfK `riy ~tipfpira[f) - EtvrfkAqpf epaBtftvAryilf
;v[f `vrfkAqpf pAdtftTd[f vidfda[f. ~[alf t[T `FyarfkQkfK
mdfDEm "vlaqf Epa[fB uqfqa[f. mikv<mf cibiy vTAdy pfrhflat{kfK
OFvnfT utviy `v[f, pfrmfm[f Mtla[ Etvrfkqalf 'qitilf `Ady
;ylatv[akEv uqfqa[f. !mtf pakvtmf - kfvahmf rj@ pfrkfRtirIc
tEmatiEk `sfminf jatsfsHErtrKEl kfv tva{kmfpa n pfrhfmE]a n c
pvsfy n Av rmya Eya Emrfpit@ cirsi ptfmkrpfrsat@ - mikv<mf
tazfva[Tmf, tEma K]tftilf nibfpTmf ~kiy ;nft `Cr Kltftilf, rEja
K]mf EmElagfki nibfKmfpF pibnft na[f 'vfvidmf? kRA]Ey vFva[ nI
'vfvidmf? '[T tAlyi[f mIT Avkf kpfpdfd tamAr Epa[fb Akkqf
pfrmfm{AdyEta, civ{AdyEta, lXfmiy<AdyEta `[fB. `vrfkAqkf
kadfFLmf Emla[ u[f{Adyt[fEba - '[fB PbiyT.

(~tipfpira[f) - ta[f MbfEkali upkrikfKmv[f. (pira[f) - pfrhflat{kfK
'qiy[a[ niAly<mf pfrhfmatikQkfK `riy[a[ niAly<mf ;r]fDmf tmkfK
upkarmayiRkfkibT.

viqkfkmf - (~tipfpira[f) - Tyrmf u]fdavtbfK M[fpaktf ta[f OF vnfT
utv<pv[f. (pira[f) - pfrhflat{kfK mikv<mf 'qiyv[ak ;Rnfta[f, pfrmfm[f
uqfqidfd EtvrfkQkfK `riyv[ak ;Rnfta[f. ;nft ;r]fD niAlkQEm
t[kfK utviyak uqfqT '[fbarf.

(`rgfktftmfma[f) - 'lflarfkfKMtv<mfpF EkayiliEl vnfT k]f
vqrf nftRQAkyaEl vnft Ctfti oRkalf EtabfbipfEpatlf, `vtarmf EpaEl
tIrftftmf pfrsatitfTpfEpatlf ecyfyaAmyaEl vnft Ctftiyakv<mamf.

viqkfkmf - (`rgfktftmfma[f) - `A[vRkfKmf utv<mf vitmak, tiRvrgfkpf
epriyEkayililf vnfT k]fvqrfnfta[f. mbfb `vtarmf Epa[fB vnfT mAbvT
Epa[fB `lflamlf, niAlyak ;Rtftlf.

(MktfT) - `v{Ady MktfT. (kriyvaki) - vidayftftarf MktftiEl
nIrfevqfqtfAt evdfFvidfdapf EpaElyiRkfAk.

viqkfkmf - (MktfT) - `v{Ady tiRMktftilf. (kriyvaki) - miKnft
takmf 'Dtftv[f mIT nIrf evqfqtfAtpf payfcfciyT Epa[fB.

(p<AdprnfT) - kdAltf tdakmakfki[apfEpaEl ;dMAdtftayiRkfAk.
(miqirfnfT) - tiArvIcikf kAryaLmf vziEpakeva]f]atiRkfAk.
(ecvfvriEyaF) - !y@ptitfvtftaLmf vatfslfytftaLmf civnftiRkfAk. (nI]fd)
- ecviyqv<mf `AleybiAk.

viqkfkmf - (p<Ad prnfT) - ;v[T tiRkfk]fkqi[f `qva[T, kdLmf oR
cibiy KqEma '[fB Eta[fBmfpF epriy `qv<d[f ;Rnft[. (miqirfnfT) -
kAr mIT eclfpvrfkQmf ndkfk ;ylatpF `Al vICvT Epa[fB, ;vA[
EmEladfdmakpf parftfTcf ec[fBvidlamf '[fB vRpvrfkQmf tpfpikfk
;ylatpF. (ecvfvriEyaF) - !rgfknacfciyari[f _cfvrfytf taLmf, nmf mIT uqfq
vatfslfymf kar]makv<mf civnfTqfqT. (nI]fd) - tiRkfkaTkqf vAr `Al
vICvT Epa[fBqfqT.




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(`pfepriyvayk]fkqf) - pi[fA[y<mf Epakftavi[qv[fbikfEk ;RkfAkyaEl
`pfepriyvayk]fkqf '[fkibarf. ;T '[f[eva]f]aEt pEraX nirfEtcmf
p]f]Ev]fDmfpFyiRkfAk. ('[fA[) - epriym[icfcgfkiGrf na[f.
'[fAvtkftfytfAtpf pbitfTpf epakdfD emqkftfytfAttftnft[. oRv[f
'yfttfAt mbfbv{mf 'yfy<maEpaEl.

viqkfkmf - (`pfepriyvayk]fkqf) - ;vfvitmf plvaB viqkfki[aLmf
MZAmyak `{pvitfTkf Pb ;ylat epaRqak uqfqtalf
`pfepriyvayk]fkqf '[fbarf. 'qitilf `{pvikfkkf PFy epaRqak ;Rnftalf
;T '[fB Pbividlamf. ('[fA[) - 'tbfKmf mciyat epriym[it[f '[fb
niA[vilf ;Rnft '[fA[ o[fBmilflatv[akfki. oRv[f `mfp< ecLtfti
vIzftftiy epaRqi[f mIT mbfebaRv[f `mfp< 'yfvT Epa[fB, ;v[T
tiRvayalf (kdnft paCrmf ka]fk) vIzftftpfpdfd '[fA[, ;pfEpaT t[T
tiRkfk]fkqalf vizftfTkiba[f.

(EpAtAm ecyft[Ev) - ramrcmfEpaEl MFnfT piAzkfkevadfDkib[vilfAl.
;tftalf nrsimfhavtartfti[fpFy<mf ;gfEky<]fed[fkibarf.

viqkfkmf - (EpAtAm) - ;ram{Ady pa]tftalf `Fpdfdv[f, cibiT
TFtftaLmf, mr]tfti[f YMlmf `v[f T[fpmf nIgfkiviDmf. ~[alf ;kfk]fkqf
'[T uyiArpf Epakfkamlf vRtfti 'Dkfki[fb[. ;nftpf paCrmf YMlmf
epriyepRmaqidmf nrsimfh `vtartfAty<mf ka]lamf '[fbarf.

9. ~lma mrtfti[f ;Al Emlf oR palk[ayf
walmf "Zmf u]fda[f `rgfktfT `rv< ;[f `A]ya[f
Ekalmf ma m]i ~rMmf MtfTtf tamMmf MFvilflT Orf 'zilf
nIlEm[i _Eya niAb eka]fdT '[f enwfciA[Ey.

epaRqf - mikv<mf epriy ~lmrtfti[f oR cibiy ;Alyi[f mIT,
KznfAtyakkf kidnfta[f. "Z ulkgfkAqy<mf u]fD, t[T vyibfbilf
AvtfTkfeka]fda[f. ;pfpFpfpdfdv[f yarf '[fbalf - tiRvrgfktftilf
~tiEcx[f '[fb pDkfAkAy mikv<mf ;[iAmyakkf eka]fD k]fvqRmf
epriyepRmaqf ~va[f. `v{Ady harma[T mikv<mf cibnft ;rtfti[kf
kbfkqf eka]fD ;AzkfkpfpdfDqfqT, `v[T Mtftalf ~kiy vdmf
'lfAlybfb `zKd[f PFytak uqfqT. kRenyftlf mlrf Epa[fb `v[T
tiREm[iya[T '[f{Ady enwfctfAt ekaqfAq eka]fD, t[f{d[f
'DtfTcf ec[fB vidfdT. _Eya. ;[i ecyfvet[f[?
85
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nIlEm[i mdfDmf `lfl, ;v[f nIl ~Ady<mf nmfAm ekaqfAq ekaqfQmf


`vtariAk

Urzip>clfEpaEl tiREm[iyi[f nibma[T 'lflavbfAby<gfPdkf eka]fD vnfT
'[fe[wfAckf ekaqfAq eka]fdet[fkibarf.

viqkfkmf - pfrqy kaltftilf `v[f `A[tfAty<mf t[f{qf 'DtfTkf
eka]fdT Epa[fB, epriyepRmaqi[f tiREm[i nibma[T `v{Ady pl
~pr]gfkAqy<mf `vyvgfkAqy<mf t[kfKtf TA]yak `AztfTvnfT,
'[T m[Atpf pbitfTcf ec[fBvidfdT '[fbarf.

vfyakfya[mf

(~lmamrtfti[itfyati) - epriy ~lmrtfti{Ady cibfbiAlyiEl yEcataqf
tnnftyMmf epriyet[f{mfpF `tfvitIy[a[ pal[ayf. (oR palk[ayf) -
yEcataqf tnnfty[a[ kfRxf]{mf Mr]itftiRkfKmfpF ;v{Ady palfymf
ecmfpalf paya nibfKmf.



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viqkfkmf - (~lmamrtfti[f ;AlEmlf) - mikv<mf epriyta[ ~lmrtfti[f
cibiy ;Alyilf. yEcaAtyi[f KznfAtya[ kfRxf][f Pd ;vA[ vidpf
epriyv[ak ;Rpfpa[f Epalf uqfqEt '[fB ka]fpvrf PBmf vitmak,
;vA[pf Epa[fB EvB yaRmf ;lflat KznfAtyak. (oR palk[ayf) -
yEcaAtyi[f p<tftir[a[ k]f][f ;vA[ vidpf epriyv[f '[fB u]rftfTmf
vitmak, ;v{Ady ;nfttf Etabfbma[T tayfpfpalf pRKmf AkkfKznfAt
Epa[fbtak uqfqT.

(walmitfyati) - ciB pfrAjkqf p<Eravrftfti ptarftftgfkAq 'DtfT
vayiliDmaEpaEl p>mipfprpfp<Ady vayiEl Avtfta[ayftfT piqfAqtft[mf.
pfrqytftilf t[f[kFt kdntfEtaedakfKmf '[fA[ `kpfpDtfti[pFy<mf.


viqkfkmf - (walmf "Zmf) - cibiy KznfAtkqf tgfkQkfK M[fpak 'nftpf
epaRqf kidnftaLmf `tA[ 'DtfT t[T vayi AvtfTkf ekaqfQmf. `T
Epa[fB ;v[f, t[kfK M[fpak ;Rnft `A[tfT ulkgfkAqy<mf t[T
tiRvayilf AvtfTkf eka]fda[f. ciB KznfAtyak uqfqEpaEt t[T
camrftftiymf kar]mak `A[tfT ulkgfkAqy<mf viZgfkiyT Epa[fB,
'[fA[tf t[kfK `FAmpfpDtfti[a[f (ulkmf viZgfKvAt vid ;T
kF[mf '[fbarf).

(`rgfktftrvi[A]ya[f) - smfsar pfrqytfti[i[fBmf 'Dkfkkf kidkfkibpF.
`nft ~li[iAlyilf ni[fBmf ;gfEk vrcfcRkfki[vitftA[ ka}mf.
;pfpfrmattfEtaEd PF[ ecyAlcf ecyftae[[fB pypfpDmvrfkqf `cfcmf
ekDmfpF kidkfkibvidmf.

viqkfkmf - (`rgfktfT `rv< ;[f `A]ya[f) - smfsarmf '[fb
evqfqtftiliRnfT ;nft ulAkkf kapfpabfbi 'Dpfptbfkak tiRvrgfktftilf
uqfqa[f. `nft ~liAlyiliRnfT cBkfki ~tiEcx[f mIT vnftT Epa[fB,
;gfEk kidkfkiba[f. ;pfpF oR `ti `bfp<tma[ ecyAlcf ecyftv[f ;v[f,
;v[idmf namf eclfl ;yLma '[fB cilrf `v[Rkilf eclfl pypfpdkfPDmf.
`nft `cfcmf nIkfKmfvitmak ;gfK cy[itfTqfqa[f.

(`rvi[A]ya[f) - pfrqytftilf t[f vyibfbiEl p<kaviFlf jktfT
jIviyatapfEpaEl, smfsarikqf t[fMktfEt viziyaviFlf t[kfKcf
eclflat[pF.

viqkfkmf - (`rv< ;[f `A]ya[f) - pfrqytfti[f EpaT ulkgfkqf
`A[tfTmf ;v[f vyibfbilf eclflvilfAl '[fbalf ;pfEpaT ;RnftiRkfk
MFyaT. `TEpa[fB, t[fA[ smfsarikqf ka]amlf ;Rnftalf, `t[alf
ta[f vRtftpfpdfD kidpfpv[f.


(Ekalmam]iyarMmf) - `zkiytayfpf epRviAly[ayiRnfTqfq rtfngfkqaEl
ecyfypfpdfd ~rMmf. (MtfTtftamMmf) - MtfTmaAly<mf. (Ekalmf) - ;T
epRmaAqcf ecalfLkibT.

viqkfkmf - (Ekalmam]iyarMmf) - miKnft viAl uAdyT, mikv<mf
`zka[T, ;rtfti[kf kbf kqf ptikfkpfpdfdT, ;pfpFpfpdfd harmf.
(MtfTtftammf) - MtfT maAl. (Ekalmf) - nmfepRmaQd[f uqfq `zK.

(MFvilflEtaerzilf nIlEm[i) - `vti ka]eva]f]at `zAky<Ady
enyftft tiREm[i. (_Eya) - pcfAccfcdfAd uDtfTtf
t[kfKqfqtfAtyAdykfkadfF '[kfKqfqtfAtyAdykf eka]fda[f . (niAb
eka]fdet[fe[wfciA[Ey) - '[kfK `kvayilf kamfpIrfytfAtpf
EpakvFtftT.

viqkfkmf - (MFvilflT Orf 'zilf) - 'lfAl ka] ;ylatpF `zAky<mf
oqiAyy<mf eka]fd tiREm[i. (_Eya) - t[f{Ady tiREm[iyi[f nibtfAtkf
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mdfDEm kadfF, '[f{AdyT '[fB na[f niA[tft '[f m[Atkf ekaqfAq
`FtfTvidfdaE[. (niAb eka]fdT) - '[T m[tilf uqfq `A[tfAty<mf
'DtfTkf eka]fda[f.

;pfpadfdalf vdtqcynMmf epriyepRmaqf pkfkliEl u]fed[fkibT.

viqkfkmf - ;t[f YMlmf ~liAl mIT cy[itft k]f][i[f t[fAmkqf
epriyepRmaqidmf ka]lamf '[fbarf.

10. eka]fdlf v]f]A[kf Ekavl[ayf ev]fe]yf
u]fd vay[f '[f uqfqmf kvrfnftaA[
`]fdrf Eka[f `]i `rgfk[f '[f `MtiA[kf
k]fd k]fkqf mbfB o[fbiA[kf ka]aEv

epaRqf - mAzkfkal Emkmf Epa[fB uqfqv{mf, ~yrfKltftilf pibnfT
ev]fe]yf u]fdv{mf, '[T m[tfAtkf ekaqfAq eka]fdv{mf,
nitfyVrikqi[f tAlv{mf, ;nft ulkibfEk ~pr]maktf tikZmf
tiRvrgfktftilf cy[itfTqfqv{mf ~kiy epriyepRmaAq na[f k]fEd[f.
'[kfK `mirftmf Epa[fB `v[f uqfqa[f. ;pfpFpfpdfd epriyepRmaAqkf
k]fd pi[f[rf, ;nftkf k]fkqf prmptnatA[kf Pdkf ka]tf tyarak
;lfAl.



u]fEda ;nft vsfTv<kfK opfpa[Etarf :D?


`vtariAk

nikmtftilf, ;vfvqv<mf jfwansaXatfkarmf, Emlf Elaksargfk mhaM[ikqf
Etaqilf vnfT p<KnfT vi]f]pfpwfecyfkibarf. epriyepRmaqzAkkf k]fd
k]fkqf mbfeba[fbiA[kf ka]aev[fkibarf.
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viqkfkmf - EmEl Pbiy o[fpT paCrgfkqa[Av, tiRpfpa]azfvarf
Elaksargfk M[ivri[f mIT `mrfnfT vRmfEpaT, t[f{Ady wa[kfk]f]alf
k]fdvbfAb vrf]ipfpAv ~Kmf. ;nftpf paCrtfAtpf epriyepRmaqf
tiRM[fpak ni[fB `Rqicf ecyfkibarf. ;v{Ady `zAkkf k]fd t[T
k]fkqf, EvB 'tA[y<mf ;[ikf ka]aT '[fB PBkibarf.

vfyakfya[mf

(eka]fdlfv]f]A[) - taptfrytftaEl vidayftft tmf vidayf tIRmfpFyayf
`tferq cyaQriv cItqkaqEmk@ '[fkibpFEy vrfxHkma[ kaqEmkmf
EpaElyiRkfkib tiRnibtfAty<AdyvA[. p[f[IrfkfKpfpi EpaEl
uqfQqfqAveylflamf p<bmfEp nizlidfdpF.

viqkfkmf - (eka]fdlfv]f]A[) - ;nft ulkilf uqfqtalf u]fdaKmf
YM[fB vitma[ T[fpgfkQmf t[kfKtf tIRmfpF uqfqv[f. 'pfpF?
!rgfkrajsftvtftilf (1-82) - `tferq cyaQriv cItq kaqEmk@ - Kqirfnft
nIrf eka]fd mAzkfkal Emkmf Epa[fbv[f - '[fB pdfdrf PbiypFy<qfq
tiREm[i nibmf eka]fdv[f. p[f[Irf ecamfp< Epa[fB, t[f{qf uqfq
`A[tfTmf evqiyilf etriy<mfpF uqfqv[f.

(Ekavl[ayf ev]fe]y<]fdvay[f) - ;Ady[ayf ev]fe]yf u]fd
tiRpfpvqtfAt uAdyvA[. ckfrvrftftitf tiRmk[akilf ev]fe]y<]f]
evadfdarfkeq[fB kRtfT. (Ekavl[f) - ~pijatfymf, epRmaQkfKkf
kdfD]fpT `Fy<]fptakkf kiAdkfKEma?

viqkfkmf - (Ekavl[ayf ev]fe]yf u]fd vay[f) - ;Ady[ak `vtritfT
ev]fe]Ay u]fd pvzmf Epa[fB `zkakcf civnft tiRvayf uAdyv[f.
ckfrvrftftitf tiRmk[f '[fbalf ev]fe]yf u]f] `r]fmA[yilf uqfqvrfkqf
vidmadfd[rf '[fptalf k]f][akkf Pbi[arf. (Ekavl[f) - ;ram[ak
;Rnftalf ;v{kfK tayi[f Akkqalf kdfdpfpDvT, `FpDvT Mtla[
EpB kidfdaT `lflEva?


(ev]fe]y<]fdvay[f) - kqv< k]fD oqitfT vnfT kidkfkibv[f,
epriyepRmaqf ekaBdfAd EmanfT parftftalf ;pfEpaT ev]fe]yf
nabanibfKmf.

viqkfkmf - (ev]fe]yf u]fd vay[f) - ev]fe]Aytf tiRF u]fDvidfD,
yEcaAtkfKpf pynfT, tiRvrgfktftilf vnfT oqinfTqfqa[f. ;[fBmf
epriyepRmaqi[f k[f[gfkAq MkrfnfT parftftalf ev]fe]yf vacmf vICvAt
u]rlamf.

('[f{qfqgfkvrfnftaA[) - '[fe[wfAc `phritftvA[. Ekavl[ayf
ev]fe]y<]fdapfEpaEl eka]fdlfv]f][ayf '[f{qfqgfkvrfnftvA[.
yEcaAtpf piradfFy<Ady ev]fe]yiEl p]f]i[ cfrtfAtAy '[fe[wfciEl
p]f]i p<jitftvA[. Avtft KbiyziyatiRkfk ev]fe]yf KFEpa[apf
EpaElyayftfT ;vRdmfpiRkfk `kvayf KFEpa[pF.

viqkfkmf - ('[f uqfqmf kvrfnftaA[) - '[T m[At `pkritfTcf
ec[fbvA[. k]f][ak vnfT ev]fe]yf u]fdTEpa[fB, mAzkfkal
Emkmf Epa[fb tiREm[i nibmf eka]fD '[T uqfqtfAtkf kvrfnftvA[,
yEcaAtyi[f ev]fe]yilf 'tftA[ :DpaD AvtftiRnftaE[a, `Et `qv<
:DpadfAd '[T m[ti[f mITmf eka]fDqfqvA[, yEcaAtyi[f vIdfFlf `vqf
AvtfTqfq ev]fe]yf ubiyiliRnfT 'DtftT etriyamlf 'Dtftv[f, ;[fB
;vrT udli[f uqfEq ;RkfKmf enwfctfAt 'DtftT etriyamlf
`pkritfta[f.


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`ml[atipira[f 'qiy tmizf viqkfkgfkqf Page 46 of 47
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(`]fdrfEka[f) - tiRvayfpfpaFyiliAdkfKltfTkfK nirfvahke[[f{tlf,
`]fdanftrfvrftftikqa[ ~tfmvrfkfktfTkfK nirfvahke[[f{tlf.
(`]iyrgfke[[f[MtiA[) - EtvrfkqiAdy upfp<cfcaB Epal[fB ;vRAdy
`mfRtmf.


viqkfkmf - (`]fdrfEka[f) - tiRvayfpfpaFyilf uqfq ;Adyrfkqi[f
KltfTkfKtf tAlv[f, `]fdgfkqi[f uqfq ;RkfKmf ;nft ~tfmakfkqf
`A[tftibfKmf tAlv[f. (`]i `rgfk[f '[f `MtiA[) - EtvrfkQkfKkf
kdAlkf kAdnftEpaT u]fda[ upfp<cfcaB `mirftmak ;RnftT. `nft
`mirfttfAtkf kadfFLmf ;vRkfK epriyepRmaqf ;[iy `mirftmak
;Rnfta[f.

('[f[MtiA[) - pfrhfmatikQkfK MtliyayiRkfKmf, '[kfKcf cakamlf
kakfKmf `mfRtmayiRkfKmf. (k]fdk]fkqf) - CAvybinft k]fkqf,
cfrvE]nftfriy matfrm[fbiEy vidayf tIrkfk]fd k]fkqf.

viqkfkmf - ('[f `MtiA[) - pfrmfm[f Mtla[ EtvrfkQkfK `nft `mirftmf,
`vrfkqf udAl cakamlf kapfpabfBmf. ;nft `rgfk[f '[fb `Mtmf '[T
~tfmaAvkf kapfpabfBmf `mirftmaKmf. (k]fd k]fkqf) - `rgfkA[kf k]fD,
`nft `mirfttfti[f CAv 'pfpFpfpdfdT '[fB `binft k]fkqf. `vA[pf
pbfbikf katalf EkdfpT mdfDEm `lflamlf, '[T kAqpfp< `A[tfTmf
nIgfKmfpF k]fd k]fkqf.

(mbfeba[fbiA[kf ka]aEv) - paEva nanfytfr kcfcti EpaEl k]fkQkfKpf
pcfAcyidfdaLmf EvebaR `rfcfcavtarmf `vtar viEcxmf ;vbfAb ;pfpF
viRmfpi Epakfyem[fB kRtaT. kadfcieyaziy EvebaR plmf ecalflavidfdT
plMmf kadfciEyyaAkyaEl. Mkftpfrapfyem[fB oR EtcvixtftiEl Epa[aLmf
stapcfynftiyiEb.

viqkfkmf - (mbfeba[fbiA[kf ka]aEv) - `{m[f ;ramay]tftilf - paEva
nanfytfr kcfcti - ;ramA[ vidfD '[T niA[va[T AvK]fdnat[idmf
Pdcf eclfvtilfAl - '[fba[f. ;T Epa[fB ;vRmf uqf qarf. mbfebaR
`rfcfcavtartfAtEya `lflT vipv `vtartfAtEya ;[i ;kfk]fkqf
viRmfpi "bfkaT. ;t[f YMlmf k]fkqf `Ady<mf pl[f '[f[ '[fpAtkf
Pbamlf, mbfb 'tA[y<mf ;nftkf k]fkqf ka]aT '[fbarf. ~k, mbfb
'tA[y<mf ka]amlf ;RpfpEt ;kfk]fkqf epbfb py[f '[fB kRtfT.
Mkftrfkqalf `AdypfpDmf py[a[ epriyepRmaAq ;vrf `{pvitfttalf,
EvB 'tA[y<mf PbvilfAl.

tmfAmcf ecalfLtlf, padfDkfK sgfkfAy ecalfLtlf ecyfyilf kArEmEl
ni[fb `lflat ~zfvarfkEqapatiyavrf. `sftamitanfy pavmamfpF `zkiEl
:DpdfDtf tmfAm mbnftarf. Enapjmf sfmrnfnitmf crIrmf '[fkibpFEy
Mkftpfrapfyma[ p<RxarftfttfAt `{pvitftaer[fAkyaEl 'lflamf `v[f
ecalfElyayfvidfdT.


viqkfkmf - mbfb ~zfvarfkAqpf Epa[fB ;vrf tmfMAdy epyArkf PBvT,
paCrtfti[f ']f]ikfAkAykf PBvT Epa[fb ecylfkAq ;vrf
ecyfyvilfAl. ~kEv mbfb ~zf varfkqf Epa[fB `rgfk[f '[fb ntiyi[f
kAryiEl ni[fB ;vrf nIradvilfAl. `nft `mirft evqfqtfti[f uqfEq MZki,
`tilf :DpdfD, `zkiym]vaq[i[f `zkilf t[fA[Ey mbnftarf. canfEtakfy
up[ixtf - Enapjmf sfmrnfnitmf crIrmf - Mkfti epbfb ~tfma, t[T
ubvi[rfkqi[f nDvilf uqfq t[T pAzy udAl niA[pfpT ;lfAl -
'[fbT. ;Et Epa[fB, ;vRmf t[fA[ mbnfT, Mkfti epbfb ~tfma `vA[
`{pvipfpT Epa[fB ni[fbarf. ~kEv ;vrf PbiyAv `A[tfTmf `vA[pf
pbfbi mdfDEm `AmnfTvidfdT.
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;pfpadfFlf kfRxf]{AdypFy<mf ;gfEk u]fed[fkibarf.

viqkfkmf - ;nftpf paCrmf YMlmf epriyepRmaqidmf k]f][i[f t[fAmkAqy<mf
ka]lamf '[fbarf.


tiRpfpa]azfvarf `Rqicfecyft `ml[atipira[f Cpmf

epriyvacfca[fpiqfAq `Rqicfecyft `ml[atipira[f
vfyakfya[mf Cpmf


tiRpfpa]azfvarf tiRvFkEq cr]mf

epriyvacfca[fpiqfAq tiRvFkEq cr]mf







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92

93


















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94


Lord of Srirangam’
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95

. ïI> .
. ïImte ramanu jay nm> .
. ïimte ingmaNt mhade izkay nm> .



II INTRO DUC TIO N NTRO DUC TIO N NTRO DUC TIO N
Muni Vaahana BhOgam is a MaNipravALa Grantham and is considered as the
28th Rahasya Grantham of Swamy Desikan.
In Muni Vaahana BhOgam, Swamy Desikan refers to ThiruppANar as the One,
who saw and enjoyed the krupA Saagaram (Ocean of Mercy), Lord
RanganAthan inside the primordial PraNavAkAra VimAnam at Srirangam.
With great pride, Swamy Desikan identified ThiruppAnar as “my PaaNan”. He
sums up the import of ThiruppANa Nathan’s prabhandham as the seed of all
fruits of VedAntham elaborated by Vedic scholars:
ேவதியர தாம விாிதeைரககம விைளoகெகலலாம
விைத ஆகம இe என¬ விளமபிேனாேம
vEdiyar taam viritthuraikkum viLaivukellAm
vidhai aahum ithu yenru viLampinOmE

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96
MM M EA NING EA NING EA NING :: :
This prabhandham is the seed for all what VedanthIs elaborate as the fruits
of BrahmOpAsanam. Swami goes onto say that the ten paasurams of
ThiruppANar as “pazha maRayin poruL” (the meaning of ancient VedAs).
Swami points out the uniqueness of this prabhandham of ThiruppANar among
all the other divya prabhandhams. He says that the AmalanaadhipirAn Sri
Sookthi is not too long (athi vistharam), not too short (athi sankOcham), does
not generate any doubts (SamsayAthi Janakathvam) or sorrow due to
separation from the Lord as Naayikai (Viraha KlEsam); there is no sending of
messengers to plead the case to unite the Jeevan with the Lord (DhUtha
prEkshaNam), no instructions to others (parOpadEsam) and criticism of the
other mathams (Para-Matha nirasanam). It is just a rich treasure of
Bhagavadh Anubhava Ghana Rasam (the rich delight arising from the total
enjoyment of the Lord's soundharyam and kalyAna guNAs). All the ten
paasurams of this AdhyAthma Prabhandham thus differ from the aruLic-
cheyalkaL of other AzhwArs according to Swami Desikan.
At the beginning of this Rahasya grantham, Swamy Desikan expresses his
desire to comment on the AmalanAdhipiran with great control of senses for
the benefit of BhaagavathOtthamAs:
िचाशित भा िवर-तोषया वटश किवः े े
मिदत मक िवलोकन मिनवाहन सकिव सिम इमाम ु ु ु ु ु ू
् ्

vyacikyASati bhaktyA virakta-tOshayA vEnkatESa kavi:
Mudita Mukunda vilOkana MunivAhana sukavi sooktim imam||
MM M EA NING EA NING EA NING :: :
The poet with the name of VenkatEsan wishes to comment with indhriya
nigraham (with rigorous control over his sense organs) on the Sri Sookthi of
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97

the great poet ThiruppANar, who traveled on the back of Loka Saaranga Muni
as his vaahanam and who was eager to enjoy the soundharyam of the Lord of
Srirangam, whose heart delights in seeing His Bhakthan.

'Srirangam Gopuram'

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98
PP PAASURAM AASURAM AASURAM 1: M 1: M 1: MUNIVAAHANA UNIVAAHANA UNIVAAHANA BB BHOGAM HOGAM HOGAM
பாவள·ம தமிழ மைறயின பயேன கண7
பாண ெப·மாள பாtயேதார பாடல பததில
காவலcம கணவcமாய கலநe நினற
காரணைனக க¬தeற நாம கணட பினt
ேகாவலcம ேகாமcம ஆனவனனாள
கரவி tணர ேகாவியர தம கறிபேப ெகாண7
ேசவeடன பிாியாத ேபைட ேபால ேசரநe
தீ விைனேயார தனிைம ெயலலாம தீரநேதாம நாேம

PaavaLarum Tamizh maRayin PayanE KaNDu
PaaNN PerumAL PaadiyathOr paadal patthil
Kaavalanum KaNavanumaai kalanthu ninRa
KaaraNanaik KarutthuRa naam kaNDa pinpu
kOvalanum kOmAnum aanavannAL
Kuravi puNar kOviyar tamm kuRippE kONDu
sEvaludan piriyAtha pEdai pOl sErnthu
thee vinaiyOr tanimai yellAm thIrnthOm naamE
MM M EA NING EA NING EA NING :: :
ThiruppAnar's dhivya prabhandham in the form of Tamizh Vedam has the
quintessence of ancient Vedams. This Prabhandham is the one sung by PaaNa
Naathan and is revered as AmalanAdhipirAn. The ten paasurams of this
Prabhandham are matchless in their glory. We have studied and etched their
meanings in our mind and comprehended the Lord as the Sarva Rakshakan, Loka
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Naayakan and Sarva KaaraNan. After that delectable experience, we have the
matchless status of the Gopis, who were united with Lord KrishNa during
RaasakrIdai and felt as the female bird that never leaves the side of its male
companion.

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PP PAASURAM AASURAM AASURAM 2: M 2: M 2: MUNIVAAHANA UNIVAAHANA UNIVAAHANA BB BHOGAM HOGAM HOGAM
ஆதி மைறெயனேவாஙகம அரஙகதeளேள
அ·ளாள·ம கடைலககணடவன என பாணான
ஓதியேதார இ·னாஙகம இரண7மான
ஒ· பதeம பறறாஹ உணரநeைரதேதாம
நீதியறியாத நிைலஅறிவாரகெகலலாம
நிைல இeேவ என¬ நிைல நாt நினேறாம
ேவதியர தாம விாிதeைரககம விைளoகெகலலாம
விைதயாகம இeெவன¬ விளமபிேனாேம

Aadhi maRaiyenavOngum ArangatthuLLE
AruLALarum kadalaikkaNDavan Yenn PaaNan
OdhiyathOr irunaankum iraNDumAna
oru patthum paRRAha uNarnthuraitthOm
neethiyaRiyAtha nilaiaRivArkkellAm
nilai ithuvE yenRu nilai naadi ninROm
Vedhiyar thAmm viritthuraikkum viLaivukkellAm
vidhaiyAhum ithuvenRu viLambinOmE
MM M EA NING EA NING EA NING : : :
In the second verse, Swami states that the work of the Azhwar as an
extraordinarily unique poem that has to be learnt, studied, explained and
meditated upon. He describes the poem as a true summary of all discourses on
the Vedas given by all learned scholars. An understanding of this poem is
tantamount to an understanding of the essentials of Vedantha. Swami claims
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that the Azhwar is his PaaNan, who has seen the Lord of Sri Rangam, the
ocean of Daya and limitless grace at HIS sanctum sanctorum and sung about
HIS greatness in ten stanzas containing the essence of the Vedas and
Vedantha.

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PP PAASURAM AASURAM AASURAM 3: M 3: M 3: MUNIVAAHANA UNIVAAHANA UNIVAAHANA BB BHOGAM HOGAM HOGAM
காணபனoம உைரபபனoம மற¬ ஒன¬ இனறிக
கணணனேய கண7ைரதe கtய காதல
பண ெப·மாள அ·ள ெசயத பாடல பதeம
பழ மைறயின ெபா·ெளன¬ பரoகினேறாம
oண ெபாிய விாி திைர நீர ைவயதeளேள
ேவதாநத வாாியன என¬ இயமபா நினேறாம
நாம ெபாிேயாம அலேலாம நாம நன¬ம தீeம
நமககைரபபார உளார என¬ நா7ேவாேம
kaaNbanavum uraippanavum maRRonRinaik-
KaNNanayE kaNDuraittha kadiya kaathal
PaNN PerumAL seytha paadal patthum
pazha maRayin poruLyenRu paravuhinROm
vENN periya viri thirai neer vyatthuLLE
VedAntha VaariyanenRiyamba ninROm
nAmm PeriyOmallOm nAmm nanRum theethum
namakkuraippAr uLarenRu naaduvOmE
MM M EA NING EA NING EA NING :: :
In the third verse, Swami Desikan offers his highest tribute to the Azhwar
and his verses. He says: “PaNN perumal is the one, who spoke only of the
supreme Brahman (Kannan) after having seen HIM (directly) as Ranganatha,
neglecting everything else as nothing to be seen or spoken of; the Azhwar had
unsurpassed devotion towards the Lord; his songs are acclaimed to be the
essence of the beginning-less Vedas (and we adore them). adiyEn (Vedantha
Desika) got the title of Vedanthaacharya from the Lord of Sri Rangam in this
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103

world, surrounded by the vast sea — it is my submission that adiyEn abhors ego
and am devoid of pride; whatever greatness is spoken of me, it is only the fruit
of the preceptor’s blessings and so adiyEn ever resorts to the great teachers
(like the Azhwaar) for their instructions on the good and evil.”
In the fourth and final verse on the Azhwar, Swami Desikan states that the
Verses known as Amalanaadhipiran are the essence of the innumerable Vedic
Texts and prays for the Azhwar’s blessings to understand their full meaning.
Swami Desikan concludes his commentary with a beautiful phalasruthi slOkam-
मिनवाहन भोगोयम मै य रसोपमः ु ु ्

कपया रनाथ बताथायत नः सदा ृ ु र ु
MunivAhana bhOgOyam muktaisvarya rasOpama:
krupayA ranganAthasya krutArthAyatu na: sadA ||
MM M EA NING EA NING EA NING : : :
This rahasya grantham (MunivAhana BhOgam) is equal in anubhavam to the
BrahmAnandha Rasam enjoyed by the Muktha Jeevans in Parama Padham. May
this make all of the readers krutha Kruthya: (the ones, who realized the
object of their desires) through the mercy of Lord RanganAthA.
In his phala sruthi on MunivAhana BhOgam, Swami Desikan hints at his
composition as equal to “muktha isvarya rasOpama:” (equivalent to the
brahmAnandham experienced by the muktha Jeevans and Nithya sUris in
Nithya VibhUthi/Sri Vaikuntam).
That is because the subject matter deals with the paripoorna anubhavam and
enjoyment of the Supreme (ParamAnandham) to the exclusion of all the other
pleasures by ThiruppANAzhwAr at the bhUloka Vaikuntam that made him
declare “amudhinaikkanda KaNNgal maRRonRinaikkANAvE”.

104
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A
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105

SS SWA M Y WA M Y WA M Y DD DESIKA N ESIKA N ESIKA N'' 'SS S SS SUM M A RY UM M A RY UM M A RY O F O F O F THE THE THE 11 1ST ST ST PA PA PA SURA M SURA M SURA M O F O F O F AA A M A LA NA A THIPIRA A N M A LA NA A THIPIRA A N M A LA NA A THIPIRA A N
Now, adiyEn will focus on Swami Sri Desikan's summary of the extraordinary
meanings embedded in the most magnificent first paasuram of
Amalanaathipiraan.
Swami Sri Desikan in his Rahasya Grantham, Muni Vaahana BhOgam, picks out
15 of the limitless auspicious attributes of Sri RanganathA and instructs us on
the high point of each of these 15 kalyANa guNAs. adiyEn will focus on this
area of the anubhavam of Swami Sri Desikan.
The fifteen gunaas for Sri Ranganathan picked out by ThiruppANar according
to Swami Desikan are:
1. Moksha Pradhathvam/samsAra VinAsanam: Conferral of Moksham and
thereby freeing us from the recurring cycles of births and deaths.
Conferral of the boon of Nithya Kaimkaryam to Him and His consort in
Paramapadham.
2. Jagath Kaaranathvam: Being fundamentally responsible for the
creation, protection and the dissolution of the Universe. Being the sole
cause of all chEthanams and achEthanams and not being supported by
any other entity or principle regarding His Jn~Anam and sakthi.
3. SaraNyathvam: Being the SaraNyan (refuge) for those, who surrender
to Him through the AchArya Mukha Prapatthi or the other three types
of prapatthi. Assuring everyone that seek Him that there is no need to
look for others to protect them.
4. UpakArathva Kaashtai: Helping His BhakthAs and coming to their
rescue without hesitation on Kshudra VyAjam (very little effort) and
making Himself the object of our enjoyment inspite of His unimaginably
lofty status as Ubhaya VibhUthi NAthan (Lord of Nithya and LeelA
vibhUthi). Even after this extraordinary help, our Lord feels that He is
indebted forever to His bhakthAs because of His inability to give even
more than what He has blessed us with (viz)., Moksham.
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106
5. KrupA Kaashtai: Unique and incomparable mercy (KaruNai) for even
those, who commit unspeakable offenses and yet saving them. This rises
from His saraNAgatha Rakhaka Vratham that led Him to say that he
will offer protection to even RaavaNA, if he sought His refuge and gave
up his ill deeds. Through the small act (kshaNa karthavyam) of
Prapatthi, He is able to give the huge boon of residence in Sri
Vaikuntam. After that granting of the boon, the Lord feels
uncomfortable still over the thought that He has nothing more to give.
6. SvAthanthrya Kaashtai: Ability to elevate those, whom He wants to
bless and protecting them in that status against anybody's efforts to
counter what He established through His sankalpam.
7. NirdhOshathva Kaashtai: Being forever blemishless (amalathvam). Even
if He has affiliation to the blemish-containing entities that cause
everyone ajn~aanam and dukkham, He does not incur any ajn~aanam or
dukkham. The classic Upanishadic passage of the two birds sitting on
the branch of the same tree with one experiencing false knowledge and
sorrows and the other not tempted by these experiences.
8. Swaamithva Kaashtai or Being the supreme Lord of every one including
Brahman, Indran and all the others.
9. Soulabhya Kaashtai: ease of access, Bhaktha Sulabhan. He permits even
those, who want to go away because of the fear of His grandeur to
approach Him comfortably.
10. Souseelya Kaashtai: Lowering Him to the level of even those, who doubt
His Lordship (Isavarathvam) and taking the trouble to answering them
and keeping them in His fold.
11. Vaathsalya Kaashtai: Out of His limitless affection for His dearest
BhakthAs, He ignores their occasional trespasses and continues to look
after their yoga KshEmam.
12. Parama PrApyathva Kaashtai: Being the sole object of attainment as
Parama PurushArtham.
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107

13. Aasritha PakshapAtha Kaashtai: Being Sarva VarNa samaanan (equal of
approach to all four VarNams), He blesses those, who seek refuge in
Him by canceling anything countering His sankalpam to protect His
BhakthAs). This arises from His predisposition (pakshapAtham) to
those, who sought His protection (aasrithAL).
14. BhOgyathva Kaashtai: Conferring the sweetness of the enjoyment of
His soundharyam.
15. ayathna BhOgyathva Kaashtai: Blessing capacity to let one enjoy Him
without the intercession of the Indriyams. His svAbhavika
anubhAvyathvam is referred to here. Just as the breeze carries the
fragrance of the flowers; He comes in an uninterruptible way and lets
our eyes enjoy His holy feet without satiety.
All these 15 kalyANa guNams are celebrated in the very first verse of
AmalanAdhipirAn Sri Sookthi according to Swami Desikan.

AzhwAr, Swami Desikan ThiruvadigaLE SaraNam
daasan, Oppiliappan Koil VaradAchAri SaThakOpan