Volume V

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Our Sincer e t hanks t o t he f ollowing f or t heir invaluable cont r ibut ions t o
t his ebook :
For host ing Sr i VishNu Sahasr a Naamam ebooks
Oppiliappan KOil Sr i Var adAchAr i SaThakOpan
Chief Edit or , Sundar asimham & AhObilavalli eBooks Ser ies
Pr oviding t he sour ce f or compiling t he document :
Mandayam Sr i K. Kr ishnaswamy
(ht t p:/ / kir t imukha.com/ chinnamma/ sahasr a/ )
Pr oviding t he Sanskr it t ext s:
Mannar gudi Sr i.Sr inivasan Nar ayanan
Cover I mage
Smt . Somalat ha of Somalat ha & Associat es, Bangalor e
(ht t p:/ / www.cksoma.in)
Sr i. V. Gangadhar (Raj u) - Ar t ist
Sr i. B. Sr inivas f or pr oviding t he cover image
f or use in t his e-book
Pr oviding t he images
Sr i. B. Sent hil (www.t hir uvaikunt avinnagar am.blogspot .com)
Sr i Mur ali Bhat t ar (www.sr ir angapankaj am.com)
Ramanuj a Dasar gaL (www.pbase.com/ svami)
Nedunt her u Sr i Mukund Sr inivasan
Exclusive Ar t wor k
Sow R. Chit r alekha of sundar asimham-ahobilavalli t eam
E-book assembly:
Smt . J ayashr ee Mur alidhar an
Sr i. Mur alidhar an Desikachar i
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CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS
SlOkam 96 1
SlOkam 97 16
SlOkam 98 37
SlOkam 99 58
SlOkam 100 71
SlOkam 101 94
SlOkam 102 115
SlOkam 103 144
SlOkam 104 161
SlOkam 105 181
SlOkam 106 202
SlOkam 107 221
vanamalee slOkam 253
phala Sr ut i 255
nigamanam 256





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4

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+ ~l-+ + ~l-+ + ~l-+
+ ~lP6 ¹lPl+ =l4 +P-+ + ~lP6 ¹lPl+ =l4 +P-+ + ~lP6 ¹lPl+ =l4 +P-+
+ ~lP6 |+¬Pl-6 Prl7 |HTl4 +P-+ + ~lP6 |+¬Pl-6 Prl7 |HTl4 +P-+ + ~lP6 |+¬Pl-6 Prl7 |HTl4 +P-+
~lP6 ~l ¹ñ¹lPl+ = Prl7 |HTl4 +P- ~lP6 ~l ¹ñ¹lPl+ = Prl7 |HTl4 +P- ~lP6 ~l ¹ñ¹lPl+ = Prl7 |HTl4 +P-
SrI vishNu sahasra nAmam SrI vishNu sahasra nAmam SrI vishNu sahasra nAmam
(Volume V) (Volume V) (Volume V)

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6









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Slokam 96 Slokam 96 Slokam 96
B+ltB+l6+6P- T|9¬- T|9¹-44-· B+ltB+l6+6P- T|9¬- T|9¹-44-· B+ltB+l6+6P- T|9¬- T|9¹-44-·
F4|F67- F4|F6T tF4|F6 F4|F6¬ T F4|F67- F4|F6T tF4|F6 F4|F6¬ T F4|F67- F4|F6T tF4|F6 F4|F6¬ Tœœ œ F4|F67|¬T-+ °°+ F4|F67|¬T-+ °°+ F4|F67|¬T-+ °°+
sanAt sanAt anat amah kapilah kapir avyayah |
svast idah svast ikr ut svast i svast ibhuk svast idakshiNah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 897. nAma 897. nAma 897. B+l6 B+l6 B+l6 sanAt sanAt sanAt
a) The Obj ect of enj oyment .
b) He Who is in t he f or m of Time.
c) He Who is Et er nal, I mmut able, and always of t he same beaut if ul For m.
sanAte namaH.
Two dist inct der ivat ions have been used t o int er pr et t he nAma. Sr I kRshNa
dat t a bhAr advAj uses t he r oot san - dAne - t o give, t o wor ship, and gives t he
def init ion - sanot i - dadAt i svadar Sanam bhakt ebhya it i sanAt - He Who gives
His dar Sanam t o His devot ees is sanAt . This is t he sense in which Sr i
BhaTTar seems t o int er pr et t he nAma.
Sr I vAsishTha int er pr et s t he nAma as meaning ' SaSvat , nit ya' - per manent ,
et er nal. The amar a koSa list s t he wor d ' sanA' as an indeclinable meaning
' per pet ually, ever ' , and gives t he def init ion - ' sanA nit ye' . The wor d
' sanAt ana' is der ived f r om t he wor d sanA.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion is: t eshAm sambhaj anAt sanAt - Because He
conf er s per f ect enj oyment on all t he mukt a-s equally, He is called sanAt .
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he meaning ' ancient ' , ' of long dur at ion' , t o t he wor d
sanAt - sanAt it i nipAt ah cir Ar t ha vacanaH - An indeclinable indicat ing a gr eat
lengt h of t ime. One of t he manif est at ions of bhagavAn is as Time. He quot es
vishNu pur ANa in suppor t :
par asya br ahmaNo r Upam pur ushaH pr at hamam dvij a |
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2
vyakt Avyakt e t at haivAnye r Upe kAlas-t at hApar am | | (VP 1.2.15)
"The f ir st f or m of par a br ahman is pur usha. The next t wo ar e vykat a and
avyakt a. Anot her is Time". J ust as He is wit hout beginning and wit hout end,
Time is also wit hout beginning and wit hout end.
c) Sr I vAsishTha gives t he descr ipt ion - sanAt nit yaH avikAr aH ekar asaH
it yar t haH - He Who is Et er nal, I mmut able, and always of t he same beaut if ul
For m. He gives r ef er ences t o t he Sr ut i in suppor t :
sanAt yuvAnamase havAmahe
Rg. 2.16.1
sanAdeva sahase j At a ugr aH
Rg. 4.20.6
A yo mahaH Sur aH sanAt anI DaH
Rg. 10.55.6.
d) Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives t he int er pr et at ion - sanam t ad- dat t t am
r asa gandhAdi at t i it i sanAt - He Who gladly accept s t he of f er ings f r om His
devot ees (one of t he meanings given by Sr I Apt e f or t he wor d ' san' is ' t o
r eceive gr aciously' ).
nAma 898. nAma 898. nAma 898. B+l6+6P- B+l6+6P- B+l6+6P- sanAt ana sanAt ana sanAt ana-- -t amaH t amaH t amaH
The Most Ancient .
sanAtana-tamAya namaH.
SanA is an indeclinable meaning ' nit ya' et c., as not ed in t he pr evious nAma. The
wor d ' sanAt ana' is der ived by applicat ion of t he pANini sUt r a 4.3.23 (Sr I
vAsishTha), t hat says t hat addit ion of t he pr at yaya her e t o a wor d having t he
sense of t ime (sanA), leads t o t he sense of ' belonging t o' . Thus, t he t er m
' sanA-t ana' has t he meaning ' belonging t o t he et er nit y or ancient t imes' . Wit h
t he addit ion of t he ' t amap' pr at yaya, t he meaning f or ' sanAt ana-t ama' is "The
Most ancient ". He was pr esent bef or e anyt hing else was pr esent , and He is
pr esent when ever yt hing else is dest r oyed dur ing t he pr alaya. So He is
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sanAt ana-t amaH.
Sr I BhaTTar comment s t hat even t hough He is ancient (pur ANa), He is always
new, and is always mor e enj oyable and f r esh, as t hough He is new and not seen
bef or e. I n bhagavAn' s case, He is ' pur A api navaH pur ANaH' . This is what is
excit ing (t ama) about His ancient nat ur e - Ageless but new. Sr I BhaTTar uses
t he t er m ' t ana' in t he nAma t o r ef er t o r Upam or f or m (t anu - Sar I r am). He
r emar ks: sadA-t anat ve' pi t adA-t anat vavat nit ya nUt ana bhogyaH - Even
t hough He has always had a body (sadA t anat vam), He looks like One who is
j ust new (t adA-t anat t vam - One who has j ust been endowed wit h a new body),
and is enj oyed as t hough He is new, and t his is why He is sanA-t ana- t amaH.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN' s int er pr et at ion suppor t s t hat of Sr I BhaTTar -
sanAt anAnAm mukt AnAm ayam at iSayena sanAt ana-t amah |
sanAt anve' pi t eshAn t adA-t anat vavat pr at I ya it ayar t haH.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr ' s pASur am, which gr aphically
capt ur es t his t hought of bhagavAn being ever new f or our enj oyment , no
mat t er how many yuga-s pass.
ep-por uLum t AnAi mar agat ak kunRam okkum
ap-pozhudait t Amar aip-pUk-kaN pAdam kai kamalam
ep-pozhudum nAl t i' ngaL ANDu Uzhi Uzhi t or um
ap-pozhudaikkappozhudu en Ar A amudamE.
(t ir uvAi. 2.5.4)
"I am sor r y I have t o r epeat what I have said bef or e. I t is because t he
exper ience I have is r ef r eshingly new ever y moment , even if I enj oy it f or
days, year s, ages, and millennia, wit hout my being sat iat ed. The inf init e
var iet y, unlike t ir ing unif or m monot ony, makes ever y moment a f r esh bliss; it is
an exper ience t hat is new always. Do not t hink t hat my new exper ience is
because I am discover ing somet hing new ever y moment because of my gr owing
int ellect . The Lor d has given me f lawless int ellect at t he ver y out set . The
exper ience of t he Lor d' s company is on an ent ir ely dif f er ent plane. He Who is
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4
t he inner soul of all, having all t hings as His aspect s, looks like a gr eenish cool
hill of beaut y, wit h eyes, f eet , hands, all like lot us f lower s t hat have f r eshly
blossomed at t his ver y moment . He is nect ar t hat is sweet er and sweet er
ever y moment , insat iable and unceasingly enj oyable". (t r anslat ion f r om v.n.
vedAnt a deSikan).
AzhvAr again r ef er s t o t his ever -new exper ience of bhagavAn in pASur am
2.6.1:
...............ennuL manni vaigum vaigal t Or um amudAya vAnERE .....
(t ir uvAi. 2.6.1)
"O My Lor d, You who ar e t he Chief of all gods, is like nect ar wit h which one
never get s sat iat ed wit h ever y new day t hat we live t hr ough".
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is t hat "He is t he Most Ancient ", since He is
t he cause of all, and older t han br ahmA and ot her s who ar e ver y ancient -
sar va kAr aNat vAt , vir i' ncyAdI nAmapi sanAt anAnAm at iSayena sanAt anat vAt
sanAt ana-t amaH.
Sr I vAsishTha gives suppor t f r om t he Sr ut i:
sanAt anam-enam-Ahur -ut AdyaH syAt -punAr -Navah |
aho-r At r e pr aj Ayet e anyo anyasya r UpayoH | |
(at har va. 10.8.23)
"Being ancient , He appear s new ever y moment , even as t he day and night
r eappear f r esh r epeat edly, one assuming t he f or m of t he ot her ".
nAma 899. nAma 899. nAma 899. T|9¬- T|9¬- T|9¬- kapilaH kapilaH kapilaH
He Who is of beaut if ul complexion.
kapilAya namaH.
We st udied t he nAma kapilAcAr ya ear lier (535 - Slokam 57). Sr I Sa' nkar a
and Sr i BhaTTar have bot h int er pr et ed t he inst ance of t he nAma in Slokam 57
as a r ef er ence t o bhagavAn' s incar nat ion as kapila, who pr opounded t he
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sAnkhya syst em of philosophy. (Sr I BhaTTar has int er pr et ed t he nAma-s
f r om 529 t o 538 in t er ms of bhagavAn' s incar nat ion as kapila, an
amSAvat Ar a). Bot h Sr I Sa' nkar a and Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et t he cur r ent
inst ance of t he nAma using it s gener ic meaning - "One Who has a beaut if ul
complexion". Thus t he punar ukt i dosham (f ault of r edundancy) is avoided.
The r oot s f r om which t he nAma can be der ived ar e: kam - kAnt au - kAnt ir -
icchA - t o desir e, or , kabR - var Ne - t o color . Thr ough t he applicat ion of t he
uNAdi sUt r a 1.55 - kameH paSca, t he ma of ' kam' or bR of ' kabR' is changed
t o pa, and t he af f ix ilac is added, leading t o kapilaH - ' One who is t awny
(r eddish) in color ' .
The r eader is r ef er r ed t o t he wr it e-up f or nAma 535 (Slokam 57) f or Sr I
BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion of t he nAma ' kapilAcAr yah' in t er ms of bhagavAn' s
incar nat ion as Sage kapila, an amSAvat Ar a. Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he f ollowing
suppor t s f or t he int er pr et at ion:
Rshim pr asUt am kapilam mahAnt am
(Svet Asvat ar a upa. 5.2)
aSvat t haH sar va vRkshANAm dava-RshI NAm ca nAr adaH |
gandhar vANAm cit r a-r at haH siddhAnAm kapilo muniH | |
(gI t A 10.26)
"Of t r ees, I am t he aSvat t ha. Of celest ial seer s, I am nAr ada. Of t he
gandhar va-s, I am cit r ar at ha. Of t he per f ect ed, I am kapila". (Lor d kRshNa' s
wor ds).
For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma kapilaH, Sr I BhaTTar gives his
int er pr et at ion in t he gener ic sense of t he t er m ' kapilaH' - "One Who is of
beaut if ul complexion". He enj oys t he nAma in t er ms of bhagavAn' s beaut if ul
bluish complexion, wit h mahA lakshmi r epr esent ed by ' spar kling st r eaks of
light ning - madhyast ha nI la t oyada vidyul- lekhoj j vala var NaH kapilaH - He is
of r adiant f or m in t he self - luminous Sr I vaikunTham, ver y much like a blue
cloud in t he midst of spar kling st r eaks of light ning.
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Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he nAma as "One Who is t awny in color ". He enj oys
t he nAma as r epr esent ing t he f or m of bhagavAn in t he f or m t he f ir e inside
t he ocean t hat keeps t he ocean f r om over f lowing - t he baDavAnala f ir e - t he
subt er r anean f ir e in t he ocean, which is called kapila. His int er pr et at ion is -
baDavAnalasya kapilo var Na it i t ad- r UpI kapilaH.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i descr ibes kapila as r ef er r ing t o a color t hat is
golden wit h a black t inge.
Sr I vAsishTha uses t he meaning ' Sun' f or t he wor d kapi - t awny in color -
pi' ngala var NaH (Recall t he int er pr et at ion of ' kapyAsam puNDar I kAksham' by
Sr I bhagavad r AmAnuj a - kam pibat i it i kapiH). Sr I vAsishTha gives t he
int er pr et at ion -kapim = sUr yam lAt i - Adat t e, sar vasya j agat aH pr avar t anAya
it i kapi-laH - He Who br ings t he Sun f or t he sust enance of ever yt hing in t his
wor ld is kapi-laH.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj uses t he meaning ' monkey' f or t he t er m ' kapi' ,
and gives t he int er pr et at ion - kapI n sugRiva hanumat AdI n lAt i sevAyAm it i
kapi-laH - He Who got sugr I va, hanuman et c., in t he line of ser vice f or Him.
nAma 900. nAma 900. nAma 900. T|9¹-44- T|9¹-44- T|9¹-44- kapir kapir kapir -- -avyayaH avyayaH avyayaH
He Who enj oys t he never -diminishing Bliss.
kapaye-avyayAya namaH.
Some int er pr et er s t r eat t his as t wo nAma-s: kapiH and avyayaH or apyayH.
I n Sr I BhaTTar ' s pATham, t he nAma is kapir -avyayaH. avyayaH means
' undiminished' . The wor d ' kam' is used wit h t he meaning ' sukham' by Sr I
BhaTTar . I n t his int er pr et at ion, t he t er m kapiH is explained as "kam pibat i,
pAt i vA kapiH - He Who exper iences Bliss, or He Who pr ot ect s t he Bliss of
His exper ience f or ot her s. He der ives t he wor d kapiH as: kam +pA = ka-piH,
using t he uNAdi sUt r a - ' sar va dhAt ubhya in' (4.117) t o der ive ' pi' f r om ' pA -
t o pr ot ect or t o dr ink' ). He explains t he nAma as -
a) svayamapi t ad-anubhava sukha nir vRt im pAt i pibat i vA kapir - avyayaH - He
pr ot ect s (pAt i) t he pleasur e of enj oyment of His Bliss f or t he mukt a-s wit hout
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7

decr ease (avayaya), or ,
b) He exper iences (pibat i) t he pleasur e of t he enj oyment of His Bliss by t he
mukt a-s wit hout decr ease (avyaya), and so He is called kapir -avyayaH.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj t r eat s ' kapir -avyayaH' as one nAma, but
int er pr et s it as a combinat ion of t wo guNa-s - kapiH and avyayaH. He explains
' kapiH' as - kaam -j alamapi pibat i sva-j anaiH sa-pr ema upahRt am it i kapiH -
He Who accept s an of f er ing f r om His devot ee, even it be only wat er , as long as
it is of f er ed wit h love and af f ect ion. He explains ' avyayaH' as "sadaiva
avyayo = nir -vikAr a it i avyayaH" - He Who is Et er nal and unchanging, is a-
vyayaH. He Who is bot h kapiH and avyayaH is kapir -avayayaH.
kapiH kapiH kapiH
i) He Who is in t he f or m of t he Sun.
ii) He Who pr ot ect ed t he Ear t h f r om t he gr eat wat er s in His var Aha
incar nat ion.
iii) He Who accept s even wat er gladly as an of f er ing when of f er ed wit h
devot ion.
kapaye namaH.
i) Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he nAma as - kam - j alam r aSmibhiH piban kapiH,
sUr yaH. He Who ' dr inks' (dr ies up) t he wat er t hr ough His r ays in t he f or m of
t he Sun, is kapiH.
ii) Alt er nat ively, Sr i Sa' nakr a gives t he explanat ion t hat t he t er m kapiH can
r ef er t o His var Aha incar nat ion:
kAt - t oyAt bhUmim apAt it i kapiH - var AhaH - He Who pr ot ect ed t he Ear t h
f r om t he gr eat wat er s
(Sr I Sa' nkar a and Sr I BhaTTar bot h int er pr et t he t er m kapiH as it occur s in
Slokam 11 - nAma 102 - vRshA-kapiH, as a r ef er ence t o var Aha). They give t he
suppor t f r om mahA bhAr at a:
kapir var AhaH Sr eshThaSca dhar maSca vRsha ucyat e |
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8
t asmAd vRshAkapim pr Aha kASyapO mAm pr aj Apat iH | |
(SAnt i par va 330.24)
"..The wor d kapi r ef er s t o "The Gr eat Boar var Aha..".
(pA means t o pr ot ect and ka means wat er , and so kapi r ef er s t o var Aha
incar nat ion wher e He pr ot ect ed t he Ear t h f r om t he wat er s).
Sr I vAsishTha gives sever al alt er nat e r oot s f r om which t he wor d ' kapiH' can
be der ived:
i) kai - Sabde - t o sound;
ii) kRR - vikshepe - t o pour out , t o scat t er ; or
iii) kan - dI pt i kAnt i gat ishu - t o shine.
Among t he int er pr et at ions he gives ar e:
1. Because bhagavAn enj oys (' dr inks' ) t he pr aise t hat is in f or m of Sabda,
He is called ka-piH st avaH Sabda r UpaH t am pibat i it i kapiH;
2. kam - j alam, pAt i = pibat i; He t hat ' dr inks' wat er , r ef er r ing t o sUr ya.
Since bhagavAn is t he ant ar yAmi f or sUr ya, He has t his nAma.
iii) Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN int er pr et s t he nAma kapiH as: t ad- sevA
r Upam kam pibat i it i ka-piH - He Who accept s wat er et c., when of f er ed as a
devot ional of f er ing by His devot ees. Recall t he Slokam
pat r am pushpam phalam t oyam yo me bhakt yA pr ayacchat i |
t ad-aham bhakt yupahRt am aSnAt i pr ayat At manaH | |
(gI t A 9.26)
"Whosoever of f er s t o Me wit h t r ue devot ion a leaf , a f lower , a f r uit or some
wat er , I accept t his of f er ing made wit h devot ion ny him who is pur e of hear t ".
aa a-- -vyayaH: vyayaH: vyayaH:
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives t he int er pr et at ion - na vyet i t eshAm
samAj At it i a-vyayah - He Who never moves away f r om His devot ees, and Who
is always wit h His devot ees.
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apyayaH apyayaH apyayaH
The t er m apyayaH is made of a pr eposit ion (upasar ga - api), and t he ver b ay -
t o go.
The pr eposit ion is used in t he sense of ' placing near or over , t aking t owar ds,
r eaching or going up t o, pr oximit y, near ness' , et c.
Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he nAma as - pr alaye asmin apiyant i j agant i it i
apyayaH - The r est ing Place f or t he Univer ses dur ing it s dissolut ion.
Sr I vAsishTha gives t he int er pr et at ion - apiyant i it i apyayaH - leeyant e asmin
bhUt Ani pr alaya kAle, at aH apyayaH it i ucyat e - He in whom all beings mer ge
at t he t ime of pr alaya, is apyayaH. We have ' t ena devAn apiyant i' in t ait t ir I ya
Upanishad - br ahmAnanda mI mAmsA - "Thr ough t hese t hey r each t he deva-s' .
Wit h t his nAma, we have r eached t he end of t he comment ar y on t he f ir st 900
nAma-s of Sr I vishNu sahasr a nAmam. J ust an obser vat ion, t hough t his might
not be signif icant - While t he number ing of t he nAma- s dif f er ed widely
bet ween t he syst ems of Sr I Sa' nkar a and Sr I BhaTTar st ar t ing ar ound nAma
69, t hey ar e beginning t o coincide st ar t ing wit h nAma 901.
nAma 901. nAma 901. nAma 901. F4|F67- F4|F67- F4|F67- svast i svast i svast i-- -daH daH daH
The Giver of Auspiciousness.
svasti-dAya namaH.
The wor d svast i is f or med f r om t he r oot ' as - bhuvi - t o be' , wit h t he addit ion
of ' su' - an upasar ga, as descr ibed by t he uNAdi sUt r a 4.180 - sAvaseH, and
is an indeclinable t hat denot es blessing. Sr I vAsishTha explains t he wor d as
' su + ast i' = svast i. svast im dadAt i it i svast i-daH - kalyANa-daH - The
Best ower of auspiciousness.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj uses t he r oot asa - gat i dI pt yAdAneshu - t o go,
t o shine, t o accept , and gives t he der ivat ion - SobhanA ast iH = gat iH ar t hAt
j ~nAnam gamanam pr Apt iH, svast iH, t Am dadAt i bhakt ebhya it i svast i-daH -
He Who best ows t he pat h f or t he at t ainment of t r ue knowledge t o t he
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devot ees.
Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as "evam mahan-ma' ngalam dadAt i it i svast i-
daH" - "I n t his way He gives supr eme auspiciousness t o all". Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an
explains t hat t he Supr eme Auspiciousness t hat is being r ef er r ed t o is br ahma
j ~nAnam t hat leads ult imat ely t o t he Bliss of Sr I vaikunTham, t hat He alone
can give. This is in line wit h t he int er pr et at ion and der ivat ion given by Sr I
bhAr advAj above. Sr I r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o AzhvAr ' s pASur am-s:
1. nammAzhvAr r ef er s t o bhagavAn as "uyar vinaiyE t ar um oN SuDar k
kaRRai" (t ir uvAi. 1.7.4) - The Beam of Light t hat gives t he supr eme
knowledge t hat leads t o t he moksha Anandam.
2. Per iAzhvAr says: "pir ama gur u Agi vandu, pOdil kamala an- ne' nj am
pugundu, en Sennit t iDar il pAda ilaccinai vait t Ar " (per iAzhvAr t ir u.
5.2.8) - "BhagavAn came as t he gur u Who per f or med br ahmopadeSam
t o me, ent er ed t he seat of t r ue knowledge in me - my mind, and set His
Feet t her e, and t his r emoved all t he f laws, def iciencies and ignor ance
in my mind".
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is: bhakt AnAm svast i ma' ngalam dadAt i it
svast i-daH - The Conf er r er of blessings on His devot ees.
Sr I vAsishTha gives an alt er nat e explanat ion - At ma dhAr aNAya - ar t hAt
j I vanAya j I vana upayogini sAdhanAni dadAt i sa, svast i-daH - He Who gives t he
necessit ies f or t he j I va-s t o sust ain t hemselves.
nAma 902. nAma 902. nAma 902. F4|F6T 6 F4|F6T 6 F4|F6T 6 svast i svast i svast i-- -kRt kRt kRt
The Doer of good t o t he devot ees.
svasti-kRte namaH.
BhagavAn gives auspicious t hings t o us (svast idaH), and t hen He gives us t he
at t it ude t hat enables us t o enj oy t his auspiciousness. I n Sr I BhaTTar ' s
int er pr et at ion, af t er giving t he br ahma j ~nAnam (svast i- daH), He t hen makes
Himself available t o t he mukt a-s t o enj oy Him and His qualit ies (svast i-kRt ).
I n Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion, bhagavAn gives auspicious t hings t o t he
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devot ees (svast i-daH), and He also does t hings t hat ar e good t o t he devot ees
(svast i-kRt ).
Sr I anant a kRshNa SAst r y adds anot her int er pr et at ion - He Who makes His
devot ees do good t hings is svast i-kRt .
Sr I cinmayAnanda uses an appr oach t hat has been used by Sr I Sa' nkar a in
many nAma-s t hat end wit h kRt , and gives an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion using t he
r oot kRt - chedane - t o cut , and explains t he nAma as One Who r obs an
individual of all bliss when t hat individual f ollows a pat h t hat is not accor ding
t o dhar ma.
nAma 903. nAma 903. nAma 903. F4|F6 F4|F6 F4|F6 svast i svast i svast i
He Who is Auspiciousness.
svastine namaH.
Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as - svayameva mahan-ma' ngalam - svast i - He
Who is Himself t he incar nat ion of auspiciousness. The Sr I vishNu sahasr a
nAma sat sangam, New Delhi, in t he t r anslat ion f or Sr I BhaTTar ' s bhAshyam,
gives t he f ollowing addit ional explanat ion: "All t he j I va-s t end t o live wit h lot
of at t achment and desir es t owar ds wor ldly pleasur es. Since t his is not r eal
enj oyment , t he Lor d blesses t he devot ees f or dir ect ing t heir desir e t owar ds
Him, and makes t hem enj oy Him". Thus, He is t he t r ue ma' ngalam f or His
devot ees..
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he int er pr et at ion - ma' ngla svar Upam At mI yam
par amAnanda lakshaNam svast i - He Whose nat ur e is Supr eme Bliss or
Auspiciousness.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an gives sever al suppor t s on t his.
en amudinaik kaNDa kaNgaL maRRonRinaik kANAvE - amalanAdipir An - My
eyes t hat have seen my Sweet Nect ar , will never move away f r om Him and see
anyt hing else again (t ir uppANAzhvAr ).
yat r a na anyat paSyat i, na anyat vij AnAt i, na anyat Sr uNot i, t ad bhUmA -
sanat kumar a - That which is auspicious or Bliss is t hat f r om which t he eyes
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can' t t ur n away, t he mind does not move away, and t he ear s can' t diver t . This
obj ect of Supr eme Bliss is all- absor bing, and t he best t hat t her e can ever be.
AzhvAr s' anubhavam of t his all-engr ossing beaut if ul Blissf ul and auspicious
f or m of bhagavAn ar e t oo numer ous t o list . Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r eminds
us t hat bhagavAn is "pavit r ANAm pavit r am" - The Pur est of t he pur e,
"ma' ngLAnAm ca ma' ngaLam" -The Most Auspicious among t he auspicious, and
"ma' ngaLam par am" - The Supr eme Bliss.
Sr I cinmayAnanda comment s t hat He is of t he Nat ur e of sat -cit -Ananda, and
t hus t her e is no cause f or inauspicious in Him.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha int er pr et s t he nAma as - su at yant am ast i it i sakala
deSa kAleshu var t at a it i svast i - He Who always exist s in t he past , pr esent
and t he f ut ur e, is svast i.
nAma 904. nAma 904. nAma 904. F4|F6¬ T F4|F6¬ T F4|F6¬ T svast i svast i svast i-- -bhuk bhuk bhuk
a) The Pr ot ect or of all t hat is auspicious.
b) The Enj oyer of Bliss.
c) He Who enables His devot ees t o enj oy bliss.
svasti-bhuje namaH.
The r oot bhuj - pAlanAbhyavahAr ayoH, has mult iple meanings: t o pr ot ect , t o
eat , t o consume, t o enj oy, t o r ule, t o gover n.
a) Sr I BhaTTar uses t he meaning ' t o pr ot ect ' , f or t he r oot bhuj , and gives t he
int er pr et at ion - sar vam et at svast i bhunakt i - pAlayat i it i svast i-bhuk. One
t r anslat or of Sr I BhaTTar ' s comment ar y elabor at es on t his: "The Lor d
pr ot ect s ever yt hing auspicious, and pr ot ect s t he devot ees. The pleasur e of
exper iencing t he Lor d in t he mind, t he ext r eme sat isf act ion t hat t he devot ees
get on t hat account , and t he ser vices t hat t he devot ees ar e induced t o
per f or m t her eby, ar e all pr eser ved and pr ot ect ed by t he Lor d".
The nir ukt i aut hor summar izes t he above t hought s t hr ough t he f ollowing:
"pAlanAt ma' ngalasya iva svast i-bhuk ca it i gamyat e" - He is sung by t he name
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svast i-bhuk because He pr ot ect s all t hat is auspicious.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN echoes t he same t hought s in his int er pr et at ion -
svast i - kalyANam bhunakt i - pAlayat i samr t RRUNAm it i svast i-bhuk.
b) c) Sr I Sa' nkar a uses t he meaning bhuj - t o enj oy, and int er pr et s t he nAma
as -
t adeva bhu' nkt a it i svast i-bhuk |
Bhakt AnAm ma' ngalam svast i bhunakt i it i vA svast i-bhuk | -
"The Enj oyer of Bliss", or "He Who enables His devot ees t o enj oy blessings".
The alt er nat e int er pr et at ion given by Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN echoes
int er pr et at ion (b) above - svayam svast i bhu' nkt e anubhavat i it i svast i-bhuk.
d) Sr I sat ya sandha t ir t ha int er pr et s t he nAma as - svast i sukham bhoj ayat i it
svast i-bhuk - One Who f eeds (best ows) sukham or happiness on His devot ees,
is svast i-bhuk.
nAma 905. nAma 905. nAma 905. F4|F67|¬T- F4|F67|¬T- F4|F67|¬T- svast i svast i svast i-- -dakshiNaH dakshiNaH dakshiNaH
He Who gives auspicious t hings as dakshiNA t o His devot ees.
svasti-dakshiNAya namH.
The r oot f r om which t he t er m dakshiNA can be der ived is daksh - vRddhau - t o
gr ow.
Sr I BhaTTar uses t he t er m ' dakshiNA' in t he sense of ' f ee' or ' gif t ' t hat is
of f er ed t o t he of f iciat ing pr iest s in r eligious cer emonies et c. He int er pr et s
t he cur r ent nAma as "One Who of f er s ' svast i' or auspiciousness as dakshiNA".
The cer emony and t he pr iest s who r eceive t he dakshiNA ar e t o be ident if ied.
Her e is Sr I BhaTTar ' s anubhavam: BhagavAn is per f or ming an et er nal, never -
ending sacr if ice, called dI r gha sat r am, in which t he ' of f iciat ing pr iest s' ar e
t he nit ya-s and t he mukt a-s (t he et er nal souls and t he liber at ed souls). The
pur pose of t his yAga of bhagavAn is t o of f er Himself t o be enj oyed by His
devot ees. BhagavAn gives Himself t o His devot ees, t he nit yas and t he mukt a-s,
as an of f er ing in t his ' sacr if ice' . I n addit ion, He gives t hem auspicious t hings
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such as a celest ial body t hat is made of Suddha sat t va mat er ial t hat never
decays or ages, and ot her power s such as Sakt i, j ~nAnam, et c. So bhagavAn is
like t he yaj amAna or mast er of t he sacr if ice who of f er s dakshiNA or f ee t o
t he pr iest s who ar e of f iciat ing in it . Hence t he nAma svast i-dakshiNaH. Sr I
BhaTTar ' s wor ds ar e: anyAdapi sva-par icar aNa anuguNam divya- Sar I r a
Sakt yAdi svast i svAt ma dAna dI r gha sat r e Rt vigbhyo deyA dakshiNA asya it i
svast i-dakshiNaH.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives an int er pr et at ion t hat is along similar lines:
"sva-nit yam dhAmAdikam kalyANa r Upat vAt svast i it i ucyat e |
sA dakshiNA sva-bhakt i-sat r a Rt vigbhyo deyam asya it i svast i-dakshiNaH".
I n t his int er pr et at ion, Sr I vaikunTham and ot her aspect s of Sr I vaikumTham
ar e r ef er r ed t o as ' svast i' because of t heir et er nal and auspicious nat ur e.
BhagavAn of f er s t hese t o t he of f iciat ing Rt vik-s in His bhakt i ya~j na as
dakshiNA or f ees, and so He is called svast i-dakshI NaH.
Anot her int er pr et at ion along similar lines, given in t he t it le "bhagavd guNa
dar paNa" published by t he Sr I vishNu sahasr a nAma sat sangam in New Delhi,
is t hat bhagavAn best ows auspicious t hings t o t hose who per f or m sacr if ices, as
t he ' f ee' , and hence He is svast i- dakshiNaH.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives a similar int er pr et at ion - svast ibhiH
ASI r bhiH dakshayat i var dhayat i svaj anAn it i svast i- dakshiNaH.
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t hr ee alt er nat e int er pr et at ions:
i) svast ir UpeNa dakshat e var dhat e - He Who gr ows t hr ough His
auspiciousness, t hat is, He Who f eels gr eat by best owing auspiciousness on
His devot ees;
ii) svast i dAt um samar t ha it i vA svast i-dakshiNaH - He Who is capable of
best owing auspiciousness (dakshiNa also means ' able, dext er ous, skillf ul' );
iii) dakshiNa Sabda Asu-kAr iNi var t at e; SI ghr am svast i dAt um ayameva
samar t ha it i svast i-dakshiNaH - Using t he meaning "One who is capable of
achieving t hings f ast " f or t he t er m ' dakshiNa", bhagavAn is called svast i-
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dakshiNaH because He alone is capable of best owing auspiciousness on His
devot ees f ast or r eadily.
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he f ollowing in suppor t :
smar Adeva devasya siddhyant i sar va siddhayaH | |
smRt e sakala kalyANa bhAj anam yat r a j Ayat e |
pur ushas-t am-aj am nit yam vr aj Ami Sar aNam har im | |
smar aNAdeva kRshNasya pApa sa' nghAt a pa' nj ar am |
Sat adhA bhedam AyAt i gir ir vaj r ahat o yat hA | |
"I always t ake r ef uge in Har i, t he Supr eme Per son, t he Unbor n, Et er nal, Who,
by j ust being r emember ed, becomes t he sour ce of all auspiciousness. By t he
mer e r emembr ance of kRshNa, t he body of accumulat ed sins ar e dest r oyed
j ust as a mount ain get s dest r oyed (br oken int o many pieces) by indr a' s
t hunder bolt ".
Sr I cinmayAnanda nicely capt ur es t he spir it of t he above: "The t er m indicat es
t hat Sr I nAr AyaNa will quickly and ef f icient ly r each His sincer e seeker s t o
give t hem t he exper ience of auspiciousness which is t he Lor d' s ver y nat ur e".
Sr I vAsishTha explains t he nAma as - svast im dakshat e var dhayat i it i svast i-
dakshiNaH - var ada-hast o ma' ngala hast a it i - He Who gr ows auspiciousness
by best owing t he desir ed boons and ot her auspicious t hings t o His devot ees, as
signif ied by His var ada-hast a or ma' ngala hast a, is svast i-dakshiNaH.






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Slokam 97 Slokam 97 Slokam 97
H¹l ã- T… '7¬l ¬4l |44¹4 |= 6HlB+-· H¹l ã- T… '7¬l ¬4l |44¹4 |= 6HlB+-· H¹l ã- T… '7¬l ¬4l |44¹4 |= 6HlB+-·
H-7l|6¬- H-7Br- |H|H¹- H4 ¹lT¹-+ °÷+ H-7l|6¬- H-7Br- |H|H¹- H4 ¹lT¹-+ °÷+ H-7l|6¬- H-7Br- |H|H¹- H4 ¹lT¹-+ °÷+
ar audr ah kuNDalI cakr I i vikr amyUr j it asAsanah |
sabdAt igah sabdasahah sisir ah sar var I kar ah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 906 nAma 906 nAma 906. H¹l ã- H¹l ã- H¹l ã- ar audr ah ar audr ah ar audr ah
He Who is not dr iven t o anger easily.
a-raudrAya namaH.
The r oot f r om which t he nAma is der ived is r udir - aSr u vimocane - t o cr y, t o
weep, t o r oar . r udr a means ' one who causes ot her s t o shed t ear ' - r odayat i it i
r udr aH. ' r audr a' means ' r udr a-like, violent , ir ascible, wr at hf ul' (Sr I Apt e' s
dict ionar y). Since bhagavAn is not a r audr a, He is called a-r audr aH.
Sr I BhaTTar not es t hat bhagavAn is gent le, agr eeable, and cool by nat ur e, and
is not ir at e, even t hough He is sar veSvar an - par ama aiSvar ye' pi guNa
SI t alimnA a-r audr aH. Hence He is called a-r audr aH. Not e t he dhyAna Slokam
st ar t ing wit h "Sant AkAr am bhuj aga Sayanam padmanAbham sur eSam,
viSvAdhAr am..".
Not e also t hat t he f ir st t r ait pr aised her e is His SAnt a AkAr am - His Peacef ul
f or m wit h a count enance t hat r adiat es kindness and war mt h. Sr i kRshNa
dat t a bhAr advAj explains t he nAma as "par ama SAnt a saumya sundar a
AkAr aH".
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an point s out t hat even t hough bhagavAn is r adiat ing
ext r eme t ej as, it does not def lect His devot ees even a bit .
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is - avApt a sar va kAmat vena r Aga dveshAdeH
abhAvAt it i a-r audr aH - Because bhagavAn is avApt a-sar va- kAman, He is
beyond desir e, anger , or any act ion t hat can cause eit her of t hese. Desir e
leads t o act ion t o at t ain t he desir ed obj ect , and when it is not at t ained, it
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leads t o anger ; or , when t he desir ed obj ect is at t ained, mor e of t he same is
desir ed, or some ot her obj ect is desir ed, and so t he cycle goes on. BhagavAn
has no desir e, hat r ed, et c., and so He is called a-r audr aH.
Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha gives an essent ially similar int er pr et at ion - r udat i
anena it i r udr am = duHkham, t aj -j anakat vena t at -sambandhit vAt r audr am =
kAma kr odhAdi duHkha sAdhanam, t at asya nAst i it i a- r audr aH - He is called
a-r audr aH because He has no associat ion wit h sor r ow t hat ar ises out of
desir e, anger , et c.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN not es t hat bhagavAn is t he exact opposit e of
r audr am - Ananda pURnAt vAt a-r audr aH pr asanna mUr t iH - He is t he
embodiment of Per f ect Bliss.
nAma 907. nAma 907. nAma 907. T… '7¬l T… '7¬l T… '7¬l kuNDalI kuNDalI kuNDalI
He Who is bedecked wit h beaut if ul ear -r ings.
kuNDaline namaH.
The t er m kuNDalam r ef er s t o t he ear -r ing, or t he decor at ion wor n f or t he ear
(kar NikA t Ala pat r am syAt kuNDalam kar ma veshTanam) (amar a. 2.103).
Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma as "yat hocit a nit ya divya bhUshNaH
kuNDalee" - He Who is appr opr iat ely bedecked wit h celest ial or nament s
bef it t ing His body and His st at us.
Thus, Sr I BhaTTar t akes t he kuNDala as one r epr esent at ion of all inf init e
auspicious or nament s. Lit er ally, "One Who is ador ned wit h beaut if ul ear -r ings,
t he kUNDala-s, is kuNDalee", since bhagavAn is ador ned wit h makar a
kuNDalam, or ear -r ings t hat ar e shaped like f ish.
I n his Sar aNAgat i gadyam, Bhagavd r AmAnuj a descr ibes bhagavAn as
"nir at iSaya auj valya kir I Ta makuTa cUDAvat amsa makar a kuNDala gr aiveyaka
hAr a keyUr a kaTaka Sr I vat sa kaust ubha mukt AdAmodar a pI t Ambar a
kA' ncI guNa nUpur Adi apar imit a divya bhUshaNa!" - One Who is ador ned wit h
wonder f ully splendor ous Cr own bear ing t he cent r al diadem of lust r ous st one,
ot her head or nament s, ear or nament s, necklaces and ot her or nament s f or t he
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neck, gar lands, shoulder -br acelet s, br acelet s in t he hands, Sr I vat sa and
kaust ubha, pear l gar lands, waist or nament s, lace clot hes, gold waist band, leg
or nament s and ot her pr ecious and innumer able ot her j ewels.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr ' s descr ipt ion of His makar a
kuNDalam in t ir uvAimozhi pASur am-s 7.3.10 and 8.8.1:
1. makar a neDum kuzhaik kAdan mAyan (7.3.10) - This mAyan has
beaut if ul, long ear pendant s t hat ar e shaped in t he f or m of f ish.
2. ilagu vilagu makar a kuNDalat t an (8.8.1)- He Who has shining f ish-shaped
ear or nament s t hat ar e dangling back and f or t h beaut if ully while shining
lust r ously.
3. makar am SEr kuzhai ir u pADu ila' ngi ADa - (t ir uneDum t ANDakam 21 -
t ir uma' ngai AzhvAr ) - Wit h t he shining f ish-shaped ear pendant s
dangling f r om bot h ear s.
The t er m kuNDalee also r ef er s t o a ' ser pent ' - kuNDalAkAr am vapuH asya it i
kuNDalee - t hat which has a coiling body (amar a koSa vyAkhyAnam). Sr I
Sa' nkar a uses t his def init ion f or t he wor d ' kuNDala' , and gives t he meaning t o
t he nAma as "Sesha r Upa bhAk kuNDalee" - One Who is in t he f or m of t he
ser pent Sesha. He gives an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion t hat uses t he meaning
' ear -or nament ' f or t he wor d ' kuNDala' :
Since bhagavAn has ear -r ings t hat ar e br ight like t he Sun, or since He has
f ish-shaped ear pendant s r epr esent ing sAmkhya and yoga SAst r a-s, He is
called kuNDalee.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives t he suppor t f or t his int er pr et at ion f r om
Sr I mad bhAgavat am:
bibhar t i sA' nkhyam yogam ca devo makar a kuNDale |
maulim padam pAr ameshThyam sar valokAbhaya' nkar am | |
(bhAga. 12.11.12)
"The Supr eme Deit y wear s t he sA' nkhya and yoga as His t wo makar a kuNDala-
s and t he whole br ahma lokam as His cr own".
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Sr I vAsishTha indicat es t he r oot s f or t he nAma as kuDi - dAhe - t o bur n, or
kuDi -r akshaNe - t o pr ot ect . He uses t he uNAdi sUt r a 1.104 - kalas-t RpaSca,
t o add t he af f ix kala (ala) t o kuND, t hat r esult s in ' kuNDala' . He gives t he
der ivat ion: kuNDalam dAho r akshaNam vA, sa asya ast i it i kuNDalI - That
which has t he pr oper t y or guNa of bur ning or dest r uct ion (dAhaH - dahanam),
or pr ot ect ion (r akshNam) is kuNDala;
Sr I vAsishTha suggest s t hat t his r ef er s t o t he sun, f ir e et c.; since bhagavAn
is t heir Cr eat or , He is kuNDalee.
The explanat ion can also be given t hat since bhagavAn is t he One who has t he
guNa of dest r uct ion as well as pr ot ect ion, (and cr eat ion), He has t he guNa of
' kuNDala' - (dest r uct ion and pr ot ect ion), and so He is kuNDalee.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha explains t he nAma as - makar akuNDalvAn kuNDalee,
and Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha gives t he int er pr et at ion - kuNDalam dahanam
Sat r UNAm asmAt bhavat i it kuNDalee - He Who dest r oys His enemies, is
kuNDalee.
nAma 908. nAma 908. nAma 908. ¬4l ¬4l ¬4l cakr I cakr I cakr I
One wit h t he Discus in His ar m.
cakriNe namaH.
The nAma occur s also in Slokam 107 (nAma 995). (nAma 417 - sudar SanaH, is
r elat ed).
Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as - "t AdRSa divyAyudhaH cakr I " - He Who
has divine weapons also of like nat ur e (in t he cont ext of t he pr evious nAma -
kuNDalee).
Sr I BhaTTar elabor at es f ur t her on t he gr and enhancement of bhagavAn' s
beaut y wit h t he divine weapons (nAma 905), and also t he r ef lect ion of His
r akshakat t vam - His nat ur e of pr ot ect ing His devot ees, when he comment s on
t he same nAma in Slokam 107 - nAma 995:
"nit ya sudar SanaH | svabhRt yasur a pr at ibhaTa r akshaH asur a SONit a
kalmAshit a j vAlA' ncit am cakr amapi t at hiva it i cakr I "
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BhagavAn is ever ar med wit h t he Discus known as sudar Sana. The cakr a is
smear ed wit h t he blood of t he asur a-s who ar e t he swor n enemies of t he gods
t hat ar e His devout ser vant s. The cakr a is also ador ned wit h t he f lames of
f ir e t hat ar e shoot ing out of it .
"BhagavAn is called cakr I because He has it as one of His weapons".
Not e t hat Sr I BhaTTar avoids t he punar ukt i dosham by int er pr et ing t he nAma
cakr I in t he cur r ent inst ance as a mar k of His divine or nament , and in Slokam
107 (nAma 995), he int er pr et s t he same nAma - cakr I , as One Who bear s t his
weapon t o dest r oy His enemies - as a r ef lect ion of His r akshakat t vam.

cakr iNe namaH.
namper umAL (Cour t esy: Sr i Mur ali BhaTTar )
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NammAzhvAr pr aises and enj oys t he guNa of bhagavAn as t he Pr ot ect or
(r akshakat t vam) - ' kAkkum iyalvinan' - One Whose nat ur e is pr ot ect ion -
(t ir uvAimozhi 2.2.9).
We have bhagavad r AmAnuj a descr ibing t he divine Ayudha-s of bhagavAn in
his Sar aNAgat i gadyam:
"svAnur Upa acint ya Sakt i Sa' nkha cakr a gadA' si Sar ' ngAdi asan' khyeya nit ya
nir avadya nir at iSaya kalyANa divyAyudha!"
"You, My Lor d, bear t he var ious weapons of par - excellent power s, and wor t hy
of You alone, such as t he Conch, t he Discus, t he Mace, t he Swor d, t he Bow, and
such ot her innumer able auspicious divine weapons exceeding all ot her s in power
and f or ce".
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an gives sever al r ef er ences t o divya pr abandham: -
nammAzhvAr descr ibes His always bear ing t he cakr a in r eadiness t o help His
devot ees -
eppOdum kai kazhalA nEmiyAn nam mEl vinai kaDivAn (per iya t ir uvant Adi 87).
The cakr a in His hand ser ves mult iple pur poses: I t is an ador nment f or Him; it
is also t her e ever r eady t o dest r oy anyone who hur t s His devot ees.
Azhiyum Sa' ngum SumappAr (t ir uvAi. 8.3.3) - He Who car r ies t he Discus and
t he Conch in His hands.
kUr Ar Azhi veN Sa' ngu Endik koDiyEn pAl vAr Ay (t ir uvAi. 6.9.1)
nAngu t OLan kuni SAr ' ngan oN Sa' ngu gadai vAL AzhiyAn (t ir uvAi. 8.8.1) - He
wit h f our ar ms, wit h t he beaut if ul weapons (SA' r nga or t he bow, Sa' nkha - t he
Conch, gadA - t he mace, khaDga - t he swor d, and cakr a - t he Discus).
PadmanAbhan kaiyil Azhi pOl minni valam pur i pOl ninRu adir ndu - t ir uppAvai.
t aDavar ait t OL cakr apANi - (Per iAzhvAr t ir umozhi 5.4.4) - The br oad-
shoulder ed One bear ing t he cakr a in His hand.
I n his upanyAsam on Sr I vishNu shasr a nAmam, Sr I velukkuDi kRshNan point s
out t hat t he cakr a is a dist inguishing mar k of emper umAn, and r ef er s us t o
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nammAzhvAr - (Ser u oN Sakkar am Sa' ngu aDaiyALam t ir undak kaNDE)
(t ir uvAi. 6.1.7).
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives sever al addit ional r ef er ences:
1. sudar Sanam cakr am asahya t ej aH (Sr I mad bhAga. 8.20.30) - The
sudar Sana Discus wit h it s int ense br illiance.
2. Sa' nkha cakr a dhar o har iH (r AmAyaNam 1.45.22) - Lor d vishNu who
bear s t he Conch and t he Discus)
3. namast e car ka hast Aya (VishNu pur ANam 5.30.22) - Obeisance t o
Lor d wit h t he Discus in His hand.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i comment s t hat bhagavAn used t his cakr a of His
dur ing t he pr ot ect ion of gaj endr a, and dur ing His kRshNa incar nat ion mor e
t han once.
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is: "samast a loka r akshaNAr t ham manas-
t at t vAt makam sudar SanAkhyam cakr am dhat t a it i cakr I " - He holds in His
hand t he cakr a called sudar Sana, which r epr esent s t he pr inciple of manas or
mind, f or t he pur pose of pr ot ect ing all t he wor lds.
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives suppor t f r om vishNu pur ANa:
cala svar Upam at yant am j avenAnt ar it Anilam |
cakr a svar Upam ca mano dhat t e vishNu kar e st hit am | | (VP 1.22.70)
"vishNu holds in His hand t he cakr a which r epr esent s t he mind t hat is
unst eady, and which is swif t er t han t he wind". The sudar Sana cakr a in His
hand is always r ot at ing and r eady t o be dischar ged at anyone who causes
obst acles t o His devot ee, and so it is equat ed t o being ' unst eady' in t his
t r anslat ion.
An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion given by Sr I Sa' nkar a f or t he inst ance of t his
nAma under Slokam 107 is t hat bhagavAn is t he Wielder of t he cakr a of
samsAr a f or ever yone, and so He is cakr I in t his sense as well - samsAr a
cakr am asya A~j nayA par ivar t at a it i vA.
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The wor d ' cakr a' also means ' ar my' - (var Ut hinI balam sainyam cakr am.. amar a
koSa 2.8.78); cakat e hant i par abalam it i cakr am (amar akoSa vyAkhyAnam).
Sr I baladeva vidyAbhUshaN uses t his meaning and gives t he f ollowing
int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma: cakr am apar imit am sainyam asya ast i it i cakr I -
He Who has an unlimit ed ar my at His disposal is cakr I .
nAma 909. nAma 909. nAma 909. |44Pl |44Pl |44Pl vikr amI vikr amI vikr amI
a) He Who has pr owess.
b) He wit h t he char act er ist ic st r ide (in His t r i- vikr ama incar nat ion).
c) He Who has no dif f er ence in His dif f er ent incar nat ions.
d) He Who has a dist inguishing r ole - t hat of pr ot ect ion.
vikramiNe namaH.
We had t his nAma in Slokam 9 (nAma 76). The wor d ' vikr ama' means ' valor ' ,
as well as ' a pace, st r ide' (Sr I Apt e' s dict ionar y).
a) For nAma 76, Sr I BhaTTar uses t he f ir st meaning above, and comment s t hat
bhagavAn is called vikr amI because it is His nat ur e t o dispel any possibilit y of
anyt hing going against His desir e or will - icchA pr at ihant R pr asakt i par ipant hi
svabhAvam (asya it i) vikr amI .
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan explains t hat bhagavAn has t he ' viSesha
kr amam' t hat He will eliminat e any obst r uct ion t o His Will, and so He is called
vi-kr amI .
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan r ef er s us t o Lor d r Ama' s declar at ion t o sugr I va, t hat
He will eliminat e any f oe wit h t he t ip of His f inger , if only He so wishes:
piSAcAn dAnavAn yakshAn pRt hivyAm caiva r AkshasAn |
a' ngulya mAt r eNa t An hanyAm icchan har igaNeSvar a | |
"O King of vAnar a-s! I f only I so desir e, I can eliminat e any of t he beings, be it
a piSAca (devilish being), asur a, yaksha, or r Akshasa, wit h t he t ip of My
f inger ".
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Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an not es t hat t he whole of t ir uvAimozhi 5.10 speaks of
bhagavAn' s vikr amam. Some examples ar e given below:
piRandavARum vaLar ndavARum per iya bhAr at am kai Seidu,
aivar kkut t ir a' ngaL kATTi iTTuc ceidu pOna mAya' ngaLum.. (5.10.1)
"How You wer e bor n, what all You suf f er ed, what mir acles You wr ought , how
You gr ew up wit h mischief -s, how you killed Your f oes spor t ively, how You
cont r ived t o conduct a bat t le showing Your def t ness in suppor t of pANDava-s,
t he many episodes t hat You enact ed t hat pass one' s under st anding.."
vaduvai vAr t aiyuL ERu pAindadum mAya mAvinai vAi piLandadum . (5.10.2)
"To win nappinnai in mar r iage, You j umped on t he seven bulls and slew t hem.
As a boy, You slew bakAsur a by split t ing open his mout h.
peyyum pUm kuzhal pEy mulai uNDa pI LLait t eRRamum pEr ndu Or
SADiRac ceyya pAdam onRAl Seida nin Sir uc cevagamum .. (5.10.3)
"You beaut if ully got r id of pUt aNA who t r ied t o t r ick You by decor at ing
her self like a well-meaning mot her , by sucking t he lif e out of her poisoned
br east ; Your one r ed f oot achieved a small f eat by dest r oying t he SakaTAsur a
who t ook t he f or m of a wheel in a t oy car t , by a mer e kick at t he wheel".
b) For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma, Sr I BhaTTar gives t he
int er pr et at ion - gAmbhI r yAnukUla vilAsaH vikr amI - He whose act ions ar e
f ascinat ing and bef it t ing His her oic nat ur e.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o per iAzhvAr ' s emot ional r ecollect ion of
bhagavAn' s vikr amam:- unnuDaiya vikkir amam onRu ozhiyAmal ellAm ennuDaiya
ne' nj agam pAl Suvar vashi ezhudikkoNDEn (per iAzhvAr t ir u. 5.4.6) - "My Lor d!
J ust like t he pict ur es t hat ar e dr awn on a wall and t hat ar e ver y clear ly visible
t o t he eye, I have wr it t en all Your her oic leelA-s in my mind wit hout leaving out
anyt hing".
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan Sr I r a' ngar AmAnuj a mahAdeSikan explains
t he nAma as a r ef er ence t o t he ' vikr ama gat i' - t he walk t hat is consist ent
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wit h His valor and her oism. He r ef er s us t o ANDAL, who descr ibes His
maj est ic walk or vikr ama (st r ide) r esembling t hat of a lion t hat is j ust coming
out of it s cave and sur veying it s sur r oundings wit h it s aut hor it at ive maj est y:
mAr I malai muzha' ngil mannik kiDant u uRa' ngum
SI r iya Si' ngam aRivuRRut t I vizhit t u
vEr i mayir po' nga eppADum pOr ndu udaRi
mUr i nimir ndu muzha' ngip puRappaTTu
pOdar umA pOlE nI pUvai pU vaNNA!
(t ir uppAvai 23)
Sr I vAsishTha indicat es t he der ivat ion of t he nAma f r om t he r oot kr am -
pAda vikshepe - t o walk, t o st ep. viSishTaH kr ama it i vikr amaH; sa asya ast i it i
vikr amI , or , vishTam kr amaNam asya ast i it i vikr amI - He Who has t he
dist inguishing st r ide is vikr amI .
Sr I vAsishTha gives r ef er ence t o t he Rg vedic mant r a-s, which descr ibe t he
t r i-vikr ama incar nat ion:
idam vishNur vicakr ame t r edhA nidadhe padam |
sa-mUdhAmasya pAgm sur e | |
(Rg. 1.22.17)
yasyor ushu t r ishu vikr amaNeshu adhikshiyant i bhuvanAni viSvA
(Rg. 1.154.2)
He wit hin whose t hr ee wide-ext ended paces all living cr eat ur es have t heir
habit at ion - r ef er r ing t o His t r ivikr ama incar nat ion.
Sr I Sa' nkar a uses t he meaning ' pAda vikshepa - st r ide' , as well as bhagavAn' s
pr owess, in his int er pr et at ion: vikr amaH pAda vikshepaH Saur yam vA, dvayam
ca aSeshapur ushebhyo vilakshaNam asya ast i it i vikr amI - He Who is endowed
wit h t he unique movement of His Feet , or Who is endowed wit h pr owess;
t hese t wo being so unique t o Him as compar ed t o all ot her beings, He is called
vikr amI ".
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I n his Sar aNAgat i gadyam, bhagavad r AmAnua list s a ser ies of bhagavAn' s
kalyANa guNa-s, including Saur yam - vikr amam, which ar e all used by Him f or
t he benef it of His devot ees.
"svAbhhAvika anavat ikAt iSaya j ~nAna bala aiSvar ya vI r ya Sakt i
t ej as sauSI lya vAt salya mAr dava Ar j ava sauhAr da sAmya kAr uNya
mAdhur ya gAmbhI r ya audAr ya cAt ur ya st hair ya dhair ya saur ya par Akr ama
sat aya kAma sat ya sankalap kRt it va kRt a~j nat Adi asankhyeya kalyANa
guna gaNaugha mahAr Nava! "
"You ar e t he Ocean unt o which f low r iver s of limit less excellent vir t ues, all
nat ur al t o You, and usef ul f or t he pr ot ect ion of t he devot ees. These include:
1. All knowledge,
2. might y Ruler ship of t he wor lds,
3. Unt ir ing vir ilit y,
4. Power t o act wit hout any out side help;
5. Kind disposit ion,
6. Af f ect ionat e t ender ness,
7. Gent leness,
8. Tr ut hf ulness in speech, mind and body,
9. Fr iendliness,
10. Feeling of equalit y,
11. Mer cif ulness,
12. Sweet ness,
13. Nobilit y,
14. Gener osit y,
15. Quickeness t o r espond t o t he miser ies of t he devot ees,
16. Fir mness in r esolve t o pr ot ect t he devot ees,
17. Undaunt ed cour age t o br ing succour t o t hem,
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18. Cour age t o f ight f or t he devot ees,
19. Abilit y t o f ight t he enemies wit hin t heir own camp;
20. Having Your Will ever f ulf illed,
21. Having Your commands ever ir r esist ible,
Your deeds f ully execut ed,
Always r emember ing wit h gr at it ude even a lit t le wor ship done t o You.".
Sr I velukkuDi kRshNan enj oys t he nAma in t er ms of bhagavAn' s act of
best owing His blessings on His devot ees wit hout any limit or r est r aint .
BhagavAn best ows His blessings on His devot ees wit hout t heir asking, wit hout
any limit , wit hout even t hinking t hat He is best owing t hese blessings on t he
devot ee, and wit hout put t ing any limit s or quest ioning His act ions in t his
r espect . He is like an ocean in t his r espect - t he ocean is ver y deep,
immeasur able in it s dept h or br eadt h, and cont ains t r easur es t hat cannot be
measur ed. So also, bhagavAn' s desir e t o best ow His blessings on His devot ees
is immeasur able and unr est r ained (vikr ama).
c) Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha gives anot her anubhavam - he int er pr et s t he t er m
' kr ama' as ' t Ar at amya' or ' st epwise dif f er ences' . The pr ef ix vi- gives a
negat ive sense, and so vi-kr amaH is "One Who does not have dif f er ences
(bet ween His var ious incar nat ions)": kr amaH t Ar at amyam asya ast i it i kr amI ;
na kr amI vi-kr amI sva avat Ar eshu t Ar at amya r ahit a it i vi-kr amI .
SvAmi deSikan descr ibes t he avat Ar a r ahasyam of emper umAn in his
Sar aNAgat i dI pikA (Slokam 17), emphasizing t hat in all of bhagavAn' s
incar nat ions, He has all t he qualit ies t hat ar e unique t o Him as t he Supr eme
Deit y in f ull per f ect ion, and t hey ar e in no way diminished j ust by His
assuming t he f or m of a human or a boar et c.
d) Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha gives yet anot her int er pr et at ion - he int er pr et s
' kr ama' as ' occupat ion' or ' f unct ion' , and gives t he meaning "He Who has a
dist inguishing occupat ion or f unct ion is vikr amI " - viSishTaH kr amaH
vyApAr aH vikr amaH. As t he Lor d of all, I t is bhagavAn' s r ole t o const ant ly
look af t er His cr eat ion, which is His unique concer n.
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nAma 910. nAma 910. nAma 910. 7|= 6HlB+- 7|= 6HlB+- 7|= 6HlB+- Ur j it a Ur j it a Ur j it a-- -SAsanaH SAsanaH SAsanaH
He of inviolable commands.
Urjita-SAsanAya namaH.
Sr I vAsishTha der ives t he t er m Ur j it a f r om t he r oot Ur j - bala pr ANanayoH
- t o st r engt hen, t o live, and gives t he meaning ' balavat ' or ' endowed wit h
st r engt h' t o t he wor d "Ur j it a". He der ives t he wor d SasanaH f r om t he r oot
"SAs - anuSishTau - t o t each, t o inf or m, t o gover n, t o cor r ect , t o advise. Thus
` Ur j it a-SAsanaH" would mean "One Who gover ns wit h f or cef ul ef f ect iveness"
- balavat anuSAsanam = A~j nAnuvar t anam yasya sa Ur j it aSAsanaH vishNuH
anat ikr amaNI ya niyamaH - He Whose or der cannot be t r ansgr essed or
violat ed.
Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion is - vir i' nci pur andar Adi alanghyA~j naH Ur j it a-
SAsanaH - He Whose commands cannot be disobeyed even by br ahmA, indr a,
and ot her s.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives an essent ially similar explanat ion - vidhi
r udr Adi ala' nghya A~j nat vAt Ur j it a-SAsanaH.
I n his t ir uvASir iyam-3, nammAzhvAr r ef er s t o emper umAn as ' ANai mei peRa
naDAya daivam' - The Lor d Whose commands ar e f ulf illed wit hout obst r uct ion
(r ef er ence by Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an).
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan r ef er s us t o t ir umazhiSai AzhvAr - por u kaDal nI r
vaNNan ugaikkumEl, et -t Evar vAlATTum? (nAnmugan t ir uvant Adi 38) - Not a
single one among all t he deit ies can as much as lif t a f inger against bhagavAn' s
Will.
The t ait t ir I ya upanishad declar es:
bHiSAsmAd vAt aH pavat e;
bhI shodet i sUr yaH;
bhI sAdagniScendr aSca;
mRt yur -dhAvt i pa' ncama it i
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"The wind blows out of f ear of Him. For f ear of Him does t he Sun r ise. For
f ear of Him do agni and indr a f unct ion. Out of f ear of Him, does deat h, t he
f if t h one, r un".
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives suppor t f r om bRhadAr aNyaka Upanishad:
et asya vA akshar asya pr aSAsane gAr gi
sUr ya candr amasau vidhRt au t ishThat aH |
et asya vA akshar asya pr aSAsane gAr gi
gAr gi dyAvApr t hivyau vidhRt e t ishThat aH |
"yA~j navalkya said: O gAr gi under t he might y r ule of t his immut able Br ahman,
t he Sun and t he moon ar e held in t heir posit ions. Under t he might y r ule of t his
Br ahman, heaven and ear t h in t heir posit ions..."
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives anot her dimension t o t he anubhavam of t he power of His
commands - in t he f or m of Sr ut i and smr t i-s - "Sr ut i smRt i lakshaNam Ur j it am
SAsanam asya it i Ur j it a-SAsanaH - He of power f ul commands in t he f or m of
Sr ut i and smRt i. Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he f ollowing suppor t :
Sr ut i smRt I mamaivA~j ne yast e ulla' nghya var t at e |
A~j nAc-cchedI mama dveshI mad-bhakt o' pi na vaishNavaH | |
The Lor d has said: "The Sr ut i and smRt i ar e My commands. He who over r ides
t hem is a violat or of Law and My enemy. Such a per son, t hough he may pr of ess
t o be My devot ee, is not a t r ue VaishNava (wor shipper of vishNu)".
Sr I cinmayAnanda asser t s t he inviolabilit y of bhagavAn' s Laws - "I t per mit s no
except ions, accept s no excuses, admit s no cir cumst ant ial condit ions".
nAma 911. nAma 911. nAma 911. H-7l|6¬- H-7l|6¬- H-7l|6¬- SabdAt igaH SabdAt igaH SabdAt igaH
He Who is beyond wor ds.
SabdAtigAya namaH.
Sr I vAsishTha explains t he nAma as "Sabdam at igacchat i = vAcam at ikr amya
var t at e it i ` SabdAt igaH".
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Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is t hat His Glor y is such t hat even t he t housand-
t ongued AdiSesha, or t he veda-s wit h all t heir innumer able br anches, or even
Goddess sar asvat i her self , will be unable t o descr ibe t hem t hr ough wor ds -
anant a j ihvena anant ena, anant a SAkhaiH AmnAyaiH sAkshAt sar svat yA ca
dur udAr aha mahimA SabdAt igaH.
He is One of anant a kalyANa guNa-s - f ull of inf init e auspicious qualit ies. We
not e t he t housand guNa-s t hat ar e ext olled by Sr I BhI shma in our Sr I vishNu
sahasr a nAma st ot r am, ar e j ust a small collect ion of examples of His kalyAna
guNa- s. AzhvAr s sing t his aspect of bhagavAn over and over again.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an gives t he f ollowing examples:
t an muDivu onRu illAda t aN t uzhAi mAlaiyanai Sol muDivu kANEn nAn
Solluvadu en? SollI r E?
(nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi 2.5.8)
"His Power , beaut y, qualit y, splendor , f eat s, et c., have no end. The t ulasi
gar land ar ound His neck is pr oof of His over lor dship. How can I descr ibe in
wor ds what I have enj oyed? I f any of you t hink you can descr ibe His
gr eat ness, t r y it ".
t E nI r kamalak kaNgaLum vandu en Sindai nir aindavA! t U nI r k kaDaluL
t uyilvAnE endAi Solla mATTEnE!
(t ir uvAi. 8.5.4)
"You have f illed my mind wit h Your capt ivat ing, honey-exuding, wat er y, kindly
lot us eyes. I r ecall wit h glee Your lying in sleep in t he middle of t he Milky
Ocean. Oh My Lor d! I t is not enough t hat I have t he ment al exper ience; I will
not be able t o put in all in wor ds her e".
The Sr ut i it self declar es about Him: "yat o vAco nivar t ant e; apr Apya manasA
saha" (t ait t ir I ya upanishad 2.3) - "Wor ds t ur n back wit hout being able t o
descr ibe Him; The mind also cannot r each Him".
Sr I Sa' nkar a also explains t he nAma as One Who t r anscends speech, because
He is not of a species t hat can be descr ibed by wor ds - Sabda pr avRt t i
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het unAm j At yAdI nAm asambhavAt Sabdena vakt um aSakyat vAt SabdAt igaH.
He r ef er s us t o t he t ait t ir I ya upanishad passage 2.3 quot ed above, and also t o
t he f ollowing f r om vishNu pur ANam - na Sabda gocar o yasya yogi dhyeyam
par am padam (VP 1.17.22) - "His Supr eme Abode t r anscends speech, and is
medit at ed upon by yogin-s".
Sr I cinmayAnanda explains t hat t he veda-s only ' point t o t he Tr ut h' , but
cannot explain, or even def ine t he t r ut h. The I nf init e and Et er nal Tr ut h is
beyond even t he veda-s, beyond all t hat can be gained even t hr ough t he
highest f acult ies of t he f init e equipment s (mind and int ellect ).
Sr I BhaTTar descr ibes nAma-s 912 t o 945 t hat f ollow, in t er ms of t he
gaj endr a episode (gaj endr a mokshaNam).
nAma 912. nAma 912. nAma 912. H-7Br- H-7Br- H-7Br- Sabda Sabda Sabda-- -sahaH sahaH sahaH
He Who shoulder s t he bur den of t he wor ds of cr y of dist r ess.
Sabda-sahAya namaH.
The wor d Sabda is der ived f r om t he r oot Sap - Akr oSe - t o cur se, t o wear , t o
blame, and t he use of t he uNAdi sUt r a 4.97 - SASapibhyAm dadanau - The
af f ix dan comes af t er t he r oot r oot s Sap - t o cur se, wit h t he meaning Sabda -
noise. The t er m saha is der ived f r om t he r oot sah - mar shaNe - t o f or ebear .
Sr I BhaTTar r elat es t he nAma t o t he cr y of help f r om gaj endr a; since
bhagavAn bear s t he r esponsibilit y of pr ot ect ing even animals which may
incoher ent ly cr y f or help, He is called Sabda-sahaH - aspashTa SabdAnAm
t ir aScAmapi Ar t a-Sabdam at i-bhAr amiva sahat e it i Sabda- sahaH. Ar t a
r ef er s t o one who is in dist r ess or pain. BhAr at vena sahat i it i sahaH - He
t r eat s t he cr y f or help f r om t he Ar t a j ust like car r ying a maj or r esponsibilit y
or load. When bhagavAn hear d t he cr y of gaj endr a f or help, t he cr y of
"AdimUlam", it immediat ely evoked a sense or ur gency on t he par t of bhagavAn
t o help t he wounded animal, and He lef t Sr I vaikunTham in a ver y gr eat hur r y
t o help gaj endr a. BhagavAn not ed t hat t hat t he elephant had a f lower in it s
hand, and He ponder ed over it s devot ion, and t his was enough f or Him t o
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consider it a maj or r esponsibilit y of His t o immediat ely r ush t o pr ot ect t he
elephant . ' Sabdam' can r ef er t o bot h good and bad wor ds.
Sr I vAsishTha t akes t he wor d her e t o r ef er t o ' abusive wor ds' , and explains
t hat t he nAma signif ies t hat bhagavAn put s up wit h even abusive wor ds f r om
His enemies, because He is f ull of pat ience - kshamA vibhUshA sakalasya
loke, sar vam kshamAvAn sahat e kshmAyAm.
So his int er pr et at ion is t hat it is bhagavAn' s kshamA or pat ience t hat is r eally
spoken of t hr ough His nAma ' Sabda-sahaH' . Not e t hat Lor d r Ama is
descr ibed as kshamayA pRt hivI samaH - "I n pat ience, Lor d r Ama is like
Mot her Ear t h".
Sr I vAsishTha not es t hat t his same guNa t r ansf er s t o t hose who ar e
wor shipper s of Lor d vishNu - t hey ar e kshamA-vAn-s, t hose endowed wit h a
pr edominance of sAt t vic t endency.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha gives t he example of bhagavAn put t ing up wit h t he
insult s of Sage bhRgu - bhRgvAdi bhakt a kRt a t ar j ana r Upa Sabdam sahat a it i
Sabda-sahaH.
Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he nAma as - sar ve vedAH t At par yeNa t ameva
vadant i it i Sabda-sahaH - He Whom alone all t he veda-s pr oclaim, wit h single
f ocus.
Sr I cinmayAnanda explains t he nAma as "One Who allows Himself t o be
invoked by t he vedic declar at ions".
nAma 913. nAma 913. nAma 913. |H|H¹- |H|H¹- |H|H¹- SiSir aH SiSir aH SiSir aH
He Who r ushed t o r ender help.
SiSirAya namaH.
Sr I vAsishTha indicat es t he r oot f or t he nAma as SaSa - plut a gat au - t o leap,
t o j ump. The wor d ' SiSir aH' is f or med by using t he uNAdi sUt r a 1.53, which
st at es t hat t he wor d is f or med by adding t he kir ac af f ix t o t he r oot SaSa - t o
go by leaps. SaSat i = Seeghr am ut plut ya gacchat i it i SiSir aH.
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a) Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma in t er ms of bhagavAn r ushing t o t he
scene wher e gaj endr a needed help - Ar t a Sabda Sr avaNAnt ar am at i- t var ayA
gat aH SiSir aH. Sr I BhaTTar quot es t he f ollowing passage in suppor t , t o
indicat e t he speed wit h which He ar r ived at t he scene wher e gaj endr a needed
help: "Sr ut vA cakr a gadAdhar aH, sAnnidhyam kalpayAmAsa t asmin sar asi" -
"I mmediat ely on hear ing t he painf ul cr y of t he elephant gaj endr a, t he Lor d,
ar med wit h His Discus and Mace, f lew (on t he back of gar uDa) and st ood on
t he bank of t he pond". Comment at or s enj oy t his incident by point ing out t hat
bhagavAn lef t wit hout even inf or ming pir ATTi, and, when He f ound t hat
gar uDa was not f ast enough f or His desir ed speed, He car r ied gar uDa in His
hand, and j umped at t he scene inst ant ly.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o t he f ollowing divya pr abandham passages in
suppor t :
"Anaiyin t uyar am t I r ap puL Ur ndu SenRu Azhi t oTTAn" (t ir umozhi 2.3.9) -"He
Who came on gar uDa and r elieved t he miser y of t he suf f er ing elephant
gaj endr a by r eleasing t he car kr Ayudha against t he cr ocodile".
"nAr AyaNA! O! maNi vaNNa! NAgaNaiyAi! VAr Ai en iDar ai nI kkAi - ena
veguNDu t I r Ada SI RRat t Al SenRu ir aNDu kUr Aga Er A adanai iDar
kaDindAn" (SiRiya t ir umaDal) - "When gaj endr a cr ied f or help - O nAr AyaNa!
MaNi vaNNa! anant a Sayana! Please r emove my miser y, bhagavAn became ver y
angr y at t he cr ocodile, hur r ied t o t he scene, split t he cr ocodile int o t wo, and
r elieved gaj endr a f r om his agony".
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj also gives an int er pr et at ion similar t o t hat of Sr i
BhaTTar - SaSat i-dr ut am gacchat i svaj anAnAm avanAya it i SiSir aH - He Who
r ushes t o t he pr ot ect ion of His devot ees is ' SiSir aH' .
b) The wor d SiSir ah also means ' t he cool season' . Sr I Sa' nkar a uses t his
meaning, and int er pr et s t he nAma as signif ying t hat bhagavAn cools down t he
t Apa-t r aya-s of His devot ees (physical, ment al and super nat ur al) - t Apa
t r ayAbhit apt AnAm viSr ama st hAnat vAt SiSir aH. The t hr ee t Apa-s ar e called
AdhyAt mika, Adhibhaut ika, and Adhidaivika.
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Sr I cinmayAnanda not es t hat bhagavAn has t his nAma indicat ing t hat He is
t he cool r est ing place f or t hose t or t ur ed by t he heat of samsAr a.
Sr I vAsishTha uses bot h t he above meanings f or ' SiSir a' , namely ' one who
leaps' , and ' t he cool season' , and gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn' s
nAma ' SiSir aH' signif ies t hat He is One who suppor t s all t he beings by t he
met hodic and r egular changing of seasons et c.
Sr I bala deva vidyA bhUshaN explains t he nAma as - dRshTa mAt r aH t eshAm
sant Apam nivar t ayat i it i SiSir aH - By His ver y dar Sanam, all t he sor r ows of
t he devot ees ar e washed away, as signif ied by t he nAma SiSir aH.
nAma 914. nAma 914. nAma 914. H4 ¹lT¹- H4 ¹lT¹- H4 ¹lT¹- Sar var I Sar var I Sar var I -- -kar aH kar aH kar aH
a) He Who had t he dest r uct ive weapons in His hands.
b) The Maker of ' night ' - in t he f or m of samsAr a.
c) The maker of night - t he t ime f or r est .
d) He Who is in t he f or m of t he cool r ays of t he moon in t he night s.
e) He Who causes dest r uct ion of His enemies.
SarvarI-karAya namaH.
a) Sr I BhaTTar indicat es t he der ivat ion of t he wor d ' Sar var I ' f r om t he r oot
SR - himsAyAm - t o t ear t o pieces, t o hur t , t o kill, and t he applicat ion of t he
uNAdi sUt r a 2.122 t hat r esult s in addit ion of t he af f ix shvar ac t o t he r oot SR
(SR + shvar ac = Sar var I ). Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he wor d ' kar aH' as "One
wit h t he weapons in His hands" (kar a - hand). Some of t he ot her int er pr et er s
use t he meaning "He Who does" f or t he wor d ' kar aH' , based on t he r oot - kR -
kar aNe - t o do.
Sr I BhaTTar cont inues his int er pr et at ion in t er ms of t he gaj endr a moksham
incident - himsA par a vidAr iNI pa' ncAyudhI kar e asya it i Sar var I -kar aH - He
Who had t he f ive dest r uct ive weapons in His hands, when He came t o help
gaj endr a. BhagavAn has t he f ive weapons - Sa' nkha, cakr a, gadA (t he mace),
Sar ' nga (t he bow), and nandaka (t he swor d) in His hands, r eady t o dest r oy t he
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enemies who ar e a sour ce of har m t o ot her s.
b) One of t he meanings f or t he wor d Sar var I is ' night ' - SRNAyAm loka
ckashUmshi it i Sar var I (amar a koSa vyAkhyAnam) - That which shut s out t he
vision of t he beings. Sr I Sa' nkar a uses t his meaning, and gives t he
int er pr et at ion t hat t he nAma signif ies t hat bhagavAn is "The Maker of Night ".
To t hose bound in samsAr a, t he knowledge of t he At man is dar k as night , and
t o t hose who ar e illumined, samsAr a is undesir able and dar k as night . As
bhagavAn is t he cause of bot h of t hese, He is called Sar var I -kar aH. Sr I
Sa' nkar a quot es suppor t f r om t he gI t A f or t his int er pr et at ion:
yA niSA sar va bhUt AnAm t asyAm j Agar t i samyamI |
yasyAm j Agr at i bhUt Ani sA niSA paSyat o muneH | |
(gI t A 2.69)
"What is night f or all beings (i.e., lacking in knowledge of t he self ), in it t he
cont r olled one is awake; when all beings ar e awake (i.e., involved in t he
enj oyment of sense obj ect s), t hat is t he night t o t he sage who sees". (That
under st anding which has t he self f or it s obj ect , is obscur e like night t o most .
But he who has subdued t he senses and is ser ene, is awake in r espect of t he
self ).
c) Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i comment s t hat t he dayt ime r ef lect s r aj o guNa or
act ivit y, and t he night t ime r ef lect s t amo guNa or inact ivit y. I n t his night t ime,
t he f eeling of "I ", "mine" et c., ar e not dominant in our lives. This alt er nat ion
of day and night is a gr eat help f r om nat ur e f or our lives in t his wor ld. The
' night ' allows us t o r est , and f or get all t he wor ldly wor r ies. The j ~nAnI
enj oys t he calm of t he night even while he is awake. But t he aj ~nAnI is given
t he chance t o r est by bhagavAn blessing him wit h t he ' night ' t ime t o r est . So
bhagavAn is "Sar var I -kar aH" by giving t he t ime of r est - t he night f or all of
us.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj also gives a similar int er pr et at ion - Sar var I niSA
loka-viSr Ama dAyinI | t asyAH kar aH sampAdakaH it i Sar var I -kar aH - He
Who gives t he night which is a t ime of r est f or all t he beings.
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d) A dif f er ent anubhavam is given by Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha using t he
meaning ' r ays' f or t he t er m ' kar aH' , and t he meaning ' night ' f or t he wor d
' Sar var I ' - Sar vAyAm = r At r au, kar AH = kir aNA yasya candr Ar gat a r UpeNa
it i Sar var I -kar aH - He Who is in t he f or m of t he cool r ays of t he moon in t he
night .
e) Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha uses t he meaning ' doer ' f or t he wor d ' kar aH' , but
gives yet anot her anubhavam: Sar var I = himsA, t Am kar ot i it i Sar var I -kar aH
- He Who causes dest r uct ion of His enemies.













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Slokam 98 Slokam 98 Slokam 98
H4 ¹- 9 H¬l 7¬l 7|¬T- ¬|PTl 4¹-· H4 ¹- 9 H¬l 7¬l 7|¬T- ¬|PTl 4¹-· H4 ¹- 9 H¬l 7¬l 7|¬T- ¬|PTl 4¹-·
|4ã¬Pl 4l6¬4- 9 '4~4TTl6 +-+ °<+ |4ã¬Pl 4l6¬4- 9 '4~4TTl6 +-+ °<+ |4ã¬Pl 4l6¬4- 9 '4~4TTl6 +-+ °<+
akr Ur ah pesalO dakshO dakshiNah kshamiNaam var ah |
vidvat t amO vI t abhayah puNyasr avaNakI r t anah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 915. nAma 915. nAma 915. H4 ¹- H4 ¹- H4 ¹- aa a-- -kr Ur aH kr Ur aH kr Ur aH
He Who was not cr uel (while r escuing gaj endr a).
a-krUrAya namaH.
Sr I vAsishTha indicat es t hat t he r oot f r om which t he nAma is der ived is kRt -
chedane - t o cut , t o divide. Applicat ion of t he uNAdi sUt r a 2.21- kRt ecchaH
kr U ca - The af f ix r ak comes af t er t he r oot kRt -t o cut , and in one case, t he
ver b is it self r eplaced by kr U, leading t o kr Ur aH - wicked, cr uel. na kr Ur aH
a-kr Ur aH - He Who is not cr uel, is a-kr Ur aH.
The best example of His disposit ion t o be ' not cr uel' is His t r eat ment of
r AvaNa dur ing t he bat t le wit h him. When r AvaNa was all but def eat ed, and
could have been f inished wit h one mor e ar r ow, r Agahvan j ust t old r AvaNa t o go
back t o his home, r est and r ecuper at e, and t hen come back r ef r eshed t he next
day t o cont inue t he bat t le. Given t he nat ur e of t he sin t hat r AvaNa had
commit t ed, t he st r engt h of t he enemy, and t he deceit f ul means t hat he
employed in t he bat t le, none but t he kindest at hear t would give ' t ime t o
r ecuper at e' f or t he enemy.
I n t he cont ext of t he gaj endr a episode, bhagavAn was f ir st kind enough t o
dr aw t he elephant and t he cr ocodile bot h f r om t he wat er s t o t he shor e saf ely,
but did not kill t he cr ocodile r ight away, even t hough He had His weapons in
His hands - gaj apar ij igI r shayA kar ast hair api AyudhaiH gr Ahamapi j haTit i a-
kRt t avAn akr Ur aH.
I t is only when t he cr ocodile r ef used t o let go of gaj endr a even af t er being
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br ought t o t he shor e alive, t hat bhagavAn killed it . Sr I kRshhNan comment s
t hat when He did ult imat ely kill t he cr ocodile, He did not kill it wit h cr uelt y,
but killed it inst ant ly by split t ing it int o t wo, so t hat it did not suf f er f or a
pr olonged t ime in t he pr ocess. Sr I BhaTTar gives t he f ollowing suppor t :
gr Ahagr st am gaj endr am ca t am gr Aham ca j alASayAt |
uj j ahAr a apr ameyAt mA t ar asA madhusUdanaH | |
"MadhusUdana, t he Lor d of inscr ut able nat ur e, quickly t ook out not only t he
elephant which had been seized by t he cr ocodile, but lif t ed t he cr ocodile also
f r om t he wat er s of t he pond".
Sr i Sa' nkar a f ir st est ablishes a link bet ween t he ment al st at e of cr uelt y and
t he desir e of t he mind, and t he anger associat ed wit h unf ulf illed desir es.
Then he not es t hat since bhagavAn is avApt a samast a kAman - One Who has all
His desir es f ulf illed, t her e is no r oom f or anger in t he mind, and no r oom f or
cr uelt y
avApt a samast a kAmat vAt kAma abhAvAdeva kopa abhAvaH, t asmAt kr aur yam
asya na ast i it a-kr Ur aH.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i not es t hat in t he hir aNyakaSipu episode, because
t he anger t hat bhagavAn had while slaying hir aNyakaSipu was ' made up' anger
and not nat ur al, t he moment t he Lor d saw pr ahlAda, His disposit ion
immediat ely changed t o one of love f r om anger . Thus, by nat ur e, bhagavAn is
a-kr Ur aH.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN adds anot her incident t o illust r at e t hat
bhagavAn is, by nat ur e, f or giving. He r elat es t he dur vAsa episode in t he
f or est -lif e of pANDava-s, wher e t he sage har assed t he pANDava- s on behalf
of dur yodhana by demanding f east f or a lar ge bat t alion of his disciples af t er
dr aupadi had washed her ' akshaya-pAt r a' f or t he day. I n spit e of t his
har assment t o His dear devot ees, Lor d kRshNa did not har m him because, by
His nat ur e, He is akr Ur a - pANDava kleSa kAr akam dur vAsasam na kRt avAn it i
a-kr Ur aH.
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nAma 916. nAma 916. nAma 916. 9 H¬- 9 H¬- 9 H¬- peSalaH peSalaH peSalaH
a) He Who is char ming.
b) One Who is supr emely sof t .
peSalAya namaH.
Sr I vAsishTha indicat es t he r oot f or t he nAma as piS - avayave, dI panAyAm
ca - t o f or m, t o kindle, t o light , and t he applicat ion of t he uNAdi sUt r a 1.106 -
t hat adds t he af f ix kala (ala) af t er t he r oot .
a) Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as One Who was char ming at t he t ime of
gaj endr a moksha, even wit h all His or nament s in chaot ic condit ion because of
t he hur r y in which He lef t Sr I vaikunTham t o help gaj endr a - sambhr amAt
ayat hAyat ha sr ag-bhUshAmbar a r amaNI yaH - peSalaH.
This associat ion bet ween t he gaj endr a r akshaNam and bhagavAn' s especially
beaut if ul f or m at t hat t ime is beaut if ully r ef lect ed by nammAzhvAr in his
t ir uvAimozhi pASur am 3.5.1 (r ef er ence by Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan):
moim-mAm pUmpozhil poigai mudalic ciRaippaTTu ninRa kaimmAvukku ar uL
Seida kAr mugil vaNNan ..
(t ir uvAi. 3.5.1)
"To t he elephant gaj endr a, t hat got int o t he t r ap of a cr ocodile while plucking
a f lower in t he lot us-pond, our Lor d kRshNa, wit h His dar k hue r eminiscent of
t he cloud, f lew in a gr eat hast e displaying His condescending simplicit y and
gr ace".
What is t he connect ion bet ween bhagavAn pr ot ect ing gaj endr a, and His
char ming appear ance (peSalaH)? Sr I kRshNan has a f ew anubhavam-s on t his.
BhagavAn' s beaut if ul appear ance is a r esult of His f eeling of happiness at
having pr ot ect ed His devot ee who was in dist r ess. Or , His or nament s, dr ess
et c., wer e ver y disor ganized since He was in a hur r y, and t his it self was
beaut if ul on Him - since t he or nament s get t heir beaut y by being associat ed
wit h Him, and not t he ot her way.
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Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is t hat t his nAma of bhagavAn indicat es t hat He
is handsome - peSalaH, because His deeds, mind, wor ds, and body ar e all
beaut if ul - kar maNA, manasA, vAcA, vapushA ca Sobhanat vAt peSalaH.
b) Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i comment s t hat t he nAma indicat es "One wit h a
sof t hear t , like a f lower ". He is One who is f ull of kindness and compassion,
and t his r ef lect s in all His t hought s, wor ds and deeds.
Sr I cimayAnanda comment s: "I n His I nf init e kindness and Mer cy, His Hear t -
divine is ever f lowing out in love and t ender ness t owar ds His devot ees when
t hey call out f or help ar dent ly and lif t t hemselves f r om t heir body-
consciousness and egocent r ic lif e of sense-pur suit s".
Sr I vAsishTha uses t he meaning ' piS - avayave - t o f or m' , and int er pr et s t he
nAma as signif ying t hat bhagavAn is One Who has f or med or separ at ed ever y
maj or f or m in His cr eat ion (such as our human body) int o it s sever al par t s -
pimSat i - avayavam kar ot i it peSalaH. He also gives examples of t he nakshat r a
maNDalam being separ at ed int o individual st ar s, t ime being separ at ed int o it s
subdivisions, et c.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha gives an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion by looking at t he
nAma as pa + I sa + la: I Sam = r udr am, lAt i = bhakt at vena gRhNAt i, it i I SA-
laH; pAt i it i paH; paSca asau I SalaSca it i peSalaH - He Who has r udr a who is
devot ed t o Him, and He Who pr ot ect s him, is pESalaH.
nAma 917. nAma 917. nAma 917. 7¬- 7¬- 7¬- dakshaH dakshaH dakshaH
a) He Who r emoves evil element s ver y quickly (daksh – SI ghr Ar t he).
b1) He Who came t o t he r escue of gaj endr a ver y f ast (daksh – SI ghr Ar t he).
b2) He Who had t he Sakt i – power , t o ar r ive ver y f ast at t he scene of
gaj endr a’s suf f er ing
c) He Who gr ows int o, or manif est s Himself as, t he Univer se (daksh – t o gr ow).
d) He Who is def t in His cr eat ion, sust enance and dest r uct ion (daksha –
dext er ous).
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e) He Who dest r oys His enemies (daksh – himsanayoH).
dakshAya namaH.
We st udied t his nAma ear lier in Slokam 45 (nAma 424).
Sr I vAsishTha der ives t he nAma f r om t he r oot daksh – vRddhau SI ghr Ar t he
ca – t o gr ow, t o go in speed. The amar a koSa vyAkhyAnam is “kAr yam SI ghr am
kar ot i it i dakshaH”. The dif f er ent meanings f or t he wor d ' daksha' ar e given
by Sr I vAsishTha – pr avRddhaH, Sakt aH, SI ghr akAr I ca – One Who is gr own.
Sr I Sa’nkar a uses t his meaning and int er pr et s t he nAma as “One Who has
manif est ed Himself in t he f or m of t he Univer se” – see below), One Who is
skilled, and One Who is f ast . The r oot daksh has also anot her meaning – gat i
himsanayoSca – t o go, t o hur t . The dif f er ent int er pr et at ions ar e based on
t hese dif f er ent meanings f or t he wor d ' daksha' .
a) Sr I BhaTTar explains nAma 424 in t er ms of t he kalki incar nat ion, and how
bhagavAn will get r id of t he evil element s ver y quickly in t his incar nat ion
(dasyu-vadhe dakshat e – SI ghr a-kAr I it i dakshaH).
One of Sr I Sa’nkar a’s int er pr et at ions f or t he inst ance of t he nAma in Slokam
45 is - sar va kar mANi kshipr am kar ot i vA dakshaH - He Who per f or ms all
act ions f ast . The t er m ' sankalapa mAt r eNa' is used ext ensively in descr ibing
t his guNa of bhagavAn – All He has t o do is t o ' will' , and t he act ion will be
done.
b) For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma, Sr I BhaTTar gives t he int er pr et at ion
– kshipr am Agant A dakshaH. This has been int er pr et ed (t r anslat ed) as “One
Who came swif t ly when called f or by gaj endr a” by most t r anslat or s, based on
' daksh – SI ghr a-kAr I ' .
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN also gives his int er pr et at ion in t er ms of
bhagavAn’s speed in r esponding when He is medit at ed upon – smRt a mAt r aH
t var ayA gat avAn it i dakshaH. Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj also echoes t he
idea of t he speed wit h which bhagavAn r ushes t o t he pr ot ect ion of His
devot ee – dakshat e = Sighr at Am kur ut e svaj ana avane it i dakshaH.
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Given t hat Sr I BhaTTar ’s bhAshyam f or nAma 913 – SiSir aH, has alr eady been
int er pr et ed as r ef er r ing t o bhagavAn’s speed in ar r iving at t he scene wher e
gaj endr a had called f or help in pain, t he above int er pr et at ion is r edundant , and
t hus, is not t he best int er pr et at ion f or t his inst ance in t he wr it er ’s opinion. I t
is t o be not ed t hat t his is not punar -ukt i dosham (f ault of r epet it ion) in t he
st r ict sense of t he t er m, since dif f er ent wor ds (nAma-s) have been used by
Sage vyAsa.
This point is made by Sr I Sa’nkar a in his vyAkhyAnam f or t he next nAma,
dakshiNaH, wher e he int er pr et s t he nAma ' dakshiNaH' as having t he same
meaning as t he cur r ent nAma – dakshaH. While t he r edundancy is t hus not a
case of punar -ukt i dosham in t he st r ict sense of t he t er m, a bet t er
int er pr et at ion is pr ovided by Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan, t hat r emoves
t his r edundancy. He ' t r anslat es' Sr I BhaTTar ’s vyAkhyAnam f or t he cur r ent
nAma as “One Who is skilled and has t he power t o ar r ive ver y f ast ”, based on
' daksha – sAmar t hya SAli' or ' Sakt i-SAli’. This point is discussed in det ail
near t he end of t he wr it e-up f or t he cur r ent nAma.
c) For t he inst ance of t he nAma in Slokam 45, using t he meaning ' daksh – t o
gr ow' , Sr I Sa’nkar a gives anot her int er pr et at ion – j agad-r UpeNa
var dhamAnat vAt dakshaH - He Who gr ows int o, or manif est s Himself as, t he
Univer se.
d) For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma, Sr I Sa’nkar a explains t hat since t he
Supr eme Being has t he t hr ee qualit ies – immensit y, st r engt h, and quickness in
execut ion, He is called dakshaH –
pr avRddhaH Sakt aH Sighr akAr I ca dakshaH |
t r ayam cait at par asmin niyat iam it i dakshaH.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i explains t hat He is def t in cr eat ion, and t his is
indicat ed by t his nAma.
Sr I cinmayAnanda explains: “One Who under t akes cr eat ion, sust enance, and
dest r uct ion of t he whole Cosmos wit h ease and ef f iciency, diligence, and
pr ompt it ude”.
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e) One of t he alt er nat e int er pr et at ions of Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha is:
Sat r UNAm hant A dakshaH – He Who dest r oys His enemies. This uses t he
meaning – daksh – himsanayoH – t o hur t .
This nAma pr ovides a ver y good example of t he dif f icult ies in t r anslat ing and
int er pr et ing t he samskRt vyAkhyAnam of t he gr eat vyAkhyAna-kar t A-s int o
ot her languages, and t he possible er r or s t hat might be int r oduced in t he
pr ocess. The nAma-s ' SiSir aH' and ' dakshaH' occur almost adj acent t o each
ot her (nAma-s 913 and 917 r espect ively).
Sr I BhaTTar ’s vyAkhyAnam in samskRt f or t he t wo nAma-s ar e:
1. SiSir aH – Ar t a-Sabda Sr avaNant ar am at i-t var ayA gat aH SiSir aH
(SASa – plut a gat au; sAnnidhyam kalpayAmAsa t asmin saar asi).
2. akshaH – kshipr am Agant A dakshaH.
As explained under nAma 913, and based on Sr I BhaTTar ’s vyAkhyAnam, it
seems clear t hat Sr I BhaTTar had in mind t he speed wit h which bhagavAn
came t o help gaj endr a. For nAma 917 – dakshaH, Sr I BhaTTar r ef er s t o
bhagavAn’s ' speedy ar r ival' (kshipr am Agant A) again. The t r anslat or s (t wo in
English and t wo in t amizh) have t r anslat ed bot h t he above vyAkhyAna-s as
r ef er r ing t o “One Who was ver y f ast in coming t o t he help of gaj endr a)”. A
couple of t hose who have elabor at ed on Sr I BahTTar ’s vyAkhyAnam even go t o
t he ext ent of point ing out t hat ' t wo nAma-s r ef er t o t he same incident ' - and
t hus t he same guNaAnubhavam. Thus t hey have essent ially at t r ibut ed
r edundancy in Sage vyAsa’s nar r at ion, even t hough t his is not punar -ukt i
dosham in t he st r ict def init ion of t his t er m, since dif f er ent nAma-s ar e
involved in descr ibing t he same incident . (See Sr I Sa’nkar a’s comment ar y f or
t he next nAma, wher e he makes t his point ).
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan explains Sr I BhaTTar ’s vyAkhyAnam f or t he
cur r ent nAma t hat eliminat es t his r epet it ion, and t hus, is a mor e elegant
explanat ion of Sr I BhaTTar ’s vyAkhyAnam f or t his nAma. For t he nAma
SiSir aH, Sr I mad ANDavan gives t he explanat ion of Sr I BhaTTar ’s
vyAkhyAnam as a r ef er ence t o “One Who came f ast t o t he scene wher e
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gaj endr a had been seized by t he cr ocodile”. But f or t he nAma
' dakshaH' (nAma 917), Sr I mad ANDavan explains Sr I BhaTTar ’s wor ds
“kshipr am Agat A dakshaH”, as “One Who has t he sAmar t hyam as evidenced by
His ar r iving at t he scene ver y f ast . (sAmar t hyam = power , f or ce, capacit y,
abilit y, st r engt h – Sr I Apt e’s dict ionar y). Not e t hat one of t he meanings f or
t he wor d ' daksha' is ' dext er ous, skilled' .
Also, r ecall Sr I vAsishTha’s wor ds giving t he dif f er ent meanings f or t he wor d
' daksha' – Sakt aH, Sighr a-kAr I ca – One Who has t he power (Sakt aH), or One
Who achieves t hings f ast (Sighr a-kAr I ).
Thus, Sr I mad ANDavan explains Sr I BhaTTar ’s vyAkhyAnam f or
' SiSir aH' (nAma 913) in t er ms of bhagavAn being “SI ghr a-kAr I ”, and f or
“dakshaH” (nAma 917) in t er ms of bhagavAn being a “Sakt i-SAli”. Thus t he
r edundancy in t he int er pr et at ion of Sr I BhaTTar ’s vyAkhyAnam does not exist
any mor e.
One could ar gue, mist akenly, t hat t her e is st ill r edundancy in t he
int er pr et at ion of t he nAma 425 (dakshaH), and t he nAma SiSir aH (nAma 913),
since bot h r ef er t o His speed. But t her e is no r edundancy in f act , since, f or
nAma 425, Sr I BhaTTar r ef er s t o bhagavAn’s speed in get t ing r id of t he evil
people in His kalki incar nat ion, and f or nAma 913, he is r ef er r ing t o BhagavAn’s
speed in r esponding t o t he cr y f or help f r om a devot ee. These ar e subt le
point s t hat may be of int er est t o some r eader s.
Sr I Sa’nkar a avoids t he punar ukt i dosham by giving int er pr et at ions t hat ar e
dist inct ly dif f er ent f r om each ot her , and t hus t her e is no conf usion in
t r anslat ing t hese:
1. SiSir aH – (based on “The cool season”) - t Apa-t r aya abhit apt AnAm
viSr ama st hAnat vAt SiSir aH – He Who r emoves t he t or ment s ar ising
f r om physical, ment al and super nat ur al causes.
2. dakshaH - pr avRddaH, Sakt aH, SI ghr a-kAr I ca – He Who is endowed
wit h t he qualit ies of immensit y, st r engt h, and quick execut ion.

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nAma 918. nAma 918. nAma 918. 7|¬T- 7|¬T- 7|¬T- dakshiNaH dakshiNaH dakshiNaH
a) He Who is pleasing and amiable.
b) He Who per vades ever ywher e.
c) He Who dest r oys ever yt hing (at t he t ime of pr alaya).
d) He Who is ver y liber al, char it able, and kind.
dakshiNAya namaH.
The r oot f r om which t he nAma is der ived is t he same as f or t he pr evious nAma
- daksh - vRddhau, SI ghr Ar t he - t o gr ow or act quickly. The applicat ion of t he
uNAdi sUt r a 2.50 - dr u dakshibhyAm inan, r esult s in addit ion of t he af f ix inan
t o t he r oot daksh, leading t o t he wor d dakshiNa. The siddhAnt a kaumudI
gives t he f ollowing meanings f or t he wor d dakshiNaH - dakshat e var dhat e
SI ghr akAr I bhavat i vA sa dakshi NaH; sar al o vAmabhAgaH
par at ant r o' nuvar t anam (r ight , honest , cour t eous, submissive). As explained
above, t he t er m ' dakshiNa' has t he same meaning as t he t er m ' daksha' -
"dext er ous, skillf ul, one who ar r ives f ast , one who accomplishes t hings f ast ",
et c., but addit ionally, it means ' pleasing, amiable, cour t eous, civil' , et c. (Sr I
Apt e' s dict ionar y). Thus, t he wor d ' dakshiNa' means ' One who is f ast , One
who dest r oys, One who is cour t eous, One who gr ows His devot ees, One who is
compassionat e' , et c.
a) Sr I BhaTTar uses t he meaning ' cour t eous and compassionat e' f or t he wor d
' dakshiNa' , and comment s t hat even t hough bhagavAn r esponded immediat ely
t o t he cr y f or help f r om gaj endr a, He st ill expr essed r egr et t o gaj endr a t hat
He was not near er t o t he sit e of t he incident , and consoled gaj endr a wit h kind
wor ds. Sr I BhaTTar ' s wor ds ar e: t hat hA Agat ya, ' dhin' g mAm, dUr agat o' ham
t vAm' , it i sAnt vanaiH, gaj endr asya anukUlaH dakshiNaH - "Though He came as
soon as gaj endr a called f or His help, He st ill expr essed r egr et t hat He was not
near at t he t ime of danger , and consoled gaj endr a wit h kind wor ds - "Fie upon
Me t hat I was f ar away f r om you". Sr I BhaTTar gives suppor t f r om vishNu
dhar ma:
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pr I t imAn puNDAr I kAkshaH Sar aNAgat a vat salaH |
bhaj ant am gaj ar Aj Anam madhur am madhu-sUdanaH | |
(vishNu dhar ma 69.83)
"The Lot us-eyed Slayer of madhu, Who is kind and af f ect ionat e t o t hose who
have sur r ender ed t o Him, showed His love t o gaj endr a, who wor shipped Him".
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan explains t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o His
dAkshiNyam - polit eness, civilit y, cour t esy. For sar veSvar an t o expr ess r egr et
t o a mer e animal, is a clear expr ession of His guNa of sauSI lyam.
Sr I kRshNan gr aphically descr ibes t hat bhagavAn knelt at t he f eet of t he
elephant , checked f or t he inj ur ies, t ook out His ut t ar I yam - t he vast r am at
t he t op of His divya t ir umEni, blew at it t o get some heat , and t hen applied t he
heat t o t he elephant ' s leg t o give comf or t t o t he elephant ' s wound. I n
addit ion, He expr essed r egr et f or not having come ear lier . This nAma t hus
illust r at es t hat bhagavAn is Sar aNAgat a-vat salan - One Who is dear ly
at t ached t o t hose who sur r ender t o Him.
The wor d ' sAnt vanam' t hat has been used by Sr I BhaTTar in his vyAkhyAnam
means ' consolat ion, pacif icat ion' . Sr I kRshNan r ef er s t o anot her inst ance
wher e bhagavAn f elt ' r egr et at having been lat e' - in helping t he devot ee who
sur r ender ed t o Him and expr essed wor ds of consolat ion - ' sAnt vanam' . This
was in t he case of vibhI shaNa Sar aNAgat i. ' vacasA sAnt vayit vainam
locanAbhyAm pibanniva' - yuddha kANDam 19.7 - "Lor d r Ama ut t er ed wor ds
of consolat ion t o vibhI shaNa, and blessed him wit h His kaTAksham, as if He
dr ank vibhI shaNa t hr ough His eyes".
b) c) Sr I Sa' nkar a comment s t hat t he meaning f or t he pr evious nAma and t he
cur r ent one ar e same, and not es t hat t her e is no punar ukt i by Sage vyAsa
because dif f er ent wor ds have been used t o descr ibe t his guNa of bhagavAn -
dakashiNa SabdasyApi daksha eva ar t haH; Sabda bhedAt na paunar ukt yam.
However , he pr oceeds t hen t o give an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion based on t he
r oot daksh - gat i himsanayoH - t o go or t o kill - at havA, gacchat i hinast i it i vA
dakshaH - He Who goes or He Who kills is dakshiNaH. This is t r anslat ed by
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Sr I T. S. Kr ishnamoor t hy as "One Who per vades ever ywher e", or as "One Who
dest r oys ever yt hing" (e.g., at t he t ime of pr alaya - t he f unct ion of samhAr a).
Using t he meaning ' t o kill' or ' dest r oy' f or t he r oot daksh, Sr I baladeva vidyA
bhUshaN gives t he example of Lor d kRshNa dest r oying or pr event ing t he r ise
of dur yodhana - damSat i dur yodhana udyamam it i dakshiNaH.
d) Sr I cinmayAnanda int er pr et s t he nAma in t er ms of dAkshiNya (liber al-
hear t ed) - t he opposit e of self ishness and at t achment t o wealt h t hat one
possesses. He sums up t he meaning of t he nAma as "One Who has I nf init e
Kindness and Char it y t owar ds all good people and One Who is t hus ever r eady
t o liber ally give away His endless Benevolence". He gives t he example of t he
of f er ing of ' dakshiNA' t o t he pr iest s af t er a r it ual as t heir f ee - t his should
be given in a spir it of lar ge-hear t ed, liber al char it y. Recall t he nAma svast i-
dakshiNaH (nAma 905 in Slokam 96), which is int er pr et ed along t hese lines.
Sr I vAsishTha comment s t hat bhagavAn is One Who ar r ives f ast if one calls t o
Him f or help, and is pleasant once He ar r ives - kshipr am Agacchat i AhUt a,
Agat ya ca sant ushTo mukt a-hast am dadAt i it i udAr aH sa dakshiNa ucyat e.
e) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj uses t he meaning - daksh -var dhat e - t o gr ow,
and int er pr et s t he nAma as - dakshayat i var dhayat i svaj anAn it i dakshNaH -
He Who gr ows His devot ees is dakshiNaH.
f ) An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion by Sr I bhAr advAj is - at a eva viSvar a' nge
udAr at amo nAyakaH - BhagavAn is t he most compassionat e Lor d of all. The
amar a descr ibes ' dakshiNa' as ' sar ala, udAr au ca' - honest , sincer e, gener ous,
compassionat e. (amar a. 3.1.8).
nAma 919. nAma 919. nAma 919. ¬|PTl 4¹- ¬|PTl 4¹- ¬|PTl 4¹- kshamiNAm kshamiNAm kshamiNAm-- -var aH var aH var aH
a) The f or emost in bear ing t he bur den of pr ot ect ion of His devot ees.
b) The f or emost among t hose who bear t he bur den of t he Univer ses.
kshamiNAm-varAya namaH.
The r oot of int er est f or t he nAma is ksham - sahane - t o allow, t o suf f er .
var a is der ived f r om vRN - var aNe - t o choose. ' kshamiNAm var aH' r ef er s t o
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"One Who is super ior among t hose who ar e endowed wit h pat ience or
endur ance"...
Sr I vAsishTha explains t he nAma as "sahana SilAyAm, kshmAvat Am madhye
var aH = Sr eshTha it yar t haH", which has t he above meaning. Sr I Apt e has
list ed t he meanings ' able, compet ent ' f or t he wor d ' kshama' in addit ion t o
' f or bear ance, pat ience' . The int er pr et at ions below use bot h t hese meanings.
The nAma has been t r anslat ed as "One Who is t he best among t hose who have
endur ance", by most of t he t r anslat or s of Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam.
However , t he signif icance of Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam does not seem t o be
expr essed well enough wit h t his t r anslat ion.
Sr i BhaTTar ' s wor ds ar e - t ad-dar Sanena dhRt At mA; abhavat t at r a deveSaH
- I t was only af t er seeing gaj endr a saf e t hat He f elt r elieved; The Lor d of all
gods st ood as t hough r evived (af t er seeing gaj endr a saf e). This signif ies t hat
bhagavAn was t hr obbing wit h anxiet y on behalf of His devot ee and pat ient ly
put t ing up wit h t his anxiet y f or t he shor t dur at ion bet ween gaj endr a' s call and
His pr ot ect ing gaj endr a. His desir e t o pr ot ect His devot ee is so ext r eme and
int ense, t hat nor mally f or Him t o pat ient ly wait t ill He comes t o t he scene of
t he incident was unimaginable. I t is t his ext r eme concer n of bhagavAn - t he
int ensit y wit h which He is commit t ed t o t he pr ot ect ion of His devot ees, t hat is
t o be enj oyed her e. I t is t he ser iousness wit h which He t akes His commit ment
t o pr ot ect His devot ee, and His anxiet y at t he smallest delay in pr ot ect ing t he
devot ee, t hat is enj oyed by Sr i BhaTTar t hr ough t his nAma - "BhagavAn is t he
For emost in bear ing t he bur den of pr ot ect ion of His devot ee - kshamiNAm
var aH".
Sr I kRshNan emphasizes t his point , and r ef er s t o anot her incident wher e t he
Lor d was t hr obbing wit h anxiet y f or t he welf ar e of His devot ee - when sugr I va
suddenly r ushed t o r AvaNa and f ought a duel wit h him, and br ought t he t en
cr owns of his t en heads. Lor d r Ama t ells sugr I va af t er his r et ur n t hat He was
ver y concer ned about sugr I va' s saf et y dur ing t hat t ime, and added t hat f or
Him, sugr I va' s saf et y was mor e impor t ant t han even lakshmaNa or sI t A
pir ATTi' s welf ar e. Such is t he int ensit y wit h which He bear s t he
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r esponsibilit y f or t he pr ot ect ion of His devot ee.
Of cour se, ot her anubhavam-s ar e possible f or t he nAma in t he cont ext of
gaj endr a moksham, and some of t hese ar e given by some of t he int er pr et er s of
Sr I BhaTTar ' s bhAshyam. The most common among t hese is t hat bhagavAn
did not lose His composur e once He ar r ived at t he scene of gaj endr a being
caught by t he cr ocodile (Sr I M.V.Ramanuj achar ya' s explanat ion -
"gaj endr aniak kaNDa piRagu, t am manat t aip padaikkAmal niRut t inavar ").
Sr I v. n. vedAnt a deSikan comment s t hat t his guNa of bhagavAn was evident
only af t er He saw t hat t he elephant was saf e (unt il t hat t ime, His concer n f or
t he saf et y of His devot ee was ext r eme.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives mult iple int er pr et at ions:
kshamavat Am yoginAm it i kshamiNAm var aH.
He Who is t he f or emost among yogin-s who have f or bear ance
pRt hivyAdI nAm bhAr a dhAr akANAm Sr eshTha it i kshamiNAm var aH.
He Who is f or emost among t hose t hat bear all bur dens such as t hat of t he
Ear t h et c.
kshamiNaH Sakt AH, ayam t u sar va Sakt imat vAt sakalAH kr iyAH kar t um
kshamat a it i vA kashmainAm var aH.
He Who is t he f or emost among t he st r ongest (her e t he wor d kshamiNaH is
int er pr et ed t o means "One Who is endowed wit h power ")
He gives suppor t f r om Sr I mad r AmAyaNam - kshamayA pRt hivi samaH (1.1.18)
- Lor d r Ama' s abilit y t o endur e is descr ibed as equal t o t hat of Mot her Ear t h.
Sr I cinmayAnanda' s anubhavam is t hat bhagavAn has t his nAma indicat ing t hat
He is t he most pat ient when it comes t o t oler at ing and f or giving t he sins of
t he j I vas. His wor ds ar e: "He exhibit s supr eme pat ience wit h t he evil-minded,
t he t yr ant , t he f oul and t he f iendish. hir aNyAksha, hir aNyakaSipu, r AvaNa,
and ot her s of t his t ype wer e given many f air oppor t unit ies t o r ealize f or
t hemselves t he f olly of t heir baser at t it udes and t heir immor al ways of lif e.
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I t is only when no ot her met hod of t r eat ment could cur e t hem t hat t he Lor d
dest r oyed t hem in His I nf init e kindness" (t hey all r eached par ama padam as a
r esult of having His dar Sanam!).
Anot her dimension of bhagavAn' s f or bear ance is His willingness t o f or give t he
sins of His devot ees also
kshamit um soDhum bhakt a apar AdhAn Seelam yeshAm t e kshamiNaH;
t eshAm var aH ut t ama it i kshamiNAm var aH
(Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj )
One is r eminded of t he ext ent of suf f er ings t hat He subj ect ed Himself t o,
dur ing His r Ama incar nat ion. The whole r AmAyaNa is a demonst r at ion of His
being kshamiNAm var aH, along wit h pir ATTi, who is in all r espect s equal t o
Him. The incident of Sage bhRgu kicking bhagavAn in His vaksha st halam, and
t he composed r eact ion of bhagavAn t o t his incident , is anot her example of His
most super ior kshamA or endur ance and f or bear ance.
Sr I baladeva vidyAbhUshaN gives anot her example f r om Lor d kRshNa' s
incar nat ion: - t he magnanimit y wit h which bhagavAn f or gave Sage dur vAsa f or
his ignoble act of har assing t he pANDava-s on behalf of dur yodhana dur ing t he
vana vAsam of t he pANDava-s. The kAkAsur a incident , and sI t A pir ATTis'
kind act of laying t he evil asur a such t hat his head was f acing Lor d r Ama' s
Feet so t hat Lor d r Ama will f or give t he asur a, and bhagavAn' s f or giving t he
asr ua by j ust punishing him ver y mildly inst ead of killing him as he j ust ly
deser ved, is an example t hat shows bot h bhagavAn and pir ATTi r ival each
ot her in t heir kshamA, or willingness t o f or give and put up wit h apar Adha-s of
t heir childr en. nammAzhvAr r epeat edly r eminds us t hat none in all t he
Univer ses - not even t he cat ur -mukha br ahmA who is gif t ed wit h super ior
knowledge by bhagavAn Himself , will be able t o descr ibe bhagavAn' s kalyANa
guNa-s and do j ust ice t o even one of His guNa-s. We ar e seeing t hat His guNa
as ' kshamiNAm var aH' is j ust one example of t he inabilit y t o descr ibe t he
guNa - we j ust have t o f eel His guNa-s and enj oy t hem.

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nAma 920. nAma 920. nAma 920. |4ã¬P- |4ã¬P- |4ã¬P- vidvat vidvat vidvat -- -t amaH t amaH t amaH
The Best among t hose who know what t o do.
vidvat-tamAya namaH.
Sr I vAsishTha gives t he f ollowing der ivat ion f or t he nAma - vidant i it i
vidvAmso j ~nAninaH t eshu at iSayena Sr eshThaH sar vaj ~nat vAt it i vidvat -
t amo vishNuH - He Who is t he best among t hose endowed wit h knowledge -
t he All-Knowing. He f r om Whom all knowledge or iginat ed, He Who gave t he
veda-s t o t he wor ld, et c., is vidvat -t amaH.
Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma in t er ms of t he gaj endr a moksham incident ,
and point s out t hat t he nAma r eminds us t hat bhagavAn knew exact ly how t o
administ er t r eat ment t o gaj endr a as soon as He ar r ived at t he scene - t ac-
cikit sAyAm vidvat -t amaH - BhagavAn gent ly t ouched t he elephant , and st ar t ed
speaking t o t he elephant comf or t ingly. Ext r eme devot ion t o bhagavAn is what
caused gaj endr a t o go t o t he pond t o pluck t he lot us f lower f or of f er ing t o
Him in t he f ir st inst ance. Not hing was mor e impor t ant t o gaj endr a t han t he
dar Sanam of bhagavAn, and all his ailment s wer e cur ed r ight away. (The beaut y
of t he vyAkhyAnam of Sr I BhaTTar , illust r at ing t he ext r eme concer n of
bhagavAn t o His devot ees at ever y st ep, can only be f elt , and cannot be
descr ibed adequat ely t hr ough wor ds. The cur r ent int er pr et at ion is one such
example).
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan explains t he nAma wit h t he comment t hat
bhagavAn is t he ' gr eat est Doct or t her e ever was and is, - t he way He
administ er ed t he most appr opr iat e cikit asA or t r eat ment t o gaj endr a, (who
had suf f er ed f or a t housand year s in t he clut ch of t he cr ocodile)' . BhagavAn
knew pr ecisely what would give gaj endr a t he gr eat est comf or t , and so He is
called vidvat -t amaH in Sr I BhaTTar ' s anubhavam.
Sr I BhaTTar gives suppor t f r om vishNu dhar ma:
evamukt vA kur uSr eshTha! gaj endr am madhusUdanaH |
spar sayAmAsa hast ena.. . . . . (vishNu dhar ma 69.89)
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The Bliss of t he t ouch by bhagavAn' s hands eliminat es all miser y, and is like
t he her bs t hat can cur e any ailment . His divine hands wer e t he medicine f or
gaj endr a, and t he heat f r om His beaut if ul r ed lips wer e t he comf or t t hat
gaj endr a would do anyt hing t o have.
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan gives anot her analogous example, wher e pir ATTi
administ er s t he cikit sA t hat is t he most appr opr iat e f or t he occasion. When
r Ama came back f ull of bleeding wounds af t er vict or iously eliminat ing t he
r Akshasa khar a and his ar my of 14,000 r Akshasa-s in j anast hAnam, sI t A
pir ATTi administ er ed t he best t r eat ment f or t he occasion - she gave Him a
ver y f ond embr ace. As Lakshmi, she is t he embodiment s of all cur es, and t hus,
Her embr ace was t he best cur e f or r Ama' s wounds.
t am dRshTvA Sat r u-hant Ar am mahar shI NAm sukhAvaham |
babhUva hRshTA vaidehI bhar t Ar am par ishasvaj e | |
"sI t A pir ATTi was ext r emely happy t o see Lor d r Ama who had eliminat ed t he
r Akashas-s t hat wer e causing immense har m t o t he sages, and t hus had
f ulf illed t he cause of ensur ing t he saf et y of t hese sages".
Sr I baladeva vidyAbhUshaN also int er pr et s t he nAma based on t he gaj endr a
episode - at ha gaj endr a uddhAr akat Am sUcayan Aha - svaika Sar aNyasya
gaj endr asya vipad vinASe at i-nipuNat vAt vidvat -t amaH - He Who handled t he
sur r ender of gaj endr a in t he most skillf ul manner .
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gener alizes Sr I BhaTTar ' s explanat ion - bhagavAn
is One Who knows how t o r emedy t he bhakt a' s pr oblems.
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is t hat bhagavAn has t his nAma because He
alone, and no one else, always possesses t he knowledge of ever yt hing -
nir ast At iSayam j ~nAnam sar vadA sar va gocar am asya it i ast i, na it ar eshAm it i
vidvat -t amaH. All t he r est possess but a t iny f r act ion of His knowledge.
Sr I vAsishTha comment s t hat bhagavAn is All-Knowing - One Who knows
ever yt hing t her e is t o know ever since cr eat ion st ar t ed, and pr ior t o t hat , and
f or all f ut ur e t o come, and so He is vidvat -t amaH. This cannot be said of
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anyone else. This is how t he veda-s pr aise Him.
nAma 921 nAma 921 nAma 921. 4l6¬4- 4l6¬4- 4l6¬4- vI t a vI t a vI t a-- -bhayaH bhayaH bhayaH
a) He because of Whom f ear is dispelled.
b) He Who is devoid of f ear .
vIta-bhayAya namaH.
Sr I vAsishTha der ives t he meanings "One Who has no f ear " - vi = vishesheNa,
it am = gat am, bhayam = bhI t iH yasya it vI t a-bayaH - One Who is t ot ally devoid
of f ear .
Sr I BhaTTar , whose special emphasis is t he guNanubhavam of bhagavAn as
One Whose sole pur pose in ever yt hing He does is t o help His devot ees, gives
t he anubhavam t hat He has t his nAma since He dr ives away t he f ear in His
devot ees - vI t am bhayam yasmAt sa vI t a-bhayaH.
The f omer int er pr et at ion is given by Sr I Sa' nkar a and ot her s who f ollow his
vyAkhyAnam, and t he lat er int er pr et at ion is given by Sr I BhaTTar and t hose
t hat f ollow his lead.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion is: t at -samAgama t umula upalambhAt vI t am
bhayam gaj endr asya it i vI t a-bhayaH - Seeing t he ar dent zeal of t he Lor d in
coming t o his help, t he f ear of gaj endr a vanished. Thus, bhagavAn has t his
nAma since He is "One Who dispelled t he f ear of gaj endr a t hr ough His
ar r ival".
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan' s anubhavam is t hat gaj endr a was af r aid t hat t he
lot us f lower t hat he was car r ying f or of f er ing t o t he Lor d might become old
and lose it s f r eshness, and t his f ear was gone as soon as gaj endr a not iced
t hat bhagavAn had ar r ived.
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an comment s t hat gaj endr a had called f or help f r om
nAr AyaNa, and was af r aid t hat bhagavAn' s guna of ASr it a r akshaNam might
be quest ioned by some if He did not come r ight away, and it was t his f ear t hat
was r emoved as soon as bhagavAn ar r ived.
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Sr I baladeva vidyAbhUshaN echoes t he same t hought s as above - vI t am =
vinashTam gaj endr asya gr AhAt bhayam yena sa vI t a-bhayaH - He Who
r elieved gaj endr a of t he f ear of being gr ipped by t he cr ocodile, is vI t a-
bhayaH.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he int er pr et at ion - vI t am = vigat am, bhayam
sAmsAr ikam samsAr a lakshaNam vA asya it i vI t a-bhayaH, sar veSvar at vAt
nit ya mukt at vAt ca - He Who has no f ear per t aining t o, or accompanying, t he
t r ansmigr at or y lif e; in addit ion, since He is t he Lor d of all, and ever f r ee, He
is wit hout f ear of any kind as well.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i comment s t hat t he wor st of all f ear s is t he f ear of
samsAr a, or being bor n in t his wor ld; since bhagavAn is beyond t his, He is
Fear less, and beyond f ear - vI t a-bhayaH.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha also gives t he explanat ion along t he same lines -
bhaya SUnyaH vI t a bhayaH - One Who is wit hout f ear .
Anot her dvait a AcAr ya, Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha, gives t he alt er nat e
int er pr et at ion t hat is suppor t ed by Sr I BhaTTar - bhakt ebhyo vI t am =
vigat am bhayam yasmAt saH vI t a-bhayaH.
nAma 922. nAma 922. nAma 922. 9 '4~4TTl6 +- 9 '4~4TTl6 +- 9 '4~4TTl6 +- puNya puNya puNya-- -Sr avaNa Sr avaNa Sr avaNa-- -kI r t anaH kI r t anaH kI r t anaH
He Whose nAma Sr vaNam and kI r t anam ar e pur if ying.
puNya-SravaNa-kIrtanAya namaH.
The nAma can be under st ood in t er ms of it s t hr ee component wor ds: puNya,
Sr avaNa, and kI r t ana. puNya her e r ef er s t o ' t hat which pur if ies' - pavat e,
pUyat e vA anena it i puNyam. Sr avaNa r ef er s t o hear ing f r om ot her s, and
kI r t ana r ef er s t o our own chant ing. The nAma says t hat bhagavAn' s glor y is
such t hat by hear ing it f r om ot her s, or by singing His glor y our selves, we will
be pur if ied. puNyam = pavit r I kr ar aNam, nAmnAm Sr avaNam kI r t anam ca yasya
sa puNya- Sr avaNa-kI r t anaH vishNuH.
One by hear ing whose names, and by chant ing whose names, we get pur if ied, is
called ' puNya-Sr avaNa- kI r t anaH' - yasya vishNor -nAm nAm anyat aH
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Sr avaNam, t at hA sva-mukhat a uccAr ya kI r t anam, it yubhayat A pavit r I kar aNam
bhavat i, sa et an-nAmnAm abhidhI yat e.
Sr I BhaTTar cont inues his int er pr et at i on of t he nAma as it r elat es t o
gaj endr a moksham, and explains t he nAma as: "He by hear ing whose gaj endr a
moksham episode, or by nar r at ing it our selves, we get pur if ied". This is one
example of t he pur if ying power of singing His glor y or hear ing His glor y.
Sr I BhaTTar r ef er s us t o a Sloka f r om vishNu dhar ma in suppor t :
Sr ut ena hi kur u-Sr eshTha! SmRt ena kat hit ena vA |
gaj endr a moksheNaiva sadyaH pApAt vimucyat e | |
(vishNu dhar ma 69.79)
"O t he best of kur u-s! A per son is immediat ely r id of his sins if he hear s,
t hinks or t alks about t he st or y of t he r escue of gaj endr a by t he Lor d".
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan point s out t hat bhagavAn is puNya Sr avaNa
kI r t anaH also because He has t hee kI r t anA (f ame) t hat is wor t hy of being
hear d (Sr avaNa), and t hat will r emove all our sins. He r eminds us t hat t his is
t he r eason why we do t he anusandhAnam of t he f ollowing Slokam on gaj endr a
moksham ever y mor ning as we get up:
gr Aham gr ast e gaj endr e sar abhasam t Ar kshaym Ar uhya dhAvan
vyAghUr Nan mAlya bhUshA vasan par ikar o megha gambhI r a ghoshaH |
vibhr ANo r at hA' ngam Sar am asim abhayam Sa' nkha cApau ca
kheTau hast aiH kaumodakI m api avat u har ir asAvamhasAm samhat er _naH | |
The Slokam is f ound in devanAgar i lipi in pr akRt am Sr I mad Azhagiya Si' ngar ' s
Ahnika gr ant ham. The Slokam r eminds us how bhagavAn r ushed t o t he scene of
gaj endr a' s suf f er ing, climbing on t o gar uDa' s back in a big hur r y, wit h
disheveled or nament s because of t he hur r y, wit h t he r oar ing sound of His
ar r ival clear ly not iceable, and wit h all His weapons r eady f or t he pr ot ect ion of
t he devot ee. The anusansdhAnam (t hinking wit h t he meaning in our mind) of
t his act of bhagavAn will pr ot ect all t hose who medit at e on it , chant it , or
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56
hear it f r om ot her s.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN echoes t he same anubhavam - pApahAr i-
gaj endr a-sambandhi-Sr avaNAdit vAt puNya-Sr avaNa-kI r t anaH.
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he f ollowing int er pr et at ion- puNyam puNyakar am
Sr avaNam kI r t anam ca asya it i puNya-Sr avaNa-kI r t anaH - He, whose names,
hear d and r ecit ed, lead t o r eligious mer it .
Bot h Sr I Sa' nkar a and Sr I vAsishTha give r ef er ence t o t he phala Sr ut i
Slokam which conveys t he same message t hat is conveyed by t his nAma:
ya idam Sr uNuyAn-nit yam yaScApi par iklI r t ayet |
nASubham pr ApnuyAt ki' ncit somut r eha ca mAnavaH | |
"Not hing inauspicious or unwelcome will accr ue eit her in t his wor ld or in t he
wor ld beyond, t o anyone who hear s t he vishNu sahasr a nAma st ot r a daily, or
who r ecit es it daily".
Sr I cinmayAnanda comment s t hat "kI r t ana should not be j ust int er pr et ed t o
mean mechanical r epet it ion, but t he ser ious st udent should r ef lect upon t he
glor ies of t he Lor d. We must lear n t o get our selves commit t ed t o t he lif e of
God-cent er ed act ivit ies. I t is not t o be a mer e noisy chant ing of hymns, a
mer e mut t er ing of mant r a- s. We must t each our selves t o allow Him t o expr ess
t hr ough us. Our physical act ivit ies, ment al f eelings, and int ellect ual t hought s
must all shine f or t h t he awar eness of His Divine Pr esence t hat is in us at ever y
moment , ever ywher e. The lif e of such a devot ee will it self become, in it s
dynamic beaut y, love and devot ed t ender ness, a const ant wor ship (pooj A), a
cont inuous (akhaNDa) hymn chant ed (kI r t anA) in pr aise of t he Lor d-of -t he-
hear t ". The message should be self -explanat or y.
Sr I vAsishTha summar izes t he meaning of t his nAma t hr ough t he f ollowing
composit ion of his own:
yasyAst i nAmnAm Sr avaNam pavit r am, sa' nkI r t anam cApyamalam hi t asya |
so' nant a nAmA bhagavAn hi vishNuH, sva-nAmabhir viSvamidam punAt i | |
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"Lor d vishNu, whose nAma-s ar e pur if ying t o t hose who hear t hem or chant
t hem - t his Lor d vishNu wit h His inf init e nAma-s (r epr esent ing His inf init e
kalyANa guNa-s), pur if ies t his whole Univer se t hr ough His nAma-s".

























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Slokam 99 Slokam 99 Slokam 99
7¬l¹Tl T!T |6rl 9 '4l T-F4U+lH+-· 7¬l¹Tl T!T |6rl 9 '4l T-F4U+lH+-· 7¬l¹Tl T!T |6rl 9 '4l T-F4U+lH+-·
4l¹rl ¹¬T- B-6l =l4+- 94 4|F¤6-+ °°+ 4l¹rl ¹¬T- B-6l =l4+- 94 4|F¤6-+ °°+ 4l¹rl ¹¬T- B-6l =l4+- 94 4|F¤6-+ °°+
ut t Ar aNO dushkr ut ihA puNyO dussvapnanAsanah |
vI r ahA r akshaNah sant O j I vanah par yavast hit ah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 923. nAma 923. nAma 923. 7¬l¹T- 7¬l¹T- 7¬l¹T- ut t Ar aNaH ut t Ar aNaH ut t Ar aNaH
He Who lif t s up.
uttAraNAya namaH.
' ut ' is an upasar ga, meaning ' int ensit y' . ' t Ar aNa' is der ived f r om t he r oot t R
- plavana sant ar aNayoH - t o cr oss over , t o swim. ut t Ar ayat i it i ut t Ar aNaH -
He Who helps in cr ossing over , is ut t Ar aNaH.
Sr I BhaTTar cont inues t he int er pr et at ion in t er ms of t he gaj endr a episode -
t he nAma r ef er s t o bhagavAn lif t ing up t he elephant and t he cr ocodile bot h
f r om t he wat er s - t au sar asaH ut t Ar it avAn. I t is t o be not ed t hat Sr I
BhaTTar uses t he wor d ' t au' - He lif t ed bot h of t hem f r om t he lake. I n a
sense, bhagavAn pr ot ect ed bot h t he elephant and t he cr ocodile - by r elieving
gaj endr a f r om t he clut ches of t he cr ocodile, and by r elieving t he cr ocodile
f r om it s cur se.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives t he same int er pr et at ion also - sar ovar At
gaj endr am ut t Ar ayAmAsa it i ut t Ar aNaH.
Most ot her int er pr et er s int er pr et t he nAma as a r ef er ence t o bhagavAn
lif t ing t he samsAr i-s f r om t he ocean of samsAr a.
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is: samsAr a sAgar At ut t Ar ayat i it i ut t Ar aNah.
Sr I cinmayAnanda explains t he nAma as: "One Who lif t s us out of t he ocean-
of -change. By ident if ying t hr ough our body-mind-int ellect wit h t he changing
whir ls of mat t er ar ound us, we assume t o our selves t he changes which pr ovide
us t he hor r ible sor r ow of mor t al f init ude. On lif t ing our selves f r om t he giddy
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changes in t hese whir ls of f init e mat t er , when we f ix it upon Him, t he one
Consciousness t hat illumines all changes in all living cr eat ur es, we get uplif t ed
int o a st at e of I mmor t alit y - changeless, blissf ul, supr emely sat isf ying. Hence
Sr I nAr AyaNa is called t he Up-lif t er , t he Savior ".
Sr I vAsishTha explains t he nAma as: bhavAr t isant apt AnAm bhavac- char aNa
Agat AnAm ut t it I r shUNAm ut t Ar aNo nAviko nAveva it yar t haH - He Who, like
a per son r owing a boat t o help cr oss a r iver , helps t he samsAr i who is t or t ur ed
by t he heat of samsAr a, and who sur r ender s t o bhagavAn seeking help in
cr ossing over t he ocean of samsAr a.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha explains t he nAma in t er ms of t he pr aNava mant r a
t hat lif t s up t he spir it s of t he sanyAsin-s et c. - ut kRshTaH t Ar aH pr aNavo
yeshAm t a ut t Ar AHsannyAsinaH t eshAm NaH sukham yasmAt sa ut t Ar aNaH.
nAma 924. nAma 924. nAma 924. T!T |6rl T!T |6rl T!T |6rl dushkRt i dushkRt i dushkRt i-- -hA hA hA
a) He Who slays t he evil-doer s.
b) He Who dest r oys t he sins of t hose who sur r ender t o Him.
dushkRti-ghne namaH.
a) dushkRt inam hant i it i dushkRt i-hA - He Who dest r oys t he evil-doer s is
dushkRt i-hA.
Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma in t er ms of bhagavAn killing t he cr ocodile t hat
seized t he leg of t he devot ee gaj endr a who was involved in bhagavad
kainkar yam, and t hr eat ened his lif e. Sr I BhaTTar cont inues t he suppor t f r om
vishNu dhar ma (69) - st halast ham dAr ayAmAsa gr Aham cakr eNa mAdhavaH -
mAdhava slew t he cr ocodile wit h His discuss when t he cr ocodile was on t he
land.
Not e t he f ollowing Sloka, which descr ibes t he guNa of bhagavAn pr aised in
t his nAma:
par it r AnAya sAdhUnAm vinASAya ca dushkRt Am |
dhar ma samst hApanAr t hAya sambhavAmi yuge yuge | |
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"I t ake incar nat ions in ever y yuga, f or t he pr ot ect ion of t he good, t he
dest r uct ion of t he evil, and t he est ablishment of dhar ma".
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN also int er pr et s t he nAma in t er ms of t he
gaj endr a episode: dushkRt im gr Aham hat avAn it i dushhkRt i-hA - He Who
dest r oyed t he cr ocodile t hat commit t ed apacAr am t owar ds a bhAgavat a.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ences t o divya pr abandham wher e t his guNa of
bhagavAn is ext olled:
ANDAL sings t his guNa of bhagavAn in t ir uppAvai: pollA ar akkanaik kiLLik
kaLaindAnai - He Who got r id of t he f er ocious demon as if by weeding him out .
vEzham mUvAmai nalgi mudalai t uNit t An (per iya t ir umozhi 6.8.3) - BhagavAn
came on gar uDa who is t he incar nat ion of t he veda- s, dest r oyed t he cr ocodile
and r emoved t he pain and suf f er ing of gaj endr a.
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan explains t hat f or bhagavAn, t he wor st among t hose
who ar e sinner s ar e t hose who commit apacAr am t o His devot ees. This is what
makes Him angr y t he most , and t his is wher e His guNa of dushkRt i-hA is in f ull
f or ce. We see t his in His incar nat ions as Lor d r Ama and Lor d nRsimha. Lor d
r a' nganAt ha also displayed His anger when t he pr iest commit t ed apacAr am
against t ir uppANAzhvAr . This nAma should r emind us t hat bhAgavat a
apacAr am is t he wor st of all sins, and should be avoided at all cost s.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he nAma as - dushkRt iH pApa sam~j nit AH hant i it i
dushkRt i-hA - He Who dest r oys t he sins, or alt er nat ively, "ye pApakAr iNaH
t An hant i it vA" - He Who dest r oys t hose who commit sinf ul deeds.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r eminds us t hat it is not j ust bhagavAn who r edeems
us f r om our sins, but His nAma is j ust as ef f ect ive.
I n helping dr aupadi against act of dur yodhana, Lor d kRshNa assur ed r ukmiNi
t hat bef or e He could go and help dr aupadi, His nAma alr eady pr ot ect ed her
when she cr ied out His name when in need of help. I n addit ion t o get t ing r id of
t hose ext r eme sinner s who cannot be cor r ect ed any ot her way, bhagavAn is
also t he One Who cor r ect s and r edir ect s t hose who ar e inadver t ent sinner s.
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Sr I cinmayAnanda' s anubhavam is t hat when bad act ions (dush-kRt i-s) ar e
under t aken by anyone, pr ompt ed by sensuous desir es, t hey leave impr essions
(vAsanA-s), and t hese always have a t endency t o make t hem r epeat similar
act ions. When one t ur ns t he mind t owar ds nAr AyaNa, t he Self , one is empt ied
of t hese exist ing vAsanA-s, and so t he Lor d is indicat ed as t he "Dest r oyer of
t he sins".
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj explains t he nAma as - dushkRt iH hant i
pr apannAnAm it i dushkRt i-hA - "One Who dest r oys t he sin of t he pr apanna-s -
t hose who have sought r ef uge under Him.
nAma 925. nAma 925. nAma 925. 9 '4- 9 '4- 9 '4- puNyaH puNyaH puNyaH
The Pur if ier .
puNyAya namaH.
Please r ef er t o t he wr it e-up f or t his nAma in Slokam 73 (nAma 692).
nAma 926. nAma 926. nAma 926. T-F4U+lH+- T-F4U+lH+- T-F4U+lH+- dus_svapna dus_svapna dus_svapna-- -nASanaH nASanaH nASanaH
The Remover of evil dr eams.
dus-svapna-nASanAya namaH.
' dus' is an upasar ga. ' svapna' is der ived f r om t he r oot svap - Sayane - t o
sleep; t he wor d ' svapna' means ' dr eam' . ' nASana' is der ived f r om t he r oot
naS - adar Sane - t o be lost , t o per ish. dushTaH svapno dus-svapnaH; dus-
svapnasya nASano dus-svapna-nASanaH - He Who r emoves bad or inauspicious
dr eams.
Sr I BhaTTar cont inues his int er pr et at ion in t er ms of t he gaj endr a moksham -
"Those who hear t he st or y of gaj endr a mosham will be r elieved of inauspicious
dr eams".
I t should be not iced t hat Sr I BhaTTar has been giving suppor t f r om t he
vishNu dhar ma f or his int er pr et at ions of all t he nAma-s based on gaj endr a
moksham. This ext ends t o t he cur r ent nAma as well. Sr I BhaTTar ' s
int er pr et at ion f or t he cur r ent nAma is f ound in t he phala Sr ut i of t his episode
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as descr ibed in vishNu dhar ma:
ye mAm t vAm ca sar aScaiva gr Ahasya ca vimoskaNam |
ye smar ishyant i manuj AH pr ayat AH st hir abuddhayaH |
dus-svapno naSyat e t eshAm su-svapnaSca bhavishyat i | |
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives t he same int er pr et at ion, and gives t he
r ef er ence quot ed above as well.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj quot es suppor t f r om Sr I mad bhAgavt am, wher e
it is declar ed t hat medit at ion on Lor d kRshNa and t he gaj endr a moksham will
r elieve t he devot ee f r om bad dr eams:
et an mahAr Aj a t aver it o mayA kRshNAnubhAvo gaj ar Aj a mokshaNam |
svar gyam yaSasyam kali kalmashApaham dus-svapna nASanam kur u var ya
SRNvat Am | | (8.4.14)
"O par I kshit mahAr aj an! I (Sage Suka) have nar r at ed t o you t his gr eat
mahimA of Lor d kRshNa t hat is called gaj endr a moksham, by hear ing which all
sins accr ued in t he kali yaga will be dest r oyed, bad dr eams will be eliminat ed,
and one can at t ain t he svar ga loka and all f ame".
Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he nAma as t he "Dispeller of bad dr eams t hat
f or ewar n of upcoming danger s, when He is medit at ed upon, pr aised and
wor shipped".
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i comment s t hat since bhagavAn ensur es t hat His
devot ees ar e not exposed t o danger s, t hey do not get bad dr eams f or ewar ning
t hem of t he danger s also. He also comment s t hat t he habit of const ant
medit at ion of bhagavAn' s nAma-s will ensur e t hat in t he long r un, t her e is no
r oom f or bad dr eams.
Sr I cinmayAnanda int er pr et s t hat t he wor st dr eam is t hat of being r e-bor n.
He not es t hat when one is ever cent er ed in nAr AyaNa-smar aNa, t hen his sub-
conscious mind is not loaded wit h half -digest ed t hought s and unexpr essed
int ent ions, r epr essed desir es and suppr essed mot ives, immor al passions and
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covet ous inclinat ions, and he has no f ear f ul dr eams in his sleep. Over t ime he
ent er s nAr AyaNa-consciousness, and t her e is no r oom f or bad dr eams.
Sr I vAsishTha gives r ef er ences t o vedi c passages wher e pr ayer is made f or
t he r emoval of bad dr eams:
j Agr ad dush-svapnyam svane dush-svapnyam |
(at har va. 16.6.9)
punar ehi vRshAkape suvit A kalpayAvahai |
ya esha svapnanamSano' st ameshi pat hA punar -viSvasmAd-indr a ut t ar aH | |
(Rg. 10.86.21)
nAma 927. nAma 927. nAma 927. 4l¹rl 4l¹rl 4l¹rl vI r a vI r a vI r a-- -hA hA hA
He Who dest r oyed t he power f ul bonds t hat t ied gaj endr a t o deat h.
vIra-ghne namaH.
We st udied t his nAma pr eviously in Sloka-s 18 and 79 (nAma-s 168 and 747).
Please r ef er t o t he wr it e-up f or nAma 747 in Slokam 79.
nAma 928. nAma 928. nAma 928. ¹¬T- ¹¬T- ¹¬T- r akshaNaH r akshaNaH r akshaNaH
The Savior .
rakshaNAya namaH.
The nAma is der ived f r om t he r oot r aksha - pAlane - t o pr ot ect . r akshat i =
pAlayat i sakalam viSvam it i r akshaNaH.
Sr I BhaTTar r elat es t he nAma t o t he pr ot ect ion of gaj endr a by bhagavAn -
t am spar Sana par ir ambhaNa sAnt vanAdibhiH r akshit avAn - BhagavAn saved
t he elephant by t ouching it , embr acing it , and speaking wor ds of consolat ion t o
t he elephant .
Sr I BhaTTar and Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN quot e vishNu dhar ma in
suppor t :
evamukt vA mahar aj a gaj endr am madhusUdanaH |
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spar SayAmAsa hast ena gaj am gandhar vameva ca | |
Sr I Sa' nkar a explains t he nAma as "One Who has t he f unct ion of pr ot ect ion
of all t he t hr ee wor lds" - sat t vam guNam adhishThAya j agat -t r ayam r akshan
it i r akshaNaH - He who, assuming t he sat t va guNa, pr ot ect s all t he t hr ee
wor lds.
I n t ir uvAimozhi, nammAzhvAr st r esses t hat it is Lor d vishNu' s nat ur e t o
pr ot ect (kAkkum iyalvinan - pASur am 2.2.9). I n f act , AzhvAr point s out t hat
in addit ion t o pr ot ect ion, Lor d vishNu per f or ms t he f unct ions of dest r uct ion
and cr eat ion t hr ough r udr a and br ahmA r espect ively by being t heir ant ar yAmi-
s, and t hese f unct ions ar e also dir ect ed in ef f ect , t owar ds pr ot ect ion of t he
j I va-s. The dest r uct ion is f or t he pur pose of giving new bodies t o t he j I va-s
inst ead of cont inuing wit h t he aged and wor n-out bodies, and t he cr eat ion is t o
give indr iya-s et c. t o t he j I va-s so t hat t hey can st r ive t o at t ain Him in t he
new bir t h. Thus r akshaNam is t he mot ivat ion f or all His act s.
Sr I cinmyAnanda r eminds us t hat pr ot ect ion is t he r eason t hat bhagavAn
keeps t aking incar nat ions:
par it r ANAya sAdhUnAm visASAya ca dushkRt Am |
dhar ma samst hApanAr t hAya sambhavAmi yuge yuge | |
(gI t A 4.8)
"For t he pr ot ect ion of t he good, t he dest r uct ion of t he wicked, and t he
est ablishment of r ight eousness, I t ake dif f er ent incar nat ions in each yuga".
Not e t hat ' pr ot ect ion' comes f ir st in t he r easons f or His incar nat ions. I n f act ,
dest r uct ion of t he wicked is only f or t he pr ot ect ion of t he good.
Sr I vAsishTha gives r ef er ence t o a vedic mant r a t hat pr ays f or t his
pr ot ect ion:
r akshA No agne t ava r akshaNebhI r Ar akshANaH sumukha pr I NAnaH |
pr at ishphuTa vir uj a vI Dvaho j ahi r aksho mahi cid vAvRdhAnam | |
(Rg. 4.3.14)
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nAma 929. nAma 929. nAma 929. B-6- B-6- B-6- sant aH sant aH sant aH
a) He Who makes t hose who have sought r ef uge in Him pr osper .
b) He Who exist s f or His devot ees.
c) He Who best ows t he desir ed benef it s on His devot ees.
d) He Who manif est s Himself in t he f or m of holy men.
e) He Who is pr esent ever ywher e and per meat es ever yt hing.
f ) He Who is wor shipped.
g) He Who expands t he wor ld in a cont r olled way.
santAya namaH.
sam - is an upasar ga (pr eposit ion). The r oot f or t he nAma is t anu - vist Ar e -
t o spr ead. The wor d also means ' t o best ow, t o lengt hen' et c. (Sr I Apt e' s
dict ionar y).
a) Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as "ASr it An sant anot i (samyak t anot i) it i
sant aH" - He Who makes t hose who have sought r ef uge in Him pr osper , and
f eel j oy by t hought s on Him.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives t he same int er pr et at ion - evam gaj endr am
Sar aNAgat am sant anot i it i sant aH.
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan explains t he signif icance of t he nAma as illust r at ing
t he guNa of bhagavAn in gr owing t he conf idence in us (sant anot i) t hat He will
pr ot ect us wit hout f ail. The ver y sight of bhagavAn dur ing His pr ocession
ar ound our st r eet s is f or giving us t his conf idence at t he sight of Him.
b) Sr I BhaTTar gives t wo ot her alt er nat e int er pr et at ions: ' t eshAm ast i it i
sant aH' - He Who exist s f or His devot ees is sant aH.
Sr I kRshNan r ef er s us t o t he Slokam in j it ant e st ot r am:
na t e r Upam na cAkAr o nAyudhAni na cAspadam |
t at hA' pi pur ushAkAr o bhakt AnAm pr akASase | |
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"Neit her Your divya At ma svar Upam, nor Your divya ma' ngaLa vigr aham, nor
f or t hat mat t er Your weapons, or Your own Sr I vaikunTham, ar e f or Your
benef it (t hey ar e all f or Your devot ees' benef it , and t hus You ar e not
independent , but You ar e t he possession of Your devot ees). Even so, You
shine as t he Supr eme Being".
c) Or , t ebhyaH ishTam dat t avAn it i sant aH - He Who best ows t he desir ed
benef it s on His devot ees is sant aH.
d) Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he f ollowing int er pr et at ion:' san-mAr aga-var t inaH
sant aH, t ad-r UpeNa vidyA vinaya vRddhaye sa eva var t at a it i sant aH' - Those
who f ollow t he r ight pat h (of dhar ma) ar e holy men. Since bhagavAn manif est s
Himself in t he f or m of t he holy men f or t he incr ease of knowledge and
modest y, He is called sant aH.
e) Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha gives t he der ivat ion f or t he nAma as ' sampUr vAt
t anot eH DaH vyApt aH' - He who is pr esent ever ywher e and per meat es
ever yt hing. This is consist ent wit h t he meaning t anu - vist Ar e - t o spr ead.
f ) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj uses t he r oot san- sambhakt au - t o wor ship,
and gives t he int er pr et at ion - sanyat e Ar Adhyat e sma it i sant aH - He Who is
wor shipped, is sant aH.
g) Sr I vAsishTha explains t he nAma as "samyak t anot i vist Ar ayat i j agat it i
sant aH" - He Who appr opr iat ely (in a cont r olled way?) expands t he wor ld, is
sant aH.
nAma 930. nAma 930. nAma 930. =l4+- =l4+- =l4+- j I vanaH j I vanaH j I vanaH
The Lif e-Giver .
jIvanAya namaH.
The r oot f r om which t he nAma is der ived is "j I v - pr ANa dhAr aNe - t o live".
Sr I vAsishTha explains t he nAma as "j I vayat i = pr ANayat i j I vana upayoga
sAdhanaiH it i j I vanaH" - He Who sust ains lif e by giving all t he means f or all
t he cr eat ed beings t o live.
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nammAzhvAr descr ibes bhagavAn as "One Whose nat ur e it is t o pr ot ect " -
kAkkum iyalvinan kaNNa per umAn (t ir uvAi. 2.2.9).
All act s of bhagavAn ar e dir ect ed t owar ds pr ot ect ion of t he j I va-s. His
swallowing t he whole Univer se wit h all beings at t he t ime of pr alaya, is only f or
t he pur pose of pr ot ect ing t hem and giving t hem new bodies in t he next cycle
of cr eat ion. When a being meet s wit h ' deat h' , it is only a means of r emoving
t he old, aged body, and giving t he j I va a new body. Thus, bhagavAn is Lif e-
giver in is act s of cr eat ion, pr ot ect ion and dest r uct ion.
Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is - sva-hast ena hananAt gr Aham api
gandhar vat vena j I vayan - j I vanaH - Even t hough bhagavAn slew t he cr ocodile
f or it s apacAr am, He r est or ed t he cr ocodile t o it s f or mer f or m as a
gandhar va, and so He is j I vanaH - t he Lif e-Giver . Sr I BhaTTar gives suppor t
f r om Sr I vishNu pur ANam:
sa hi devala Sapena hUhUH gandhar ava-sat t amaH |
gr Ahavat mam agamat kRshNAt vadham pr Apya divam gat aH | |
(VP 69)
"The f or emost among gandhar va-s, Hoohoo by name, had become a cr ocodile by
t he cur se of Sage devala. Lat er , when t he cr ocodile met it s deat h at t he hands
of kRshNa, he went back t o svar ga". Even t hough all we super f icially not e is
t hat bhagavAn slew t he cr ocodile, in f act He r est or ed his lif e as a gandhar va.
What ever bhagavAn does, including t he slaying of t he r Akshasa-s in His
dif f er ent incar nat ions, is t r uly f or t he benef it of t he r Akshasa-s who ar e
killed by Him.
Sr I baladeva vidyAbhUshaN' s int er pr et at ion is along t he same lines as t hat of
Sr I BhaTTar - gr Ahamapi gandhar vat bvena j I vat i it i j I vanaH.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o t ir uvir ut t am of nammAzhvAr , wher e bhagavAn
is r ef er r ed t o as "uyir aLippAn" - "Lif e Giver " (pASur am 1).
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is - "sar vAH pr aj AH pr ANa r UpeNa j I vayat i it i
j I vanaH" - He Who sust ains all lif e f or ms by giving t hem vit al air s (pr ANa), is
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j I vanaH.
Sr I cinmayAnanda explains t he nAma as "One Who is t he Lif e-spar k in all
living cr eat ur es". He gives suppor t f r om t he gI t A:
gAmAviSya ca bhUt Ani dhAr ayAmyaham oj asA |
pushNAmi caushadhI H sar vAH somo bhUt vA r asAt makaH | |
(gI t A 15.13)
"Per meat ing t he ear t h I suppor t all beings by My ener gy; and having become
t he j uicy Moon I nour ish all her bs".
nAma 931. nAma 931. nAma 931. 94 4|F¤6- 94 4|F¤6- 94 4|F¤6- par yavast hit aH par yavast hit aH par yavast hit aH
He Who st ands beside.
paryavasthitAya namaH.
Sr I vAsishTha indicat es t he base r oot f or t he nAma as st hA - gat i nivRt t au -
t o st and, t o wait , t o be at hand, et c. par i is a pr ef ix which means ' r ound, r ound
about ' et c.
Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is - vAt salyAt gaj endr am par i = par it aH,
avast hit aH it i par yavast hit aH - Out of His vAt salyam (af f ect ion) t o gaj endr a,
He st ood closely ar ound gaj endr a. He r ef er s us t o t he Sloka f r om vishNu
dhar ma, t hat pr aises bhagavAn' s at t achment and af f ect ion t o His devot ees:
pr I t imAn puNDar I kAksaH Sar aNAgat a vat salaH
(vishNu dhar ma.)
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr who point s t o t his guNa of
bhagavAn in his t ir uvAimozhi - avA aRac cUzh ar i (10.10.1) - nAr AyaNa, who
mingles wit h a year ning wit h His devot ees, and also in pASur am 8.3.6 - t ir u nI la
maNiyAr mEniyODu en manam Suzha var uvAr E - BhagavAn, wit h His cool
bluish gem-like hue, comes t o His devot ees and complet ely occupies t heir mind.
I n t he whole of t ir uvAimozhi 1.9, AzhvAr descr ibes how bhagavAn enj oys His
devot ee and per vades him and f loods him gr adually, and how all t he indr iya-s
of t he devot ee ar e ult imat ely per meat ed by Him wit hout int er r upt ion, and
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dedicat ed t o His t hought per manent ly.
Sr I kRshNan' s anubhavam is t hat bhagavAn went r ound and r ound gaj endr a, t o
f ind out all t he places wher e he might have suf f er ed inj ur y in his encount er
wit h t he cr ocodile, so t hat He can comf or t t he elephant as needed, and so He
is called par yavast hit aH.
Sr I bala deva vidyA bhUshaN also explains t he nAma in t er ms of bhagavAn
being ar ound gaj endr a wit h vAt salyam - vAt salya bhar eNa gaj endr asya
par it aH st hit at vAt par yavast hit aH.
While t he above anubhavam of Sr I BhaTTar , suppor t ed by nammAzhvAr ' s
pASur am-s, point s t o bhagavAn vAt salyam t o His devot ees, Sr I kRshNa dat t a
bhAr advAj enj oys anot her aspect of bhagavAn' s guNa - His ext r eme concer n
t o His devot ee, and His ever being r eady t o pr ot ect t he devot ee f r om any
har m. His vyAkhyAnam is - par it o bhakt am avast hit aH t asya r akshAyai it i
par yavast hit aH. He gives suppor t f r om Sr I mad bhAgavat am (1.12.9, 10), t hat
descr ibes t he moving episode of how bhagavAn pr ot ect ed par I kshit in his
mot her ' s womb by sur r ounding t he yet -t o-be-bor n child f r om t he br ahmAst r a
of aSvat t hAma:
kshat aj Aksham gadApANim At manaH sar vat o diSam |
par ibhr amant am ulkAbhAm bhr Amayant am gadAm muhuH | |
(bhAga. 1.12.9)
ast r a t ej aH sva-gadayA nI hAr amiva gopat iH |
vidhamant am sannikar she par yaikshat a ka it yasau | |
(bhAga. 1.12.10)
"BhagavAn, wit h angr y r ed eyes, bor e t he gadA in His hand, and was moving
ar ound like a wind in all dir ect ions ar ound t he yet -t o-be-bor n child, whir ling
t he gadA in His hand t hat was shining like a bur ning f ir ewood, and dest r oying
t he t ej as of t he br ahmAst r am wit h His gadA like t he Sun t hat r emoves t he
dew. The child wonder ed aloud who t his pur usha was, who had suddenly
appear ed by his side".
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70
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is t hat bhagavAn per vades ever yt hing in t his
Univer se, and hence is called par yavast hit aH - par t iaH sar vat o viSvam vyApya
avast hit a it i par yavast hit aH.
Sr I r AdhAkRshna SAst r i r ef er s us t o t he f ollowing f r om nAr AyaNa sUkt am -
ant ar bahiSca t at -sar vam vyApya nAr AyaNaH st hit aH - BhagavAn is
per meat ing all t hings inside and out .
The act of per meat ion of bhagavAn as our ant ar yAmi in all of us, is a r esult of
His concer n f or t he j I va-s, t o ensur e t hat He is always wit h t he j I va t o help
him in what ever he under t akes.
Sr I vAsishTha gives t he same int er pr et at ion as Sr I Sa' nkar a - par it aH =
sar vat a Ur dhvAt adhaH, t ir yak ca avast hit aH - sar va-vyApaka it i
par yavast hit aH.















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Slokam 100 Slokam 100 Slokam 100
H+-6-9l 5+-6~l|= 6P-4 ¬ 4l9r-· H+-6-9l 5+-6~l|= 6P-4 ¬ 4l9r-· H+-6-9l 5+-6~l|= 6P-4 ¬ 4l9r-·
¬6 ¹~l ¬¬l¹ltPl |4|7Hl -4l|7Hl |7H-+ °¤¤+ ¬6 ¹~l ¬¬l¹ltPl |4|7Hl -4l|7Hl |7H-+ °¤¤+ ¬6 ¹~l ¬¬l¹ltPl |4|7Hl -4l|7Hl |7H-+ °¤¤+
anant ar UpO=nant asr I r j it amanyur bhayApahah |
cat ur asr O gabhI r At mA vidisO vyAdisO disah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 932. nAma 932. nAma 932. H+-6-9- H+-6-9- H+-6-9- anant a anant a anant a-- -r UpaH r UpaH r UpaH
a) He of inf init e For ms.
b)He of unending (never decaying) f or m.
c)He of indescr ibable f or m – ext ending inf init ely in all dir ect ions.
ananta-rUpAya namaH.
The nAma is explained as :
a) One Whohas inf init e f or ms – e.g., t hr ough His dif f er ent incar nat ions and
manif est at ions;
b) He Who has a f or m t hat is indescr ibable, and ext ends in all dir ect ions, e.g.,
His viSva r Upam;
c) He Who has f or m t hat will never decay, age, or in any way under go any
change of any kind. We will see t he det ailed vyAkhyAna-s below.
a) anant Ani r UpANi yasya saHanat a-r UpaH – He Who has inf init e f or ms is
anant a-r UpaH. The f amiliar Slokam t hat comes t o mind is t he one t hat
declar es t he pur pose of bhagavAn' sincar nat ions, ad declar ed by Him:
par it r ANAya sAdhUnAm vinASAya cadushkRt Am |
dhar ma-samst hApanAr t hAyasambhavAmi yuge yuge | |
"I t ake incar nat ions as needed,in ever y yuga, f or t he pur pose of t he pr ot ect ion
of t he good, t he dest r uct ion of t he evil, and t he sust enance of dhar ma". Even
t hough t hr ee r easons ar e given her e, t he pr imar y r eason f or all His
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72
incar nat ions is t he one st at ed f ir st – t he pr ot ect ion of His devot ees; t he ot her
t wo ar e incident al t o t he f ir st one. The f or m in which He appear ed at t he
scene of gaj endr a moksham was one such f or m.
Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is –I dRSi sadyaH sampAdyAni anant Ani r UpANi
asya it i anant a-r UpaH – He Who assumes innumer able f or ms, of His own
volit ion, st r aight away as occasion ar ises and as necessit y demands.
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an gives nammAzhvAr ' s pASur am-s t hat sing t his guNa of
bhagavAn:
eLivar um iyalvinan nilai var ambu ilapala piRappAi
oLivar um muzhu nalam mudal ila kEDu ila vI DAm
t eLit ar um nilaimai adu ozhivilan muzhuvadum iRaiyOn
aLivar um ar uLinODu agat t anan pur at t anan amar ndE.
(t ir uvAi. 1.3.2)
"BhagavAn t akes sever al incar nat ions t hat ar e char act er ized by simplicit y as
needed by t he cir cumst ance. He does not car e what f or m He has t o t ake in
or der t o help His devot ees. I n t hese incar nat ions, He is f ull of all His
auspicious kalyANa guNa-s,gives t he moksha anubhavam t o His devot ee, and is
easy t o at t ain f or His devot ee in t hese f or ms, and at t he same dif f icult t o
at t ain f or t he f oes of His devot ees".
He does not mind t aking t he f or m of a Boar , a Fish, a half -man and half -lion
f or m, et c., in or der t o f ulf ill t he pur pose of His incar nat ion.
pala palavE Abhar aNam pEr um palapalavE pala palavE SOdi vaDivu paNbu
eNNilpala pala kaNDu uNDu kETTuRRu mOndu inbampala palavE j ~nAmum
pAmbaNai mElAr kkEyO.
(t ir uvAi.2.5.6)
"The Lor d who lies on AdiSesha in t he Milky Ocean, has count less var iet y in
ever y r espect – j ewelr y ador ning Him; names – some being r elat ed t o valor ,
some r elat ed t o qualit ies; f or ms of divine ef f ulgence, yet dif f er ent r oles such
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as par a, vyUhas, et c.; He can be enj oyed in sever al modes – t hr ough
singing,t hr ough cont emplat ion, t hr ough seeing, hear ing, et c. He Who lies on
anant an is anant a in t he aspect s of His r Upa et c. as well".
Sr I kRshNan int er pr et s t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o bhagavAn' s f or ms in t he
par a, vyUha, vibhava, ar cA and ant ar yAmi f or ms, each of which consist s of
mult iple f or ms (e.g., in vibhava, t he many incar nat ions suchas r Ama, kRshNa
et c., t he numer ous ar cA f or ms, t he count less ant ar yAmi f or ms, et c.). All t hese
f or ms ar e t aken by bhagavAn f or t he sole pur pose of pr ot ect ing His devot ees.
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is – anant Ani r UpANi asya viSva pr apa' nca
r UpeNa st hit asya it i anant a-r UpaH – Endless ar e His f or ms, since He shines as
t he whole univer se.
b) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj adds anot her dimension t o t he anubhavam of
t he nAma – anant am SASvat am r Upam asya it i anant a-r UpaH – He has
count less f or ms t hat ar e also ever -last ing and per manent . Many of t he f or ms
t hat He has ar e t her e et er nally, and t hose t hat He t akes (such as t he vibhava
incar nat ions) ar e also t her e f or us t o enj oy f or ever .
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha also uses t he wor d anant a in t he sense of ever -
last ing,per manent - a-nASAni r UpANi yasya sa anant a-r UpaH (nASa – t hat
which decays or is dest r oyed; a-nASa – t hat which never decays or get s
dest r oyed).
c) Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i adds anot her dimension t o t he int er pr et at ion–
BhagavAn has a f or m t hat is endless in all dimensions– which sounds like a
r ef er ence t o His viSva r Upam. He gives r ef er ence t o kaivalya upanishad –
acint yamavyakt am anant a r Upam (6) – t hat which cannot be clear ly
compr ehended, cannot be clear ly def ined, and is inf init e in all dimensions.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha r ef er s us t o t he Rg vedic mant r a in suppor t :
viSvat aS-cakshur ut a viSvat o-mukhoviSvat o-bAhur ut a viSvat as- pAt |
sam-bAhubhyAmdhamat i sampat at r air -dvyAvA bhUmI j anayan devaekaH | |
(R.10.81.3); (yaj ur .17.19)
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"He Who has eyes on all sides r ound about Him, mout hs on all sides, ar ms and
f eet on all sides; He, t he One God, pr oducing ear t h and heaven, keeping t hem
t oget her , wit h His ar ms as wings..".
nAma 933. nAma 933. nAma 933. H+-6~l- H+-6~l- H+-6~l- anant a anant a anant a-- -Sr I H Sr I H Sr I H
a) He of inf init e wealt h, glor y, power , et c..
b) He of wealt h, glor y, power et c., t hat will never diminish.
ananta-Sriye namaH.
a) Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan explains t he nAma as: anant AH Sr iyaH
yasyasaH anant a-Sr I H – He Who has unending and inf init e wealt h is anant a-
Sr I H. What does He do wit h all t his wealt h? J ust so t hat He can give
ever yt hing t hat His devot ees want , including t he at t ainment of Himself , t o t he
devot ees. Sr I mad ANDavan not es t hat in t he cur r ent inst ance of gaj endr a
episode, t he cr ocodile got SApavimocanam by being r est or ed t o his gandhar va
f or m, and was t hus given svar gam by bhagavAn. Gaj endr a was given Sr I
vaikunTham by bhagavAn. This possession of inf init e wealt h t o give away, is
r ef lect ed by t he nAma anant a-Sr I H.
Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is – t ebhyodeyAH sva-pr Apat i-par yant AH anat AH
Sr iyo' pi asya it i anant a-Sr I H – He who has all wealt h t o give t o His devot ees,
at His command, including giving t he enj oyment of Himself in f ull t o His
devot ees. I n t he case of gaj endr a, bhagavAn gave him a divine body and sent
him t o Sr I vaikunTham.
Sr I BhaTTar gives suppor t f r om vishNu dhar ma 69:
t at o divya vapor -bhUt vA hast i-r ATpar amam padam j agAma |
(vishNudhar ma 69)
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an comment s t hat bot h His vibhUt i-s – t he leelA vibhUt i in
t his wor ld, and t he nit ya vibhUt i in Sr I vaikunTham, ar e pur ely f or t he benef it
of His devot ees. He r ef er s us t o nAcciyAr t ir umozhi (10.10), wher e ANDAL
r ef er s t o emper umAn as "Selvar per iyar "– One Who is f ull of wealt h and Who
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is mahA pur ushan. Per iyAzhvAr (2.8.8) r ef er s t o per umAL as "Selvat t inAl vaLar
piLLai" –One, who, as child kRshNa, was gr owing amidst abundant wealt h.
Sr I kRshNan r ef er s us t o t ir uma' ngaiAzhvAr ' s pASur am in per iya t ir umozhi
(7.7.1) – "t ir uvukkum t ir uvAgiya SelvA! deivat t ukkuar aSA!" – "He Who is t he
Wealt h f or even Lakshmi – t he Goddess of all wealt h! He Who is t he Lor d of all
t he deva-s!".
Sr I kRshNan also r ef er s us t o ALavandAr ' s st ot r a r at nam (Slokam12):
kaH Sr I H Sr iyaH par amasat t vasamASr ayaH kaH kaH puNDar I ka
nayanaHpur ushot t amaH kaH |
kasyaayaut Ayut a Sat a eka kalAmSaka amSe viSvam vicit r a cit acit
pr avibhAgavRt t am | |
"Who is t he Deit y t hat is t he Sr I f or Sr I (Lakshmi devi) Her self ? Who is t he
Deit y t hat is t he embodiment of sat t va guNa? Who is t he Deit y t hat is t he
Supr eme Pur usha of all pur usha-s? Who is t he One who is endowed wit h
beaut if ul lot us-like eyes? Who is t he One Deit y by whose t iny f r agment of
Power t his whole Univer se consist ing of t he count less f or ms of cet ana and
acet ana f or ms ar e cr eat ed, pr ot ect ed,and dest r oyed? (I t is none ot her t han
t he Supr eme Deit y, Sr I man nAr AyaNa)".
Sr I Sa' nkar a uses t he meaning "Sakt i"f or t he wor d Sr I , and gives t he
int er pr et at ion– anant A a-par imit A Sr I H = par A Sakt iH asya it i anant a-Sr I H –
He of inf init e power and glor y, because He possesses count less super ior Sakt i-
s. He quot es t he Sr ut i in suppor t – par A asya Sakt iH vividhaiScaSr Uyat e (Sve.
upa. 6.8) – His supr eme Sakt i is declar ed t o be var ious.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i comment s t hat bhagavAn' s inf init e Sakt i is t he
dr iving f or ce f or all of us in what ever we achieve dur ing our lives.
b) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj uses t he meaning ' indest r uct ible' - a-
vinASinI , f or t he wor d anant a, and gives t he int er pr et at ionas "anant A = a-
vinASinI Sr I H SobhA sampat yasya it i anant a-Sr I H" – He who has et er nal
beaut y and wealt h, is anant a-Sr I H.
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Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha also int er pr et s t he nAma along t he same lines– anant A
= nASa-r ahit A Sr I H avar Upa Sr I H yasya sa anant a-Sr I H –He Whose wealt h is
by nat ur e et er nal.
Sr I cinmayAnanda r ef er s t o t he t hr ee ' power s' t hat t he Lor d expr esses in
t his univer se:
1. icchA Sakt i (desir e-power ),
2. kr iyA Sakt i (act ion-power ), and
3. j ~nAna-Sakt i (Knowledge-power ).
He adds: "These ar e expr essions of His Glor y at our physical (kr iyA sakt i),
ment al (icchA Sakt i), and int ellect ual (j ~nAna Sakt i) levels. These t hr ee
manif est at ions of His ' power s' , and t heir cont inuous int er play, t oget her weave
t he f abr ic of t he t ot al dynamic expr essions of lif e in t his wor ld. The self , Sr I
nAr AyaNa, is t he one spr ingboar d f or all t hese vibr ant aspect s of lif e".
nAma 934. nAma 934. nAma 934. |=6P-4 - |=6P-4 - |=6P-4 - j it a j it a j it a-- -manyuH manyuH manyuH
He Who has conquer ed His anger .
jita-manyave namaH.
The wor d manyu is f or med f r om t he r oot man – j ~nAne – t o know, t o t hink.
Applicat ion of t he uNAdi sUt r a 3.20 r esult s in t he addit ion of t he af f ix yuc t o
t he r oot , giving t he wor d ' manyuH' , meaning ' dist r ess, sacr if ice, or anger ' . The
wor d ' j it a' is der ived f r omt he r oot ' j i – j aye, abhibhave ca – t o conquer ' . The
nAma ' j it a-manyuH' t hus means "One Who has conquer ed anger ".
Sr I BhaTTar cont inues his int er pr et at ion of t he cur r ent ser ies of nAma-s in
r elat ion ot t he gaj endr a moksham incident . He explains t he nAma as indicat ing
t hat bhagavAn cont r olled His anger at t he cr ocodile even af t er seeing t hat t he
cr ocodile was not let t ing go of His devot ee' s leg. Her e was a Sar aNAgat a in
t he f or m of gaj endr a, and t his ' cr eat ur e' in t he lake (Sr I BhaTTar ' s wor ds –
j ala-kI Tam – t he wor m in t he wat er ) was causing pain and miser y t o His
devot ee, but st ill He cont r olled His anger , and pr oceeded wit h calm t o t ake t he
act ion needed f or r elieving t he pain of gaj endr a.
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Per haps t he best example of His cont r ol over anger is t he incident wher e sage
bRghu kicked Him on His chest , and in r esponse, bhagavAn calmly comf or t ed
t he sage' s f oot (and, of cour se, in t he pr ocess killed t he ahamkAr a of t he
sage).
Lor d kRshNa descr ibes how anger develops in us, and t he consequences of not
cont r olling anger :
dhyAyat o vishyAn pumsaHsa' ngas-t eshUpaj Ayat e |
sa' ngAt sa' nj Ayat e kAmaH kAmAt kr odho' bhij Ayat e | |
(gI t A 2.62)
"To a man t hinking about sense-obj ect s, t her e ar ises at t achment t o t hem;
f r om at t achment ar ises desir e, and f r om desir e ar ises anger ".
kr odhAt bhavat i sammohaH sammohAt smRt i-vibhr amaH |
smRt -bhr amSAt buddhi-nASo buddhi-nASAt pr aNaSyat i | |
(gI t A 2.63)
"Fr om anger , t her e comes delusion; f r om delusion, t he loss of memor y; f r om
loss of memor y, t he dest r uct ion of t he abilit y t o discr iminat e; and wit h t he
dest r uct ion of discr iminat ion, he is lost (t hat is, he get s deeper and deeper
int o act ions t hat sink him int o t he ocean of samsAr a)".
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i not es t hat t her e ar e t imes when bhagavAn f or ces
Himself t o become angr y, especially if t he of f ense is such t hat t he subj ect
needs t o be punished; but in t hese cases, He get s His anger under cont r ol as
soon as t he obj ect of anger is achieved. One such case is when samudr a r Aj an
did not r espond t o His ' r equest ' f or assist ance dur ing t he cr ossing of t he
ocean t o Sr I la' nkA.
Sr I SAst r i point s t o anot her nAma t hat has a similar int er pr et at ion – j it a-
kr odhaH (Slokam 49, nAma 463), and dist inguishes bet ween t hr ee t er ms–
manyu, kopam, and kr odham. manyu is t he st at e wher e one f eels anger at t he
ment al level, but t his has not f ound ext er nally visible expr ession. Kopam is t he
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st at e when t he anger is visible t hr ough f acial indicat ions such as r eddish eyes.
kr odham is t he st at e when t his f eeling f inds expr ession t hr ough har sh wor ds,
banging on t hings, and ot her act ions indi cat ing t he st at e of anger . BhagavAn
has all t hese st at es of anger under f ull cont r ol, and ' becomes' angr y only when
needed, but st ill f ully under His cont r ol. Sr I SAst r i point s t o t wo incident s in
Sr I mad r AmAyaNam wher e sage vAlmI ki descr ibes Lor d r Ama ' get t ing' angr y.
vinamya dhanur -bhI mam t UNyoScoddhRt yasAyakAn |
kr odhamAhAr ayat t I vr am vadhAr t ham sar va-r akshasAm | | (3.24.33)
"Sr I r Ama bent His bow, and set t he ar r ows t o t hem, and, f or t he pur pose of
t he dest r uct ion of t he r Akshasa-s, got Himself angr y". I n ot her wor ds, He has
His anger under cont r ol, and br ings it out only when He want s, as needed.
The second inst ance is when hanuman was bleeding f r om t he ar r ows of r AvaNa
while hanuman was car r ying Lor d r Ama on his shoulder s. Then Lor d r Ama again
' got angr y' . When He Himself under goes per sonal suf f er ing in any of His
incar nat ions, such as t he r Ama incar nat ion, He is in complet e cont r ol of His
anger . But when His devot ee suf f er s, He deliber at ely and knowingly ' invit es'
anger t o Himself – in ot her wor ds, under f ull cont r ol of Himself , He decides t o
be angr y. This is because He cannot t oler at e His devot ee' s suf f er ing.
I nt er est ingly, Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et st he nAma ' j it a-kr odhaH' in Slokam 49
as "BhagavAn conquer ing t he anger in ot her s", inst ead of "One Who has
conquer ed anger in Himself "; in ot her wor ds, when He deceived t he asur a-s and
cheat ed t hem wit hout giving t hem t he amRt a in His mohini incar nat ion, inst ead
of get t ing angr y, t hey wer e conf ounded and conf used by His mohini f or m, and
t hus He over came t he anger in t hem t owar ds t he deva-s.
The r eader is r ef er r ed t o t he wr it e-up f or nAma 463, since much of t his
inf or mat ion is cover ed t her e.
Sr I kRshNan comment s t hat it would have been quit e under st andable if
BhagavAn had indeed become angr y and put addit ional cur se on t he cr ocodile
since it had commit t ed bhAgavat a apacAr am by hur t ing gaj endr a. But inst ead,
He was willing t o give cr edit as it wer e, f or t he cr ocodile t o have put it s head
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at a bhAgavat a' s f eet , and sent it t o svar ga lokam inst ead. Sr I kRshNan gives
t wo ot her inst ances wher e bhagavAn get s anger complet ely under cont r ol once
t he obj ect of anger has been achieved. Af t er Lor d r Ama killed r AvaNa, He
asked vibhhI shaNa t o pr oceed t o per f or m t he f inal r it es f or his br ot her .
When vibhI shaNa hesit at ed because of t he f eeling of enmit y, Lor d r Ama
point ed out t o him t hat enmit y bet ween Him and r AvaNa ended t he moment
r AvaNa was dead, and r AvaNa was af t er all a gr eat war r ior who was
undef eat ed unt il t hat t ime.
mar aNa ant Ani var iANi nir vRt t am naHpr ayoj anam |
kr iyat Am asya samskAr omamApyesha yat hA t ava | |
"Enmit y (bet ween r Avana and Me) was only unt il r AvaNa' s deat h. Now he is as
r elat ed t o Me as he is t o you. The obj ect of our ef f or t is accomplished. Now
please pr oceed t o do t he f inal r it es f or your br ot her ".
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan also r ef er s t o t he above Slokam in suppor t of
t he int er pr et at ion of t his nAma in his sahasr a nAma bhAshya upanyAsam.
Again, when r AvaNa hit hanuman in t he f or ehead, and hanuman was bleeding,
r Ama r eached t he peak of anger (kopasya vAsAM EyivAn – yuddha.59.147). He
at t acked r AvaNa f ier cely, and in a f ew moment s, he f ound t hat r AvaNa was
complet ely par alyzed by t he at t ack. At t hat point , inst ead of cont inuing t he
at t ack on r AvaNa, r Ama calmly t old him: "I f ind you ar e complet ely t ir ed and
de-st abilized, and so I will not kill you now. I will per mit you t o go back t o your
palace, t ake r est and r ecuper at e, and t hen come back, and t hen you can see My
t r ue Might ".
t asmAt par iSr Ant a iva vyavasya na t vAmSar air -mRt yu vaSam nayAmi|
yuddha. 59.153
gacchAnuj AnAmi r aNAr dit as-t vampr avi Sya r At r i' ncar a-r Aj a la' nkAm|
AsvAsya nir yAhi r at hI ca dhanvI t adA balamdr akshyasi me r at hast haH | |
yuddha. 59.154
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Sr I vAsishTha comment s t hat anger ar ises t owar ds one who is st r onger or
mor e power f ul t han oneself , and in t he case of bhagavAn, t her e is no cause f or
anger , since t her e is no one who is super ior t o Him in any r espect .
nAma 935. nAma 935. nAma 935. ¬4l9r- ¬4l9r- ¬4l9r- bayApahaH bayApahaH bayApahaH
He Who dest r oys t he f ear (of samsAr a) in t he mind of t he devot ee.
bhayApahAya namaH.
bhaya means f ear . The ver b apahan means ' t o kill, t o dest r oy' . bhaya-apahaH
means "One Who dest r oys f ear ". Bot h Sr I BhaTTar and Sr I vAsishTha r ef er
t o t he pANini sUt r a 3.2.49 –ASishi hanaH, which declar es t hat t he af f ix Da is
added t o t he r oot han – t o kill, wit h a sense of benedict ion ("May He r emove
our f ear ").
The ending ' ha' means ' t o kill, t o dest r oy' (f r om t he ver b han – t o kill). Tha
pANini sUt r a 3.2.50 – ape kleSa t amasoH st at es t hat t he af f ix Da comes af t er
t he ver b han – t o kill, when it is compounded wit h t he pr eposit ion ap, and when
t he obj ect incomposit ion wit h it is t he wor d kleSa – pain, or t amas –dar kness.
The above sUt r a leads t o t he wor ds kleSApahaH – r emover of pain, and
t amopahaH – r emover of dar kness. The cur r ent nAma bhayApahaH f alls in a
similar cat egor y – r emover of f ear .
We st udied t he nAma bhaya-nASanaH (nAma 838 – Slokam 89), t hat has a
similar meaning. Sr I BhaTTar explains t he cur r ent nAma as – asmadAd
I nAmapi sva-vAt sal yena t AdRSa anAt hat va bhayam vadhyAt i t i
ASamsanAr haH – By vir t ue of His love f or His devot ees, He can be r elied upon
t o dispel our f ear t hat we have no Pr ot ect or . He can be r elied on t o pr ot ect us
also j ust as He pr ot ect ed gaj endr a, and we can pr ay t o Him f or r emoving our
f ear . Sr I BhaTTar quot es – bhayemahat i magnAnSca t r At i nit yam
j anAr adanaH –"J anAr dana always pr ot ect s t hose who ar e dr owned in t he gr eat
f ear (of samsAr a)".
I t is t he t r ust t hat we can have in bhagavAn t hat He will sur ely pr ot ect us
wit hout f ail if we sur r ender t o Him (mahA viSvAsam) t hat is emphasized in
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t his nAma. Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an gives examples f r om divya pr abandham wher e
AzhvAr s capt ur e t his guNa t hr ough t he use of t he wor d "namban" – One Who
can be t r ust ed.
"nambanai nar aSi' nganai"
(peiyAzhvAr t ir umozhi 4.4.9)
"Lor d nRsimha who can be t r ust ed (t o pr ot ect us)."
nambanE! …..Azhi mun Endi kamba-mA-kar i kOL viDut t AnE!
(per iyAzhvAr .5.1.9)
' He t he Most Tr ust wor t hy One when it came t o r akshaNam of t he devot ees!
He came wit h His cakr a in His hand and r elieved t he pain and dist r ess of t he
gr eat elephant gaj endr a."
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAanam is – bhayam samsAr a-j am pumsAm apa-ghnan
bahayApahaH – He Who dest r oys t he f ear of r epeat ed cycle of bir t h and
deat h in t his wor ld in t he case of His devot ees. (Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam
f or t he nAma ' bhaya-nASanaH' – Slokam 89, was t hat bhagavAn r emoves t he
f ear of t hose who f ollow t he pat h of dhar ma. I n ot her wor ds, t hese f ollower s
of dhar ma do not have any f eeling of f ear f or anyt hing, because bhagavAn
gives t hem t he ment al mat ur it y t o accept what ever comes as a nat ur al r esult
of kar ma, and so t hey do not have any sor r ow or f ear of anyt hing).
Sr i r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i comment s t hat f ear is t he st at e t hat occur s as a
r esult of ant icipat ion of some pr oblem, and it s ef f ect and int ensit y is even
mor e sever e and longer last ing t han t he pr oblem it self . Those who t r ust in t he
Lor d do not have t his f ear , and when any pr oblem does ar ise, t hey accept it . A
t r ue devot ee is one who sees pain and pleasur e wit hout any dif f er ence – t hat
is, he neit her r ej oices when somet hing good happens, nor suf f er s when
somet hing bad happens. This is r evealed t o us in sever al places in t he gI t A
(sukhaduhkha same kRt va .. 2.38; duhkeshvanudvigna manAHsukheshu vigat a
spRhaH…2.56; et c.).
Sr I kRshNan' s anubhavam f or t he nAma is t hat bhagavAn not only r emoved
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t he f ear of gaj endr a, but also t hat of t he cr ocodile, which got t he f ear of t he
cur se r emoved on seeing bhagavAn.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha uses t he pATham ' byAvahaH' , which has a similar
meaning (avahan – t o st r ike away, t o f end of f .)
nAma 936. nAma 936. nAma 936. ¬6 ¹~- ¬6 ¹~- ¬6 ¹~- cat ur cat ur cat ur -- -aSr aH aSr aH aSr aH
a) One Who is skilled in all aspect s.
b) One Who is f air t o ever ybody.
c) One f r om whom wishes ar e asked f or .
d) One Who per vades in all f our dir ect ions.
e) One Who nour ishes and f eeds ever yt hing in all f our dir ect ions
f ) One Who is wor shipped by t he knowledgeable people.
caturaSrAya namaH.
The t er m ' cat ur ' r ef er s t o t he number 4, and ' aSr a' or ' aSr i' means ' cor ner ' .
cat r uasr aH r ef er s t o t he geomet r ical shape known as t he squar e. The t er m has
been used by some vyAkhyAna kar t A-s as a r ef er ence t o "One Who is f air -
minded, or f air t o ever yone". Sr I cinmayAnanda explains t he nAma as "One
Who deals squar ely wit h all". The t er m cat ur a also means "One Who is skilled"
– a r ef er ence t o one' s ' sAmar t hya' . So He Who is skilled in all aspect s is cat r -
aSr aH.
a) Sr I BhaTTar uses t he meaning "One Who is skilled in all aspect s" as t he
meaning f or t he nAma "cat ur -aSr aH". Sr I mad ANDavan explains t hat
bhagavAn has t his nAma indicat ing t hat He does what ever is appr opr iat e in t he
benef it of t he devot ee under any and all cir cumst ances. I n t he cur r ent
cont ext of gaj endr a moksham, He r elieved t he cr ocodile f r om it cur se, He
f ulf illed t he desir e of gaj endr a t o per f or m f lower kainkar yam t o Him, and He
demonst r at ed t o all of us t hat He will def init ely pr ot ect t hose who sur r ender
t o Him, all wit h His one act of r esponding t o gaj endr a' s call t he way He did.
He could have t aken car e of t he cr ocodile f r om Sr I vaikunTham it self , but He
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did not do t hat . When gaj endr a scr eamed out f or help, He r ushed t o t he scene
even wit h all His or nament s not pr oper ly posit ioned – gar j at e gaj Aya j agAma.
And, He invit ed upon Himself gr eat anger against t he meager ' wat er -cr eat ur e'
– kshudr a j alakI TAya cukr odha; all because of His ext r eme concer n f or His
devot ee. Thus, all His act ions ar e appr opr iat e and consist ent wit h His r eal
nat ur e – ' kAkkumiyalvinan' accor ding t o nammAzhvAr – One Whose r eal nat ur e
is t hat of pr ot ect ion.
Using t he meaning ' cAt ur ya' , or skill f or t he wor d ' cat ur ' , Sr I VeLukkuDi
kRshNan gives an example of bhagavAn' s cAt ur yam f r om Sr I mad r AmAyaNam.
Dur ing vAli vadham, when vAli lies wounded by r Ama' s ar r ow, f ir st he st ar t s
accusing r Ama of unf air ly hit t ing him while hiding behind a t r ee. vAli and r Ama
exchange some wor ds, and at t he end, j ust bef or e dying, vAli pr aises r Ama f or
His r ight eousness. I t is not easy t o mor t ally wound someone, and t hen have him
pr aise t he one who is causing your deat h. This is clear ly possible only f or One
who is a cat ur asr aH – skilled in all r espect s.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is – nyAya sama vet aH cat ur -aSr aH – He Who
is j ust t o ever yone by dist r ibut ing t he f r uit s of t heir kar ma et c.
Sr I anant a kRshna SAst r y gives an elabor at e list of examples and explanat ions
f or t he t er m cat ur a (f our ) in t he nAma:
1. dhar ma, ar t ha, kAma and moksha; bhagavAn dist r ibut es t hese t o t he
deser ving accor ding t o t heir kar ma-s.
2. The sacr if icial f ir e is of f our kinds – AhavanI ya, gAr hapat ya, dakshiNa,
(t he sour ces I have only r ef er t o ' agni-t r aya, or t hr ee agni-s; so it is
unclear what t he f our f ir es ar e t hat ar e being r ef er r ed t o her e).
3. He nour ishes wit h f ood t he f our kinds of cr eat ur es – bor n of womb,
bor n of egg, bor n of sweat , and t hose t hat come out of ear t h.
4. He pr ot ect s f our kinds of people – t he dist r essed, t hose desir ous of
knowing Him, t he desir er s of wealt h, and t he wise ones.
5. He is known by t he Sir as of t he f our veda-s (i.e., by t heUpanishad-s).
6. His command is obeyed in all f our cor ner s of t he wor ld.
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c) Sr I vAsishTha der ives t he nAma f r omt he r oot cad – yAcane – t o ask, and
t he applicat ion of t he uNAdi sUt r a cat er -ur an (5.58), which st at es t hat t he
af f ix ur an comes af t er t he r oot cat , giving t he wor d ' cat ur ' .
Sr I vAsishTha gives t he meaning "One who asks f or somet hing", or "One f r om
whom somet hing is asked", t o t he t er m ' cat ur ' – cat at i cat yat e vA it i – cat ur .
d) e) Alt er nat ely, Sr I vAsishTha der ives t he meaning based on t he r oot aS –
vyApt au sa' nghAt e ca – t o per vade, t o accumulat e; or aS –bhoj ane – t o eat . The
meanings der ived f r om t hese ar e: "cat asr o diSo aSnut e cat ur aSr aH" - One
Who per vades in all f our dir ect ions, or "cat asRshu dikshu st hit AnAm
pr ANinAm bhoj anasya dAt A it i vishNuH" – One Who nour ishes and f eeds
ever yt hing in all f our dir ect ions.
f ) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj explains t he nAma as – cat ur aiH Sr I yat e
=sevyat e it i cat ur -aSr aH – He Who is wor shipped by t hose who have t he
knowledge t o under st and His gr eat ness.
nAma 937. nAma 937. nAma 937. ¬¬l¹ltPl ¬¬l¹ltPl ¬¬l¹ltPl gabhI r At mA gabhI r At mA gabhI r At mA
He of deep and pr of ound nat ur e.
gabhIrAtmane namaH.
Sr I vAsishTha indicat es t he der ivat ion of t he nAma based on t he uNAdi sUt r a
4.35 – gabhI r a gambhI r au – The af f ix I r an comes af t er t he r oot gam – gat au-
t o go, and t he ' m' get s changed t o ' bh' , leading t o t he wor d gabhI r a. This has
t he same meaning as gambhI r a, which means ' deep' (amar a koSa has ' nimnam,
gabhI r am, gambhI r am…' as equivalent wor ds). The t er m ' At mA' her e r ef er s t o
' sva-r Upa' or inher ent nat ur e.
Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma as "One who has a deep and pr of ound
nat ur e",t hat is beyond t he under st anding of even t he likes of br ahmA and
ot her s – anyeshAm cat ur -mukha-mukhAnAm apr adhRshya gAmbhI r yaH
gabhI r At mA.
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan explains t he nAma as One Who is of such
dept h* (like an ocean) t hat not hing and no one can dist ur b or per t ur b Him in
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anyway.
Sr I kRshNan adds t hat Siva who was f or t unat e enough t o have bor ne t he
Sr I pAda t ir t ham of bhagavAn (in t he f or m of ga' ngA) in his head, or br ahmA
who is t he best among t hose who have been endowed wit h knowledge (br ahma
vidAm var aH), ar e not able t o see His t r ue nat ur e event hough t hey have been
per f or ming penance f or t his f or a long, long t ime. He r ef er s us t o t oNDar aDip
poDi AzhvAr :
peN ulAm SaDaiyinAnum pir amanum unnaikkANbAn eN ilA Uzhi Uzhi t avam
SeidAr veLgi niRpa …..
(t ir umAlai 44)
nammAzhvAr point s out t hat br ahmA can know t hings t hat he cr eat ed, but
cannot have f ull knowledge of all t hings t hat exist ed long bef or e he was
cr eat ed. Thus, his knowledge of t he One who cr eat ed all t he t hings including
br ahmA, is not t ot ally wit hin his compr ehension:
Sur ar aRi ar ul nilai t ir uvAi.1.1.8
uNar ndu uNar ndu uNar ilum iRai nilai uNar vaduar idu uyir gAL
(t ir uvAi.1.3.6)
I n f act , bhagavAn is One whose gr eat ness is such t hat even He cannot know it
t anakkum t an t anmai aRivaRiyAn.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an gives sever al suppor t s f r om divya pr abandham:
kaTkar iya pir aman Sivan indir an enRuivar kkum kaTkar iakaNNanai….
(t ir uvAi. 7.7.1)
"We humans cannot see, wit h our physical eyes, t he likes of br ahmA, Siva,and
indr a. Exact ly in t he same manner , t hey also cannot see my Lor d kRshNa".
t ir umAl! nAnmugan, Se' n-caDaiyAn enRuivar gaL en per umAnt anmiyai yAr
aRigiRpAr ? pESi en?….
(t ir uvAi. 8.3.9)
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"Oh Lor d who is always associat ed wit h Sr I or Lakshmi! The likes of br ahma
and Siva ar e incapable of f at homing Your t r ue gr eat ness. Wher e is t he need t o
even discuss t his limit at ion of t heir s?
Ar E aRivAr – anait t u ulagum uNDuumizhnda pEr AzhiyAn t an per umaiyai?
KAr SeRinda kaNDat t An eN-kaNNAn kANAn avan vait t apaNDait -t Anat t in pat i.
(nAnmugan t ir uvan. 73)
"Who can compr ehend t he gr eat ness of emper umAn who is like t he deep
ocean,and who swallowed all t he Univer ses at t he t ime of pr alaya, and t hen spit
t hem out at t he t ime of cr eat ion? No one! The eight - eyed br ahmA (f our -
f aced), and Siva who has t he blue neck (because he swallowed t he poison), do
not even know t he gr eat ness of t he sur est means t o r each Him – t he car ama
Sloka.
Sage vAlmI ki descr ibes Lor d r Ama as "samudr a iva gAmbhI r ye" - "deep as t he
Ocean"; bhagavAn conceals His gr eat ness such t hat even t he deva-s can' t
easily r ecognize His gr eat ness wit hout deep devot ion.
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is – At mA= svar Upam cit t am vA gabhI r am
par icchet t uma-Sakyam asya it i gabhI r At mA – He Whose t r ue f or m or mind is
unf at homable.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i elabor at es t hat His mind is such t hat He never get s
dist ur bed easily, and does not easily r eveal what is in His mind, as He consider s
pr os and cons of ever yt hing deeply.
Sr I cinmayAnanda descr ibes t he unf at homable nat ur e of bhagavAn t hr ough
t he f ollowing wor ds: "One Who, in His Real Nat ur e, is t oo deep t o be f at homed
by t he f r ail inst r ument of our mind. Dept h her e indicat es pr of oundness – t he
Supr eme Essence per vading t he Univer se is unf at homably pr of ound in it s
signif icance and glor y."
Sr I vAsishTha gives int er pr et at ions based on t he r oot gam – gat au- t o go:
gacchat i gamyat e = pr Apyat e anena – He because of Whom ever yt hing is
at t ained, or , ' gacchant i = pr Apnuvant i, dhyAyant i pr Ar t hayant e vA
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sagabhI r aH' - He Who is t he obj ect of at t ainment , medit at ion or wor ship, is
gabhI r aH. He is also gabhI r aH since He makes ever yt hing move – gacchat i =
gamana-SilaH; He makes even t he st hAvar a-s such as plant s, t r ees et c. move
t hr ough deat h or decay.
nAma 938. nAma 938. nAma 938. |4|7H- |4|7H- |4|7H- vidiSah vidiSah vidiSah
a) One Whose nat ur e, f or ms, and qualit ies ar e spr ead out in all dir ect ions.
b) One Who can be r eached f r om all dir ect ions.
c) He Who best ows all benef it s on His devot ees.
d) He Who per vades ever ywher e, and is in ever yt hing, in all dir ect ions.
e) He Who is t he cause of happiness f or t he knower s (of Br ahman) – based on
vid – t o know.
f ) He Who has r evealed all SAst r a-s in elabor at e det ail.
vidiSAya namaH.
This nAma and t he next t wo nAma-s all have r oot diS in t hem in one f or m or
anot her (vidiSaH, vyAdiSaH, diSaH). The r oot has dif f er ent meanings –
dir ect ion, or der or command, dAnam or best owing, et c. The dif f er ent
int er pr et er s use dif f er ent per mut at ions of t hese meanings in t heir
int er pr et at ions f or t he t hr ee nAma-s.
Sr I vAsishTha indicat es t he r oot f or t he nAma as diS – at isar j ane – t o gr ant ,
t o allow (at isar j anam = dAnam). He t akes vi - as an upasar ga,meaning ' vividah' –
of dif f er ent t ypes.
a) Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is: "t eshAmvinaya gadgada st ut igir Am asyadUr e
vividhA diSAH deSAH it i vidiSaH" – He Who is f ar above ever yt hing, and
beyond t he r each of wor ds. BhagavAn is One Whose nat ur e, f or ms, and
qualit ies ar e immeasur able, as if t hey ar e spr ead out in space in all dir ect ions.
Even when t he deva-s seek Him by pr aising Him in moving wor ds, st ill His
kalyANa guNa-s ar e f ar beyond t heir r each.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ences f r om divya pr abandham in suppor t :
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nAt t azhumba nAnmuganum I sanumAimuRaiyAl Et t a
(per iya t ir umozhi 1.7.8)
While t he f our -headed br ahmA and Siva pr aise Him t ill t heir t ongues get s
scar s, (He does not r eveal Himself t o t hem; inst ead, He becomes pr at yaksham
t o devot ees like pr ahlAda et c.).
Sivanum pir amanum kANAdu ar u mAl eydi aDi par ava ar uLai I ndaammAnE
(t ir uvAi. 10.7.6)
Siva and br ahmA ar e not in a posit ion t o compr ehend t he Lor d in f ull, but st ill
t hey pay homage t o Him in humilit y and devot ion, and t he Lor d does pr ot ect
t hem in t imes of need; (but wit hout any pr ayer , He shows gr ace t o t he whole
univer se at t he t ime of pr alaya by pr ot ect ing all t he j I va-s in His st omach).
dAmOdar an ur uvAgiya Sivar kkum t iSai mugar kkum AmO t ar am aRiyaemmAnai
(t ir uvAi. 2.7.12)
All t he dif f er ent Siva-s and br ahmA-st hat ar e cr eat ed in t he dif f er ent yuga-s
ar e but bodies of dAmOdar an, and t hey ar e incapable of r ealizing t he f ull
gr eat ness of emper umAn.
However , emper umAn whose gr eat ness is f ar beyond t he r each of t he likes of
br ahmA and Siva, comes r eadily and willingly t o help gaj endr a j ust at t he mer e
cr y of dist r ess f r om him.
b) Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan explains t hat t he nAma signif ies t hat
bhagavAn can be r eached by calling Him f r om f ar and wide – vividhAH
diSAdeSAH yasya sa vidiSaH.
c) Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he nAma as "One Who best ows diver se f r uit s on
deser ving per sons based on t heir diver se kar ma-s" - vividhAni phalAni
adhikAr ibhyo viSesheNa diSat i it i vidiSah (based on diS – at isar j ane – t o
gr ant ).
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj ' s int er pr et at ion is also along t he same lines –
viSesheNa diSat i = dadAt ibhakt ebhyaH abhI shTam it i vi-diSaH – He Who
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best ows t he desir ed obj ect s t o His devot ees.
Sr I cinmayAnanada echoes t he same int er pr et at ion: "One Who is unique in His
giving". He is divinely liber al, magnif icent ly benevolent in f ulf illing t he ear nest
desir es of all His t r ue devot ees.
d) Sr I vAsishTha comment s t hat t he nAma also signif ies t hat bhagavAn
per vades ever yt hing, ever ywher e, in all dir ect ions, and t her e is no place wher e
He is not pr esent .
e) Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha looks at t he nAma as vidi-SaH, and der ives t he
meaning based on vid – t o know, and Sam – sukham: vidiSi = j ~nAniniSam =
sukham yasmAt sa vidi-SaH – He Who is t he cause of happiness in t hose who
ar e knowledgeable (about Br ahman).
f ) Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha explains t he nAma as "vi = at iSayena, diSat i =
upadiSat i it i vidiSaH" – He Who shows in a special way (r ef er r ing t o bhagavAn
showing t he pr ocedur es f or per f or mance of sacr if ices et c. ver y clear ly - vi =
at iSayena ya~j na kr iyA pr akAr An diSat i = upadiSat iit i vidiSaH). The
explanat ion can equally apply t o His r evelat ion of all t he SAst r a-s and t he
codes of conduct .
nAma 939. nAma 939. nAma 939. -4l|7H- -4l|7H- -4l|7H- vyAdiSaH vyAdiSaH vyAdiSaH
a) He Who appoint s t he dif f er ent gods in t heir r espect ive posit ions.
b) He Who best ows dif f er ent benef it s on devot ees based on t heir kar ma-s.
c)He Who gives dir ect ions t o t he dif f er ent gods as appr opr iat e.
vyAdiSAya namaH.
' vyAdiS' means ' t o dist r ibut e, t o divide among, t o appoint , dispat ch t o any
place or dut y, dir ect , or der , command' (Monier -Williams). The wor d AdeSa
means "command, inst r uct ion". The explanat ion of t he nAma can be der ived
based on eit her of t he above.
a) Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as "One Who est ablishes t he likes of
br ahmA and r udr a in t heir r espect ive f unct ions" – t eshAm abhimat am t at -t at -
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padam at isRj at i it i vyAdiSaH (t eshAm her e r ef er s back t o nAma 937, wher e
Sr I BhaTTar r ef er s t o br ahmA and r udr a).
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s t o nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi 5.2.8, wher e AzhvAr
r ef er s t o bhagavAn being t he One who est ablishes t he deva-s in t heir
r espect ive posit ions:
iRukkum iRai iRut t u uNNa ev-ulagukkumt an mUr t i niRut t inAn daiva' ngaLAga ad-
daiva nAyagan t AnE …
(t ir uvAi. 5.2.8)
"I n or der t o accommodat e t he people wit h dif f er ent t ast es f or wor ship,
bhagavAn f or med t he anya devat A-s f r om His body, and est ablished t hem in
t heir var ious posit ions so t hat of f er ings can be made t o t hem, which ult imat ely
r each Him. So it is none ot her t han bhagavAn who est ablished t he lower
deit ies in t heir var ious posit ions, so t hat t hey can collect of f er ings f r om t heir
r espect ive devot ees, and pass t hem on t o Him".
b) Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan explains t he nAma as "viSesheNa AdiSat i it i
vyAdiSaH" – He Who best ows t he benef it s t o t he dif f er ent deit ies et c., as
t hey deser ve, accor ding t o t heir kar ma-s.
Sr I kRshNan uses a dif f er ent ver sion f or Sr i BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam t han t he
ones f ound in t he available publicat ions, but t he int er pr et at ion is enj oyable as
an illust r at ion of one mor e of bhagavAn' s guNa-s: t at t at abhimat a deSam
sRj at i it i vyAdiSaH – He Who best ows what ever is desir ed by t he devot ees.
He explains t hat in t he case of gaj endr a moksham episode, gaj endr a got what
he want ed, namely t he oppor t unit y t o of f er t he lot us f lower at t he Feet of
emper umAn; t he cr ocodile got it s cur se r emoved; BhagavAn Himself had t he
chance t o demonst r at e once mor e t hat f or Him, t he pr ot ect ion of His devot ee
is t he most impor t ant t hing He is concer ned about ; all of us get our sins
r emoved by t hinking of and list ening t o t his episode. Thus, wit h one act , He has
given His blessings in one f or m or t he ot her t o ever yone.
Sr i kRshNan gives bhagavAn' s vAmana incar nat ion as anot her example: To
st ar t wit h, bhagavAn Himself was sat isf ied t hat He f ulf illed indr a' s wish;
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indr a was sat isf ied t hat he got his wish f ulf illed; mahAbali was happy t hat he
got t he chance t o give dAnam t o mahA vishNu Himself ; ever yone in all t he
wor lds got t he blessings of His Holy Feet ; The AzhvAr -s ar e happy t hat t hey
got t o sing t he pr aise t he Holy Feet t hat accomplished so much f or t he
devot ees; and t he SAst r a-s t hemselves wer e happy t hat bhagavAn pr oved
t heir declar at ion t hat all t he wor lds belong t o Him.
Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha uses t he r oot diS – at isar j ane – t o gr ant , t o allow
(at isar j anam = dAnam), and explains t he nAma as "vividham Asamant At diSat i =
dadAt i it i vyAdiSaH – He Who best ows diver se benef it s on devot ees f r om all
dir ect ions is vidiSaH.
c) Sr I Sa' nkar a vyAkhyAnam is –"vividhAm A~j nAm Sakr AdI nAm
kur vanvyAdiSaH" – He Who gives t o indr a and ot her deit ies dir ect ions,
accor ding t o t heir var ied f unct ions.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj der ives t he nAma as: "viSesheNa AdiSat i =
A~j nApayat iit i vyAdiSaH" – He Who commands in s special way (because
ever yone and ever yt hing is under His command, and t her e is no except ion, it is
' command in a special way).
Sr I bala deva vidyA bhUshaN explains t he nAma as – "vividhAn
adhikAr Ant asya AdiSat i = A` j nApayat i adhikAr iNi t asmin evam eva ucit amit i
bhAvaH" – He gives or der s or commands t o t he dif f er ent deva-s as deemed
appr opr iat e.
Sr I cinmayAnanada explains t he nAma as "One Who is unique in His
commanding Power . One Who or der s even t he phenomenal power s, t he deit ies
and t he gods".
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha explains t he nAma as "viSesheNa AdiSat i =
A` j nApayat iit i vidiSaH" – One Who has unique and special commanding power .
nAma 940. nAma 940. nAma 940. |7H- |7H- |7H- diSaH diSaH diSaH
He Who commands.
diSAya namaH.
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Sr I Bhat t ar uses t he meaning ' command' f or t he wor d diSa in explaining t his
nAma. I n addit ion t o est ablishing t he likes of br ahmA and r udr a in t heir
posit ions, bhagavAn also commands and cont r ols t hem in t heir pr oper f unct ions.
This is unlike His t r eat ment of devot ees such as gaj endr a, who ar e t r eat ed
wit h a much closer int imacy - na t An gaj endr avat ant ar a' ngI kar ot i, kim t u
Aj ~nApayat iit i diSaH.
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan explains t hat pr apanna-s such as gaj endr a ar e
t he obj ect of His love, wher eas t he kar ma-vaSya-s (t hose who ar e subj ect t o
t he ef f ect s of t heir kar ma-s) such as br ahmA, r udr a et c. ar e t he obj ect s of
His command.
Sr I vAsishTha explains t he nAma as "diSat i = Aj ~nApayat i veda mukhenaviSva
nibandhanena ca, evam kar t avyam evam na it i diSaH" – He Who or dains t hr ough
t he veda-s t he ways in which t hings should be done, and ways in which t hings
should not be done.
Sr i Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is – samast AnAm kar maNAm phalAni diSan
vedAt manAdiSaH. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i int er pr et s t he nAma as signif ying
t hat bhagavAn shows, in t he f or m of t he veda-s, what is good and t o be
f ollowed, and what is bad and t o be avoided. (This would use t he meaning diS –
t o dir ect , t o show).
Sr I T.S.Kr ishnamoor t hy t r anslat es Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam as: "One Who,
in t he f or m of t he veda-s, best ows on dif f er ent beings t he f r uit s of all t heir
r it ualist ic act ions". This t r anslat ion pr obably uses t he meaning diS – at isar j ane
– t o gr ant , t o allow (at isar j anam = dAnam).
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj explains t he nAma as – diSat i = dadAt i
kar maphalam it i diSaH – He Who gives t he f r uit s of kar ma t o t he j I va-s.
Sr I cinamyAnanada capt ur es t he same sense in his explanat ion: "One Who
advises and gives knowledge. Lor d nAr AyaNa, in t he f or m of t he Sr ut i t ext s,
gives t o man t he knowledge of t he Self ".
Sr I r aghunAt ha t ir t ha explains t he nAma as ' diSyat e = bhakt aiH pRcchyat eit i
diSaH' – He Who is sought af t er or enquir ed int o by t he devot ees, is diSaH.
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I n t he beginning of nAma 938, it was point ed out t hat t he nAma-s vidiSaH,
vyAdiSaH, and diSah had similar r oot s. I t is int er est ing t o look at how some of
t he well-known vyAkhyAna-kar t A-s have appr oached t he int er pr et at ion of t he
t hr ee nAma-s while avoiding r epet it ion in int er pr et at ion.
Sr I BhaTTar avoids r edundancy in t he t hr ee nAma-s (vidiSaH, vyAdiSaH,
anddiSaH) by giving t he f ollowing int er pr et at ions: vidiSaH – He Whose nat ur e,
f or ms and qualit ies ar e spr ead out beyond descr ipt ion in all dir ect ions or
ever ywher e (diSaH – dir ect ion?). vyAdiSaH – He Who has est ablished t he
dif f er ent gods in t heir dif f er ent post s (vyAdiS – t o appoint ). diSaH – He Who
commands (diS – t o command).
Sr I Sa' nkar a has given t he f ollowingint er pr et at ions:
vidiSaH – One Who dist r ibut es dif f er ent f r uit s of act ion t o per sons accor ding
t o t heir kar ma (diSat i = dadAt i; diS = dAnam). vyAdiSaH – He Who gives
dir ect ions t o indr a and ot her saccor ding t o t heir var ious f unct ions. diSaH – He
Who best ows f r uit s f or t he var iousr it ualist ic act ions specif ied in t he veda-s.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha: vidiSaH – He Who best ows sukham or happiness t o
br ahma j ~nAni- s (vid – t o know, a r ef er ence t o j ~nAni-s). vyAdiSaH – He Who
gives commands in a unique and special way (i.e.,ever yt hing is under His
command). diSaH – He Who t r ansf er knowledge of dhar ma t hr ough analogy –
dhar ma j ~nAna at ideSanAt diSaH. (vid – at isar j ane– t o gr ant , t o allow).
Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha:
1. vidiSaH – He Who per vades ever yt hing and ever ywher e in all dir ect ions.
2. vyAdiSaH – He Who best ows f r uit s in var ious f or ms f r om al ldir ect ions.
3. diSaH – He Who gives inst r uct ions on do' s and don' t ' s in t hef or m of
vedic inj unct ions.




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Slokam 101 Slokam 101 Slokam 101
H+l|7¬ ¬ 4l ¬÷Pl- B 4l¹l 6|¬¹lñ7-· H+l|7¬ ¬ 4l ¬÷Pl- B 4l¹l 6|¬¹lñ7-· H+l|7¬ ¬ 4l ¬÷Pl- B 4l¹l 6|¬¹lñ7-·
=++l =+=-Pl|7- ¬lPl ¬lP9¹l4P-+ °¤°+ =++l =+=-Pl|7- ¬lPl ¬lP9¹l4P-+ °¤°+ =++l =+=-Pl|7- ¬lPl ¬lP9¹l4P-+ °¤°+
anAdir bhUr bhuvO lakshmI h suvI r O r ucir Angadah |
j ananO j anaj anmAdih bhI mO bhI mapar Akr amah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 941. nAma 941. nAma 941. H+l|7- H+l|7- H+l|7- anAdiH anAdiH anAdiH
a) He Who is not r ealized by many because of t heir ignor ance et c.
b) He Who has no beginning.
anAdaye namaH.
Sr I vAsishTha der ives t he nAma f r om t he r oot dA – dAne – t o give, and gives
t he int er pr et at ion "na AdI yat e it i anAdiH" – He Who is not easily at t ained.
The wor d Adi means ' beginning' . One int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma is "He Who
is beginningless".
a) Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma as – t aiH anyapar aiH na svAmit vena
AdI yat e it i anAdiH – He Who is not r ealized by t he likes of br ahmA and r udr a
as t heir Lor d.
Sr I Sr I mushNam ANDavan explains t he nAma as "na dI yat e it i AnadiH" – He
Who does not give Himself t o t he non- devot ees. Sr I BhaTTar comment s: evam
t ir yakshvapi bahkt eshuvivaSaH; br ahmAdishu phalgu phalameva pr ayacchat i –
He gives Himself t o t he complet e cont r ol of animals such as gaj endr a, but
when it comes t o t he likes of br ahmA and r udr a, He gives t hem only meager
f r uit s. He does not best ow t he same level of benef it s on t he likes of br ahmA
and r udr a as He does on His dear devot ees. He gives Himself f r eely t o t he
likes of gaj endr a, who have sur r ender ed t o Him. But He does not give t he likes
of br ahmA and r udr a t he same benef it s, namely t he abilit y t o r ealize Him and
r each Him, as He best ows on devot ees such as gaj endr a, and so He is anAdiH.
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan comment s t hat even t hough br ahmA and r udr a obey
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t he Lor d, it is not necessar ily out of love, but mor e out of f ear (because of
bhI t i r at her t han pr I t i). BhagavAn is bound by pr I t i, and not by bhI t i, and so
t he likes of gaj endr a can at t ain Him easily, wher eas t he likes of br ahmA and
r udr a don' t st and a chance. BhagavAn is not r ealized as t he Supr eme Deit y by
t he likes of br ahmA and r udr a; t hey r ush t o Him only when t hey ar e in danger ,
and need His help. At ot her t imes, t hey long af t er ot her benef it s, such as
t heir posit ions, r at her t han devot ing t heir ef f or t s t o at t aining Him. Thus,
bhagavAn is called anAdiH also because He is not r ealized by many as t he
Supr eme Deit y.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i expr esses t he t hought as "One Who is not accept ed
by t hose who ar e dr iven by pr ide and haught iness (Ser ukku)".
Sr I vAsishTha explains t he nAma as: "na AdI yat e it i anAdiH" – He Who is not
' given' t o us t hough our mind, indir ya-s et c. na AdI yat e = gRhyat e sa-
manaskaiH j ~nAnendr iyaiH kar mendr iyaiSca it ianAdiH. The meaning is t hat He
is not accessible t o us t hr ough t he means of t he mind and indir ya-s.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a uses t he meaning ' beginning' f or t he wor d ' Adi' , and gives t he
int er pr et at ion – AdiH = kAr aNam asya na vidyat a it ianAdiH, sar va kAr aNat vAt
– He Who is beginningless, because He is t he cause of ever yt hing.
An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion by Sr I vAsishTha is – na AdI yat e = svI kr iyat e
svodbhavAya ki' ncit apar am nimit t a kAr aNam anena so anAdiH – He Who does
not need any ot her cause f or His being, is anAdiH – in ot her wor ds, One Who
exist ed bef or e anyt hing else exist ed.
nAma 942. nAma 942. nAma 942. ¬ ¬ 4- ¬ ¬ 4- ¬ ¬ 4- bhUr bhUr bhUr -- -bhuvaH bhuvaH bhuvaH
a) He Who is t he abode of t hose who r eally live (by r ealizing t heir r elat ion t o
t he Lor d).
b) He Who suppor t s t hat which suppor t s all (namely, t he ear t h).
c) He Who exist s in Himself (wit h no ot her suppor t ).
d) He Who is t he Sour ce of all knowledge.
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96
bhuvo-bhuve namaH.
Sr I vAsishTha der ives t he nAma f r om t he r oot bhU – sat t AyAm – t o be, t o
live. Based on t he declension of t he noun bhU, t he f ir st par t , bhU, is
int er pr et ed as ' AdhAr a - suppor t ' , and t he second par t , bhuvaH, is t aken as
t he 6t h case – t he genit ive case, giving t he meaning f or ' bhuvaH = of t he
suppor t ". Sr I vAsishTha' s explanat ion is: pr at hamo bhU Sabda AdhAr a
vAcakaH pr at hamAnt o, dvit I yaSca shashThyant aH pRt hivI vAcakaH. I n ot her
wor ds, bhagavAn bhuvaH bhUH – The Suppor t of all suppor t s. The dif f er ent
int er pr et at ions can be viewed on t he basis of t his meaning.
a) Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as: "bhavat i it i bhUH – svadAsya j ~nAnena
At malAbhavAn; t asya bhuvaH, svayameva bhUH = padam it i bhUr -bhuvaH" – A
per son who has t he cor r ect knowledge t hat he is t he ser vant of t he Lor d and
t hat t he Lor d is t he Mast er , is one who is bhU – one who r eally lives. For t hat
per son, bhagavAn is an Abode or t he Suppor t - (bhU), and so He is r ef er r ed t o
as bhUr -bhuvaH.
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan explains t hat bhagavAn is bhUmi (suppor t ) f or
t hose who have t he dAsya j ~nAna, namely t he knowledge and r ealizat ion t hat
t hey ar e always His dAsa-s, as t heir bhUmi. I n ot her wor ds, He is t he Suppor t
f or t hose t hat ar e f ollower s of bhakt i yoga, pr apat t i yoga, et c.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a explains t he nAma as "bhuvo' pi bhUH" – He Who suppor t s t he
Ear t h, which it self suppor t s ever yt hing else.
Sr I vAsishTha explains t he nAma as "bhavant i asyAm it i bhUH – pRt hivI ;
t asyA bhUH – AdhAr aH" – He is t he Suppor t of t he ear t h, and so He is bhUr -
bhuvaH. He is also t he Cr eat or as well as t he Sust ainer of ever yt hing -
bhuvayor bhAvayit A = ut pAdako mUlAdhAr aH sa bhUr -bhuvaucyat e.
c) Sr I vAsishTha gives t he alt er nat e int er pr et at ion – svayam svasmin bhavat i
it bhUr -bhuvaH – He Who exist s in Himself is bhUr -bhuvaH. I n ot her wor ds,
t her e is not hing else which is t he cause f or His exist ence, or f or His cr eat ion.
d) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advaj gives t he int er pr et at ion – bhuvaH –
pr apa' ncasya, bhUH – udgamaH (cr eat ion, sust enance et c.), bhuvo bhUH. He
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gives t he alt er nat e int er pr et at ion – bhuva it ij ~nAnam, t asya bhUH = udbhava
it i bhuvo bhUH – He Who is t he sour ce or Or igin of knowledge. He r ef er s t o
t he gI t A Slokam 15.15 in suppor t :
sar vasya cAham hRdi sannivishTo
mat t aH smRt ir -j ~nAnam apohanam ca |
(gI t A 15.15)
"I am seat ed in t he hear t s of all.
Fr om Me ar e memor y, knowledge, and t heir r emoval as well".
nAma 943. nAma 943. nAma 943. ¬÷Pl- ¬÷Pl- ¬÷Pl- lakshmI H lakshmI H lakshmI H
The Wealt h.
lakshmyai namaH.
Sr I BhaTTar comment s t hat bhagavAn has t his nAma signif ying t hat He alone
is all t he wealt h f or His devot ees – t eshAm lakshmI H – sar vA sampat ca. He
gives examples f r om t he r AmAyaNa and t he mahAbhAr at a:
bhavad-gat am ca me r Aj yam j I vit am ca sukhAni ca
(yuddha. 19.6)
(vibhI shaNa says t o Lor d r Ama): "My kingdom, my lif e and my happiness ar e all
cent er ed in You".
kRshNASr ayAH kRshNa balAH kRshNa nAt hASca pANDavAH |
kRshNaH par AyaNam t eshAm j yot ishAmiva candr amA | |
(dr oNa. 183.24)
"For t he pANDava-s, Sr I kRshNa is t he sole suppor t . kRshNa is t heir st r engt h,
and kRshNa is t heir pr ot ect or . Sr I kRshNa is t heir sole Lor d, even as t he moon
is t o t he st ar s".
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s t o nammAzhvAr ' s pASur am in suppor t :
…SElEy kaNNiyar um per um Selvamum nan makkaLum mElAt t Ai t andaiyar um
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avar E iniAvAr E. (t ir uvAi. 5.1.8)
"Beaut if ul damsels t hat one loves her e, money and af f luence, of f spr ing on
which one dot es, much-pr aised mot her and f at her ar e, her eaf t er , f or me none
except my Lor d. He is ALL t o me".
Sr I kRshnan explains t he nAma as "One Who has all t he wealt h f or giving away
t o t he devot ees, One Who is endowed wit h limit less wealt h; One Who has
lakshmi Her self as His Consor t ". I n addit ion, He is Himself t he wealt h f or t he
devot ees who seek Him and not hing else. Sr I kRshNan gives addit ional suppor t
f r om Sr I mad r AmAyaNam:
na deva lokAkr amaNam na amar at vam aham vRNe |
aiSvar yam vA vilokAnAm r Amaye na t vayA vinA | | (lakshmaNa)
"Ther e is no lor dship, no et er nal lif e, no gr eat vict or y in t his wor ld, no wealt h
of any kind t hat I wish in t his wor ld; all I wish f or is f or You, My Lor d r Ama".
sneho me par amo r Aj an t vayi nit yam pr at ishThit aH |
bhakt iSca niyat A vI r A bhAvo nAnyat r a gacchat i | | (hanuman)
"My mind does not seek anyt hing except et er nal and const ant devot ion t o You;
all I wish f or et er nal ser vice-minded dedicat ion t o You".
en amudinaik kaNDa kaNgaL maRRu onRinaik kANAvE | | (t ir uppANAzhvAr )
"My eyes t hat have seen my sweet Nect ar , t he Lor d of Sr I r a' ngam, will never
see anyt hing else ever again".
ic-cuvai t aviRa yAn pOi ac-cuvai per inum vENDEn ar a' nga mA nagar uLAnE
(t oNDar aDippoDi)
"When I have t his t ast e of enj oying You r ight her e and now, My Lor d
r a' nganAt ha! I will not t r ade t his even f or t he t ast e of t he af t er - lif e in Sr I
vaikunTham".
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives a f ew combinat ions of t he t hr ee wor ds bhUH, bhuvaH, and
lakshmI H, and gives int er pr et at ions f or t hese combinat ions. We saw t he
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int er pr et at ion f or one of t hese combinat ions - bhUr -bhuvaH in t he pr evious
nAma. Now he pr oceeds t o give t wo ot her combinat ions: bhuvo-lakshmI H, and
bhUr -bhuvo- lakshmI H
1. bhuvo lakshmI H: Sr I Sa' nkar a uses t he meaning "SobhA" – splendor ,
f or t he wor d lakshmI , and gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn is not
only t he Suppor t f or t he ear t h (pr evious nAma), but He is also t he
splendor of t he ear t h – na kevalam asau bhUH bhuvaH, lakshmI H SobhA
ca it i bhuvolakshmI H. (bhuvaH – of t he ear t h, lakshmI H – splendor ).
2. bhUr -bhuvo-lakshmI H - "One Who is in t he f or m of t he beaut y
(lakshmI H) of t his ear t h (bhUH), and of t he f ir mament (bhuvaH) –
bhUmi ant ar ikshayoH SobhA it ibhUr -bhuvo-lakshmI H. I n ot her wor ds,
He is One Who illumines t he ear t h and t he f ir mament .
An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion he gives f or t he nAma t aken as bhUr -bhuvo-
lakshmI H is "He Who is in t he f or m of t his ear t h (BhUH), t he f ir mament
(bhuvaH), and At ma vidyA – t he science of At man (lakshmI H)". Her e Sr i
Sa' nkar a gives t he meaning "At ma vidyA" or t he science of At man t o t he wor d
' lakshmI H' , based on vishNu pur ANam 1.9.118, wher e Lakshmi is pr aised as
At ma vidyA – At ma vidyA ca devit vam. The idea is t hat Lakshmi and bhagavAn
ar e t he Ones who give At ma vidyA or t he knowledge of t he Self t o t he seeker .
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i comment s t hat t he nAma is of f eminine gender , and
denot es t hat bhagavAn is One Who is always associat ed wit h Goddess Lakshmi,
and in f act She never leaves Him ever , and is always r esiding in His vaksha
st halam. When bhagavAn t akes incar nat ions, She always accompanies Him; f or
inst ance, when He t ook incar nat ion as r Ama, She t ook incar nat ion as Sit A, and
when He t ook incar nat ion as kRshNa, She came as r ukmiNi. Thus, She is
insepar able f r om Him, and it is t his dualit y t oget her t hat we should wor ship.
We have t he well-known pASur am of nammAzhvAr :
agalakillEn iRaiyum enRu alar mEl ma' ngai uRai mAr bA! nigar il pugazhAi ulagam
mUnRuuDaiyAi, ennai AlvAnE!…
(t ir uvAi. 6.6.10)
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"O! Lor d of t ir uvE' nkaTam! You r ule over me, and You in f act own all t he t hings
in all t he t hr ee wor lds. Your kI r t i (f ame) is beyond compar e t o anyt hing. Our
Mot her , alar mEl ma' ngai (mahA lakshmi), r esides in Your vaksha st halam
(Divine chest ), declar ing t hat She is ever insepar able f r om You, and will never
ever leave Her r ight f ul place wit h You".
The nAma t hus signif ies t hat bhagavAn is ever associat ed wit h t he qualit ies of
beaut y, f ame, splendor , wealt h, and in f act t he f ullness of all auspicious
qualit ies, t hat ar e signif ied by Goddess lakshmi.
Sr I cinmayAnanda capt ur es t he idea t hat bhagavAn is t he Sole sour ce of all
t hat is good and beaut if ul in t his univer se t hr ough t he f ollowing wor ds: "I f
Self wer e not , t hen all would have been iner t , unbor n, dead. As t he One Lif e
ever ywher e, as Pur e Exist ence, all t he glor ies of t his dynamic Univer se ar e in
Him and f r om Him alone".
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj der ives his int er pr et at ion st ar t ing f r om t he r oot
laksha – dar SanA' nkanayoH – t o not ice, t o def ine, t o r egar d; or alt er nat ively,
t he r oot laksh – Alocane – t o per ceive, t o obser ve. His int er pr et at ions ar e:
1. lakshayat i = dar Sayat i nir at iSaya vAt salyam it i lakshmI H – He Who
shows vAt salyam (af f ect ion) t hat is beyond descr ipt ion, t o His devot ee.
2. lakshayat i a' nkam Ar opayat i bhakt a put r An it ilakshmI H, j aganmAt A –
Ref er s t o j agan mAt A, mahA lakshmi, Who ensur es t hat Her childr en
who ar e devot ed t o t he divyadampat i, ar e saf ely on His lap. (I n pr evious
nAma-s, we have descr ibed how a j I va who becomes a mukt a j I va
ult imat ely r eaches Sr I vaikunTham, and how, f inally, t he j I va climbs t he
snake bed of bhagavAn and pir ATTi, and is af f ect ionat ely seat ed on t he
lap of emper umAn). Since bhagavAn and pir aTTi ar e insepar able in all
r espect s, t he nAma lakshmI H, which nor mally r ef er s t o our Mot her , is
also a r ef er ence t o Him simult aneously.
Using t he meaning laksh – Alocane, t he alt er nat e int er pr et at ion is – lakshayat i
= Alocayat i sva-j anAnAm vipat -sar it a uddhAr asya upAyAn it i lakshmI H – He
Who shows t he means t o t he devot ee on how t o over come t he obst acles
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encount er ed in samsAr a which is f ull of impediment s t o r eaching Him.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha uses t he same r oot – laksh – dar SanA' nkayoH – t o
r egar d, and gives t he int er pr et at ion: lakshayat ipuNyakRt o, lakshayat e
puNyakRt bhiH it i vA lakshmI H. BhagavAn is called lakshmI H since He r egar ds
t hose who ar e endowed wit h good vir t ues as His t r easur e, or because He is
r egar ded as t he Supr eme Lor d by t he vir t uous.
Sr I vAsishTha uses t he same r oot in his int er pr et at ion as well, and explains
t he nAma as – lakshayat i = dar Sayat i it i lakshmI H – He Who makes t hose who
ar e endowed wit h lakshmI – wealt h, beaut y, et c., shine dist inguishably. I n f act ,
He, in t he f or m of lakshmI , is pr esent ever ywher e and per vades ever yt hing,
and makes all t hings known. He gives t he example of t he Sun, which is visible
f r om a vast dist ance away, because he has endowed t he Sun wit h t he SobhA or
splendor .
nAma 944. nAma 944. nAma 944. B 4l¹- B 4l¹- B 4l¹- suvI r aH suvI r aH suvI r aH
a) He Who possesses gr eat valor .
b) He Who has auspicious movement s.
c) He Who is accessible t o us t hr ough dif f er ent pat hs.
d) One Who, in His kRshna incar nat ion, was associat ed wit h var ious ot her
auspicious vI r a-s.
suvIrAya namaH.
I nt er pr et at ions have been given based on t he wor ds vI r a – One Who is
valor ous, and also based on t he r oot I r – gat au – t o go. I n t he lat t er
int er pr et at ion, su - and vi - ar e t r eat ed as upasar ga-s or pr eposit ions (su -
meaning ' good' , and vi – meaning vividha – var ious, per Sr I sat ya devo
vAsishTha).
The r elat ed nAma – vI r aH, has been descr ibed in Sloka-s 43 (nAma402), and
70 (nAma 664). The r eader is r ef er r ed t o t he det ailed wr it e-ups under bot h
t hese nAma-s in addit ion t o t he cur r ent wr it e-up.
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a) Sr I BhaTTar uses t he meaning ' valor ous' f or t he t er m ' vI r a' , and explains
t he nAma as "One Who is valor ous in def ending His devot ees f r om t heir
downf all, and r et r ieving t hose who have had a downf all – t eshAm vinipAt a
pr at I kAr aH.
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan explains t he nAma as "SobhanaH vI r aH yaH
saH su-vI r aH" – He Who is a highly desir able vI r a is su-vI r a.
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o t ir uvAimozhi 3.2.3, wher e nammAzhvAr pr aises
t he valor of Lor d kRshNa in conduct ing t he mahA bhAr at a war wit hout even
par t icipat ing dir ect ly as a war r ior in t he war .
kollA mAk-kOl kolai Seidu bhAr at ap-pOr ellAc-cEnaiyum ir u nilat t u aLit t a
endAi! (t ir uvAi. 3.2.3)
BhagavAn uses t he st ick t hat He used f or dir ect ing t he hor ses of t he char iot ,
and t hough t his st ick it self could not kill, He st ill used it so skillf ully t hat
ar j una was able t o f inish t he t ask t hat He want ed t o get f ulf illed, and r educed
t he bhU-bhAr am or t he load on t he ear t h by dest r oying t he f ight er s of bot h
sides.
Sr I vAsishTha explains t he nAma as SobhanA = sar alA, vividhA ca I r aH =
gat iH yasya, sa suvI r aH – He Who has beaut if ul, elegant , gait t hat is displayed
in var ious f or ms. Even t hough Sr I vAsi shTha does not r ef er t o t he dif f er ent
gat i-s of bhagavAn such as t he gaj a gat i, simha gat i, vyAghr a gat i, sar pa gat i
et c., one is immediat ely r eminded of t hese beaut if ul gat i-s t hat one is given t o
enj oy dur ing our t emple pr ocessions of emper umAn f r om t emple chamber s t o
t he out side and back. Sr I vAsishTha gives t he example of bhagavAn
manif est ing Himself beaut if ully in var ious f or ms such as dakshiNAyana,
ut t ar AyaNa, et c.
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan dist inguishes bet ween t hr ee t ypes of vI r a-s: vI r a,
SUr a, par Akr ama. VI r a is one who does not get dist ur bed by t he might of t he
opposit ion; Sur a is one who get s inside t he ar my of t he opposit ion and dest r oys
t he opposit ion wit hout a t r ace; par Akr ama is t he qualit y wher ein t her e is no
har m or inj ur y t o t he f ight er in t he pr ocess of f ight ing. Sr I kRshNan
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comment s t hat t hr ough t his nAma, bhagavAn' s vI r a, Saur ya and par Akr ama
ar e all descr ibed. I f one wer e t o ask why t his gr eat t er m ' su-vI r a' needs t o be
invoked in t he cont ext of His killing t his small cr eat ur e in t he f or m of a
cr ocodile, Sr I kRshNan not es t hat whet her it is a small cr eat ur e like t he
cr ocodile or a big cr eat ur e like r AvaNa, f or bhagavAn what count s is t hat it is
an enemy of His devot ee. Once t his is est ablished, He displays His guNa of
being a su-vI r a in def ending His devot ee, no mat t er how insignif icant t his
cr eat ur e is.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj explains t he nAma as – Shobano vI r aHpar akr amI
it i su-vI r aH.
b) Sr I Sa' nkar a uses t he r oot I r – t o go, in his int er pr et at ion – SobhaNa
vividhA I r AH = gat ayo yasya sa suvI r aH – He Who has var ious auspicious
movement s.
Sr I anant a kRshna SAst r y elabor at es t hat t he dif f er ent movement s r ef er r ed
t o her e ar e His occupying t he hear t s of t he yogin-s, His being in t he Sun' s
disc, in t he Milky Ocean, et c.
Sr I cinmayAnanda explains t he nAma as: "One Who moves t hr ough var ious
ways which ar e all divinely glor ious; Or , One Who exhibit s in all His
incar nat ions t he inimit able splendor of valor in His act ions and achievement s".
c) Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i uses t he same r oot I r , and explains t hat
bhagavAn has t his nAma signif ying t hat He is accessible t o us t hr ough
dif f er ent means (e.g., bhakt i, pr apat t i).
d) Sr I bala deva vidyA bhUsahN int er pr et s t he nAma as One, Who, in His
kRshna incar nat ion, was associat ed wit h many vI r a-s alongside Him is su-vI r aH
– t at aH samAgat eshu sakhishu suvI r aH SobhanAH Sr I dAmasubhadr AdayaH
svat ulyA vI r A yasya sa su-vI r aH.
Given t hat bhI shma had alr eady descr ibed bhagavAn' s guNa of vI r ya t hr ough
t wo r ef er ences t o t his guNa ear lier (in Sloka-s 43 and 70), t he quest ion ar ises
as t o why He is now descr ibing anot her guNa - ' su-vI r aH' . One way t o
appr eciat e t his subt let y is t o r ealize t hat t he nAma vI r a was int er pr et ed as a
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r ef er ence t o His par Akr ama in His encount er s wit h His enemies in gener al. As
we saw in t he st udy of t he nAma vI r a-hA (nAma-s 168, 747, 927), vI r a-s
(t hose endowed wit h valor or t he skill t o def eat opponent s) ar e of t wo kinds:
good and bad. BhagavAn' s nAma of vI r a t hat we st udied in Sloka-s 43 and 70
r ef er t o His guNa of vI r a in cont aining t he bad vI r a-s who use t heir vI r ya in
commit t ing ext ensive at r ocit ies and a-dhar ma in gener al, by cur t ailing t hese
evil vI r a-s in t heir r oot . Thus, bhagavAn dest r oys t he ' vI r a-s' who win at any
cost , eit her by using f allacious ar gument s in t heir disput at ions in philosophical
discussions, or by using t heir st r engt h f or wr ong and a-dhar mic causes (such as
' vI r a-s' like r AvaNa in commit t ing at r ocit ies against t he f ollower s of t he
r ight eous pat h). The nAma su-vI r ah t hat we ar e st udying cur r ent ly, is a special
class of t his qualit y of emper umAn, and descr ibes t he use of t his guNa by Him
in ensur ing t hat His devot ees who encount er any obst acle will in t he end come
out of it auspiciously, wit h His help and suppor t . I n ot her wor ds, t he cur r ent
nAma descr ibes His guNa of ensur ing auspiciousness t o His devot ees under all
cir cumst ances.
nAma 945. nAma 945. nAma 945. 6|¬¹lñ7- 6|¬¹lñ7- 6|¬¹lñ7- r ucir A' ngadaH r ucir A' ngadaH r ucir A' ngadaH
a) He Who best ows His lovely f or m f or His devot ees t o enj oy.
b) He Who gives a beaut if ul body t o t hose who ar e devot ed (e.g., t o t he hunch-
backed woman).
c) He Who is ador ned wit h beaut if ul shoulder or nament s (a' ngada-s).
d) He Who has given elegant means f or all cr eat ur es t o move about .
rucirA'ngadAya namaH.
a) The meaning of t he nAma can be easily compr ehended if we look at t he
nAma in t er ms of t he individual wor ds compr ising t he nAma: r ucir a-anga-daH.
Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as ' r ucir am = at i-manohar am, anubhava
bhogyam a' ngam dadAt i it i r icir A' ngadaH' – He Who best ows His lovely f or m
t o His devot ees which is f it t o be enj oyed ver y much. Sr I BhaTTar quot es
f r om t he j it ant e st ot r am in suppor t (t his has been r ef er enced in nAma 923 as
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well)
na t e r Upam na cAkAr o nAyudhAni na cAspadam |
t at hA' pi pur ushAkAr o bhakt AnAm pr akASase | |
"Neit her Your divya At ma svar Upam, nor Your divya ma' ngaLa vigr aham, nor
f or t hat mat t er Your weapons, or Your own Sr I vaikunTham, ar e f or Your
benef it (t hey ar e all f or Your devot ees' benef it , and t hus You ar e not
independent , but You ar e t he possession of Your devot ees). Even so, You shine
as t he Supr eme Being".
BhagavAn has a divya ma' ngaLa vigr aham (t ir umEni) t hat is absolut ely
delect able t o His devot ees. Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr ' s
t ir uvAimozhi, wher e AzhvAr descr ibes bhagavAn' s t ir umEni in mor e t han one
pASur am:
Sev-vAi undi veN paL SUDar k kuzhai t ammODu evvAic cuDar um t ammil mun
vaLAik koLLa Sev-vAi mur uvalODu enadu uLLat t u ir unda avvAi anRi yAn aRiyEn
maRRar uLE.
(t ir uvAi. 8.7.7)
"I am t r uly enchant ed by t he r eddish lips, t he beaut if ul navel, t he shining r ow
of t eet h, t he lust r ous ear or nament s, all compet ing wit h one anot her in
encir cling me and enslaving me. But t he most successf ul of t hem all is t he
blossoming smile in t he r ed lips, t hr ough which t he Lor d communicat es His
message wit h me while in my hear t . Not hing else can equal t his gr ace".
kaNgaL Sivandu per iyavAi, vAyum Sivandu kanindu, uLLE veN pal ilagu SuDar
ilagu vilagu makar a kuNDalat t an koNDal vaNNan SuDar muDiyan nAngu t OLan
kuni SAr ' ngan oN Sa' ngau gadai vAL AzhiyAn or uvan aDiyEn uLLAnE.
(t ir uvAi. 8.8.1)
"The one, unique, Lor d shines as my soul' s soul in me. I see Him in me! Wit h
lar ge, beaut if ul, r ed eyes, wit h His mout h and lips r esembling beaut if ul deep
r ed f r uit s, wit h t he r ows of beaut if ul t eet h showing ever so slight ly wit h
beaut if ul lust er , wit h t he f ish- shaped ear or nament s, t he cloud-hued One,
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wit h shining cr own, wit h f our long ar ms, wit h t he f ive over power ingly beaut if ul
weapons (Sa' nkha, cakr a, gadA, Sar ' nga, and khadga) – wit h all t hese, He
st ands inside me".
I n t hese f our lines, AzhvAr beaut if ully capt ur es t he beaut y of His For m, but
also t he f act t hat t his lovely f or m is t her e only f or devot ees like AzhvAr t o
enj oy.
I nnumer able indeed ar e t he places wher e our AzhvAr -s and AcAr ya-s have
delved deep int o t his anubhavam of bhagavAn' s t ir umEni - t ir uppANAzhvAr ' s
amalanAdI pir An, bhagavad r AmAnuj a' s gadya t r ayam, svAmi deSikan' s
bhagavad dhyAna sopAnam and Sr I devanAyaka pa' ncAsat , among ot her s. For
t he sake of br evit y, det ails ar e not included her e.
Sr I kRshnan gives t he inst ance of gaj endr a moksham, and not es t hat f or a
devot ee such as gaj endr a, bhagavAn gave His divine t ir umEni (by embr acing
him all ar ound). He also r ef er s us t o t ir uvAimozhi 1.9, all t he t en pASur am-s of
which descr ibe how bhagavAn gives t he enj oyment of Himself t o AzhvAr in
gr adual st eps at a t ime (inst ead of giving t his anubhavam all at once in one
dose), j ust so t hat AzhvAr is not over whelmed by t his divine exper ience.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives an int er pr et at ion similar t hat of
Sr I BhaTTar : r ucir am a' ngam t ebhyo dadAt i it i t ad vidheyast An Ali' ngat avAn
it i ar t haH – He gives His divine embr ace t o t hose devot ees who ar e deser ving.
Recall t hat Sr I r Ama blessed hanuman wit h His divine embr ace, declar ing t hat
t his was t he best gif t t hat He could ever give t o anyone.
b) Sr I anant a kRshNa SAst r y gives a dif f er ent int er pr et at ion, based on t he
same meaning f or t he wor ds const it ut ing t he nAma – He Who best ows
beaut if ul or auspicious bodies on His devot ees.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives t he example of bhagavAn giving a beaut if ul
f or m t o a hunch-backed woman in kamsa' s palace by r emoving t he
disf igur ement t hat she had in her f or m.
c) Sr I Sa' nkar a looks at t he nAma as r ucir e = kalyANe a' ngade yasya it i
r ucir A' ngadaH – One Who is ador ned wit h t wo beaut if ul shoulder or nament s
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(r ef er t o t he nAma kanakA' ngadI – nAma 545).
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives a similar explanat ion – r ucir ANidar SanI ya-
t amAni bAhu-bhUshaNAni cat vAr i a' ngadAni yasya it i r ucir A' ngadaH – He Who
is ador ned wit h f our shoulder or nament s t hat ar e a delight t o look at and
enj oy.
d) Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha der ives an int er pr et at ion based on t he r oot a' ng –
gat au – t o go, and explains t he nAma as: sundar a gat i yukt amSar I r am, sundr am
gamanam vA yo dadAt i sa r ucir A' ngadaH - One Who has given a body equipped
wit h t he means f or all cr eat ur es t o move ar ound
nAma 946. nAma 946. nAma 946. =++- =++- =++- j ananaH j ananaH j ananaH
The Cr eat or .
jananAya namaH.
The r oot f or t he nAma is j an – pr Adur bhAve – t o be bor n. Sr I vAsishTha
explains t he nAma as "j anayat i it i j ananaH, sar vasya j agat o j ananaH, svayam
aj o' pi" - One Who cr eat es ever yt hing else, but Who Himself is not bor n. Sr I T.
S. Kr ishnamoor t hy explains t hat t he applicat ion of pANini sUt r a 3.3.113 leads
t o t he wor d j ananaH f r om t he r oot j an – "The suf f ix lyuT(ana) is added t o a
ver bal r oot t o f or m ver bal nouns, denot ing eit her t he act ion it self , or t he
inst r ument , or t he place wher e t he act ion t akes place. …Her e,j ananaH, in
masculine is der ived in t he sense of agency – kar t ar i."
Fr om t his nAma onwar ds, t ill almost t he end (t ill nAma 992), Sr I BhaTTar
int er pr et s t he nAma-s as conveying t he pur pose f or which bhagavAn
under t akes all His act ions. – at ha sar va bhagavad vyApAr ANAmpr ayoj anam.
We will see t hat ever yt hing t hat bhagavAn under t akes is f or t he sole benef it
of t he j I va-s, wit hout except ion.
Fir st , we st ar t wit h His act of cr eat ion. Sr I BhaTTar ' s anubhavam is – t ad-
anubhava kshama kar aNa yukt An anyAnapi j anayat i it i j ananaH – He cr eat es us
and ot her beings also, gif t ed wit h t he indir ya-s et c., f or enj oying Him. Sr I
kRshnan quot es t he f ollowing in suppor t :
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vicit r A deha sampat t iH I Svar Aya nivedit um |
pUr vameva kRt A br ahman hast a pAdAdi samyut a | |
"Br ahman cr eat es us f ully endowed wit h t he means of kar ma such as hands,
legs, et c., j ust so we can dedicat e t hese in t he ser vice of t he Lor d".
Out of His compassion, bhagavAn gives t he j I va-s a body, wit h all t he indr iya-s,
and a f or m t hat is based on t heir kar ma-s, so t hat t hey can bet t er t hemselves
in t hat bir t h and move t owar ds Him. He also gives us t he f r ee will t o use our
capabilit ies t o eit her move t owar ds Him, or misuse all our f acult ies and diver t
t hem t o ot her causes. I f we misuse t he oppor t unit y, of cour se, we ar e r ebor n
t o have anot her chance again, accor ding t o our accumulat ed kar ma-s. (Lest
some r eader s get conf used and t hink t hat br ahmA is t he one who cr eat es,
nammAzhvAr r epeat edly r eminds us t hat it is bhagavAn who is t he t r ue
Cr eat or , who cr eat es t he mahat , t he pa' nca mahA bhUt a-s, t he br ahmANDa
et c., and t hen cr eat es br ahmA inside t his br ahmANDa, and gives him t he
knowledge t o cont inue t he pr ocess of cr eat ion inside t he br ahmANDa, and
gives Him t he power t o do t his by being his ant ar yAmi. So it is bhagavAn who is
t he t r ue Cr eat or ).
Sr I cinmayAnanda explains t he nAma as: "Lor d Sr I nAr AyaNa is t he gr eat
Fat her of all living beings, as all t he univer se comes f r om Him alone. He alone
was bef or e all cr eat ion; f r om Him alone ever yt hing has ar isen; in Him
ever yt hing exist s, is nur t ur ed and nour ished by His Glor y. Thus, as t he ver y
pr ogenit or of t he univer se, Sr I nAr AyaNa, t he Self , is t he only j agad-I svar a
(Lor d of t he Univer se)." Sr I cinmayAnanda r ef er s us t o t he gI t A:
pit Asi lokasya car Acar asya t vamasya pUj yaSca gur ur -gar I yAn |
na t vat -samo' st yabhyadhikaH kut o' nyo loka-t yaye' pyapr at ima- pr abhAva | |
(11.43)
"You ar e t he Fat her of t his wor ld, of all t hat moves and t hat does not move.
You ar e it s t eacher and t he One most wor t hy of r ever ence. Ther e is none equal
t o You. How t hen could t her e be in all t he t hr ee wor lds anot her gr eat er t han
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You, O Being of mat chless gr eat ness?".
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha' s alt er nat e anubhavam is: j anam nayat i it i j ananaH –
He Who leads all beings isj ana-naH.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj explains t he nAma as – j anayat i mudam sva-
j anAnAm hRdayeshu it i j ananaH - He Who gener at es delight in t he hear t s of
His devot ees is j ananaH.
nAma 947. nAma 947. nAma 947. =+=-Pl|7- =+=-Pl|7- =+=-Pl|7- j ana j ana j ana-- -j anmAdiH j anmAdiH j anmAdiH
a) He Who is t he r oot cause of all beings.
b) He Who is t he ult imat e goal of all beings.
jana-janmAdaye namaH.
The nAma can be under st ood by looking at it s component wor ds: j ana-j anma-
AdiH. Most int er pr et er s explain t he nAma as "He Who is t he Cause of all living
beings". As we see below, t he wor d Adi is int er pr et ed as "r oot ' or "cause" in
t his int er pr et at ion.
a) Sr I vAsishTha explains t he nAma as "j anAnAm j anmana AdiH" - One Who is
t he cause of all living t hings. He looks at t he nAma as: j Ayant e it i j anAH;
j anma = j ananam; AdiH = ' dadAt eH' – He Who gives, He Who is t he r oot cause
– mUla kAr aNam.
b) Sr I BhaTTar gives t his int er pr et at ion as well, but in addit ion adds t hat He
is also t he ' pr ayoj anam' , or t he ult imat e goal f or t he living beings t hat ar e
blessed wit h bir t h wit h a body – t eshAmj anAnAm j anmana AdiH = nimit t am
(r oot cause), pr ayoj anam (benef it or f r uit of t he bir t h) it i j ana-j anmAdiH. I n
f act , in t he cont ext of t he t heme of Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion, his
emphasis is on t he ' pr ayoj anam' , or "r oot pur pose" of being t his bir t h. He gives
sever al suppor t s t hat declar e t hat t he pr ime pur pose of t his bir t h t hat we ar e
given by bhagavAn, is t o at t ain Him t hr ough expiat ion of our kar ma-s.
adya me saphalam j anma (vishNu dhar ma 5.17.3)
"This day my bir t h has become f r uit f ul, and my night has given place t o an
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auspicious dawn, because I am going t o see Lor d kRshNa" – wor ds of akr Ur a on
t he pr ospect s of having t he dar Sanam of Lor d kRshNa.
j anmanya viphalA saikA ya govindASr ayA kr iyA
The only act t hat is not f r uit less in t his lif e is t hat which has somet hing t o do
wit h kRshNa.
suj anma dehamat yant am t adevASesha j ant ushu |
yadeva pulakot bhAsi vishNu nAmani kI r t it e | |
"Amongst all beings, t he body of t hat per son is of good bir t h which shines wit h
hair st anding on t heir ends out of j oy when t he name of kRshNa is
pr onounced".
Sr I Sa' nkar a also gives a similar int er pr et at ion – j anasya j animat aHj anma
udbhavaH, t asya AdiH, mUla kAr aNam it i j ana-j anmAdiH – The pr imar y Cause
of beings.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj ' s int er pr et at ion is along t he same lines as well –
j anAnAm = pr ANinAm j anmanaH AdiH it i j ana-j anmAdiH.
nAma 948. nAma 948. nAma 948. ¬lP- ¬lP- ¬lP- bhI maH bhI maH bhI maH
He Who is f r ight f ul t o t hose who do not f ollow dhar ma.
bhImAya namaH.
We st udied t his nAma in Slokam 39 (nAma 359). Please r ef er t o t he wr it e-up
f or nAma 359 also. As indicat ed t her e, t he r oot f r om which t he nAma is
der ived is bhI – bhaye – t o f ear . I n t he lar ger scheme of t hings in cr eat ion
et c., bhagavAn is called bhI maH because He is t he Supr eme Cont r oller of all.
I n t he case of His devot ees, t he ext ent of His cont r ol is r elat ed t o t heir
devot ion, t o t he point t hat He let s Himself be cont r olled by devot ees who ar e
dedicat ed t o Him. But in t he case of t hose who do not whole hear t edly devot e
t hemselves t o Him, t hey st ill obey Him because of f ear of t he consequences of
not obeying Him. This aspect is cover ed under nAma 359, wher e r ef er ence is
given t o t he veda-s, which declar e t hat even t he f ive gr eat element s (vAyu,
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agni, et c.,) obey Him out of sheer f ear , signif ied by His nAma bHI maH. Sr I
kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj quot es Sr I mad bhAgavat am in suppor t :
vAyvambar Agny-ap-kshit ayas-t r ilokA br ahmAdayo ye vayamudvij ant aH |
har Ama yasmai balim ant ako' sau bibhet i yasmAd-ar aNam t at onaH | |
(Sr I mad bhAga. 6.9.21)
"The f ive gr eat element s, t he t hr ee wor ld t hat ar e const it ut ed f r om t hese,
and all of us f ear t hat gr eat dest r oyer , who himself f ear s t he gr eat Supr eme
Br ahman. Let t hat Supr eme Being pr ot ect us".
For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma, Sr I BhaTTar st r esses anot her aspect
of His being f r ight f ul – by His punishing t he J iva-s who r ef use t o f ollow t he
pr oper and pr escr ibed pat h of dhar ma in t heir lif et ime. He pushes t hem int o
anot her j anma, or int o nar aka et c., even t hough t his is done f or t he ult imat e
benef it of t he j I va, so t hat t he j I va can cor r ect himself and have anot her
oppor t unit y in anot her bir t h. Sr I BhaTTar not es t hat bhagavAn chooses t his
t r eat ment only when a being does not wish t o r esor t t o t he Gr ace t hat He
nat ur ally shows – mahA anugr aha vimukhAnAm bhI maH. He gives suppor t f or
t his int er pr et at ion f r om t he gI t A:
t An aham dvishat aH kr Ur An samsAr eshu nar AdhamAn |
kshipAmyaj ast r am aSubhAn Asur I shveva yonishu | |
(gI t A 16.19)
"I t hr ow t hose who hat e Me r epeat edly int o t he samsAr a, and int o none ot her
t han demonic wombs, f or t hey ar e cr uel, unholy, and t he wor st of men".
Sr I kRshNan r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr pASur am 9.9.7 in t ir uvAimozhi:
meyyanAgum vir umbit t ozhuvAr kkellAm poyynAgum puRamE t ozhuvAr kkellAm
(t ir uvAi. 9.9.7)
"To t hose who ar e t r uly devot ed t o Him, and who wor ship Him wit hout any
ot her benef it in mind t han Himself – t hose who do not bar gain wit h Him f or
benef it , He is easy t o r ealize. To t hose who wor ship Him wit h some benef it in
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mind, He best ows t his benef it , and t hen moves away f r om t hem; He is not
accessible t o t hem and is not at t ainable by t hem".
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he meaning – bhaya het ut vAt bhI maH – He Who is t he
cause of f ear , and gives t he mant r a f r om kaThopanishad in suppor t – "mahad-
bhayam vaj r amudyat am" (2.3.2) – "He is a gr eat f ear like an uplif t ed
t hunder bolt (t o t hose who at t empt t o def y Him)".
Sr I Sa' nkar a has given an alt er nat e pATham in Slokam 39 f or t his nAma – a-
bhI maH, and has given t he int er pr et at ion - "One Who causes no f ear t o t hose
who f ollow t he r ight eous pat h".
Sr I r AdhAkRshNaSAst r i gives t he f ollowing suppor t f or t he nAma a-bhI maH:
- bhI shNam abhI shaNam (nRsimhot t ar a. 6.1) – He Who is f r ight f ul and at t he
same t ime not f r ight f ul. I t is well-known t hat in His nRsimha incar nat ion,
bhagavAn was simult aneously a cause of int ense t er r or t o hir aNya kaSipu, and
at t he same t ime, He was a gr eat delight f or pr ahlAda.
Alt er nat e int er pr et at ions ar e pr ovided by Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha: - bhRt A
mAH pr amANAni t ena vyAsAdi r UpeNa it i bhI maH – I n His incar nat ion as veda
vyAsa He est ablished t he aut hor it ies in t he f or m of veda-s, and so He is called
bhI maH. - bhiyam bhakt a bhayam minAt i hinast i it i bhI maH – BhagavAn is
called bhI maH because He dest r oys t he f ear of His devot ees and saves t hem.
Recall t hat t hr ough t he cur r ent set of nAma-s, Sr I BhaTTar is descr ibing t he
pr ayoj anam or r eason f or bhagavAn' s vyApar a-s or act ions. His being bhI maH
or t he cause of f ear t o t he non-devot ees et c., and His met ing out punishment
t o t hem f or t heir a-dhar mic deeds, is t o maint ain or der , t o pr ot ect His
devot ees, and t o help t he non-conf or ming j I va-s so t hat t hey can cor r ect
t hemselves and at t ain Him over t ime.
nAma 949. nAma 949. nAma 949. ¬lP9¹l4P- ¬lP9¹l4P- ¬lP9¹l4P- bhI ma bhI ma bhI ma-- -par Akr amaH par Akr amaH par Akr amaH
He Who has t er r if ic power s.
bhIma-parAkramAya namaH.
This nAma pr aises bhagavAn' s par Akr ama.
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Sr I BhaTTar explains t hat bhagavAn has t er r if ic power s t hat st r ike t er r or in
t he hear t s of t he likes of hir aNya, r AvaNa, et c. This is a benef it t o t he
devot ees, since it keeps t he evil souls under r est r aint . I t is also of benef it t o
t he evil souls t hemselves, because it keeps t hem under cont r ol, like keeping a
mad per son f et t er ed so t hat he does not hur t himself .
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ence t o nammAzhvAr , who descr ibes t his guNa
of bhagavAn as "amar kku iDar keDa, asur ar ukku iDar Sei kaDu vinai
na' nj E" (t ir uvAi. 9.2.10) – BhagavAn is like vir ulent poison f or which t her e is no
cur e, when it comes t o dealing wit h asur a-s who cause har m t o t he deva-s.
Sr I kRshNan not es t hat t he pr evious nAma – bhI ma, dealt wit h j I va-s who
wer e not f ollowing t he pat h of dhar ma in t heir code of conduct , wher eas t he
cur r ent nAma deals wit h t hose who go one st ep f ur t her and ar e bent upon
doing har m t o t he wor ld.
Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam f or t he cur r ent nAma is – anyeshvapi j agad-ahit a-
nir at r eshu hir aNyAdishubhI ma-par aAkr amaH – I n t he case of ot her s such as
hir aNya who ar e bent upon causing har m t o t he wor d, He becomes One of
t er r if ic valor , and cont r ols t hem.
Sr I Sa' nkar a explains t he nAma as – bhaya het uH par Akr amaH asya it i bhI ma
par Akr amaH – His pr owess is such t hat it will st r ike t er r or in t he hear t of t he
enemy. He explains t he nAma as a r ef er ence t o bhagavAn causing f ear in t he
hear t s of t he asur a-s dur ing His incar nat ions.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i not es t hat even t he f act t hat bhagavAn induces
f ear in t he hear t s of His enemies, t ur ns out t o be f or t heir good in anot her
sense as well – by const ant ly wor r ying about bhagavAn' s par Akr amam, t hey
keep Him in t heir minds always, and t his ends up pur if ying t hem over t ime. He
gives Slokam 7.1.30 f r om Sr I mad bhAgavat am in suppor t . However , all t he
Sloka-s of t he r ef er enced chapt er ar e r elevant , since t he t opic of t he chapt er
it self is how bhagavAn uses His par Akr ama f or t he eliminat ion of t he vil and
t he pr eser vat ion of t he good.
These Sloka-s declar e t hat bhagavAn' s punishment t o t he asur a-s is pur ely f or
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t he r emoval of t heir sins and f or t heir ult imat ely at t aining Him. I n an
exchange bet ween dhar maput r a and sage nAr ada, t he f or mer asks t he lat er
how it is t hat some ext r eme hat er s of Sr I man nAr Ayana end up at t aining Him
in t he end of t heir lif e. I n r esponse, nAr ada r esponds: "People end up t hinking
const ant ly about bhagavAn eit her t hr ough int ense at t achment (as in t he case
of gopi-s), or t hr ough int ense enmit y (as in t he case of SiSupAla), or t hr ough
ext r eme f ear (as in t he case of kamsa), or t hr ough being r elat ed t o Him in one
of His incar nat ions (as in t he case of t he people of vRshNi vamSa), or t hr ough
pur e devot ion (as in t he case of t he likes of myself )".
gopyaH kAmAt bhayAt kamsaH dveshAt caidyAdayo nRpAH |
sambandhAt vRshNayaH snehAt yUyam bhakt yA vayam vibho | |
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha explains t he nAma as – bhI masya, dr aupadI -pat e
r udr asya vA par Akr amo yasmAd sa bhI ma-par Akr amaH – He Who is t he sour ce
of t he par Akr ama of t he likes of bhI ma, r udr a et c.















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Slokam 102 Slokam 102 Slokam 102
Hl¤l¹|+¬4l ¤l6l 9 !9rlB- 9=l¬¹-· Hl¤l¹|+¬4l ¤l6l 9 !9rlB- 9=l¬¹-· Hl¤l¹|+¬4l ¤l6l 9 !9rlB- 9=l¬¹-·
7 ¬- Bt9¤l¬l¹- 9lT7- 9T4- 9T-+ °¤-+ 7 ¬- Bt9¤l¬l¹- 9lT7- 9T4- 9T-+ °¤-+ 7 ¬- Bt9¤l¬l¹- 9lT7- 9T4- 9T-+ °¤-+
AadhAr anilayO dhAt A pushpahAsah pr aj Agar ah |
Ur dhvagah sat pat hAcAr ah pr ANadah pr aNavah paNah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 950. nAma 950. nAma 950. Hl¤l¹|+¬4- Hl¤l¹|+¬4- Hl¤l¹|+¬4- AdhAr a AdhAr a AdhAr a-- -nilayaH nilayaH nilayaH
The Abode of t hose who suppor t t he wor ld t hr ough t heir r ight eous act ions.
AdhAra-nilayAya namaH.
' A' is a pr ef ix meaning ' f r om all sides, in all r esepct s". dhAr a is der ived f r om
t he r oot dhR- dhAr aNe - t o suppor t . nilaya is der ived f r om t he r oot ' lee -
SleshaNe - t o st ick, t o lie on' , wit h t he pr ef ix ni-.
Sr I vAsishTha explains t he nAma as - j agad AdhAr ANAm api dhAr aka it i
AdHar a-nilayaH - He is t he Suppor t of all t hose t hat ar e consider ed t he
suppor t of t he wor ld. This means t hat He is t he suppor t of all t he deva-s such
as br ahmA, r udr a, indr a, t he Sun and all t he planet s and t heir moons, t he
pa' nca mahA bhUt a-s, et c. He is also pr esent in ever y living being as t heir
ant ar yAmi, suppor t ing t hem in ever y act of t hese beings.
Sr I BhaTTar specif ically gives t he example of t he likes of pr ahlAda,
vibhI shaNa,t he pANDava-s, et c., whose r ight eous conduct in lif e is an example
f or us, and t hus ser ve as t he suppor t f or t he wor ld t o f ollow. BhagavAn is t he
abode f or such pious men, and so He is called AdhAr a-nilayaH - dhAr mikat ayA
j agad-AdhAr AH pr ahlAda-vibhI shaNa-pANDavAdayaH, t eshAm nilayaH
AhdAr a-nilayaH.
Sr I BhaTTar quot es a Sloka f r om vishNu smRt i in suppor t :
var NASr ama Acar a-par AH sant aHSAst r aika t at par AH |
t vAm dhar e! dhAr ayishyant i t eshu t vad bhAr am Ahit am | |
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"O! Mot her Ear t h! Those who st r ict ly adher e t o t he r ules of conduct
st ipulat ed f or dif f er ent cast es and st ages of lif e, and also scr upulously f ollow
t he dict at es of t he SAst r a-s, ar e your suppor t . On t hem your bur den r est s".
Not e t he emphasis her e on t he adher ence t o t he dhar ma-s of t he var Na- s
(cast es) and t he Asr ama-s (st ages in lif e, such as br ahmacar ya, gRhast a, et c.).
These ar e t he ones because of whom t his ear t h keeps going; t hese ar e t he
ones who ar e suppor t ed by bhagavAn in t heir r ight eous obser vances and
conduct - AdhAr a-nilayaH.
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan explains t he nAma in t wo ways: AdhAr a
bhUt AH sAt t vikAH, t eshAmnilayaH; or AdhAr a bhUt aH nilayAH yasya sa
AdhAr a-nilayaH.
The f ir st one cor r esponds t o t he int er pr et at ion discussed above. The second
int er pr et at ion means t hat bhagavAn has, as His abode, t hose t hat suppor t t he
ear t h t hr ough t heir dhAr mic lif e (AdhAr AH). This is a unique concept of t he
viSishTAdvait a sampr adAyam, which is elabor at ed on by Sr I veLukkuDi
kRshnan. He explains t his wit h nammAzhvAr ' s per iya t ir uvant Adi pASur am 75:
puviyum ir u viSumbum nin agat t anee en
Seviyin vazhi pugundu en uLLAi avivinRi
yAn per iyan nee per iyai enpadanai yAr aRivAr ?
Un par ugu nEmiyAi! ULLu
"I t is t r ue t hat You suppor t ever yt hing including all t he wor lds, t he skies, et c.
But now You r eside inside me by ent er ing inside me t hr ough my ear s, and t hus
I am suppor t ing You inside me. Now You t ell me whet her You ar e suppor t ing
me or I am suppor t ing You - whet her You ar e t he bigger One or I am t he
bigger one. You t ell me, emper umAn wit h t he cakr a t hat dr inks t he blood of
Your enemies".
The above pASur am of AzhvAr suppor t s t he alt er nat e int er pr et at ion t hat
bhagavAn has as His r esidence (nilayam) t he hear t s and minds of t hose who
suppor t t he var Na and ASr ama dhar ma-s (AdhAr a-s), and so He has t he nAma
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AdhAr a-nilayaH.
Sr I kRshNan also quot es t hegiTA Slokam 7.18 as addit ional suppor t :
udAr AH sar va evait e j ~nAnI t vAt maiva me mat am |
Ast hit aH sa hi yukt At mA mAmeva anut t amAm gat im | |
(gI t A 7.18)
"All t hese ar e indeed gener ous, but I deem t he man of knowledge t o be My own
ver y self ; f or he, int egr at ed, is devot ed t o Me alone as t he highest end".
The declar at ion by Lor d kRshNa t hat t he j ~nAnI is His own self , once again
suppor t s t he second int er pr et at ion above.
Sr I Sa' nkar a explains t he nAma in t er ms of bhagavAn' s suppor t of t he pa' nca
bhUt a-s et c. - pRt hivyAdI nAm pa' nca bhUt AnAm AdhAr at vAt AdhAr a-
nilayaH.
Sr I vAsishTha gives numer ous examples f r om t he Sr ut i in suppor t :
yat r Adhi sUr a udit o vibhAt ikasmai devAya havishA vidhema |
(yaj ur . 32.7)
yat aH sUr ya udet yast am yat r aca gacchat i |
t adeva manye' ham j yeshTham t adu nAt yet i ki' ncana | |
(at har va. 10.8.16)
"I hold t hat Supr eme because of which t he Sun r ises, set s, and r est s.
Not hing sur passes t he Will of t his Supr eme".
na t e vishNo j AyamAno na j At o deva mahimnaH par amant amApa |
udast abhnA nAkamRshvam bRhant am dAdhar t ha
pr AcI m kakubham pRt hivyAH | |
(Rg. 7.99.2)
"None who is bor n or being bor n, Lor d vishNu, has r eached t he ut most limit of
Thy gr andeur . The vast high vault of heaven hast Thou suppor t ed, and f ixed
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ear t h' s east er n pinnacle secur ely".
yasyor ushu t r ishuvikr amaNeshu adhikshiyant i bhuvanAni viSvA
(Rg. 1.154.2)
"He wit hin whose t hr ee wide-ext ended paces all living cr eat ur es have t heir
habit at ion".
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i chooses t o int er pr et t he nAma as "One Who is
r esident -nilayaH, in t he pa' nca bhUt a-s". Even t hough t he f ive element s, by
t hemselves, per f or m dif f er ent f unct ions wit hin our body (e.g., agni conver t s
t he f ood t hat we consume int o f or ms such as blood; wat er car r ies t his int o
t he dif f er ent par t s of t he body; ear t h suppor t s all t he beings of t his wor ld;
et c.), bhagavAn, by being pr esent in t hese element s, ensur es t hat t her e is
mut ual coor dinat ion such t hat all beings f unct ion as a unit , in a healt hy way.
Sr i SAst r i quot es t he gI t A Slokam 15.13-14 t o illust r at e t his point :
gAm AviSya ca bhUt AnidhAr ayAmaham oj asA |
pushNAmi caushadhI H sar vAH somo bhUt vA r asAt makaH | |
(15.13)
"And ent er ing t he ear t h I uphold all beings by My st r engt h.
I nour ish all her bs, becoming t he j uicy soma".
aham vaiSvAnar o bhUt vA pr ANI nAmdeham ASr it aH |
pr ANApAna samAyukt aH pacAmyannam cat ur -vidham | |
(15.13)
"Becoming t he digest ive f ir e, I f unct ion wit hin t he bodies of all living beings.
I n union wit h inwar d and out war d br eat hs, I digest t he f our kinds of f ood -
chewed (like r ice et c.), sucked (like mango f r uit et c.), licked (like medicinal
power mixed wit h honey), and dr unk (like wat er )".
Sr I SAst r i also gives suppor t f r om t he bRhadAr anyaka Upanishad:
yaH sar veshu bhUt eshu t ishThansar vebhyo bhUt ebhyo' nt ar o yam sar vANi
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bhUt Ani na vidur -yasya sar vANi bhUt Ani Sar I r am yaH sar vANi
bhUt Anyant ar o yamayat yesha t a At mAnt ar yAmyamRt aH it yAdhi-bhUt am
at hAdhyAt mam | |
(bRha. 3.7.19)
"He who dwells in all beings, who is wit hin all beings, whom all beings do not
know, whose body is all beings, and who cont r ols all beings f r om wit hin, is your
I nt er nal Ruler - t he Self , t he I mmor t al".
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha gives an explanat ion based on t he dhAr A or t he
downpour of r ain caused by indr a in gokulam:
"A - samant At dhAr A = devendr a-kRt a vRshTi dhAr A yeshAm t a A-dhAr A
gopAlAH, t eshAm govar dhana dhAr aNena nilayaASr aya it i A-dhAr a-nilayaH" -
He Who pr ot ect ed t he gopAla-s or cowher ds f r om t he int ense downpour of
r ain caused by devendr a, t hr ough t he govar dhana dhAr aNam.
nAma 951. nAma 951. nAma 951. ¤l6l ¤l6l ¤l6l dhAt A dhAt A dhAt A
a) One Who cr eat ed t he Univer se (dhA - t o pr oduce, or dhA - t o lay upon).
b) He Who suppor t s and sust ains (dhA - dhAr aN poshaNayoSca).
c) He Who has no suppor t ot her t han Himself (a-dhAt A).
d) He Who ' dr inks' ever yt hing dur ing pr alaya (dheT - pAne - t o dr ink).
e) One Who is t he ant ar yAmi of t he f our -f aced br ahmA.
dhAtre namaH.
We st udied t his nAma in Slokam 5 (nAma 43).
Sr I vAsishTha gives t he r oot f or t he nAma as ' dhA - dhAr aNa poshaNoyoH
dAne ca' - t o put , t o gr ant , t o pr oduce, t o bear .
a) Sr I BhaTTar der ives t he int er pr et at ion f or t he inst ance of t he nAma in
Slokam 5 based on t he r oot dhA - t o put , place, lay, put in, lay on or upon (Sr I
Apt e' s dict ionar y), and gives t he meaning "The Cr eat or " f or t he nAma.
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The det ailed explanat ion is pr ovided under nAma43 (Slokam 5).
b) For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma, Sr I BhaTTar gives t he
int er pr et at ion- svayam ca dhar mAcAr yakeNa dhAt A - He is called dhAt A
because He pr act ices dhar ma r igor ously, and is t hus t he best Pr ecept or of
dhar ma.
Sr I M.V.r AmAnuj AcAr ya explains Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion based on t he
r oot "dhA - dhAr ana poshaNayoH" - t o suppor t , t o sust ain", and explains Sr I
BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion as r ef er r ing t o bhagavAn being t he Sust ainer and
Suppor t er of t he ear t h t hr ough st r ict adher ence t o dhar ma in all His
incar nat ions. Thus, He set s Himself as a model f or us t o f ollow. Sr I BhaTTar
gives suppor t f r om t he gI t A:
na me pAr t ha ast i kar t avyamt r ishu lokeshu ki' ncana |
nAnavApt am avApt avyam var t a eva ca kar maNi | |
(gI t A 3.22)
"For Me, ar j una! Ther e is not hing in all t he t hr ee wor lds which ought t o be
done, nor is t her e anyt hing t hat has not been acquir ed, and ought t o be
acquir ed. Yet I go on wor king" (t o set an example t o ot her s, as explained
f ur t her in Sloka 3.23 of t he gI t A).
Dif f er ent int er pr et er s give t heir dif f er ent anubhavam-s of t he unending
dimension of His guNa of pr ot ect ing and nur t ur ing all His cr eat ion.
Sr I aNNa' ngar AcAr ya explainst he nAma as - He Who suppor t s t he wor ld
t hr ough His t eachings (in t he f or ms of veda-s, gI t A et c.)., and t hr ough His own
code of conduct (dur ing His incar nat ions).
Sr I kRshnan illust r at es t his by r ef er r ing us t o Lor d r Ama' s incar nat ion, which
is an out st anding example of t he adher ence t o dhar ma in all it s int r icacies.
For t he ear lier occur r ence of t his nAma, Sr I vAsishTha gives t he
int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn suppor t s (bear s) t he ear t h in t he f or m of
anant a.
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This is t he same int er pr et at ion t hat Sr i Sa' nkar a gives as well -
anant Adir UpeNa viSvam bibhar t i it i dhAt A.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he int er pr et at ion - dadhAt i poshayat i
svaj anAn it idhAt A - He Who pr ot ect s and suppor t s His devot ees.
c) Sr i Sa' nkar a uses t he pAThama-dhAt A in t he cur r ent inst ance f or his
pr imar y int er pr et at ion, and gives t he int er pr et at ion as - "svAt manA dhRt asya
asya anyo dhAt A na ast i it i a-dhAt A" - One f or Whom t her e is no ot her
suppor t except Himself .
Sr I vAsishTha also gives t his pATham as an alt er nat ive, and gives t he same
int er pr et at ion.
d) As an alt er nat ive, if t he pATham ' dhAt A' is used, Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he
int er pr et at ion based on t he r oot dheT - pAne - t o dr ink, and t he explanat ion
is -samhAr a samaye sar vAH pr aj A dhayat i = pibat i it i dhAt A - He Who dr inks
all beings dur ing t he t ime of pr alaya.
Sr I vAsishTha gives t his int er pr et at ion as one of his alt er nat e
int er pr et at ions also - dhayat i = pibat i viSvam it i dhAt A.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha gives t he int er pr et at ion - dhAt A = dhAr aNa
poshaNakar t A.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaNexplains t he nAma in Slokam 5 as - ut pat t i vinASa
vir ahAdanAdi nidhanaH kAr aNat ve vir i' ncyAdibhyo viSesham Aha dhAt A it i -
He Who cr eat es all beings, pr ot ect s t hem, and dest r oys t hem at t he
appr opr iat e t ime (in t he f or ms of br ahmA, vishNu and r udr a r espect ively).
e) The t er m dhAt A is also used t o r ef er t o t he f our -f aced br ahmA.
Sr I aNNa' ngar AcAr ya uses t his meaning, and explains t he nAma 43 as -
"nAnmugak kadavuLai Sar I r amAgak koNDavar " - "One Who has br ahmA as
par t of His body". We all know t hat our body is at our self ' s disposal, and it s
sole pur pose is t o ser ve our soul. So also, br ahmA, as par t of bhagavAn' s body,
is t her e solely t o ser ve emper umAn.
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nAma 952. nAma 952. nAma 952. 9 !9rlB- 9 !9rlB- 9 !9rlB- pushpa pushpa pushpa-- -hAsaH hAsaH hAsaH
He Who is like t he bloom of a f lower .
pushpa-hAsAya namaH.
The r oot s involved in t he nAma ar e: pushpa - vikasane - t o open, t o blow, and
has - hasane - t o smile, t o excel, t o bloom et c. The nAma signif ies t he
t ender ness and pleasing nat ur e of bhagavAn t owar ds His devot ees.
Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as - "evam nishpAdit a svAnubhava- Sakt I nAm
sAyamiva pushpasya hAso bhogyat aullAsaH asya it i pushpa- hAsaH" - I n t he
case of t hose who ar e blessed wit h t he abilit y t o enj oy Him, He manif est s His
enj oyable nat ur e gent ly like a f lower t hat blossoms in t he evening. So He is
called pushpa-hAsaH.
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan explains Sr I BhaTTar ' s bhAshyam as a
r ef er ence t o bhagavAn' Sakt i-s or power s t hat ar e enj oyable f or t he devot ee
(svAnubhava Sakt I nAm), since t hey blossom f or t h t owar ds t he devot ees as
needed f or pr ot ect ing t hem (since He has Sakt i-s or par Akr ama-s t hat ar e
wor t hy of enj oyment by t he devot ee - bhogya bhUt a Sakt i-s).
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan descr ibes t he nAma in t er ms of bhagavAn' s whole
t ir umEni as an illust r at ion of His f lower -like t ender ness. This t ender ness is
par t icular ly r eser ved f or His dear devot ees - t hus illust r at ing His avat Ar a
pr yoj anam t hat is t he cur r ent t opic of Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam. He dr aws
t he par allel bet ween t he int er f ace of bhagavAn and His devot ees on t he one
hand, and His f lower -like t ender nesson t he ot her . For His devot ees, having
His divine Feet at t heir head is like having t he sof t f lower in t heir head. His
Lot us Feet ar e sof t t o t ouch j ust as t he f lower s ar e sof t t o t ouch.
BhagavAn' s whole t ir umEni is sof t t o t ouch, j ust as t he f lower s ar e. The
f lower s blossom on seeing t he Sun, and bhagavAn is delight ed when He sees
His devot ees, who ar e like t he Sun t o Him. I n ot her wor ds, His devot ees enj oy
Him like a beaut if ul t ender f lower . Sr I kRshNan r ef er s us t o per iya t ir umizhi-
8.1.5, wher e t ir uma' ngai AzhvAr enj oys bhagavAn' s t ir umEni as pushpa-hASan:
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aDit -t alamum t Amar aiyE am-kaigaLum pa' nkayamE enginr ALAl
kuDit -t alamum poR-pUNum en ne' nj at t uL agalAdu enginr ALAl
vaDit -t aDam kaN malar avaLO var ia Agat t u uL ir uppAL enginr ALAl
kaDik-kamalam kaL ugakkum kaNNa pur at t u ammAnaik kaNDAL kolO.
(per iya.t ir u. 8.1.5)
"His Feet ar e sof t like lot us f lower s. His Hands, wit h which He picks us up
when He sur r ender at His Feet , ar e equally sof t like lot us f lower s. Then He
embr aces us wit h af f ect ion, and t he divine beaut y of His t ir u-muDi and His
divine or nament s t hat we get t o enj oy at t hat t ime, is somet hing t hat will
never leave our t hought s ever . We pr ay f or t he blessings of t he One wit h
br oad eyes (Sr I devi) Who is seat ed on t he lot us f lower in His br oad vaksha
st halam (His chest ), so t hat we ar e unit ed wit h Him f or ever . This emper umAn
is wait ing f or us in t he divya kshet r am by name t ir uk-kaNNa pur am, which is
it self t he place f ull of f r agr ant lot us f lower s dr ipping sweet honey".
Anot her pASur am t hat Sr I kRshNan r ef er s us t o is f r om nammAzhvAr ' s
t ir uvAimozhi (3.1.2), wher e AzhvAr descr ibes bhagavAn' s eyes, f eet , hands,
et c., f or all of which t he t ender , f r agr ant , and beaut if ul lot us f lower s ar e but
a ver y poor compar ison (since t hey have nowher e near t he beaut y compar ed t o
emper umAn' s beaut y) - kaTTur iakkil t Amar ai nin kaN pAdamkai ovvA.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives a similar int er pr et at ion - pushpamiva
mRduH svaj ana manohar I hAso yasya sa pushpa-hAsaH - He Who has a sweet
and enchant ing smile t hat delight s t he hear t s of His devot ees.
Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o bhagavAn blossoming int o
t he f or m of t he Univer se - mukulAt manA st hit AnAm pushpANAm hAsavat
pr apa' nca r UpeNa vikAsaH asya ast i it i pushpa-hAsaH - As t he buds of f lower s
blossom f or t h, He has blossomed f or t h in t he f or m of t he Univer se.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i' s anubhavam is t hat bhagavAn makes His devot ees
blossom wit h delight at His t hought , and He also blossoms in t heir hear t and
gives f r agr ance t o t heir t hought , and so He is called pushpa-hAsaH.
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Sr I vAsishTha explains t he nAma as
"yo sadA pr asanna-mukaH Soka- r ahist aSca bhavat i,
t asmin nishpApe Soka-moha-r ahit e svayam bhagavAn vir Aj at e -
sa vishNuH pushpa-hAsaH"
"He Who is always of a ver y pleasing disposit ion, who is beyond any sor r ow,
unt aint ed by any def ect s, devoid of any desir e or want , t his is t he signif icance
of t his nAma".
He point s out t hat , j ust as it is t he dhar ma (nat ur e) of t he f lower t o blossom
beaut if ully, so also it is t he nat ur e of bhagavAnt o have a sweet and smiling
count enance.
nAma 953. nAma 953. nAma 953. 9=l¬¹- 9=l¬¹- 9=l¬¹- pr a pr a pr a-- -j Agar aH j Agar aH j Agar aH
He Who is awake day and night , f or t he pr ot ect ion of t he devot ees.
pra-jAgarAya namaH.
Sr I vAsishTha indicat es t he r oot f or t he nAma as "j AgR - nidr Akshaye" - t o
awake. pr a- is a upasar ga. pr akar sheNa j Agar t i it i pr a-j Agar aH - He Who is
awake in a special and unique way. The uniqueness is t hat He is always awake,
and always t hinking of ways t o help t he j I va- s at t ain Him.
Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma along t he above lines - r At r im divam pr a-
j Agar t iit i pr -j Agar aH - He Who is awake day and night , t o pr ot ect His
devot ees, like a f ar mer int ent on pr ot ect ing his cr ops. He gives a mant r a f r om
kaThopanishad in suppor t :
ya eshu supt eshu j Agar t i kAmamkAmam pur usho nir mimANaH
(kaTho.5.8)
"This pur usha (t he supr eme) keeps awake while ot her s (t he individual souls) ar e
asleep, cr eat ing t hr ough his et er nal will power . (That is t he ef f ulgent and t hat
is Br ahman)".
Sr I kRshNan explains t his as bhagavAn keeping wide awake while we ar e all
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f ast asleep, best owing all our desir es and r equest s t hat ar e inf init e and never -
ending.
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan point s out an obvious demonst r at ion of His
being awake, in t he f or m of His looking af t er us, while we ar e f ast asleep. We
all go t o bed wit h t he f ull hope t hat we will wake up alive t he next mor ning.
And He, as pr a-j Agar aH, is t her e t o wake us up saf e and sound, f ully
r ej uvenat ed, t he next mor ning.
Sr I Sa' nkar a also int er pr et s t he nAma as One Who is ever awake, as par t of
His nat ur e - nit ya pr abuddha svar Upat vAt j Agar t i it pr a- j Agar aH. This is
int er pr et ed by some as indicat ing t hat bhagavAn is not af f ect ed by nescience,
and t hus He is not af f ect ed by sleep t hat is a r esult of t amo guna et c.
Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha gives yet anot her anubhavam - He Who liber at es t he
accomplished devot ees f r om sleep - pr akasheNa bhakt An j Agar ayat i nidr a-
r ahit Anmukt An kar ot i it i pr a-j Agar aH.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha looks at t he nAma as pr aj a + aga + r a. I n t his
int er pr et at ion, pr aj a = He Who cr eat es; aga = He Who r esides in t he hills of
ve' nkaTAcala, r a = r amat i = He Who enj oys t he company of devot ees by being
in ven' kaTAcala. (pr akar sheNa j anayat i lokAn it pr aj A;ageshu ve' nkaTAdi
par vat eshu r amat a it i aga-r aH, pr aj aSca asau agar aScait i pr aj Agar aH).
This guNa is also r ef lect ed in t he wor ld t hr ough t he pa' naca bhUt a-s f or which
He is t he ant ar yAmi, and ensur es t hat t hey ar e all f unct ioning in t he int er est
of t he j I va-s const ant ly - vAyu, agni, wat er ,AkASa, et c. never sleep. So also,
t he Sun never sleeps, t he At mA never sleeps, and t he pr ANa never sleeps.
nAma 954. nAma 954. nAma 954. 7 ¬- 7 ¬- 7 ¬- Ur dhva Ur dhva Ur dhva-- -gaH gaH gaH
a) He Who r ises high.
b) He Who leads His devot ees t o Sr I vaikunTham, t he highest goal of t he
j I va-s.
c) He Who is above ever yone else in all r espect s.
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Urdhva-gAya namaH.
a) The t er m Ur dhva means ' above' . Ur dhva-gaH means "One Who r ises high".
Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as a cont inuat ion of his explanat ion of t he
pr evious nAma - He Who sleeplessly pr ot ect s His cr eat ion. He devot es Himself
t o t his t ask of r akshNam even wit hout sleep, because He aims high in what ever
He does, and so He is "Ur dhva-gaH". Sr I BhaTTar ' s wor ds ar e: svabhAva-
t u' ngaH - He Who, by nat ur e, r ises high in ever yt hing.
His aiming high in ever yt hing is sung by nammAzhvAr t hr ough t he phr ase
"kar ut t in kaN per iyan" (t ir uvAi. 10.8.8) - "He Who is gr eat when it comes t o
paying at t ent ion t o His goal". nammAzhvAr also ident if ies His par amount goal
"kAkkum iyalvinan" (t ir uvAi. 2.2.9) - He Whose Nat ur e it is t o pr ot ect . I t is
t his par amount goal of His t hat is being sung in t his nAma.
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan explains t he nAma as "uyar vaRa uyar nalam
uDaiyavan yavan avan" (t ir uvAi. 1.1.1) - "He Who possesses auspicious qualit ies
t hat cannot at all be excelled".
Sr I Sa' nkar a explains t he nAmaas - sar veshAm upar i t ishThan Ur dhva-gaH-
He Who st ands above all.
b) Sr I anant a kRshNa SAst r y gives an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion t hat t he
nAma signif ies t hat Lor d vishNu is t he One Who t akes us t o Sr I vaikunTham.
c) Sr I vAsishTha int er pr et s t he nAma as - sar veshAm Ur dhva st hit i
SAlit vAt , sar vat aH Sr eshThat vAt vA Ur dhva-gaH - "He who is above ever yone
in all aspect s". He not es t hat even in r eal lif e, t he place of knowledge, namely
t he br ain, is above all ot her or gans in t he body, r ef lect ing an aspect of t his
guNa of bhagavAn.
nAma 955. nAma 955. nAma 955. Bt9¤l¬l¹- Bt9¤l¬l¹- Bt9¤l¬l¹- sat sat sat -- -pat hAcAr aH pat hAcAr aH pat hAcAr aH
a) One Who leads His devot ees in t he r ight pat h.
b) He Who f ollows t he pat h of dhar ma in His incar nat ions.
sat-paThAcArAya namaH.
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pat ha means pat h. sat r ef er s t o ' r ight eous' . The wor d AcAr a is der ived f r om
t he r oot car - gat au - t o walk. ' AcAr a' means ' conduct , behavior ' .
a) Sr i BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma as "One Who leads His devot ees in t he
r ight pat h" - sat -pat he =svAbhAvika dAsya mAr ge, Acar aNam = t eshAm
pr avar t anam asya it i sat -pat hAcAr aH - He Who induces (leads) t he devot ee in
t he r ight pat h of kainkar yam (ser vit ude) t o Him, which is t he t r ue nat ur e of
t he devot ee. Recall t hat in t his segment , Sr i BhaTTar is int er pr et ing t he
nAma-s in t er ms of t he benef it s t o t he devot ees f r om His guNa-s (avt Ar a
pr ayoj anam). Since it is in t he int er est of t he j I va-s t o r ecognize and f ollow
t he r elat ionship of Sesha-SeshI bhAva (t he Mast er -ser vant r elat ionship
bet ween t he Supr eme Being and t he j I va), bhagavAn f acilit at es t his, and leads
t he devot ee in t his pat h. Sr I BhaTTar r ef er s us t o t he wor ds of advice given
by Lor d kRshNa t o ar j una:
a-nit yam a-sukham lokam imampr Apya bhaj asva mAm |
(gI t A 9.33)
"You ar e now in t he t r ansit or y and unhappy wor ld. To get over it , wor ship Me".
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha also gives an int er pr et at ion similar t o t hat of Sr I
BhaTTar - sat -pat he = san-mAr ge Acar ayat i yogyAnit i sat - pat hAcAr aH.
b) Sr i Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he nAma as -
sat Am pant hAnaH kar mANi sat -pat hAH |
t An Acar at i esha it i sat -pat hAcAr aH
He Who f ollows t he pat h which good men have chalked out in His incar nat ions,
is sat -pat hAcAr aH.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r ef er s us t o Slokam 3.22 in t he gI t A, wher e
bhagavAn t ells us t hat He f ollows t he pat h f ollowed by t he gr eat ones in His
incar nat ions, j ust t o set an example f or ot her s t o f ollow:
na me par t ha ast i kar t avyamt r ishu lokeshu ki' ncana |
nAnavApt am avApt avyam var t a eva ca kar maNi | | (gI t A 3.22)
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"For Me, ar j una, t her e is not hing in all t he t hr ee wor lds t hat ought t o be done,
nor is t her e anyt hing un-acquir ed t hat ought t o be acquir ed. Yet I go on
wor king (t o set an example t o ot her s)".
Sr I vAsishTha int er pr et s t he nAma as: sat -pat he AcAr o yasya sa sat -
pat hAcAr aH - He Whose conduct or behavior is along t he r ight eous pat h, is
sat -pat hAcAr aH.
nAma 956. nAma 956. nAma 956. 9lT7- 9lT7- 9lT7- pr ANa pr ANa pr ANa-- -daH daH daH
The Lif e-giver .
prANa-dAya namaH.
This nAma is one of t wo nAma-s t hat is r epeat ed f our t imes in Sr I BhaTTar ' s
pATham (t he ot her nAma is nivRt t At mA). The ot her inst ances f or t he cur r ent
nAma ar e: 66, 323, 409 - Sloka-s 8, 35, 44.
The r oot f r om which t he wor d pr ANa is der ived is aN - pr ANane - t o
br eat he,t o live, t o move. pr a - is an upasar ga, meaning ' in a special way' . The
wor d ' pr ANa' can be t r anslat ed as ' vAyu' or air - pr ANyat e =j I vyat e anena it i
pr ANaH = vAyuH. The ending st em -da of t he nAma can be int er pr et ed in
sever al ways:
1. dadAt i - gives (dadAt i it idaH) - do - avakhaNDane - t o cut (dyat i) -
kAlAt manA avakhaNDayat i - pr ANomRt yuH pr ANast akmA (at har va.
11.4.11)
2. dai - Sodhane - t o pur if y. pr ANAnAn dApayat i Sodhayat i Sudhyant ivA.
3. dA - lavane - t o cut ; pr ANAn dAt i lunAt i it pr ANa-daH (kAlaH sar vasya
I svar aH - at har va.19.53.8)
I n essence, it is because of Him t hat beings br eat he, and it is because of Him
t hat t hey cease br eat hing. Her e is t he beaut if ul composit ion of Sr I vAsishTha
summar izing t he var ious int er pr et at ions t hat ar e possible f or t he nAma
pr ANa-daH:
pr ANAn dadAt i, kimu vA dyat i,dAt i kim vA
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pr ANan viSodhayat i, dApayat i it i kim vA |
sar vat r a sar va vidhinA sa hi vishNur -eko
yaHpr ANado' st i kat hit aH Sr ut ibhiH pur ANaH | |
"He is t he Giver of pr ANa, t he Taker of pr ANa, t he Pur if ier of pr ANa,
Enlight ener of pr ANa, and is pr esent ever ywher e and in ever yt hing in t he f or m
of pr ANa. The Supr eme Deit y, Lor d vishNu, is sung t hus as pr ANa-daH in t he
Sr ut i-s".
Ot her r ef er ences t o t he Sr ut i t hat ar e pr ovided by Sr I vAsishTha ar e:
pr Ana-dA apAna-dA vyAna-dAvar co-dA var ivo-dAH |
anyAns-t e asmAt -t apant u het ayaH pAvako asmabhyam Sivo bhava | |
(yaj ur . 17.15)
yaH pr ANa-daH pr AnadavAnbabhUva yasmai lokAH dhRt avant aH kshar ant i|
(at har va. 4.35.5)
pr ANo mRt yuH t akmA pr ANam devAupAsat e |
pr ANo ha sat yavAdinam ut t amo loka Adadhat | |
(at har va.11.4.11)
Anot her independent line of int er pr et at ion given by Sr I vAsishTha is based on
t he r oot pr A - pUr aNe - t o f ill. I n t his int er pr et at ion, he gives t he der ivat ion
- pr ANaH = pUr NaH, pURNasya dAt A pr ANa-daH - He Who gives f ullness t o
ever yt hing. He gives r eal-lif e examples, such as our f inding t hat t he miner als
ar e dist r ibut ed unif or mly t hr ough our bodies, we f ind t he milk oozing out f r om
any par t of t he t r ee t hat is cut , et c. And he also gives t he beings all kinds of
comf or t s t o live wit h. So He is One Who best ows f ullness - pr ANa-daH.
Sever al int er pr et at ions of t he nAma ar e possible. One int er pr et at ion is:
Pr ANam = j I vanam dadAt i it i pr ANa-daH - He Who sust ains lif e t hr ough vAyu
or air is pr ANa-daH. Pr ANa is one of t he f ive air s t hat enable t he f unct ions
of t he body (t he ot her s being apAna,vyAna, et c.).
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Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ions f or t he f our inst ances of t he nAma ar e given
below:
nAma 66: nAma 66: nAma 66: asya aiSvar yasyapr at hamam vishayam - pr ANam dadAt i - Giver of
lif e (st r engt h and vit alit y) t hat enables t he devot ees t o per f or m et er nal
kai' nkar yam t o Him. Sr I BhaTTar gives t he example of bhagavAn giving t his
ener gy and will t o t he nit ya sUr is- t o ser ve Him unint er r upt edly - sUr ibhyaH
sadA-dar Sana-r Upa-svAnubhava par icar aNa-anukUla bala-daH. The nit ya sUr i-
s not only get t he abilit y t o ser ve Him, but also t he benef it of per f or ming
kai' nkar yam t o Him et er nally, being wit h Him const ant ly, and enj oying Him
per manent ly. This is t he f ir st example of t he f or emost act ion of bhagavAn,
signif ying His lor dship over all.
1. ya At ma-dAH bala-dAH (t ait t .yaj ur . 4.1.8) - He gives t he Self and He
best ows st r engt h.
2. SadaivaHpr ANa AviSat i (bR. Upa. 3.5.20) - The vit al air s ent er t he body of
a cr eat ed being, along wit h t heSupr eme Divinit y.
BhagavAn is pRANa-daH also in t he sense t hat He is t he pr ANa or lif e f or His
t r ue devot ees, and He gives Himself f or t hem t o enj oy. Sr I kRshNa dat t a
bhAr advAj capt ur es t his t hought wit h his int er pr et at ion - pr ANAn = j I vanam
dadAt i bhakt ebhyaH At mAna dar Sayit vA it i pr ANa-daH.
nAma 323. nAma 323. nAma 323. Sr i BhaTTar int er pr et s t he sequence of eleven nAma-s st ar t ing
f r om nAma 323 as a descr ipt ion of t he kUr mAvat Ar a. I n t his cont ext , Sr I
BhaTTar int er pr et s t he t er m pr ANa t o r ef er t o st r engt h, and t he nAma
pr ANa-daH as One Who gave t he st r engt h t o t he deva-s dur ing t he episode
descr ibing t he chur ning of t he Milky Ocean. So bhagavAn is called pr ANa-daH
- The Giver of st r engt h. The amar a koSa givessever al meanings f or t he wor d
pr ANa - vit al br eat h, st r engt h, pr owess, lif e et c. - Sakt iH par Akr ama pr ANau.
(amar a koSa 2.8.102), and one of t he meanings f or t he wor d pr ANa is seen t o
be st r engt h.
Sr I T. S. Raghavendr an gives t he f ollowing Sloka in suppor t of t he above
int er pr et at ion:
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mar ut Am bala dAnAd-hi samudr amet hane bhRSam |
pr ANadaSca samuddishTaH kUr mar Upat ayA hi saH | |
I n a sense, bhagavAn not only gave st r engt h t o t he deva-s f or t he pur pose of
chur ning t he ocean, but He Himself gave His st r engt h t o t he whole ef f or t by
ser ving as t he suppor t f or t he huge mount ain t hat was used as t he axle f or
chur ning t he ocean, in t he f or m of a kUr ma (His kUr ma incar nat ion). He is
medit at ed upon as anant a-bala Sakt an (omanant a-bala-Sakt aye namaH) - One
Who is endowed wit h unlimit ed st r engt h and power .
nAma 409: nAma 409: nAma 409: Giver of lif e t o all. Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is "pr asiddhAnapi
pr ANAn dadAt i it i pr ANa-daH". Sr i Sr I nivAsa Raghavan t r anslat es t his as
"One Who best ows t he well-known lif e it self t o all", but Sr I Sat ya Mur t hy
Ayyangar chooses t o t r anslat e it as "The I mpar t er of liveliness (inst ead of t he
I mpar t er of lif e)". Sr I BhaTTar gives t he example of t he st at e of t he t r ees,
shr ubs, f lower s et c. in ayodhyA when Sr I r Ama was separ at ed f r om sI t A
t hr ough t he abduct ion by r AvaNa. Even t hey wit her ed because of sadness
over t his event :
api vRkshAH par imlAnAHsa-pushpA' nkur a kor akAH |
(ayodhyA. 59.4)
par iSushka palASAni vanAnupavanAni ca |
(ayodhyA. 59.5)
"Even t he t r ees wit h t heir f lower s, buds, and spr out s wit her ed. All t hat
r emained in t he f or est s and gar dens wer e only dr y leaves".
On t he ot her hand, when r Ama r et ur ned f r om exile t o ayodhyA lat er wit h sit A,
f r uit s and f lower s appear ed in plent y even out of season (descr ibed by Sr I mad
vAlmI ki in Sr I mad r AmAyaNam).
nAma 956: nAma 956: nAma 956: Sr I BhaTTar gives anot her example of His giving ' lif e' t o t he
devot ees: He conf er s r edempt ion on t hose souls t hat have been poisoned by
t he indulgence in mat er ial pleasur es - At am uj j I vanam dadAt iit i pr ANa-daH -
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132
He gives a new lif e t o t hese souls.
The nir ukt i aut hor descr ibes t his t hr ough t he f ollowing wor ds:
kAnt Adi vishaya Asakt yA nashTaAt mabhyaH kRpA vaSAt |
sad-At ma uj j I vanam yo' sau dadAt i pr ANa-daH t u at yam | |
"BhagavAn is called pr ANa-daH because He inst ills lif e in t he j I va-s whose
souls ar e get t ing lost because t hey have been poisoned by t he sensuous
pleasur es".
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAna-s f or t he dif f er ent inst ances of t he nAma ar e:
Slokam 8: Slokam 8: Slokam 8: pr ANAn dadAt iceshTayat i it i pr ANa-daH - He Who best ows vit al
air s. kohyevAnyAt kaH pr ANyAt (t ait t . 2.7) - (But f or t his), Who t hen could
live, and who could br eat he? Alt er nat e int er pr et at ion by Sr i Sa' nkar a: pr ANAn
kAlAt manA dyat ikhaNDayat i, pr ANAn dAyat i (dApayat i) Sodhayat i vA,
pr ANAn dAt i lunAt i it i vA pr ANa-daH - He Who t akes away t he lif e in t he
f or m of deat h, or pur if ies or dest r oys t he pr ANa-s (br eat hs).
Slokam 35: Slokam 35: Slokam 35: sur ANAm asur ANAm ca yat hAsa' nkhyam pr ANam dadAt i dyat i
vA it i pr ANa-daH - He Who gives lif e (ener gy) t o t he gods, and dest r oys (kills)
t he lif e of t he demoniac beings (asur a-s).
Slokam 44: Slokam 44: Slokam 44: He Who gives lif e t o all beings at t he t ime of cr eat ion, or He
Who wit hdr aws all lif e at t he t ime of pr alaya -
sRshTyA dausar va-pr ANinAm ant ar yAmit ayA
pr ANAn dadAt i it i pr ANa-daH |
dyat i khaNDayat i pr ANinAm pr ANAn
pr alaya kAla it i vA pr ANa-daH.
Slokam 102 (cur r ent ): Slokam 102 (cur r ent ): Slokam 102 (cur r ent ): mRt An par I kshit -pr abhRt I n j I vayan pr ANa-daH -
He Who r evived t he lif e of par I kshit and ot her s. (Recall t hat Sr I Kr shNa also
r evived t he son of t he gur u wit h whom He f or mally per f or med gur ukula vAsam,
by r et r ieving t he son f r om yama lokam).
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I t is obvious how bot h Sr I BhaTTar and Sr i Sa' nkar a have explained t he
nAma-s such t hat t her e is no punar ukt i dosham.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives anot her dimension t o t he anubhavam of t he
nAma - in His r Ama incar nat ion, He declar es t hat He will even give His lif e in
or der t o pr ot ect t hose who have sur r ender ed t o Him:
apyaham j I vit am j ahyAm t vAm vAsI t e sa-lakshmaNAm |
na t u pr at ij ~nAm samSr ut ya br AhmaNebhyo viSeshat aH | |
(r AmAyaNa Ar aNya. 10.19)
(Adr essing sI t A pir ATTi):
"I won' t mind sacr if icing My own lif e, or even t hose of You and lakshmaNa;
but I will not swer ve f r om t he wor d I give especially t o t he br AhmaNa-s".
Ot her int er pr et at ions, given in Sr I T. S. Raghavendr an' s book, ar e:
1. pr ANAn indir yANi dadAt i it pr ANa-daH - He who gives indir ya-s t o all
and makes t hem f unct ion,
2. pr ANAn indir yANi dyat i khaNDayat i it i pr ANa-daH - He Who r emoves
t he at t achment t o indr iya-s f or t he sAt t vic souls.
3. Pr akr sheNa aNam sukha vir r uddha duHkham dyat i khaNDayat i it i
pr ANa-daH - He Who r emoves t he gr ief t hat is opposed t o happiness.
(NaH = sukham, t ad-vir uddhat vAt a-NaH = SokhaH, pr akr sheNa t ama
dyat i = khaNDayat i it i pr ANa-daH).
nAma 957. nAma 957. nAma 957. 9T4- 9T4- 9T4- pr aNavaH pr aNavaH pr aNavaH
He Who guides t he devot ee t o sur r ender t o Him wit h love.
praNavAya namaH.
nAma 410 – pr aNamaH, is r elat ed. ' pr aNavaH' is an alt er nat e pATham f or
nAma 410. The int er pr et at ion f or t he pATham ' pr aNamaH' is cover ed under
nAma 410 (Slokam 44). The int er pr et at ions f or t he nAma ' pr aNavaH' ar e
cover ed her e.
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Sr I vAsishTha indicat es t he der ivat ion of t he nAma f r om t he r oot Nu – st ut au
– t o pr aise, t o commend. pr a- is a pr ef ix, meaning ' in a special way' . pr aNaut i
it i pr aNavaH, pr aNamayat i it i vA – He Who is pr aised or wor shipped is
' pr aNavaH' . J ust as t he r oot bhU becomes bhav, t he r oot Nu becomes Nav
(pANini sUt r a 3.3.57 – Rdor ap). Pr a + Nav = pr aNav. I n int er pr et at ions below
t hat cont ain ' na' in t he r oot , t he na become ' Na' by t he applicat ion of t he
pANini sUt r a 8.4.14 – upasar gAt a-samAse' pi NopadeSasya, leading t o t he
change of t he ' na' t o ' Na' .
Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam f or t he nAma is: pr aNavena I dRSa sambandham
udbhodhya, "mAm namaskur u" it i sva-car aNar avindayoH t An pr aNamayat i -
"By means of t he sacr ed ' pr aNava' mant r a, bhagavAn r eveals t o His devot ees
t he t r ue r elat ionship bet ween Him and t hem, and makes t hem under st and t he
need f or sur r ender ing t o Him".
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i quot es t he yoga sUt r a – t asya vAcakaH pr aNavaH
(1.27) – "The pr aNava mant r a is a manif est at ion in wor ds of par amAt mA".
This mant r a r eveals Him t o us, when we under st and t he meaning of t he mant r a.
Again, when we under st and t he deeper meaning of t he mant r a, it will lead us t o
wor ship Him.
pr aNava r ef er s t o t he mant r a r epr esent ed by t he t hr ee let t er s – a, u, and m –
"aum" or "OM". This syllable, which is consider ed a mant r a t hat is t he essence
of all veda-s, is consider ed as a manif est at ion of bhagavAn Himself in sound
f or m. Det ailed vyAkhyAna f or t his mant r a has been expounded by t he gr eat
AcAr ya-s, and t his should be lear nt f r om t he AcAr ya-s. The mant r a r eminds
us, t he j I va-s, of t he et er nal and insepar able r elat ionship of t he j I vAt mA t o
t he par amAt mA in a Sesha-SeshI r elat ionship.
Sr I V. N. Vedant a deSikan has t r anslat ed Sr I M. V. Ramanuj achar ya' s
int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma t hus: "BhagavAn inf or ms t he souls – if t hey can
under st and – of t he per ennial bond of r elat ionship exist ing bet ween Himself
and t he individual soul, as imbedded in t he secr et impor t of t he pr aNava
mant r a. The key is t hat "we should t r y and under st and" t his et er nal
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r elat ionship bet ween us and Him, and t he t r ue nat ur e of our selves, and
sur r ender t o Him.
I n t he last chapt er of t he gI t A, almost near t he end, bhagavAn summar izes
His inst r uct ions t o ar j una:
man-manA bhava mad-bhakt o mad-yAj I mAm namas-kur u |
mAmeva eshyasi sat yam t e pr at ij Ane pr iyo' si me | | (18.65)
"Focus your mind on Me; Be My devot ee; Be My wor shipper ; Pr ost r at e bef or e
Me. You shall come t o Me alone. I pr omise you, t r uly, f or you ar e dear t o Me".
I t is enlight ening t o r ead bhagavad r AmAnuj a' s explanat ion of t he meaning of
t he Slokam, so t hat we t r uly under st and t he nat ur e of t his obeisance t hat
bhagavAn inst r uct s us t o of f er t o Him.
mad-bhakt aH bhava – "at yar t ham mama pr iyaH at yar t hamat pr iyat vena ca
nir at iSaya pr iyAm smRt i sant at im kur ushva it yar t haH".
This is t r anslat ed by Sr I AdidevAnanda as: "Focus your mind on Me; Be My
devot ee. Be one t o whom I am incompar ably dear . Since I am t he obj ect of
super abundant love, medit at e on Me, i.e., pr act ice t he succession of memor y of
unsur passed love of Me. Such is t he meaning".
Not e t he use of wor d ' pr iyam' t hr ice in t his one sent ence of vyAkhyAnam by
Sr I r AmAnuj a. This pr iyam is t he basis of t he r elat ionship bet ween Him and
us. I t is because of His int ense love and compassion t o us t hat we should bow
t o Him, and sur r ender t o Him, and He assur es us t hat He will r edeem us as a
r esult .
mad-yAj I bhava – "t at r Api mad-bhakt a it i anushaj yat e |
yaj anam pUj anam at yar t ha pr iya mad-Ar Adhano bhava |
Ar Adhanam hi par ipUr Na Sesha vRt t iH".
Tr anslat ion: "Be My wor shipper (yAj I ). Her e also, t he expr ession ' Be My
devot ee' is applicable. Yaj ~na is wor ship. Wor ship Me as One exceedingly
dear t o you. Wor ship (Ar Adhana) is complet e subser vience t o t he Lor d".
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Not e again t he emphasis on ' at yar t ha pr iyam' . This is t he basis of t he
Ar Adhana t hat bhagavAn is advising us t o pr act ice.
The complet e subser vience is based on our ut most love t o Him, and not based
on any ot her f act or such as f ear et c.
mAm namas-kur u – namo namanam mayi at imAt r a-pr ahvI bhAvam at yar t ha-
pr iyam kur u it yar t haH |
Tr anslat ion: "Pr ost r at e bef or e Me". Pr ost r at ion means ' bowing down' . The
meaning is ' Bow down humbly bef or e Me wit h gr eat love' .
Once again, not e t he emphasis by bhagavad r AmAnuj a on ' at yar t ha pr iyam
kur u' – per f or m t his act wit h gr eat love.
For t hose who t hus sur r ender t o Him, bhagavAn says: "mAm eva eshyasi,
sat yam t e pr at ij Ane" – "I make t his solemn pr omise t o you. You shall at t ain Me
as a r esult ". These ar e not mer e empt y wor ds, because bhagavAn cont inues:
"pr iyo' si me" – "You ar e dear t o Me". Thus, bhagavAn is not j ust advising us t o
wor ship Him wit h love as t he basis, but He is bound t o us by t he same love,
even mor e int ensely t han we can ever command. Elsewher e bhagavAn has
alr eady declar ed: "He in whom t her e is gr eat love t o Me, I hold him also as
exceedingly dear t o Me. I Myself will enable him t o at t ain Me". (gI t A 7.17).
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan point s out t hat t he spir it of t he gI t A Slokam
above is best under st ood if we look at t he phr ases as "man-manA eva bhava",
"mad-bhat a eva bhava", "mad-yAj I eva bhava", " mAm eva namas-kur u", "mAm
eva eshyasi" – Medit at e on Me alone, Wor ship Me alone, Pr ost r at e only t o Me;
You will def init ely at t ain Me wit hout any doubt .
Sr I BhaTTar also gives suppor t f r om t he at har va Sir as: pRaNAn sar vAn
par amAt mani pr aNamayat i, et asmAt pr aNavaH | - "The mant r a is called
pr aNava mant r a, because it makes all souls t o obey, and pay r espect s t o, t he
par amAt mA" (as indicat ed in t he ear lier t r anslat ion, t his is consider ed t he
gr eat est pr ivilege by t hose who under st and t he signif icance of t he mant r a).
Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma as a r ef er ence t o
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bhagavAn t hr ough t he sound of t he syllable "OM". Since bhagavAn is
r epr esent ed by t his syllable in wor d f or m, t his syllable is none ot her t han
bhagavAn – pr aNavo nAma par amAt mano vAcaka om-kAr aH t ad-
abhedhopacAr eNa ayam pr aNavaH.
For t he inst ance of t he nAma in Slokam 44, Sr i Sa' nkar a gives t he
int er pr et at ion –
pr aNauit i it i pr aNavaH – He Who is pr aised. He gives t he sanat kumAr a
vacanam "pr aNamant I ha yam vedAH t asmAt pr aNava ucyat e" – "The veda-s
pay obeisance t o Him, He is named pr aNava".
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj explains t he nAma as "pr akar sheNa nUyat e –
st Uyat e sadbhiH it i pr aNavaH" – He Who is pr aised uniquely by t he devot ed.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha gives t he int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma as –
pr akar shena nayat i it i pr aNavaH – Lor d vishNu is called pr aNavaH because He
r egulat es or put s t he wor ld in or der ly f or m in a splendid way.
Sr I baladeva vidyAbhUshaN gives t he int er pr et at ion – nit ya nUt anat vAt
pr aNavaH (pr akesheNa nUt anat vAt pr aNavaH (pr a + nava= pr aNava).
Sr I Raghavendr an has included some addit ional int er pr et at ion and suppor t :
pr aNamant i iha yam vedAH t asmAt pr aNavaH ucyat e – sanat kumAr a – vishNu is
called pr aNavaH because all veda-s bow down t o Him.
r aso' ham apsu kaunt eya pabhAsmi SaSi Sur ayayoH |
pr aNavaH sar va bhUt eshu SabdaH khe paur usham nRshu | |
(gI t A 7.8)
(Lor d kRshNa declar es t o ar j una): "O ar j una! I am t he t ast e in t he wat er s, t he
light in t he Sun and t he Moon, and t he pr aNava (OmkAr a) in all t he veda-s,
sound in t he et her , and manhood in all men".
Sr I vAsishTha gives suppor t f r om kaThopanishad:
sar ve vedA yat -padam Amanant i t apAmsi sar vANi ca yad vadant i |
yad-icchant o br ahmacar yam car ant i t at -t e padam
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sa' ngr aheNa br avI mi yom it i et at | |
(kaTho. 2.15)
"I shall br ief ly t each you t hat abode of which all t he veda-s speak, of which
t he Ar aNyaka-s and t he Upanishad-s ment ion, desir ing which br ahmacar ya is
obser ved. That is OM".
The Upanishad cont inues on:
et ad-dhyevAkshar am br ahma st ad-dhyevAkshar am par am |
et ad-dhyevAkshar am j ~nAt vA yo yadi-icchat i t asya t at | | (2.16)
et ad-Alambanam Sr eshTham et ad-Alambanam par am |
et ad-Alambanam j ~nAt vA bloke mahI yat e | | (2.17)
"This let t er is indeed Br ahman. This ver y let t er is t he Supr eme. Medit at ing
upon t his let t er one get s what ever one want s. This is t he best suppor t . This
is t he highest suppor t . He who knows t his is glor if ied in t he wor ld of
Br ahman".
Sr I vAsishTha gives sever al ot her r ef er ences t o t he Sr ut i, wher e t he
signif icance of t he pr aNava mant r a is r evealed t o us:
viSve devAsa iha mAdayant a OM pr at ishTha |
(yaj ur . 3.13)
OM kr at o smar a | klive smar a | kRt am smar a |
(yaj ur . 40.15)
OM kham br ahma |
(yaj ur . 40.17)
Rco akshar e par ame vyoman asmin devA adhi viSve nisheduH |
(Rg. 1.164.9)
The signif icance of t he pr aNava mant r a is t he medit at ion on t he mant r a wit h
it s meaning in mind, which, at a high level, r eveals t o us t he per manent and
et er nal r elat ionship bet ween us and t he par amAt mA, Lor d vishNu.
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nAma 958. nAma 958. nAma 958. 9T- 9T- 9T- paNaH paNaH paNaH
a) He Who t r ades His r ole as Mast er wit h His devot ees, and becomes
subser vient t o t hem.
b) He Who accept s of f er ings as t he ant ar yAmi of t he dif f er ent deva-s, and
best ows benef it s.
c) He is const ant ly act ive, cr eat ing ' f or ms and names' .
d) He Who best ows benef it s accor ding t o kar ma.
e) He Who manages t he act ivit ies of t he Univer se.
f ) He Who is t he obj ect of pr aise (paN – st ut au – t o pr aise).
g) He Who assigns and cont r ols t he dut ies of t he dif f er ent gods.
paNAya namaH.
Sr I vAsishTha indicat es t he r oot f or t he nAma as ' paNa – vyavahAr e – t o
bar gain, t o bet or st ake at play' , or ' paNa – st ut au – t o pr aise' . Most
int er pr et er s have used t he f ir st meaning, and Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj
and Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha have used t he second meaning.
vyavahar at i, vyavahAr ayat i vA viSvam, saH paNaH – He Who t r ansact s t he
act ivit es of t he wor ld, or He because of whom t he people of t he wor ld
t r ansact t heir act ivit es, is paNaH. (The t er m ApaNa means a mar ket or a shop
– a place wher e t r ansact ions ar e conduct ed). Dif f er ent int er pr et er s give
dif f er ent anubhavam-s of His ' t r ansact ions' or dealings wit h us.
a) Sr I BhaTTar dr aws f r om t he Sesha-SeshI bhAvam, or t he Lor d-ser vant
r elat ionship t hat exist s bet ween Him and us. While t his is t he nat ur al
r elat ionship bet ween bhagavAn and us, somet imes He chooses t o r ever se t his
r elat ionship, and behaves as if He is t he ser vant of t he devot ee. This is t he
' t r ansact ion' , namely t he r ever sal of t he r ole, t hat Sr i BhaTTar enj oys
t hr ough t his nAma – evam t eshAm svAmya-dAsya vyat ihAr eNa vyavahar at i it i
paNaH – He behaves as t hough t her e is a t r ansact ion wher eby t her e has been
an int er change of t he r ole of t he Mast er -ser vant r elat ionship bet ween Him
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and us (vyat ihAr eNa means ' int er changeably, r ecipr ocally' ). He act s as if t hey
ar e t he mast er s and He is t heir ser vant .
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan not es t hat t his is what is r ef lect ed in t ir umazhiSai
AzhvAr being called ' t ir umazhiSaip pir AN' , and Lor d Ar Avamudhan of
t ir ukkuDant ai being called "Ar Avamudha AzhvAr ".
Lor d kRshNa declar es t hat He consider s His t r ue devot ees as His At mA – an
example of t he r ever sed r ole.
udAr AH sar va evait e j ~nAnI t vAt maiva me mat am |
Ast hit aH sa hi yukt At mA mAmevAnut t amAm gat im | |
(gI t A 7.18)
"….I deem t he man of knowledge t o be My ver y self ; f or he, int egr at ed, is
devot ed t o Me alone as t he highest end".
Bhagavad r AmAnuj a' s vyAkhyAnam is: "ayam mayA vinA At ma dhAr aNa
asambhAvanayA mAm eva anut t amam pr Apyam Ast hit aH, at aH t ena vinA mama
api At madhAr aNam na sambhavat i, t at o mama api At mA hi saH" – This per son
(t he j ~naNi who is solely devot ed t o Him) consider s Him t o be t he highest , and
f inds it impossible t o suppor t himself wit hout Me; so also, I f ind it impossible
t o be wit hout him. Thus, ver ily, He is My self ".
b) Ther e is anot her aspect t o t he ' t r ansact ion' t hat bhagavAn has put in place.
This is in t he f or m of our of f er ings t o t he dif f er ent gods t hr ough yaj ~na et c.
Sr I vAsishTha gives examples f r om t he Sr ut i wher e t his ' t r ansact ion' aspect
is capt ur ed:
yo agnishomA havishA sapar yAt daivadr I cA manasA yo ghRt ena |
t asya vr at am r akshat am pAt amamhaso viSe j anAya mahi Sar mayacchat am | |
(Rg. 1.93.8)
"Whosoever honor s agni and soma wit h devout hear t , t hr ough oil and pour ed
oblat ion, f or him, t hey (agni, soma et c.) in t ur n pr ot ect his sacr if ice, pr eser ve
him f r om dist r ess, and gr ant t o t he sacr if icer gr eat f elicit y".
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agniH pUr vebhiH RshbhiH I dyo nUt anair ut a |
sa devAm eha vakshat i | |
(Rg. 1.1.2)
"Wor t hy is agni t o be pr aised by t he living as by ancient seer s; he shall br ing
hit her wor d t he gods".
agne naya supat hA r Aye |
(Rg. 1.189.1)
"agni, god who knows ever y sacr ed dut y, by goodly pat hs lead us t o r iches".
I n t he spir it in which Sr I vAsishTha has int er pr et ed t he nAma, namely, t hat
of f er ings ar e made t o t he deva-s, and t he deva-s in r et ur n, best ow goods on
t he people, t he f ollowing Slokam f r om t he gI t A lends suppor t t o t his t hought :
DevAn bhAvayat Anena t e devA bhAvayant u vaH |
par aspar am bhAvayant aH Sr eyaH par am avApsyat ha | |
(gI t A 3.11)
ishTAn bhogAn hi vo devA dAsyant e yaj ~na bhAvit AH |
t air -dat t An apr adAyaibhyo yo bhu' ngt e st ena eva saH | | (3.12)
"By t his (i.e., t hr ough sacr if ices), please t he gods, and t he gods will suppor t
you. Thus nour ishing one anot her , may you obt ain t he highest good".
(Not e t hat t hese deva-s ar e t he bodies of t he Lor d, and He is t heir ant ar yAmi.
The of f er ings t o t hese gods ult imat ely r each Him only).
"The gods, pleased by t he sacr if ice, will best ow on you t he enj oyment s you
desir e. He who enj oys t he bount y of t he gods wit hout giving t hem anyt hing in
r et ur n, is but a t hief ".
c) Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he nAma as one r ef er r ing t o t he ' t r ansact ion'
aspect of bhagavAn cr eat ing t he dif f er ent lif e-f or ms (accor ding t o t heir
kar ma?). He quot es a mant r a f r om t he upanishad in suppor t :
sar vANi r UpANi vicit ya dhI r aH;
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nAmAni kRt vA' bhivadan yadAst e |
(t ait t . 3.12)
"He, t he Wise, keeps cr eat ing var ious f or ms and giving a name t o each".
d) Sr I Sa' nkar a' s alt er nat e int er pr et at ion is:
puNyANi sar vANi kar mANi paNam sa' ngRhya adhikAr ibhyaH
t at -phalam pr ayacchat i it i lakshaNayA paNaH
"He who awar ds, t o t hose t hat ar e ent it led, t he f r uit s of t heir good kar ma-s,
t hat t hey have accumulat ed".
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i comment s t hat as a mer chant gives mer chandise
t hat is commensur at e wit h t he amount t hat is paid t o him, bhagavAn measur es
out t he phalanx commensur at e wit h t he kar ma; t hus, t he pr ice f or happiness is
f ollowing t he pat h of dhar ma, and t he pr ice f or suf f er ing is one' s having
f ollowed t he a-dhar mic pat h.
e) Sr I cinmayAnanda explains t his guNa of bhagavAn in t er ms of t he
f unct ioning of ever yt hing in t he univer se: "PaNaH – The Supr eme Manager of
t he Univer se. By giving t he exact r ewar d f or all act ions, Lor d bot h or der s and
j ust ly manages all act ivit ies of each individual and dir ect ly super vises t he
int er act ions bet ween individuals and t hings const it ut ing t his scient if ically
pr ecise univer se".
f ) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj uses t he r oot paN – st ut au – t o pr aise, and
explains t he nAma as "paNyat e st Uyat e sat t va guNavadbhiH it ipaNaH” – He
Who is wor shipped by t hose who ar e endowed wit h a pr edominance of t he
sat t va guNa.
This is also one of t he int er pr et at ions pr ovided by Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha –
paNyat e j anaiH st Uyat e it i paNaH.
g) Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha gives yet anot her dimension t o His ' t r ansact ions' –
paNayat i devAn vyahAr eshu pr avar t ayat i it ipaNaH – He is called paNaH
because He assigns t he r espect ive dut iest o be per f or med by t he dif f er ent t he
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gods, and cont r ols t hem in t hese f unct ions.
























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Slokam 103 Slokam 103 Slokam 103
9PlT 9lT|+¬4- 9lT¤ t9lT=l4+-· 9PlT 9lT|+¬4- 9lT¤ t9lT=l4+-· 9PlT 9lT|+¬4- 9lT¤ t9lT=l4+-·
6x4 6x4|47 TltPl =-PP t4 =¹l|6¬-+ °¤°+ 6x4 6x4|47 TltPl =-PP t4 =¹l|6¬-+ °¤°+ 6x4 6x4|47 TltPl =-PP t4 =¹l|6¬-+ °¤°+
pr amANam pr ANanilayah pr ANadhr ut pr ANaj I vanah |
t at t vam t at t vavidekAt mA j anmamr ut yuj ar At igah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 959. nAma 959. nAma 959. 9PlTP 9PlTP 9PlTP pr amANam pr amANam pr amANam
The valid aut hor it y.
pramANAya namaH.
We discussed t his nAma ear lier in Slokam 46 (nAma 429).
Sr I vAsishTha indicat es t he r oot f or t he nAma as mA' ng – mAne – t o measur e,
t o limit , t o compar e wit h, t o f or m, t o show, et c. pr a- is an uapsar ga. The t er m
' pr amANam' is used t o r ef er t o ' pr oof , valid knowledge, aut hor it y' , et c. –
pr akRshTam mAnam pr amANam – Super ior knowledge,Valid aut hor it y.
Sr I BhaTTar explains nAma 429 as "at ha kAr t a yugAnAm hit a a-
hit ayoHpr amANam" – BhagavAn is t he aut hor it y f or det er mining what is good
and what is bad f or t he people who live in t he kRt a yuga. Pr amANam is used
her e in t he sense of ' vyavast hApanam – set t ing t he st andar d, est ablishing' .
The cont ext in which Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he sequence of nAma-s 422 t o
436, is in t er ms t he kalki incar nat ion,which will be t aken by bhagavAn when a-
dhar ma will become so wide t hat He decides t o eliminat e ever yt hing and st ar t
again wit h cr eat ion in t he kRt a yuga. When t he cycle of yuga-s st ar t s wit h t he
kRt a yuga af t er t his cur r ent yuga (t he kali yuga), bhagavAn set s t he st andar d
f or act ion – t he r ight and t he wr ong. Sr I BhaTTar not es t hat per cept ion and
ot her means of knowledge ar e consider ed aut hor it at ive by being act ivat ed by
t his power of His, and people in t his wor ld ar e supposed t o f ollow only t his
mode of His act ion.
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For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma, Sr I BhaTTar explains t hat bhagavAn
has t his nAma since He r eveals t he secr et s and myst ic t r ut hs of t he veda-s
wit hout doubt or er r or – evam nis-samSaya vipar yaya veda r ahasya par amAr t ha
pr at yAyakat vAt par amANam.
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan explains t hat since bhagavAn r eveals t he
par amAr t ha – t he Supr eme Tr ut h, t o us wit hout any samSayam or vipar yayam
(beyond anydoubt and wit hout any dist or t ion in t r ut h et c.)., bhagavAn is t he
t r ue pr amANam – t he t r ue pr oof . He is not only t he goal t o be achieved –
pr ameyam, but He is also t he means t o achieve t he goal.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha int er pr et s t he nAma as – pr akRshTam mAnamvedAdi
pr amANam yasmin it i pr amANam – He Who has given t he veda-s et c. as t he
highest aut hor it y, is pr amANam.
Sr I vAsishTha uses t he gener ic meaning ' measur e' f or t he r oot ' mAn' , and
gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn has t his nAma signif ying t hat pr ior t o
cr eat ion it self , He has decided and est ablished t he nat ur e of t he Univer se,
including t he ext ent , t he nat ur e of t he guNa-s t hat dominat e our conduct , t he
dif f er ent kinds of beings, et c. –
yAvat -pr amANakam, yAdRg-guNam, yAdRg-AkRt imacca j agan-nir mit sat i, t at -
pr amANam t An guNAn t A' nca AkRt im j agad-Ar ambhAt pUr vameva t an-
nir mAt ipar imit ayat a eva t at -pr amANam abhidI yat e |
Sr I vAsishTha gives sever al inst ances f r om t he Sr ut i t o suppor t his
int er pr et at ion:
anaDvAn indr aH sa paSubhyo vicashTe t r A' nchako vimimI t eadhvanaH
(at har va. 4.11.2)
nava pr ANAn navabhiH sam mimI t e dI r ghAyut vAya Sat aSar adAya |
(at har va. 5.28.1)
dhAmAni veda bhuvanAni viSvA |
(yaj ur . 32.10)
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sa bhUmim sar vat o vRt vA at yat ishThad-daSA' ngulam |
(Rg.10.90.1)
et Avan asya mahimA at o j yAyAg' mSca pUr ushaH |
(yaj ur . 31.3)
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives anot her et ymological der ivat ion –
pr akr sheNa mimI t e Sabdayat i, Avishkar ot i j ~nAnam br ahmAdibhya it i
pr amANam – He Who clear ly r eveals or makes known, t he t r ue nat ur e of
Br ahman et c. (mA' ng = mAne, Sabde ca).
Alt er nat ively, Sr I bhAr advAj explains t he nAma as – pr akr sheNa mAnyat e
br ahmAdibhiH it i pr aMANam – He Who is wor shipped by t he likes of br ahmA
(mAna – pUj AyAm).
One of t he alt er nat e int er pr et at ions given by Sr I sat ya sandhat I r t ha is:
pr akRshTam mAnam Sar I r Adi par imANam t r i-vikr amAdi r UpeNayasya it i vA
pr amANam – He Who had unusual dimensions f or His f or m in His t r i-vikr ama
incar nat ion ( mAne – t o measur e).
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN explains t he nAma as "One Who always speaks
t he t r ut h". sat ya bhAshit vAt pr amANam. He gives t he f ollowing in suppor t :
"pr amANam nit ya-mar yAdA sat ya vAdipr amAt Rshu".
I n t he amar a koSa vyAkhyAnam by Pr of . A. A.Ramanat han, he gives t he
f ollowing: "iyat t A het u SAst r eshu pr amANamsat yavAdinI | ", showing t he
equivalence of t he wor ds pr amANam and "sat ya vAdinI ".
nAma 960. nAma 960. nAma 960. 9lT|+¬4- 9lT|+¬4- 9lT|+¬4- pr ANa pr ANa pr ANa-- -nilayaH nilayaH nilayaH
He Who is t he Abode f or all beings.
prANa-nilayAya namaH.
Sr I BhaTTar def ines pr AnA as "pr ANant i it i pr ANAH, anye' pi j I vAH –Those
t hat live, namely t he j I va-s. nilayam means abode.
Sr I vAsishTha uses t he wor d ' nilaya' as ' AdhAr a' or suppor t . Sr I BhaTTar
gives t he analogy of t he bir ds going t o t heir nest at t he end of t he day f or
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r est . Similar ly t he j I va-s have Him as t heir abode. Sr I mad Sr I mushNam
ANDavan r eminds us: "vaikunTham puguvadu maNNavar vidiyE" (t ir uvAi. 10.9.9)
– vaikuNTham is our ult imat e f inal Abode.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN uses t he same analogy, and explains t he nAma in
t er ms of bhagavAn' s incar nat ion as kRshNa – "He in Whom t he gopi-s sought
suppor t as a r esult of t he int ense love of devot ion t o Him, j ust as t he bir ds
seek shelt er in t heir nest " – pr ANant i t at - snehAmRt ena sambandhavat et i
pr ANAH t at -pr eyasI j anAH t e nileeyant e asmin Sakunt A iva nI De it i pr ANa-
nilayaH.
Sr I Sa' nkar a uses t he t er m pr ANa t o collect ively r epr esent t he f ive t ypes of
vAyu-s t hat help t he body f unct ion: pr ANa t hat sust ains lif e in t he f or m of
t he inhaled br eat h, apAna t hat denot es t he exhaled br eat h t hat expels
impur it ies out side of t he syst em, vyAna t hat sust ains t he movement s of t he
syst ems in t he body, udAna t hat suppor t s t he movement s of t he kar mendr iya-s
et c., and samAna t hat aids t he expelling of t he wast e in t he f or m of st ools.
Since bhagavAn is t he Suppor t of all t hese f unct ions, and since t hey all mer ge
int o Him ult imat ely, He is called pr ANa-nilayaH.
The t er m ' nilI na' – mer ging wit h, mer ging int o, has been used by bot h Sr I
Sa' nkar a and by Sr I vAsishTha in one of t heir int er pr et at ions f or t his nAma:
pr ANI t i it i pr ANo j I vaH par e pumsi nilI yat a it i pr ANa-nilayaH – The Supr eme
Per son in whom t he pr ANa or j I va mer ges (Sr I Sa' nkar a), and pr ANA nilI yant e
yasmin sa pr ANa-nilayaH – He in Whom t he j I va-s mer ge (Sr I vAsishTha).
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha comment s t hat bhagavAn has t his nAma also because
He makes pr ovision f or t he living of all living beings in whichever f or m it is
appr opr iat e f or t hem. For example, He pr ovides t he means f or t he sust enance
and sur vival of t he t r ees, t he beings in t he wat er and in t he land, t he humans,
et c. – in ot her wor ds, He makes t he pr ovisions f or t he dif f er ent j I va-s t o live
or have an abode – sa sar veshAm sht Avar a j a' ngamAnAm ca yat ha yogay
sAdhana pr adAnena vAsayit a' t aH sa pr ANa-nilayaH ucyat e.
Sr I cinmayAnanda explains t he nAma as: "He in Whom all pr ANa-s st and
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est ablished. He Who is t he ver y subst r at um – vit al f oundat ion – f or all
' act ivit ies' manif est ed in a living or ganism". This seems t o summar ize Sr i
Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam in t er ms of pr AnA, apAna, et c., descr ibed above.
nAma 961. nAma 961. nAma 961. 9lT¤ 6 9lT¤ 6 9lT¤ 6 pr ANa pr ANa pr ANa-- -dhRt dhRt dhRt
He Who sust ains t he beings.
prANa-dhRte namaH.
pr ANa means lif e. The wor d dhRt is der ived f r om t he r oot dhR – dhAr aNe – t o
hold, t o suppor t , t o bear .
Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is "t An mAt R-vat dhAr ayat i ca it i pr ANa-dhRt " –
He Who nour ishes t he living beings like a mot her .
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr , who pr aises bhagavAn as "Our
mot her , Our f at her , Our soul" – t he t hr ee t hat always wor k f or our welf ar e
and benef it , in t he pr esent , in t he past and in t he f ut ur e:
pOginRa kAla' ngaL, pOya kAla' ngaL, pOgu kAla' ngaL,
t Ai t andai uyir AginRAi! unnai nAn aDaindEn viDuvEnO….
(t ir uvAi.2.6.10)
The pATham ' pr ANa-bhRt ' is used by Sr i Sa' nkar a, Sr I vAsishTha et c. The
r oot in t his case is bhR – dhAr aNa poshaNayoH – t o hold, t o suppor t . Sr i
Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is – poshayan anna r UpeNa pr ANAn pr ANa-bhRt –
He Who nour ishes t he beings by means of f ood, or in t he f or m of f ood.
Sr i vAsishTha gives t he int er pr et at ion – sar vat r a vyApt aH sar veshAm
pr ANinAm pr ANAn bibhar t i = poshayat i, dhAr ayat i vA saH pr ANa-bhRt – He
Who per vades ever yt hing, and nour ishes and suppor t s ever yt hing is pr ANa-
bhRt .
Sr I cinmayAnanda explains t he nAma as: "He Who r ules over all pr ANa-s – Sr I
Har i is t he One Who causes ever yone t o eat , digest , f eel ener gized, act ,
achieve t he f r uit s t her eof , gr ow old and die. I n all t hese act ivit ies, t he gr eat
One, Commanding, Fact or , Divine, Sr I nAr Ayana, t he Self , pr esides in silent
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det achment , and by His pr esence He init iat es and maint ains all t hese act ivit ies
in all living cr eat ur es upon t he ear t h' s sur f ace".
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha gives t he f ollowing int er pr et at ion – pr ANAn indr iyANi
bibhar t i it i pr ANa-bhRt – He Who nour ishes and suppor t s t he indr iya-s and
lif e.
nAma 962. nAma 962. nAma 962. 9lT=l4+- 9lT=l4+- 9lT=l4+- pr ANa pr ANa pr ANa-- -j I vanaH j I vanaH j I vanaH
He Who nour ishes t he beings.
prANa-jIvanAya namaH.
The r oot involved in t he nAma is j I v – pr ANa dhAr aNe – t o live, t o suppor t lif e.
j I vayat i it i j I vanaH; pr ANAnAm j I vanaH pr ANa j I vanaH – He Who suppor t s
lif e.
Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as: "t An anna pAnI yAdivat j I vayat i it i pr ANa-
j I vanaH" – He Who suppor t s lif e even as f ood and dr ink do.
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan comment s t hat even t he f ood and t he wat er
et c., have t heir power t o sust ain lif e only because He has given t hem t his
power .
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o a pASur am f r om nammAzhvAr , wher e AzhvAr
declar es t hat f or devot ees like him, bhagavAn is ver ily t he f ood t hat is eat en,
t he dr ink t hat is consumed, et c. I n ot her wor ds, t hey will not live wit hout Him:
uNNum SORu par ugu nI r t innum veRRilaiyum ellAmkaNNan, emper umAn…
(t ir uvAi. 6.7.1) - "emper umAn kaNNan is t he f ood t hat we consume, t he wat er
t hat we dr ink, and t he bet el leaves t hat we chew af t er f ood". He is t he
t Ar akam (sust enance), poshakam (nur t ur ing), and bhogyam (enj oyment ) f or His
devot ee.
Sr I kRshNan comment s t hat bhagavAn of f er s Himself as t he f ood f or t he
t r ue devot ees, and t hey cannot live wit hout Him, and so He is t heir lif e or
j I vanam. So He is pr ANa-j I vanaH. Sr I kRshnan not es t hat t his same idea is
conveyed by t he phr ase "vAsudevaH sar vam" in t he gI t A.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives an int er pr et at ion t hat has t he same spir it :
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"pr ANAn j I vAn bhaj ana par AyaNAn j I vyat i sva-dar Sana dAnenait i pr ANa-
j I vanaH – He Who r ej uvenat es His devot ees who sing His pr aise, by r evealing
Himself t o t hem".
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam i s: "pr ANi no j I vayan pr ANAkhyai H
pavanaiHpr ANa-j I vanaH" – He Who makes t he beings live by means of pr ANa
or vit al air . He gives t he f ollowing Sr ut i in suppor t :
na pr ANena na apAnena mar t yo j I vat i kaScana |
it ar ena t u j I vant i yasmin et AvupASr it au | |
(kaTho. 5.5)
"A man, whosoever he may be, does not live by pr ANa or apana, but by
somet hing else on which bot h of t hese depend". I n ot her wor ds, bhagavAn is
t he Suppor t er of pr ANa by which t he lif e is suppor t ed.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i not es t hat lif e is not t he vit al air , or t he body, or
t he mind, by it self . I t is a myst er ious t oget her ness of all of t hese t hat causes
lif e, and t his is made possible by bhagavAn alone, and not hing else. So He is
t he t r ue Suppor t of lif e, or t he Giver of lif e t o ever y living being.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha' s int er pr et at ion is: pr ANena mukhya pr ANena
j I vayat i j anAn it i pr ANa j I vanaH – He Who sust ains lif e t hr ough t he vit al air s.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN explains t he nAma as: "pr ANAH t e j I vanamasya
it i pr ANa-j I vanaH" - He Who has His devot ees as His pr ANa or lif e. This idea
of how bhagavAn t r eat s t hose who ar e dear t o Him as His own At mA, has been
descr ibed bef or e, most r ecent ly under nAma950, Slokam 102 (gI t A 7.18).
Sr I vAsishTha gives sever al suppor t ing mant r a-s f r om t he Sr ut i:
yo asya sar va j anmana I Se sar vasya ceshTat aH |
at andr o br ahmaNA dhI r aH pr ANo mA nu t ishTat u | |
(at har va.11.4.24)
"I pr ay t o pr ANa, aler t and r esolut e, Who is t he Lor d of all and who is
r esponsible f or t he act ivit ies of all in t his univer se of var ious beings t hat move
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and wor k".
pr ANAya namo yasya sar va idam vaSe |
(at har va. 11.4.1)
"Homage t o pr ANa under whose cont r ol ever yt hing in t his univer se exist s".
pr ANam Ahur mAt ar iSvAnam vAt o ha pr ANa ucyat e |
pr ANe ha bhUt am bhavyam ca pr ANe sar vam pr at ishTit am | |
(at har va. 11.4.15)
"The name pr ANa is best owed on mAt ar iSvan, also known as t he wind (air ). On
t his pr ANa depend t he past , t he f ut ur e and ever yt hing in t he pr esent ".
Ther e ar e dif f er ent dimensions t o suppor t ing t he lif e f or ms, st ar t ing f r om
giving a body t o t he j I va-s, giving t hem t he vit al air s f or sur vival, t he f ood t o
eat , t he wat er t o dr ink, t he mind t o t hink, t he indr iya-s t o act wit h, et c., all
f unct ioning in a coor dinat ed and highly r egulat ed way, t ill deat h par t s t he body
and t he soul. Bet ween t he nAma-s pr ANa-daH, pr ANa-dhRt or pr ANa-bhRt ,
and pr ANa-j I vanaH, one can see t hat all t hese suppor t s happen because of
Him, and t hus He is t he sole Cr eat or , Pr ot ect or , and Dest r oyer in t he end.
nAma 963. nAma 963. nAma 963. 6x4P 6x4P 6x4P t at t vam t at t vam t at t vam
He Who is t he Essence.
tattvAya namaH.
Sr I vAsishTha der ives t he wor d t at f r om t he r oot t anu - vist Ar e - t o ext end,
t o spr ead, t o go. The applicat ion of t he uNAdi sUt r a 1.132 leads t o t he
addit ion t he af f ix adi t o t he r oot t an: t an + adi = t ad. The applicat ion of t he
pANini sUt r a 5.1.119 - t asya bhAvaH t vat alau - (The af f ixes t va and t al come
af t er a wor d in t he sixt h sense in const r uct ion, in t he sense of "t he nat ur e
t her eof "), leads t o t he wor d t at -t vam. (e.g., aSvasya bhAvaH aSvat -t vam, go-
t vam et c.). t anyat a it i t at , st hAvar a j a' ngamAt makam j agat ,t asya sAr a
bhUt am vast u t at -t vam it yar t haH - This univer se is denot ed by t he t er m ' t at ' ,
which consist s of movable and immovable t hings spr ead all over ; t he essence of
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basis of all t his is t at -t vam.
Sr I vAsishTha gives t he f ollowing f r om t he at har va veda in suppor t :
yo vidyAt sUt r am yasminnot AHpr aj A imAH |
sUt r am sUt r asya yo vidyAt sa vidyAt br AhmaNam mahat | |
(at har va. 10.8.37)
"One who knows t he dr awn-out st r ing wher eon all t hese cr eat ur es ar e st r ung,
one who knows t he t hr ead' s t hr ead, knows t he Gr eat Br ahman".
That wit hout t he suppor t or exist ence of which a given t hing cannot f unct ion,
can be consider ed t o be it s t at t vam, it s essence or suppor t . Thus, f or a
machiner y, t he oil or lubr icant is somet hing wit hout which it cannot f unct ion
f or a pr olonged t ime, and so it can be consider ed one of it s t at t va-s.
Ever yt hing in t his univer se t hat f unct ions will not exist wit hout Him, and so He
is t he t at t va behind all t hat exist .
Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he t er m ' t at t vam' as ' sAr AmSa' - and t his is
t r anslat ed as ' essence' , or ' t he pr inciple of t he univer se' by t he t r anslat or s.
Sr I BhaTTar clar if ies t he int er pr et at ion t hr ough an example: "dadhi
dugdhayor iva dadhisAr aH cit acit oH vyApt i pr ayoj anAbhyAm sAr AmSaHt at -
t vam" - Like but t er which is t he essence of milk and cur d, bhagavAn, by His
per vasion and usef ulness in t he sent ient and non-sent ient t hings, is t he
essence of all t hings. But t er gives t ext ur e,t ast e, t he ener gy cont ent , et c., t o
milk and cur d. So also, bhagavAn is t he essence of all t hings, by being t he
cause of t heir exist ence, t he sour ce of t heir sust enance et c.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an gives t he analogous r ef er ence f r om nammAzhvAr :
iRandadum nI yE.. kaRanda pAl neyyE! Neyyin in SuvaiyE! KaDalinuL amudE!
amudil piRanda in SuvaiyE! Suvaiyadu payanE! pinnai t OL maNanda pEr ALA!
(t ir uvAi. 8.1.7)
"Oh my Lor d! You ar e t he ghee pr esent lat ent in f r esh milk. You ar e t he
covet able t ast e of t he ghee. You ar e t he nect ar f r om t he ocean; no, t he t ast e
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of t he nect ar ; no, no, You ar e t he pleasur e t hat one der ives f r om enj oying t he
nect ar ...".
Sr I BhaTTar gives t he f ollowing suppor t f or his int er pr et at ion:
par amAr t ham aSeshasya j agat aHpr abhavApyayam |
Sar aNyam Sar aNam gacchan govindam nAvasI dat i | |
"Govinda is t he t r ue ent it y and He is t he cause of cr eat ion, dest r uct ion, as well
as pr ot ect ion. I f a per son seeks r ef uge in Him, he will never be in gr ief ".
ekat o vA j agat kRt snam ekat o vAj anAr danaH |
sAr at o j agat aH kRt snAt at ir ikt o j anAr danaH | |
"Place t he ent ir e Univer se in one pan of a balance, and bhagavAn j anAr dana in
anot her , and you will f ind t hat j anAr dana is super ior t o t he whole Univer se
because of His int r insic gr eat ness".
ANDAL r ef er s t o Him as "t at t uvan" in naAcciyAr t ir umozhi 5.6:
iLam kuyilE! en t at t uvanaivar ak kUviRRiyAgil t alaiyallAl kaimmARu ilEnE.
(nAcci. t ir u.5.6)
ANDAL is asking t he bir d t o goand t ell t he Lor d - t he t at t uvan, of her
condit ion, and ask Him t o come t o her r ight away wit hout delay. She t ells t he
bir d she will f or ever be indebt ed t o it if it can do t his help f or her . t at t uvan
her e r ef er s t o His being t he sole r eason f or her exist ence - t he essence of
her lif e.
Anot her pASur am in which nammAzhvAr descr ibes bhagavAn being t he
essence of ever yt hing t hat exist s, is in t ir uvAimozhi pASur am 6.9.7:
ulagil t ir iyum kar uma gat iyAiulagamAi ulagukkE Or uyir um AnAi ..
(t ir uvAi. 6.9.7)
"You ar e t he kar ma-s; t he wor lds in which t hey ar e per f or med, t he Soul of all
t he beings".
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan r ef er s us t o t he f ollowing f r om t he gI t A in
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suppor t of His being t he t at t vam behind ever yt hing:
yad-yad vibhUt imat sat t vamSr I mad-Ur j it ameva vA |
t at -t ad-evAvagaccha t vam mama t ej o' mSa sambhavaH | |
(gI t A 10.41)
"What ever being is possessed of power , or splendor , or ener gy, know t hat as
coming f r om a f r agment of My power ".
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives anot her view of t he t er m ' t at t vam' - t hat
which leads t o exist ence, and t hat which does not cease t o exist when t he
being t hat came int o exist ence disappear s, is t he t r ue or igin or sour ce - t he
t at t va. The ot her sour ces t hat disappear over t ime, ar e not t he t r ue cause.
He comment s t hat ' t at ' is t he wor d-f or m of Br ahman t hat is t he t r ue cause of
ever yt hing. t at -t vam is t he nat ur e of t his ' t at ' , as has been explained in t he
f ir st par agr aph.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj r ef er s us t o t he nAr AyaNa Upanishad - t at t vam
nAr AyaNaH par aH - nAr AyaNa is t he Supr eme Realit y.
Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he t er m ' t at t va' as synonymous wit h ' br ahman'
"t at t vam, amRt am, par amAr t haH, sat at t vam it i et e ekAr t ha vAcinaH |
par amAr t ha sat o br ahmaNo vAcakaH SabdaH t at t vam |
”The wor ds t at t va, amRt a, sat ya, pr amAr t ha, and sat at t va ar e synonyms, and
mean t he Supr eme Br ahman.
nAma 964. nAma 964. nAma 964. 6x4|46 6x4|46 6x4|46 t at t va t at t va t at t va-- -vit vit vit
The Knower of Tr ut h.
tattva-vide namaH.
The t er m ' t at t vam' has been explained above. The r oot vid - t o know, is t he
second par t of t he nAma. t at t vam t at -svar Upamvet t i it i t at t va-vit - "He Who
knows t he t r ue nat ur e of Himself ".
Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as "At manaH t at t vam vet t i it i t at t va- vit " -
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"One Who knows t he t r ut h about Himself ", or One Who knows t he t r ut h about
t he t at t va. The t r ut h t hat bhagavAn is t he Supr eme Deit y and t he Lor d of
all, is somet hing t hat is not easily under st ood even by t he likes of br ahmA,
r udr a and indr a, as r epeat edly point ed out by nammAzhvAr :
Sur ar aRivu ar u nilai
(t ir uvAi. 1.1.8)
He is of such nat ur e t hat even t he deva-s cannot under st and His t at t vam.
uNar nduuNar ndu uNar ilum uyar nilai uNar vadu ar idu uyigAL!
(t ir uvAi. 1.3.6)
I t is j ust not easy, even wit h int ense cont emplat ion, t o under st and t he t r ue
nat ur e of t he Supr eme Deit y.
Sr I BhaTTar r ef er s t o Slokam 10.15 in t he gI t A, in which ar j una declar es t hat
bhagavAn knows Himself by His own Self :
svayameva At manAt mAnam vet t hat vam pur ushot t ama |
bhUt a bhAvana bhUt eSa devadeva j agat pat e | |
(gI t A10.15)
"O Supr eme Per son, O Cr eat or of beings, O Lor d of all beings, O God of all
gods, O Ruler of t he Univer se, You Your self know Your self by Your self ".
Sr I BhaTTar also r ef er s t o t he Sr ut i vAkyam - "t vameva t vAm vet t ha" - You
alone ar e awar e of Your self ".
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan r ef er s us t o t Ar A' s descr ipt ion of bhagavAn as ' a-
pr ameyan' (Sr I mad r AmAyaNam) - He Who is beyond t he r each of our
int ellect (pr amA means ' buddhi' ). I t is not j ust t he or dinar y mor t als like us
who can' t f ully compr ehend Him t hr ough our int ellect , but even t he SAst r a-s
r et ur n back declar ing t hat He is beyond descr ipt ion. The t ait t ir I ya upanishad
declar es: yat o vAco nivat ant e, apr Apaya manasA saha (Anandavalli) - Wor ds,
alongwit h t he mind, t ur n back wit hout being t o f ully compr ehend t he Bliss of
Br ahman, which is inf init e. The deva-s ar e unable t o f ully know Him, as we
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have seen t hr ough nammAzhvAr ' s wor ds above. Even He is unable t o f ully
r ealize His own gr eat ness.
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan r ef er s t o AzhvAr ' s wor ds: "t anakkum t an
t anmai aRiya aRiyAnai" - He whose gr eat ness is such t hat even He cannot know
it f ully. AlavandAr declar es in his st ot r a r at nam: "yasyAst e mahimAnam
At mana iva t at - vallbho' pipr abhuH" - Neit her bhagavAn' s gr eat ness nor
pir ATTi' s gr eat ness can be known eit her by Him or by Her , because t her e is
no limit t o it , and so even t hey cannot measur e somet hing t hat has no limit .
The idea is t hat of all t hose who can know Him, He knows Himself t he most .
Sr I Sa' nkar a explains t he nAma as "t at t vam svar Upam yat hAvat vet t i it i
t at t va-vit " - "He Who knows t he Tr ut h as it is". BhagavAn alone knows t he
f unct ions of cr eat ion, pr eser vat ion, dest r uct ion, giving t he benef it s t o t he
j I va-s accor ding t o t heir kar ma-s, t aking t he j I va t o Him ult imat ely at t he
appr opr iat e t ime, et c., and no one else does.
nAma 965. nAma 965. nAma 965. 9TltPl 9TltPl 9TltPl ekAt mA ekAt mA ekAt mA
The one unique and Super ior Soul.
ekAtmane namaH.
eka means ' one' , and ' At mA' r ef er s t o ' soul' .
Sr I BhaTTar explains t hat bhagavAn is t he One and only Supr eme Soul who
cont r ols all t he ot her souls, and so He is ekAt mA - sar vasya cit acit var gasya
ayam ekaeva SeshI bhokt A abhimAnau ca it i ekAt mA - He is ekAt mA because
He is t he Sole Mast er , Enj oyer , and Well-wisher of all sent ient and non-
sent ient obj ect s.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr ' s pASur am, wher e bhagavAn is
called ' Or uyir EyO!' - which is ' t r anslat ed' by Sr I V. N. Vedant a deSikan as
' ekAt mA' in his t amizh t r anslat ion. He obviously chose t his wor d f or t he
t amizh t r anslat ion because ' ekAt mA' summar izes AzhvAr ' s t hought s t he
best , event hough it is not a t amizh wor d. The pASur am of int er est is:
Ar uyir EyO! AgaliDa muzhudumpaDait t u iDandu uNDu umizhndu
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aLandaPEr uyir EyO!
Per iya nI r paDait t u a' ngu uRaindu adu kaDaindu aDait t u uDait t a SI r uyir EyO!
maniSar kku dEvar pOla devar kkum devAvO! Or uyir EyO!
Ulaga' ngaTkellAm unnai nAn e' ngu vandu uRugO!
(t ir uvAi.8.1.5)
"The vast univer se was cr eat ed, once dug out f r om deep wat er s (var Aha
incar nat ion), swallowed (pr alaya), spat out (cr eat ion af t er pr alaya), scaled wit h
f eet (t r ivikr ama incar nat ion), all by You, out of gr ace. You made t he seas,
chur ned t hem, br idged t he ocean, and br oke a par t of it lat er . You ar e my dear
lif e. You ar e t he Lor d of all t he deva- s, and You ar e f ar above t he deva-s j ust
as t he deva-s ar e f ar above t he humans. Your ar e t he Supr eme Soul above all
t he ot her souls, t he Cr eat or , Pr ot ect or and Dest r oyer of t he univer se. How
am I t o r each You? Pr ay t ell me."
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan quot es t he f ollowing Sr ut i vAkya in suppor t of Sr I
BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion of t he nAma - nit yo nit yAnAm cet anaS- cet anAnAm
eko bahUnAm yo vidadAt i kAmAn - He Who is t he Most Et er nal above all t he
nit ya-s, t he Supr eme above all t he cet ana-s, t he One Who const it ut es t he
many, and t he One Who best ows all t he wishes of all t he ot her beings.
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is ekaSca asau At mA ca it i ekAt mA - The one
Self . He gives t he f ollowing in suppor t :
At mA vA idameka agr a AsI t | nAnyat ki' ncana mishat |
sa I kshat alokAnnu sRj A it i |
(Ait a. 1.1.)
"I n t he beginning all t his was t his At man alone. Ther e was not hing else t hat
winked. He willed "Let me cr eat e t he wor lds".
He also gives t he li' nga pur ANa in suppor t :
yaccApnot i yad-Adat t e yaccAt t ivishayAniha |
yaccAsya sant at o bhAvas-t asmAd At met i gI yat e | | (li' nga. 70.96)
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"That which per vades, t hat which r eceives, t hat which enj oys t he obj ect s, and
t hat which exist s always, is called t he At man".
Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha explains t he nAma as: "eva' nca sa vishNur eva
sar vasya st hAvar a j a' ngama r Upasya viSvasya ekaAt mA sar vat r a vyApt at vAt
ekAt mA" - Lor d vishNu, who per vades ever yt hing in t his Univer se of sent ient
and non-sent ient obj ect s, is called ekAt mA.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha explains t he nAma as "eka At mA = mukhya svAmI =
The Supr eme Deit y.
nAma 966 nAma 966 nAma 966. =-PP t4 =¹l|6¬- =-PP t4 =¹l|6¬- =-PP t4 =¹l|6¬- j anma j anma j anma-- -mRt u mRt u mRt u-- -j ar At igaH j ar At igaH j ar At igaH
He Who is beyond bir t h, deat h and old age.
janma-mRtyu-jarAtigAya namaH.
1. j anma = bir t h;
2. mRt yu = deat h,
3. j ar a = old age;
4. at igaH = He Who is beyond.
The meaning f or t he nAma is t hus der ived easily. J ust f or t he sake of
complet eness, t he r espect ive r oot s ar e:
1. j ani - pr adur bhAve
2. mR' ng - pr ANa-t yAge
3. j Rsh - vayohAnau
4. gam - gacchat i - t o go wit h at i- as pr ef ix meaning over st ep, go beyond
(at igacchcat iit i at igaH).
j anma mRt yu j ar A at igacchat i it j anam- mRt yu-j ar At igaH.
Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as One Who is beyond bir t h, deat h, aging et c..
His vyAkhyAnam is - t at hApi t ad-ubhaya vidhar mAt mA - He Who, while being
t he I nner Soul or ant ar yAmi of all t he sent ient and non-sent ient obj ect s, is
not af f ect ed by t heir at t r ibut es (such as r aj as,t amas, puNya, pApa et c.). The
or dinar y souls accumulat e t he ef f ect s of t he puNya-s and pApa-s t hat t hey
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accr ue while t hey ar e embodied. Unlike t hese souls, bhagavAn is not t ouched
by any of t hese ef f ect s of puNya-s and pApa-s even t hough He is t he
ant ar yAmi of all t hese obj ect s. I n addit ion, when He assumes a body out of
His own f r ee will, He is not bor n like t he r est of us, and is not subj ect t o aging,
deat h et c. like t he r est of us.
I t is impor t ant t o under st and t he dif f er ence bet ween t he body and t he soul in
or der t o under st and t he meaning of t his nAma. Or dinar y souls (j I va-s) also ar e
beyond bir t h, deat h and decay. But t hey get a body based on t heir pr evious
kar ma-s, t o enable t hem t o enj oy t he ef f ect s of t hese kar ma-s. This body is
subj ect t o bir t h, deat h and decay. The j I va-s go t hr ough r epeat ed bir t hs and
deat hs, wit h t he associat ed new bodies, unt il t hey exhaust all t heir kar ma-s,
and ult imat ely r ealize t he par amAt man and ar e r elieved of t his cycle of bir t h
and deat h. BhagavAn is not subj ect t o t his cycle, since He is not t ouched by
t he ef f ect s of kar ma ever . Lor d kRshNa declar es in t he gI t A:
na mAm kar maNi limpant i na mekar ma phale spRhA |
it i mAm yo' bhij AnAt i kar mabhir na sa badhyat e | |
(gI t A 4.14)
"Wor ks do not cont aminat e Me. I n Me t her e is no desir e f or f r uit s of act ions.
He who under st ands Me t hus is not bound by act ions".
Even t hough He has all t he sent ient and non-sent ient beings as His body
accor ding t o t he viSishTAdvait a philosophy, Sr I BhaTTar explains t hat
BhagavAn is st ill not t ouched by t he dhar ma-s (namely, sins, good deeds, t he
r esult ing bir t h, deat h et c,), of t hese sent ient and non-sent ient beings, but
inst ead, it is t he souls of t hese beings t hat get t he ef f ect s of t hese kar ma-s.
The bodies of all t he sent ient and non-sent ient beings ar e par t of His body in
t he sense t hat t hey ar e all subser vient t o Him and ar e f ully under His cont r ol.
So ar e t he souls of all t hese beings - t hey ar e His body, and ar e subser vient t o
Him. He is t he ant ar yAmi of t hese souls, and is a wit ness and t he Ener gizer of
t hese souls; however He is not t ouched by t heir kar ma-s, and so He is never
bor n, and so t her e is no quest ion of aging, deat h et c. Ther e is no such t hing as
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kar ma f or Him, since all His act ions ar e all self less, and ar e devot ed t o t he
benef it of all t he beings t hat exist . None of His act ions is f or His benef it .
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshnan delves in some lengt h on some of t he above point s in
his sahasr a nAma upanyAsam f or t his nAma.
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is: "j Ayat e, ast i, var dhat e, vipar iNamat e,
apakshI yat e,naSyat i, it i shaD-bhAva vikAr An at I t ya gacchat i it i j anma-
mRt yu-j ar At igaH- He Who t r anscends t he six kinds of changes, namely
concept ion, bir t h, gr owt h, mat ur it y, decay and deat h.
Sr I vAsishTha r ef er s us t o a Rg-vedic mant r a t hat conveys t he sense of t his
nAma:
akAmo dhI r o amRt aH svayambhUr asena t Rpt o na kut aScanonaH |
t ameva vidvAn na vibhAya mRt yor -At mAnam dhI r m aj ar am yuvAnam | |
(Rg. 10.8.44)
"Desir eless, f ir m, immor t al, self -exist ent , cont ent ed wit h t he essence, lacking
not hing, f r ee f r om f ear of deat h is he who knows t hat Soul cour ageous,
yout hf ul and undecaying".
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives t he f ollowing upanishadic mant r a in suppor t :
sa vA esha mahAn aj a At mAaj ar aH amar aH amRt aH abhayaH br ahma
abhayamvai br ahma abhayam hi vai br ahma bhavat i ya evam veda
(bRhadAr aNya.4.4.25)
"That inf init e bir t hless undecaying, indest r uct ible immor t al, and f ear less self
(Par amAt man) is t he Supr eme Br ahman. The Supr eme Br ahman is devoid of
f ear . He who knows t hat Supr eme Br ahman t hus becomes indeed t he f ear less
par abr ahman".




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Slokam 104 Slokam 104 Slokam 104
¬ ¬ 4-F4F66F6l¹- B|46l 9|96lPr-· ¬ ¬ 4-F4F66F6l¹- B|46l 9|96lPr-· ¬ ¬ 4-F4F66F6l¹- B|46l 9|96lPr-·
4¬l 4¬9|64 74l 4¬lñl 4¬4lr+-+ °¤v+ 4¬l 4¬9|64 74l 4¬lñl 4¬4lr+-+ °¤v+ 4¬l 4¬9|64 74l 4¬lñl 4¬4lr+-+ °¤v+
bhUr bhuvah svast ar ust Ar ah savit A pr apit Amahah |
yaj ~nO yaj ~napat ir yaj vA yaj ~nAngo yaj ~navAhanah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 967. nAma 967. nAma 967. ¬ ¬ 4-F4F66- ¬ ¬ 4-F4F66- ¬ ¬ 4-F4F66- bhUr bhUr bhUr -- -bhuvas bhuvas bhuvas-- -svas svas svas-- -t ar uH t ar uH t ar uH
He Who is t he t r ee f or t he beings of t he t hr ee wor lds - ear t h, sky and heaven
(svar ga loka)..
bhUr-bhuvas-svas-tarave namaH.
The t er m bhU her e r ef er s t o t his wor ld; bhuvaH r ef er s t o t he middle wor ld,
t he ant ar iksha or sky, and sva r ef er s t o t he heavenly wor ld (svar galoka). The
t er m ' t ar u' means ' t r ee' . Since He is t he pr ot ect ion f or all t he beings of all
t he t hr ee wor lds, and since He best ows all t he f r uit s t o t he beings of all t hese
wor lds, He is called t he t r ee f or t he beings of t he t hr ee wor lds.
Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as "bhUr -bhuvas-svar -upalakshit aiH pakshi
pat hikair iva pr ANibhiH upaj I vyamAnac-chAya pat r alapAr ij At aH bhUr -bhuvas-
svas-t ar uH"- He is like t he pAr ij At a, t he celest ial t r ee, f or all t he beings living
in t he wor lds beginning wit h ear t h, sky and heaven, even as a t r ee is a welcome
r esor t f or t he bir ds and t he t r aveler s by vir t ue of it s gr een f oliage and cool
shade.
Sr I Apt e gives t he f ollowing meanings f or t he t er ms bhU-loka, bhuvar -loka and
svar -loka:
1. bhU-loka - t he wor ld in which we live, as opposed t o ant ar iksha or
svar ga.
2. bhuvar -loka - t he second of t he t hr ee vyAhRt i-s; t he space immediat ely
above t he ear t h.
3. svar -loka: par adise, t he par adise of indr a, and t he t empor ar y abode of
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t he vir t uous af t er deat h, t he space above t he sun or bet ween t he sun
and t he polar st ar , t he t hir d of t he t hr ee vyAhRt i-s.
Sr I VeLukkuDi kRshNan not es t hat in t his nAma only t hr ee out of t he
f our t een wor lds, namely t he bhU, bhUva and svar -loka-s, ar e ment ioned, and
t he pr ot ect ion aspect descr ibed in t his nAma r ef er s t o t he naimit t ika pr alaya,
when t he t hr ee wor lds r ef er r ed t o by t he t er ms bhU, Bhuva, and svar -loka-s
get submer ged in t he wat er s dur ing t he pr alaya, and bhagavAn pr ot ect s all t he
beings of t hese t hr ee wor lds by swallowing t hem and keeping t hem in His
st omach. However , He is also t he Pr ot ect or f or all t he beings in all t he
f our t een wor lds. So t he nAma can be under st ood t o mean t hat bhagavAn is t he
Pr ot ect ive t r ee f or all t he beings of all t he f our t een wor lds.
Sr I BhaTTar gives t he f ollowing suppor t :
samASr it At br ahma t ar oH anant At |
nis-samSayaH pakva phala pr apAt aH | |
(VP 1.17.91)
"I f a per son r esor t s t o t he et er nal Tr ee of Br ahman, t her e is no doubt t hat
t he r ipe f r uit (of r elease f r om t he bondage of samsAr a and t he at t ainment of
moksha) will cer t ainly f all in his hands."
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s t o nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi pASur am 2.8.5,
wher e AzhvAr r ef er s t o t he same concept :
OvAt t uyar p piRavi uTpaDa maRRu ivvevvaiyum
mUvAt t ani mudalAi mU ulagum kAvalOn..
(t ir uvAi. 2.8.5)
"Single-handedly, bhagavAn pr ot ect s all t he beings of t he t hr ee wor lds, who
ar e f ull of suf f er ings et c. He is t he Sole cause f or all t he beings, and af t er
cr eat ing t hem, He t akes r esponsibilit y f or pr ot ect ing t hem, and does not back
down under any cir cumst ance".
Specif ically t o be not ed in t his nAma is t he emphasis on t he pr ot ect ion aspect
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of bhagavAn (t ar u - one t hat pr ovides t he cool shade and pr ot ect ion f r om t he
t or t ur e of t he heat of samsAr a). I n his t ir uvAimozhi, nammAzhvAr
emphasizes t hat even t hough bhagavAn is r esponsible f or all t hr ee f unct ions -
cr eat ion, pr ot ect ion and dest r uct ion, pr ot ect ion is His pr imar y concer n
(kAkkumiyalvinan kaNNa per umAn -t ir uvAi. 2.2.9). This pr ot ect ion aspect of
bhagavAn is t o be specially enj oyed in t his nAma.
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshnan gives a quot e f r om Sr I mad r AmAyaNa wher e r Ama is
descr ibed by t Ar A as a t r ee of pr ot ect ion, hope and r ef uge f or all:
nivAsa vRkshaH sAdhUnAm ApannAnAm par A gat iH |
Ar t AnAm samSr ayaScaiva yaSaSca eka bhAj anam | |
(kishkindA. 15.19)
"(r Ama) is t he pr ot ect ive t r ee f or t he sAdhu-s or t he vir t uous people; He is
t he saf e Abode f or t he suf f er ing; He is t he Pr ot ect or f or t hose who have no
ot her pr ot ect ion; He is t he One who is wor t hy of pr aise".
Sr I Sa' nkar a uses t he r oot ' t R - plavana t ar aNayoH - t o cr oss over , t o swim' ,
in his pr imar y int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma, and gives t he meaning "One Who
helps in cr ossing over t he t hr ee wor lds - bhU loka, bhuvar loka and svar loka".
His vyAkhyAnam is:
"bhUr -bhuvaHsvaH samAkhyAni t r I Ni vyAhRt i
r UpANi Sukr ANi t r ayI sAr ANi bahvRcA AhuH |
t air -homAdinAj agat -t r ayam t ar at i plavat e
vA it i bhUr -bhuvas-svas-t ar uH".
He bases his int er pr et at ion on t he f ollowing Rg vedic mant r a, which also occur s
in t he t ait t ir I ya Upanishad:
bhUr -bhuva-suvar it i et As-t isr o vyAhRt ayaH | ..
bhUr it i vA ayam lokaH | bhuvar it yant ar iksham | suvar it yasaulokaH | ...
bhUr it i vA agniH | bhuva it i vAyuH | suvar it yAdit yaH | .. bhUr it i vA RcaH |
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bhuva it i sAmAni | suvar it i yaj Ugmshi | .. bhUr it i vai pr ANaH |
bhuva it yapAnaH | suvar it i vyAnaH | "
"BhagavAn cr eat ed t he t hr ee wor lds; t hen He cr eat ed agni in t his wor ld, vAyu
in t he sky, and sUr ya in t he heaven. Fr om t hese came t he t hr ee veda-s: Rg
veda f r om agni, yaj ur veda f r om vAyu, and sAma veda f r om t he Sun. Out of
t hese again came t he t hr ee vyAhRt i-s or sounds: bhUH f r om agni, bhuvaH f r om
vAyu, and svaH f r om t he Sun. By per f or ming homa using t hese t hr ee vyAhRt i-
s, one cr osses t he t hr ee wor lds".
Based on t his, Sr i Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma as ' One Who helps
t hose who per f or m homa using t hese vyAhRt i-s t o cr ossover t he t hr ee wor lds
t hat ar e t he or igin of t hese t hr ee vyAhRt i-s".
An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion given by Sr I Sa' nkar a is:
bhUr -bhuvaH svar Akhyamloka t r ayam vRkshavat vyApya t ishThat i it i bhUr -
bhuvaH-sar s-t ar uH
Lor d vishNu has t his nAma signif ying t hat He is spr ead out in t he t hr ee wor lds
bhUH, bhuvaH and svaH like a t r ee.
Sr I vAsishTha explains t he nAma as:
”bhUH it i bhU lokaH, buvaH it i ant ar iksham,svaH it i dyu-lokaH, et e t r ayo
lokAH t r ayaH skandhA iva yamASr it ya t ishThant i, sa et eshAm AdhAr o mUla-
bhUt aH par ameSvar aH t ar ur -ivast hit o bhUr -bhuvas-svas-t ar uH - "
He Who ser ves as t he t r ee under which all t he beings of t his wor ld, t he sky
and t he heaven seek r ef uge, is bhUr -bhuvas-svas-t ar u".
nAma 968. nAma 968. nAma 968. 6l¹- 6l¹- 6l¹- t Ar aH t Ar aH t Ar aH
Savior
He Who is a f er r y t o cr oss t he ocean of samsAr a.
tArAya namaH.
We saw t his nAma in Slokam 37 ear lier (nAma340). The r oot f r om which t he
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nAma is der ived is t RR – plavanasant ar aNayoH – t o cr oss over , t o swim. He who
helps t he j I va-s t hat ar e deeply immer sed in t he ocean of samsAr a, t o cr oss
t his ocean.
For nAma 340, Sr I BhaTTar gives t he int er pr et at ion "Savior " - sar va samsAr a
bhayAt t Ar ayat i it i t Ar aH - One Who pr ot ect s us f r om t he ocean of samsAr a.
He gives a quot e f r om t he at har va Sir as in suppor t :
gar bha j anma j ar A mar aNa samsAr a sAgar amahA bhayAt t Ar ayat iit i |
t asmAt t Ar aH |
"He makes all cr oss over t he gr eat f ear s of t he ocean of samsAr a compr ising
concept ion, bir t h, old age, and deat h. Ther ef or e, He is called t Ar aH".
Not e t hat bhagavAn Himself is beyond all t hese f ear s, since He is never bor n
(a-j AyamAnaH), He is beyond aging (a-j ar aH), and beyond deat h (a-mar aH).
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ence t o t ir uma' ngai AzhvAr ' s per iya t ir umozhi,
wher e t he guNa of bhagavAn signif ied by t he nAma t Ar aH is pr aised:
nandA nar agat t u azhundA vagai nALument Ai!
t onDar Anavar kku in ar uL SeivAi …
(per iya t ir u. 11.8.10)
"You Who help Your devot ees by making sur e t hey do not get submer ged in t he
hell-like exper ience of samsAr a".
Because samsAr a is compar ed t o an ocean, and bhagavAn helps cr oss t his, He is
t r adit ionally compar ed t o a f er r y. Sr I kRshNan r ef er s us t o ANDAL' s
r ef er ence t o Him as t he f er r y t o cr oss all miser ies: nALumt unbak kaDal pukku
vaikunt an enRu Or t ONi peRAdu uzhalginREn (nAcci.t ir u. 5.4). Sr I kRshNan
also r ef er s us t o t he divya dESam by name t ir u nAvAi (lit er ally meaning "The
Blessed Ship"), wher e Lor d mukundan gives moksham t o t he devot ees who
wor ship Him.
Dr awing f r om an example f r om Sr I KRshNan, all t hat a measly wor m has t o do
t o cr oss f r om one peak t o anot her peak in it s lif et ime, is t o climb on a lion t hat
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j umps f r om t he f ir st peak t o t he second peak, and in t he pr ocess, t he wor m
has achieved t he ot her wise impossible f eat . Similar ly, all t hat t he j I va has t o
do is t o sur r ender t o Lor d nRsimha, t he man-lion incar nat ion, and He will make
sur e t hat t he j I va cr osses t he insur mount able obst acle of cr ossing t he ocean
of samsAr a. He is like a boat t hat car r ies one f r om one shor e t o t he ot her
shor e. All t hat t he individual has t o do is t o get int o t he boat , and leave t he
navigat ion t o t he boat man.
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is also t hat bhagavAn has t his nAma signif ying
t hat He helps us cr oss t he ocean of samsAr a – samsAr asAgar amt Ar ayan
t Ar aH. His alt er nat e int er pr et at ion is "t Ar aH pr aNavovA" – The wor d t Ar a
r ef er s t o t he pr aNava mant r a, since medit at ing on t he pr aNava mant r a uplif t s
one f r om t he ocean of samsAr a.
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan also point s t o t he signif icance of t he pr aNava
mant r a as t he uplif t er f r om samsAr a.
Sr I cinmayAnanda explains t he nAma as "One Who helps us cr oss over ; t he
Et er nal Boat -man, t o whom, if t he devot ee can sur r ender in unswer vingf ait h
and t r ue devot ion, He will sur ely r ow t hem acr oss t heOcean of samsAr a. That
One is t Ar aH. Thr ough exclusive, devot ed medit at ion, aler t wit h
under st anding, t he individualit y in each of us wakes up t o t he higher plane, and
t her e, in t hat Be-at t it ude t o exper ience t he Self – t he Et er nal Br ahman – Sr I
Har i".
The dhar ma cakr am wr it er not es t hat we should t ake a hold of bhagavAn
inst ead of being t aken hold of by nat ur e. We should dedicat e our selves t o His
ser vice in ever yt hing we do. The r Ama nAma is called ' t Ar aka mant r a' , because
it pr ot ect s t hose who medit at e on t his t Ar aka nAma. J ust as hanumAn was
able t o cr oss t he ocean by chant ing Lor d r Ama' s name, we will be able t o cr oss
t he ocean of samsAr a by medit at ing on His name. He quot es t he common saying
in t amizh:
"r Aman ir ukkum iDat t il kAman illai; kAman ir ukkum iDat it il r Amanillai"
(Wher e t her e is r Ama, t her e is no desir e in mat er ial t hings; wher e is desir e in
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mat er ial t hings, t her e is no dedicat ion t o r Ama").
The mor e int ensely we r esor t t o t he t Ar aka mant r a, t he f ast er we will be
r elieved f r om t he bondage of samsAr a.
nAma 969. nAma 969. nAma 969. B|46l B|46l B|46l savit A savit A savit A
He Who pr oduces.
savitre namaH.
Sr I vAsishTha indicat es t he r oot f or t he nAma as sU – pr ANi gar bhavimocane
– t o pr oduce, t o br ing f or t h. sUt e sar vam j agat it i savit A; sar vasyaut pAdaka
it yar t haH – He Who cr eat es ever yt hing in t he univer se is savit A.
We st udied t his nAma in Slokam 94 (nAma 887), wit h t he same gener ic
meaning, but int er pr et ed by Sr I BhaTTar as a r ef er ence t o bhagavAn in t he
f or mof t he Sun (t he pr oducer of r ain, cr ops et c)., since t he cont ext t her e was
t he descr ipt ion of t he ar cir Adi mAr ga, of which Sun is t he sevent h st ep. The
cur r ent int er pr et at ion r ef er s t o bhagavAn as t he Cr eat or of ever yt hing –
sar veshAm sAkshAt j anayit A savit A.
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan r ef er s us t o t he upanishad mant r a –
"so' kAmayat a| bahu syAm pr aj Ayeyet i | " – (t ait t ir I ya. Ananda. 6) – He willed :
May I become many. May I be bor n.
Sr I kRshNan st r esses t he impor t ance of t he wor d ' sAkshAt ' in Sr I BhaTTar ' s
vyAkhyAnam. When it is st at ed t hat bhagavAn is t he Cr eat or of ever yt hing in
all t he wor lds, some may have a doubt t hat t he f our - f aced br ahmA is t he t r ue
cr eat or . Sr I kRshNan point s out t hat t her e ar e t wo aspect s t o sRshTi – a-
dvAr aka sRshTi, and sa-dvAr aka sRshTi.
I n t he f ir st cat egor y, bhagavAn f ir st cr eat es t he 24 t at t va-s (pr akRt i, mahAn,
aha' nkAr a, t he f ive t anmAt r a-s or subt le element s (Sabda, spar Sa, r Upa, r asa,
and gandha - sound, t ouch, sight , t ast e, smell), t he pa' nca bhUt a-s (et her , air ,
agni or light , wat er , ear t h), t he f ive kar mendr iya-s (hand, leg, t ongue, anus, and
t he or gan of r epr oduct ion), t he f ive j ~nAnendr iya-s (ear , eye, mout h, nose, and
skin), and manas. Af t er t his, He cr eat es t he f ir st being, t he cat ur -mukha
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br ahmA, and endows him wit h t he knowledge f or pr oceeding f ur t her wit h
cr eat ion. He becomes t he ant ar yAmi of br ahmA, and guides him in t he cr eat ion
af t er t his point . All t he a-dvAr akasRshTi is per f or med by bhagavAn t hr ough
t he medium of cat ur - mukha br ahmA. I f it wer e not f or t he knowledge and
power given t o br ahmA by bhagavAn, t he subsequent st age of sa-dvAr aka
sRshTi t hr ough br ahmA would not have happened. So t he t r ue Cr eat or is
bhagavAn – sAkshAt j anayit A. The cr eat ion t hat t akes place t hr ough br ahmA
is t he sa-dvAr aka sRshTi by bhagavAn – in ot her wor ds, t he pr ocess of
cr eat ion cont inued by Him t hr ough t he medium of br ahmA.
nammAzhvAr , in many of his t ir uvAimozhi pASur ams, r epeat edly r eminds us
t hat bhagavAn is t he t r ue Cr eat or , Pr ot ect or and Dest r oyer . One among t hese
is pASur am 1.5.3, wher e AzhvAr r ef er s t o bhagavAn' s act ion of cr eat ing
br ahmA and delegat ing t he f ur t her r esponsibilit y t o Him f or subsequent
cr eat ion: nI yOnigaLaip paDai enRu niRai nAnmuganaippaDait t avan.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN uses t he pAThamsa-pit A, and int er pr et s t he
wor d ' sa-pit A' as t wo nAma-s: sa, and pit A. This int er pr et at ion might have
been chosen because of t he next nAma (pr a-pit AmahaH, meaning "Gr eat
Gr andf at her ". But f or t he nAma pit a, he essent ially t he same int er pr et at ion as
Sr I BhaTTar has given f or t he nAma ' savit A' , namely, The Fat her of all, or t he
Cr eat or of all –"t eshAm j anakat vAt pit A". We alr eady not ed ear lier t hat Sr I
anant a kRshNaSAst r y also has used t he same pATham, and his int er pr et at ion
is also same.
nAma 970. nAma 970. nAma 970. 9|96lPr- 9|96lPr- 9|96lPr- pr a pr a pr a-- -pit A pit A pit A-- -mahaH mahaH mahaH
The Gr eat -gr andf at her .
prapitAmahAya namaH.
Sr I vAsishTha st ar t s t he der ivat ion of t he nAma f r om t he r oot pA –r akshaNe
– t o pr ot ect . The wor d pit R (f at her ) is der ived by applicat ion of t he uNAdi
sUt r a 2.95. pit Amaha r ef er s t o f at her ' s f at her (pANini 4.2.36). ' pr a' is added
t o pit Amaha in t he sense of ' gone' , or ' pr evious' (pANini. 2.2.18), leading t o
t he nAma ' pr a- pit AmahaH' – Gr eat gr and-f at her – pit AmahI nAmapi pit A pr a-
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pit AmahaH.
The f our -f aced br ahmA is called pit Amaha or gr and-f at her because he
cr eat ed t he pr aj Apat i-s, t he f ir st beings, who t hen cr eat ed all t he ot her
pr aj A-s – all t he ot her beings. amar akoSa vyAkhyAnam gives t he def init ion f or
pit Amaha as "agnishvAt t Adipit RRNAm pit A pit AmahaH (t he t er m agnishvAt t a
is given t he meaning ' t ast ed by t he f uner al f ir e' by Monier -Williams; t hus, t he
amar akOSa descr ipt ion r ef er s t o br ahmA as t he f at her of all our f or ef at her s
who ar e dead and gone f r om t ime immemor ial). Since bhagavAn is t he Fat her
of t his cat ur - mukha br ahmA, He is called "pit Amahasya pit a or pr apit AmahaH".
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha explains t he nAma as: "loka pit RRNAMmar I cyAdI nAm
pit A pit AmahaH cat ur -mukhaH, t asya pit Rt vAt "pr a- pit AmahaH", which
conveys t he same idea as conveyed above.
I n sever al places in t ir uvAimozhi, nammAzhvAr r ef er s t o bhagavAn being t he
Cr eat or of cat ur -mukha br ahmA f ir st , and t hen ent r ust ing br ahmA t o be t he
cr eat or of t he r est of t he beings such as t he pr aj Apat i-s et c. For inst ance, in
t ir uvAimozhi pASur am 1.5.3, AzhvAr says:
mA yOnigaLAi naDai kaRRa vAnOr palar ummunivar um
nI yOnigaLaip paDai enRu niRai nAnmuganaip paDait t avan…. (1.5.3)
BhagavAn cr eat ed br ahmA, endowed him wit h adequat e knowledge, and
assigned t he f unct ion of subsequent cr eat ion t o him so t hat he could t hen
cr eat e all t he deva-s , Rshi-s et c, wit h t heir super ior knowledge and power s.
Sr i Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is: "pit Amahasya br ahmaNo' pi pit A it i pr a-
pit AmahaH" – He is called pr apit AmahaH because He is t he Cr eat or of
br ahmA, who himself is known as t he gr andf at her of all.
J ust t o give a f eel f or how some vyAkhyAnakar t A-s look f or hidden meanings
in t heir int er pr et at ions, t he f ollowing is by Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha: pr apI n
t Amayat i hant i ca it i pr api-t Ama-haH – pr apI n = mit hyA j ~nAnAdi r Upa
pApavat aH asur An t Amayat i hant i ca it i pr api- t Ama-haH – He Who kills t he
sinf ul demons having f alse knowledge and t hr ows t hem in dar kness.
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nAma 971. nAma 971. nAma 971. 4¬- 4¬- 4¬- yaj ~naH yaj ~naH yaj ~naH
He Who is t he Sacr if ice.
yaj~nAya namaH.
We st udied t his nAma in Slokam 48 (nAma 446). The nAma is der ived f r om t he
r oot yaj – deva pUj A sa' ngat i kar aNayaj ana dAneshu – t o sacr if ice, t o make an
oblat ion t o, t o give, t o associat e wit h.
Sever al int er pr et at ions ar e possible:
yaj anam yaj ~naH; ya ij yat e sayaj ~naH;
yaj ant i yat r a it i yaj ~naH;
ij yat e anena it i yaj ~naH sAdhanam
(of f er ing, He Who is wor shipped, t he means or obj ect s used in t he of f er ings,
ar e all called yaj ~naH).
A Slokam f r om t he gI t A capt ur es t he above t hought :
br ahmAr paNam br ahma haviH br ahmAgnaubr ahmaNA hut am |
br ahmaivat ena gant avyam br ahma kar ma samAdhinA | |
(gI t A 4.24)
"Br ahman is t he inst r ument t o of f er wit h; Br ahman is t he oblat ion; By Br ahman
is t he oblat ion of f er ed int o t he f ir e of Br ahman; Br ahman alone is t o be
r eached by him who medit at es on Him in his wor ks".
For t he inst ance of t his nAma in Slokam 48, Sr I BhaTTar comment s t hat
bhagavAn is t he obj ect of all yaj ~na-s, t he Best ower of benef it s of t he
yaj ~na-s, t he aids f or t he per f or mance of t he yaj ~na, et c., and so He is called
yaj ~naH –
"yaj ~na, t at sAdhana,t at -phalA vadhit vena pr at ipAdit aH | at o yaj ~naH | ".
Sr I BhaTTar gives t he f ollowing f r om vishNu pur ANa in suppor t , wher e t he
ij yA or sacr if ice is descr ibed as t he basis f or all t he sust enance of all t he
t hr ee wor lds:
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t at aSca ij yA Ahut ir -dvAr A poshit Ast ehavir -bhuj aH |
vRshTeHkAr aNat Am yAnt i bhUt AnAm st hit aye punaH | |
(VP 2.8.101)
"The gods, who ar e t he r eceiver s of t he oblat ions, being nour ished by t he
of f er ings in t he f ir e, cause t he r ains t o f all f or t he suppor t of t he cr eat ed
br ings".
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o t he gI t A, wher e Lor d kRshNa declar es t hat He
is t he basis of ever yt hing t hat const it ut es t he yaj ~na:
aham kr at ur _aham yaj ~naH svadhAham ahamaushadham |
mant r o' hamahameva Aj yam aham agniH aham hut am | |
(gI t A 9.16)
"I am t he kr at u – t he j yot isThoma and ot her vedic sacr if ices. I alone am t he
Gr eat sacr if ice. I am t he of f er ing t o t he manes. I am t he her b. I am t he
mant r a. I am Myself t he clar if ied but t er . I am t hef ir e, and I am t he oblat ion".
Again, in Slokam 8.24, Lor d kRshNa declar es:
aham hi sar va yaj ~nAnAm bhokt A capr abhur eva ca |
na t u mAmabij Anant i t at t vena at aS-cyavant i t e | |
(gI t A 9.24)
"I am t he only enj oyer and t he only Lor d of all sacr if ices. They do not
r ecognize Me in My t r ue nat ur e, and hence t hey f all".
Sr I BhaTTar also r ef er s us t o t he Sr ut ivAkya - yaj ~no vai vishNuH –yaj ~na is
vishNu Himself .
For t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma, Sr I BhaTTar explains t hat bhagavAn
ser ves t he f unct ion of t he yaj ~na f or t hose who do not have t he means t o
per f or m pr oper yaj ~na-s, but who j ust do His nAma j apa inst ead– svAr Adhana
dhar ma samRddhi r ikt AnAm t ad-ar t hinAm svyameva yaj ~naH– To t hose
devot ees who wish t o at t ain Him, and t her ef or e want t o per f or m Ar AdhanA
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(wor ship) of t he Lor d, but have no physical and mat er ial wher ewit hal, t he Lor d
Himself st ands as t he j apa yaj ~na, namely, He is pleased wit h t he j apa which
it self is a yaj ~na.
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan not es t hat some pr evious nAma-s (sapt a-j ihvaH,
sapt aidhAH et c.) have dealt wit h t he subj ect of yaj ~na also, but t hese wer e
dir ect ly r elat ed t o bhagavAn being t he suppor t f or t hose who ar e capable of
per f or ming yaj ~na in t he pr escr ibed way. However , t he cur r ent ser ies of
nAma-s deal wit h bhagavAn' s suppor t f or t hose who do not have t he means t o
per f or m yaj ~na-s in t he pr escr ibed manner .
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN' s int er pr et at ionis along similar lines –
"aki' ncanAnAm t at -t ad-Ar Adhana upakar aNat vAt yaj ~naH" – Since He ser ves
as t he means f or t hose who ar e ot her wise not in a posit ion t o wor ship Him, He
is called yaj ~naH.
Sr I vAsishTha explains t he nAma as "evamca yaj yat e sa' ngamyat edI yat e ca
yasmA it i nAnAr t ho yaj ~na SabdaH" – He Who is wor shipped, t o Whom all t he
benef it s of all kar ma-s ar e dedicat ed, et c., is known as yaj ~naH. Sr I
vAsishTha f ur t her explains t hat all our act ions ar e ult imat ely per f or med f or
our At ma-pr I t i, and since bhagavAn is t he ant ar yAmi of our At mA, t hey ar e
ult imat ely per f or med f or His pleasur e.
Sever al ver sions of Sr i Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam ar e given: ya~j nasvar Upat vAt
ya~j naH; yaj ~nAt manA yaj ~naH; sa' ngant A yaj ~naH; et c., all of which explain
t he nAma as "One Who is of t he f or m of yaj ~na or sacr if ice".
For t he inst ance of t he nAma in Slokam 48, Sr i Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is:
"sar va yaj ~na svar Upat vAt yaj ~naH |
sar veshAm devAnAm t ushTikAr ako yaj ~na AkAr eNa pr avar t a it i vA | "
"All sacr if ices ar e His f or m, or because He exist s as sacr if ice in or der t o
please all t he gods".
One of t he meanings f or t he r oot yaj t hat we have seen above is yaj –sa' ngat i –
t o associat e wit h. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i uses t his meaning and explains t he
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nAma as "One who associat es t he kar ma-s of t he j I va-s wit h t heir ef f ect s".
For t he inst ance of t he nAma in Slokam 48, Sr I baladeva vidyAbvhUshaN
r ef er s t o bhagavAn' s bir t h t o r uci and AkUt i as yaj ~na – r ucipat nyAm
AkUt yAm yaj ~na nAmA Avir bhUt at vAt yaj ~naH.
I n Slokam 48, Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha uses t he pATham in which he t r eat es
"yaj ~na ij yaH" as one nAma, and explains t he nAma as One who is wor shipped in
sacr if ices – "yaj ~ne ij yaH st ut yaH pUj yaH it iyaj ~na-ij yaH".
Sr I cinmayAnanda def ines t he t er m yaj ~na as "wor k under t aken wit h a pur e
spir it of t ot al dedicat ion in complet e cooper at ion wit h ot her s, and f or t he well-
being of all cr eat ur es and f or t he welf ar e of t he wor ld". He t hen comment s
t hat whenever t her e is such a cooper at ive endeavor wit h t ot al self lessness,
t her e is Sr I man nAr AyaNa in act ion t hr ough His cr eat ur es, and t his is why He
is called yaj ~naH.
nAma 972. nAma 972. nAma 972. 4¬9|6- 4¬9|6- 4¬9|6- yaj ~na yaj ~na yaj ~na-- -pat iH pat iH pat iH
The Lor d of yaj ~na.
yaj~na-pataye namaH.
The t er m yaj ~na has been discussed above. Sr I vAsishTha indicat es t he r oot
"pA – r akshaNe - t o pr ot ect , t o r ule", f or t he der ivat ion of t he wor d pat iH.
The t er m ' pat i' also means "Lor d, Mast er ". The int er pr et at ions ar e based on
eit her of t hese t wo meanings.
Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as "sva-yaj ~na-phala-pr adaH yaj ~na-pat iH" –
He Who gives t he f r uit of sacr if ices done t o please Him.
Lor d kRshNa declar es in t he gI t A:
aham hi sar va-yaj ~nAnAm bhokt A capr abhur eva ca | (gI t A 9.24)
"I am t he only enj oyer and t he only Lor d of all sacr if ices".
Sr i Sa' nkar a gives t he above as suppor t , and his int er pr et at ion includes bot h
pr ot ect ion aspect as well as t he aspect t hat bhagavAn is t he Lor d of all
yaj ~na-s: yaj ~nAnAm pAt A svAmI vA yaj ~na-pat iH – The Lor d of t he
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sacr if ices or t he Pr ot ect or of t hem.


yaj ~na- pat aye namaH.
Thir uvalavEnt hai
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Sr I vAsishTha explains t he nAma as "svayam yaj ~na r Upo yaj anI yoyaj ~na
sAdhanam ca bhagavAn yaj ~nam pAt iit yat o yaj ~na-pat iH" – BhagavAn is
Himself in t he f or m of sacr if ice, He is t he One Who is wor shipped t hr ough
yaj ~na-s, and He is t he means f or t he per f or mance of t he yaj ~na, and so He is
t he Pr ot ect or of t he yaj ~na-s, and so He is called yaj ~na-pat iH.
Sr I cinmayAnanda cont inues wit h his br oader def init ion of yaj ~na as given in
t he pr evious nAma, and explains t he cur r ent nAma as indicat ing t hat bhagavAn
is t he Enj oyer in all self -dedicat ed, co-oper at ive endeavor s, and so He is called
yaj ~na-pat iH. He point s out t hat in chapt er 3 of t he gI t A, t he t er m yaj ~na is
used in t his sense. I n par t icular , f or t he Sloka 3.9 below, his int er pr et at ions
emphasizes t his point :
ya~j nAr t hAt kar maNo' nyat r a lok' yam kar ma-bandhanaH|
t ad-ar t hamkar ma kaunt eya mukt a-sa' ngaH samAcar a | |
(gI t A3.9)
"The wor ld is bound by act ion ot her t han per f or med f or "t he sake of
sacr if ice"; do t hou, t her ef or e, O son of kunt i, per f or m act ion f or t he sake of
ya~j na alone, f r ee f r om all at t achment s".
He of f er s t he addit ional explanat ion:"ya~j na her e means only "any self -
sacr if icing wor k under t aken in a spir it of Self -dedicat ion, f or t he blessing of
all"…The f ollowing st anza salso will become mor e and mor e clear only when we
under st and ya~j na as "any social, communal, nat ional, or per sonal act ivit y int o
which t he individual is r eady t o pour himself f or t h ent ir ely in a spir it of
ser vice and dedicat ion".
nAma 973. nAma 973. nAma 973. 474l 474l 474l yaj vA yaj vA yaj vA
He Who per f or ms t he sacr if ice.
yajvane namaH.
Sr I vAsishTha point s t o t he pANini sUt r a3.2.103, which explains t he wor d
yaj vA as indicat ing a past signif icat ion – One who has sacr if iced. However , he
not es t hat in t he case of bhagavAn t her e is no limit at ion of t ime, and so t he
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meaning should apply t o t he past , pr esent , and f ut ur e – in ot her wor ds- "viSva
nir mANa r UpeNa t ad- ar t ha sAdhana sampAdana r UpeNa ca yaj ~nenaishTavAn
yaj at e, yakshyat i it i vA sa yaj vA vishNuH" - One Who has sacr if iced, One Who
is sacr if icing, and One Who will cont inue t o sacr if ice f or t he pur pose of
cr eat ing t he Univer se, and cr eat ing all t he suppor t ing mat er ials f or t he
exist ence and enj oyment of all t he cr eat ur es, is Lor d vishNu.
Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as signif ying t hat bhagavAn Himself per f or ms
sacr if ice on behalf of t hose who ar e unable t o per f or m t heir r it es, and gives
t he suppor t f r om mahAbhAr at a in Lor d kRshNa' s own wor ds:
t eshAm t u pavanAya aham nit yamevayudhisThir a! |
ubhesandhye anut ishThAmi hi askannam t ad-vr at am mama | |
"O yudhishThir a! For t he pur if icat ion of t hose who ar e unable t o obser ve t he
daily r it es, I am Myself doing t he yaj ~na at bot h dawn and dusk ever y day. I
never f ail in car r ying out t his vow of Mine".
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan point s out t hat t he r ef er ence her e is t o t he
par amaikAnt in-s who ar e unable t o per f or m t heir nit ya kar ma-s because of
some inevit able disabilit ies. Thus, t his does not absolve physically capable
people f r om per f or ming t heir nit ya kar ma-s r egular ly.
Sr I baladeva vidyAbhUshaN int er pr et s t he nAma along lines similar t o Sr I
BhaTTar – aSakt am aki' ncanam AviSya t at -t ad-Ar Adhanam nivar t ayan
svyameva yaj vA.
The t er m yaj vA has t he same meaning as t he wor d yaj amAna – one who
per f or ms t he sacr if ice. Sr i Sa' nkar a explains t he nAma as –
yaj amAnAt manAt ishThan yaj vA, wher e he int er pet s t he t er m a yaj mAna as t he
"Lor d" of t he yaj ~na, which is also t r ue. He suppor t s t his int er pr et at ion wit h a
r ef er ence t o t he gI t A:
aham hi sar va yaj ~nAnAm bhokt A capr abhur eva ca | (gI t A 9.24)
"I am t he only enj oyer and t he only Lor d of all t he sacr if ices".
Sr I cinmayAnanda r eminds us of t he def init ion of yaj ~na as given by him f or
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nAma 971, and not es t hat t he cur r ent nAma st r esses t hat bhagavAn is "One
who per f or ms yaj ~na accor ding t o t he st r ict pr escr ipt ions laid down in t he
Vedas – t he One Who maint ains in all His divine act ions t he t r ue yaj ~na spir it "
– in ot her wor ds, He under t akes all His act ions f or t he benef it of t he
cr eat ur es of t his wor ld.
One of t he meanings of t he r oot yaj a is ' t o give (yaj a – deva pUj Asa' ngat i
kar aNa yaj ana dAneshu – t o sacr if ice, t o make an oblat ion, t o give, t o associat e
wit h). Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj uses t his meaning (yaj a – dAne – t o give),
and int er pr et s t he nAma as – yaj at e dat t evar An bhakt ebhya it i yaj vA – He
Who best ows His blessings on t he devot ees is yaj vA.
nAma 974. nAma 974. nAma 974. 4¬lñ- 4¬lñ- 4¬lñ- yaj ~nA' ngaH yaj ~nA' ngaH yaj ~nA' ngaH
a) He f or Whom t he yaj ~na per f or med by t he devot ees is an anga or accessor y
t o at t ain Him.
b) He Who has t he divya avayava-s t hat ar e wor t hy of wor ship.
c) He Whose divya avayava-s in His mahA var Aha incar nat ion r epr esent t he
dif f er ent aspect s of a yaj ~na or sacr if ice;
d) He Who makes it possible f or us t o at t ain t he dif f er ent means needed f or a
sacr if ice;
e) Who r eceives t he of f er ings of a sacr if ice;
f ) Who is at t ained t hr ough t he sacr if ice, et c.
yaj~nAngAya namaH.
Sr I vAsishTha discusses t he nAma in t er ms of t he t wo par t s of t he nAma
yaj ~na and angaH. The der ivat ion of t he wor d yaj ~na has been discussed
bef or e (t o sacr if ice). The t er m anga is der ived f r om t he r oot ang t o go. anga
also means a par t or accessor y. Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion uses t his
meaning.
a) Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan explains t he nAma as - yaj ~nam angam asya
it i yaj ~nAngaH He Who is at t ained by t he yaj ~na-s (per f or med by t hose who
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ar e capable). The yaj ~na-s such as bhagavad Ar AdhanA et c., per f or med by t he
devot ees ar e an upAyam or means in t he f or m of an of f er ing t o Him, and He is
t he One Who is t he angI or t he f inal goal. Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is
samar t hAn anushThit amapi yaj ~nAnt ar am asya SeshabhUt am it i yaj ~nAngaH.
He Who has t he sacr if ices of ot her s as an accessor y t o what He is doing. The
sacr if ices per f or med by t hose who ar e capable of per f or ming t hem, ar e all
subser vient t o Him, namely, a means or an accessor y t o at t ain Him.
b) Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj uses t he meaning par t s f or t he t er m anga, and
comment s t hat t his nAma of bhagavAn signif ies t hat He is One Who is
endowed wit h t he divya avayava-s f r om His Lot us Feet t o His divine Head t hat
ar e wor t hy of wor ship yaj ~nAni pUj anI yAni angAni car aNAdi mast akAnt Ani
yasya it i yaj ~nAngaH.
c) Sr i Sankar a int er pr et s t he nAma as - yaj ~nA angAni yasya it i var Aha
mUr t iH yaj ~nAngaH - One Whose dif f er ent par t s of t he body- incar nat e as
var Aha mUr t i ar e associat ed wit h t he dif f er ent aspect s of a yaj ~na. He gives
t he passages f r om har i vamSa in suppor t (har i vamSa 3.34-3.41), wher ein t he
dif f er ent par t s of His body ar e associat ed wit h t he dif f er ent aspect s of a
yaj ~na.
1. His Feet ar e equat ed t o t he veda-s,
2. knowledge t o His f ace,
3. f ir e t o His t ongue,
4. dar bha gr ass t o His hair ,
5. t he day and night t o His eyes,
6. t he sacr if icial ladle t o His mout h,
7. t he gr eat chant s of sAmaveda t o His t alk,
8. vir t ue and t r ut h t o His body, et c.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r ef er s us t o a similar descr ipt ion of t he var Aha
r Upa in Sr I mad bhAgavat am 3.13.34-39, wher e t he divine f or m of var Aha
bhagavAn is compar ed t o t he dif f er ent aspect s of a yaj ~na (e.g., His body is
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it self veda; t he hair s of His body ar e like dar bha-s; His eyes ar e havis or ghee;
et c.)
d) Sr I vAsishTha not es t hat br oadly, t he t er m yaj ~na can r ef er t o all
mat er ials associat ed wit h a sacr if ice:
ij yat e yaH, ij yat e yena, ij yat e yasmai, ij yat e yat r a vA it i yaj anI yaH, yaj ana
sAdhanam havir Adi, yaj an sampr adAm uddeSo, yaj an st halAdikam ca sar vam
yaj ~na Sabdena gRhI t ama bhavat i.
He f or whom t he sacr if ice is done, he by whom t he sacr if ice is done, t hat f or
which it is per f or med, t he place wher e t he sacr if ice is per f or med, in ot her
wor ds, t he Lor d who is wor shipped t hr ough t he sacr if ice, t he place of wor ship,
t he havis (ghee) et c. t hat ar e used in t he sacr if ice, et c. can all be indicat ed by
t he t er m yaj ~na.
The t er m yaj ~nAngaH t hen can mean One Who makes it possible t o at t ain all
t he above t hat ar e needed f or t he sacr if ice, or One Who r eceives t he
of f er ings t hr ough t he sacr if ice (svayam yaj anOyo yaj ~nar UpaH san yaj ~na
r UpANi havir AdI ni yaj ~na st halam gat vA pr Apnot i it i yaj ~nAngaH), Or One
Who is at t ained t hr ough yaj ~na (yaj ~ne anganam = gat iH yasya, sa yaj ~nAngaH,
or yaj ~naiH = yaj ana kar mabhiH angaH = pr Apt iH yasya sa yaj ~nAngaH), et c.
Alt er nat ively, Sr I vAsishTha not es t hat t he t er m anga can be t aken t o mean
par t , and since bhagavAn is t he ant ar yAmi f or all t he aspect s t hat ar e needed
in a sacr if ice, including t he br ahmA, t he hot A, t he adhvar yu, t he havis, et c., He
is also known as yaj ~nAngaH.
nAma 975. nAma 975. nAma 975. 4¬4lr+- 4¬4lr+- 4¬4lr+- yaj ~na yaj ~na yaj ~na-- -vAhanaH vAhanaH vAhanaH
He Who helps ot her s complet e t heir sacr if ices.
yaj~na-vAhanAya namaH.
The r oot f r om which t he wor d vAhanaH is der ived is vaha-pr ApaNe t o bear
along, t o car r y, t o f low.
Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma as t eshAm bhakt i Sr addhA adhikAr a
dAnena yaj ~nam vAhayat i it i yaj ~na-vAhanaH. He Who ensur es t he successf ul
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complet ion of a yaj ~na under t aken by t he kar t A, by invest ing t he kar t A wit h
t he necessar y power , f ait h and means t o per f or m t he yaj ~na.
Thus, bhagavAn is t he One Who best ows t he benef it s t o t hose who ar e able t o
per f or m t he yaj ~na t hemselves (yaj ~na-pat iH), He is t he One who per f or ms
t he yaj ~na f or t hose who ar e unable t o per f or m it t hemselves (yaj vA), He is
t he One Who is t o be at t ained by t he yaj ~nas t hat ar e per f or med
(yaj ~nAngaH), and He is t he One Who gives t he abilit y (Sakt i), t he int er est
(Sr addhA) and t he aut hor it y (adhikAr a) t o under t ake t he yaj ~na-s.
Sr I Sankar a' s int er pr et at ion is phalahet u bhUt An yaj ~nAn vAhayat i it i
yaj ~na-vAhanaH - He Who ensur es t he successf ul f r uit ion of t he yaj ~na-s
t hat ar e under t aken wit h good benef it s in mind.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj uses t he meaning vehicle f or t he t er m vAhana,
and int er pr et s t he nAma as yaj ~nam = pUj anI yam vAhanam = vainat eyo yasya
it i yaj ~na-vAhanaH - He Who has f or His vAhana or vehicle, gar uDa who is
wor t hy of wor ship.












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Slokam 105 Slokam 105 Slokam 105
4¬¬ H¬T H¬l 4¬¬ ¹4¬Bl¤+-· 4¬¬ H¬T H¬l 4¬¬ ¹4¬Bl¤+-· 4¬¬ H¬T H¬l 4¬¬ ¹4¬Bl¤+-·
4¬l-6T H¬¬ GP¬P¬l7 94 ¬+ °¤-+ 4¬l-6T H¬¬ GP¬P¬l7 94 ¬+ °¤-+ 4¬l-6T H¬¬ GP¬P¬l7 94 ¬+ °¤-+
yaj ~nabhr ut yaj ~nakr ut yaj ~nI yaj ~nabhuk yaj ~nasAdhanah |
yaj ~nAnt akr ut yaj ~naguhya mannamannAda eva ca | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 976. nAma 976. nAma 976. 4¬¬ 6 4¬¬ 6 4¬¬ 6 yaj ~na yaj ~na yaj ~na-- -bhRt bhRt bhRt
He Who br ings about t he complet ion of t he sacr if ice (even when t her e ar e
imper f ect ions in it s per f or mance).
yaj~na-bhRte namaH.
The r oot f r om which t he wor d bhRt is der ived is bhR - poshaNa dhAr aNayoH -
t o hold, t o suppor t . yaj ~nam bibhar t i = pushNAt i, dhAr ayat i it i yaj ~na-bhRt -
He Who suppor t s t he sacr if ice and br ings it t o successf ul complet ion is called
yaj ~na-bhRt .
Sr i BhaTTar not es t hat even if t her e ar e def iciencies in t he act ual
per f or mance of a yaj ~na, t he f inal of f er ing of pUr Na Ahut i while t hinking of
Him, r esult s in t he r ect if icat ion of all t hese def iciencies and t he successf ul
complet ion of t he yaj ~na- vikalpam api yaj ~nam sva-smar aNa pUr NAhut ibhyAm
pushNAt i it i yaj ~na-bhRt .
Sr I BhaTTar gives t he f ollowing suppor t f r om t he Sr ut i:
pr amAdAt kur vat Am kar ma pr acyavat yadhvar eshu yat |
smar aNAdeva t ad-vishNoH sampUr Nam syAd-it i Sr ut iH | |
I f t her e is a mist ake in t he per f or mance of sacr if ices due t o negligence or
over sight , t he sacr if ice will become imper f ect . I f t he per son t hinks of vishNu
f or t he r emoval of t hese def iciencies, t hey ar e r emoved and t he sacr if ice
becomes per f ect . This is what t he Sr ut i declar es.
Sr I vELukkuDi kRshNan not es t hat t he t er m bhRt suggest s t hat bhagavAn
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bear s t he bhAr am (bur den) of complet ing t he yaj ~na successf ully when t he
per f or mer is unable t o bear t his bur den f or successf ul complet ion by himself .
All t he yaj amAna has t o do is t o shif t t he bur den f or f or giving all t he
def iciencies at t he end t o bhagavAn by doing a pUr NAhut i. This is t he f inal
Ahut i t hat is of f er ed, wit h divine t hought s at t he Lot us f eet of Lor d kRshNa,
asking f or f or giveness f or all t he known and unknown, int ended and unint ended
def iciencies in t he per f or mance of t he yaj ~na in or der t o ensur e t hat t he
yaj ~na as a whole becomes complet ed (pUr Nam). The f ault s inher ent in t he
per f or mer of t he yaj ~na, t he f ault s in t he pr ocedur es, t he f ault s used in t he
mat er ials used in t he of f er ing, (def iciencies in mant r a, t ant r a, vidhi, vipar yAsa
et c.), ar e all f or given by bhagavAn when t he f inal Ahut i is made wit h His Divine
f eet in mind. Among t he mant r a-s t hat ar e medit at ed upon at t he t ime of
pUr NAhut i ar e:
pr AyaScit t AnyaseshAni t apaH kar mAnyAt makAni vai |
yAni t eshAm aSeshANAm Sr I kRshNAnusmar aNam par am | |
upAcAr ApadeSena kRt An ahar ar mayA |
apacAr An imAn sar vAn kshamasva pur ushot t ama | |
pUr NAhut im ut t amAm j uhot i ; kar mam vai pUr NAhut iH ;
Avir gI r bhiH yat at ona Unam t ena ukt im vidhema
Sr I Sankar a r ef lect s t he same meaning in his int er pr et at ion yaj ~nam bibhar t i
pAt i it i yaj ~na-bhRt .
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i not es t hat t her e ar e f our chief pr iest s at any yAga,
called Rt vij a-s, and t hey ensur e t hat all st eps of t he yAga ar e per f or med
cor r ect ly wit hout any def iciency. These pr iest s ar e called hot R, udgAt R,
advar yu, and Br ahman. At gr and cer emonies, sixt een pr iest s ar e enumer at ed.
Sr I cinmayAnanda cont inues his ear lier int er pr et at ion of t he t er m yaj ~na, and
gives his int er pr et at ion f or t he cur r ent nAma as: One Who helps us conclude
successf ully all our good, dedicat ed, self less act s of ser vice t o ot her s.

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nAma 977. nAma 977. nAma 977. 4¬T 6 4¬T 6 4¬T 6 yaj ~na yaj ~na yaj ~na-- -kRt kRt kRt
He Who cr eat ed t he sacr if ice.
yaj~na-kRte namaH.
Bot h Sr I Sankar a and Sr I BhaTTar give t he int er pr et at ion t hat Lor d vishNu
has t his nAma because He cr eat ed yaj ~na as a means f or t he well-being of t he
univer se.
Sr I BhaTTar s int er pr et at ion is: j agad- hit Aya yaj ~namAdI sRj at i it i yaj ~na-
kRt - He f ir st cr eat ed t he sacr if ice f or t he well-being of t he Univer se.
The f ollowing Sloka-s in t he gI t A explain in det ail, in t he wor ds of Lor d
kRshNa, t he idea t hat bhagavAn cr eat ed yaj ~na as a means of est ablishing a
connect ion bet ween t he deva-s and t he human beings:
saha-yaj ~nAH pr aj A sRshTvA pur ovAca pr aj Apat iH |
anena pr asavishyadhvam esha vost vishTa kAma-dhuk | |
(gI t A 3.10)
I n t he beginning, t he Lor d of all beings, cr eat ing man along wit h t he sacr if ice,
said: By t his shall you pr osper ; t his shall be t he cow of plent y gr ant ing all your
want s.
devAn bhAvayat Anena t e devA bhAvayant u vaH |
par aspar am bhAvayant aH Sr eyaH par am avApsyat ha | |
(gI t A 3.11)
By t his (yaj ~na), please t he gods, and t he gods will suppor t you. Thus
nour ishing one anot her , may you obt ain t he highest good.
ishTAn bhogAn hi vo devA dAsyant e yaj ~na bhAvit AH |
(gI t A 3.12)
The gods, pleased by t he sacr if ice, will best ow on you t he enj oyment s you
desir e.
I n his explanat ion f or t he nAma vashaTkAr aH, Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i
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elabor at es on t his connect ion and int er -dependence bet ween t he deva-s and
t he manushya-s as f ollows: The deva-s depend on t he manushya-s f or t heir
havir -bhAgam t hr ough t he yaj ~na-s, and t he people depend on t he deva-s f or
t heir sust enance t hr ough r ain et c.
Thus, bhagavAn has set up t he yaj ~na as t he br idge bet ween t he deva-s and
t he people, and t her eby t he int er dependence bet ween t he deva-s and t he
manushya- s.
Ther ef or e, He is called yaj ~na-kRt .
The t er m yaj ~na-kRt has also been int er pr et ed as One Who is t he per f or mer
of yaj ~na-s. Sr I cinmayAnandas t r anslat ion f or t he nAma is: One Who
per f or ms yaj ~na. He not es t hat t he Lor d issued f or t h cr eat ion as an act of
yaj ~na a pur e and self less act of ser vice t o t he j I va-s.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he int er pr et at ion: yaj ~nAn makhAn
svayamapi kar ot i avat Ar a vigr ahe it i yaj ~na-kRt - He Who per f or ms yaj ~na-s
Himself dur ing His incar nat ions.
As has been not ed in sever al pr evious nAma-s, Sr i Sankar a gives an alt er nat e
int er pr et at ion f or t he t er m kRt as One Who dest r oys - kRnt at i: j agadAdau
yaj ~nam kar ot i, t adant e yaj ~nam kRnt at i it i vA yaj ~na-kRt - He Who cr eat ed
t he sacr if ices at t he beginning, or He Who dest r oyed t hem at t he end of t he
univer se.
nAma 978. nAma 978. nAma 978. 4¬l 4¬l 4¬l yaj ~nI yaj ~nI yaj ~nI
He f or Whose sake t he yaj ~na-s ar e done.
yaj~nine namaH.
Sr I vAsishTha not es t hat t he wor d yaj ~nI is der ived f r om t he wor d yaj ~na by
t he addit ion of t he ini pr at yaya t hat has t he same sense as t he mat up pr at yaya
(one indicat ing possession) – yaj ~naH asya ast i it i yaj ~nI – He f or Whom t he
sacr if ices ar e per f or med.
Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is – sar va yaj ~nAnam SeshI yaj ~nI – He Who is
t he Lor d or Mast er of all t he yaj ~na-s. I t is f or His pr opit iat ion t hat all
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yaj ~na-s ar e per f or med.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o t he gI t A Sloka 9.24 in suppor t :
aham hi sar va yaj ~nAnAm bhokt A ca pr abhur eva ca |
na t u mAm abhij Anant i t at t venAt aS-cyavant i t e | |
(gI t A 9.24)
"For , I am t he only Enj oyer and t he only Lor d of all sacr if ices. They do not
r ecognize Me in My t r ue nat ur e, and hence t hey f all".
Sr I r AmAnuj an also r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi: Seigaip payan
uNbEnum yAnE ennum…. (t ir uvAi. 5.6.4) - "Fr uit s of act s anyone does ar e but
Mine".
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan explains t hat t his Lor dship of bhagavAn expr esses
it self in His ensur ing t hat His devot ee at t ains Him even when any of f er ing t o
Him is f lawed and def icient . He illust r at es t his point by t aking f ive of
t oNDar aDipoDi AzhVAr ' s pASur ams f r om t ir umAlai, st ar t ing wit h pASur am
25: (kuLit t u mUnRanalai Ombum….).
AzhvAr t ells t he Lor d t hat he has not per f or med t he kar ma-s or dained f or his
var Na, he has not f ollowed t he j ~nAna yoga or t he bhakt i yoga, he has not
spent any t ime singing t he name of t he Lor d, he has not done anyt hing even
r emot ely similar t o t he of f er ing of a f lower like gaj endr a, he has not even
of f er ed t he r elat ively small ser vice like t he squir r els or t he monkeys t o Lor d
r Ama, but t he only t hing he knows is t o cr y f or t he help f r om t he Lor d. The
Lor d accept s t his as suf f icient yaj ~na, and t akes AzhvAr t o His Feet .
This example is an excellent illust r at ion of why BhagavAn is called t he Lor d of
all yaj ~na-s. BhagavAn t akes t he of f er ing of a f lower by gaj endr a, t he of f er ing
of a f ew specks of sand by t he squir r els, t he ser vice of f er ed by t he monkeys,
or t he sheer cr y f or help f r om Him, as a suf f icient of f er ing t o Him, in or der t o
bless His devot ee.
(One should r emember t hat it is j ust sheer naicyAnusandhAnam t hat leads
AzhvAr t o declar e t hat he has no devot ion of any kind, and has done not hing t o
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sing t he name of t he Lor d).
Sr i Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is: "yaj ~nAnAm t at -samAr adhAnAt manAm SeshI
it i yaj ~nI " – He Who is t he Pr incipal (SeshI ) of t he yaj ~na, t hat is per f or med
f or His own ador at ion.
nAma 979. nAma 979. nAma 979. 4¬¬ T 4¬¬ T 4¬¬ T yaj ~na yaj ~na yaj ~na-- -bhuk bhuk bhuk
The Enj oyer or t he Pr ot ect or of t he sacr if ice.
yaj~na-bhuje namaH.
yaj ~nam bhu' nkt e, bhunakt i it i vA yaj ~na-bhuk. The r oot used is bhuj – pAlana
abhyavahAr ayoH – t o pr ot ect , t o eat , t o consume, t o enj oy. Thus, bot h t he
meanings (He is t he Enj oyer , and He is t he Pr ot ect or ) ar e given. Bot h Sr I
Sa' nkar a and Sr I BhaTTar give bot h t he def init ions.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj emphasizes t he meaning bhu' nkt e = aSnAt i =
consumes, and gives t he f ollowing int er pr et at ion: "ij yant e dI yant e samar pyant e
svaj anaiH it i yaj ~nAH, ar t hAt nAnA-vidhA r ucir AH padAr t hAH | t An bhu' nkt e
aSnAt i it i yaj ~na-bhuk" – He Who accept s and enj oys t he dif f er ent kinds of
of f er ings t hat ar e of f er ed wit h devot ion by t he devot ees is ya~j na-bhuk. He
gives suppor t f r om t he gI t A:
pat r am pushpam phalam t oyam yo me bhakt yA pr ayacchat i |
t ad-aham bhakt yupahRt am aSnAmi pr ayat At manaH | |
(gI t A 9.26)
"Whoever of f er s Me wit h t r ue devot ion a leaf , a f lower , a f r uit or some wat er ,
I accept t his of f er ing made wit h devot ion by him wit h pur e hear t ".
I t is wor t h r ecalling f r om t he wr it e-up f or t he pr evious nAma t hat yaj ~na is
anyt hing of f er ed wit h sincer it y, and t hat bhagavAn is ever r eady t o accept
even t he simplest of f er ing as long as it is made wit h love, as we saw f r om t he
pASur am-s of t oNDar aDippoDi AzhvAr , as elabor at ed by Sr I veLukkuDi
kRshNan. The gI t A Slokam quot ed her e conf ir ms t he same point .
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan r ef er s t o t he gI t A Slokam 9.24: "aham hi
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sar va yaj ~nAnAm bhokt A ca pr abhur eva ca" – (I am t he enj oyer and also t he
Lor d of all t he sacr if ices".).
For t he cur r ent nAma, Sr I kRshNan point s out t hat t he pr ot ect ion aspect of
yaj ~na-s by bhagavAn is ver y well illust r at ed in His r Ama incar nat ion, wher e
He pr ot ect s t he yAga by sage viSvAmit r a. Anyone who came in t he way of t he
yaj ~na was f inished of f by Lor d r Ama. This is a vivid and visible case of
pr ot ect ion of t he yaj ~na by bhagavAn. For all t he yaj ~na-s per f or med,
bhagavAn is t he means, t he end, t he One Who is wor shipped, t he One Who is
t he Obj ect of wor ship, and is also t he One Who ensur es t he successf ul
complet ion of t he yaj ~na by pr ot ect ing it f r om all obst acles. This is t he
signif icance of t he int er pr et at ion t hat "He is t he Pr ot ect or of yaj ~na-s".
Sr I cinmayAnanda makes anot her impor t ant point : "All t hat is of f er ed int o t he
sacr ed Fir e dur ing a yaj ~na, t hough wit h an invocat ion t o any of t he deit ies, in
t ender devot ion and wit h j oy, goes t o Him alone, The One r eceiver of all t hat is
of f er ed".
nAma 980. nAma 980. nAma 980. 4¬Bl¤+- 4¬Bl¤+- 4¬Bl¤+- yaj ~na yaj ~na yaj ~na-- -sAdhanaH sAdhanaH sAdhanaH
a) He Who is an accessor y f or t he sacr if ices.
b) He Who is at t ained t hr ough yaj ~na-s as a means (or sAdhana).
yaj~na-sAdhanAya namaH.
The wor d sAdhana is der ived f r om t he r oot sAdh – samsiddhau – t o f inish, t o
accomplish. Sr I BhaTTar gives t he int er pr et at ion – t e asya j ~nAna-dvAr A
siddhyupAyA it i yaj ~na-sAdhanaH – The sacr if ices become t he means f or
at t ainment of t he r espect ive f r uit s only because of t he knowledge about Him.
The emphasis is made t hat it is t he knowledge about bhagavAn, about t he
r elat ionship bet ween us and bhagavAn – t he Sesha-SeshI bhAvam or t he
ser vant -Mast er r elat ionship, and above all, t he love wit h which t he of f er ings
ar e made t o Him, t hat ar e essent ial f or t he at t ainment of t he f r uit s. I t is not
so much t he subst ance of what is of f er ed t hat is impor t ant , but t he dedicat ion
behind it t hat is impor t ant , as has been emphasized r epeat edly ear lier .
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Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN' s int er pr et at ion is along similar lines – j ~nAna
dAnena yaj ~na upakAr it vAt yaj ~na-sAdhanaH – Because He gives t he know-
how f or t he per f or mance of t he yaj ~na, and t hus assist ing in t he conduct of
t he yaj ~na, bhagavAn is called yaj ~na-sAdhanaH.
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshnan st ar t s wit h t he def init ion of t he t er m yaj ~na as
"pr Apt i upAyAH yaj ~nam" - any means t o at t ain Him is t er med yaj ~na. Thus,
t he t er m does not j ust r ef er t o t he yaj ~na per f or med in a homa kuNDam, but
cover s any means of wor shipping Him, including t he nit ya t ir u Ar Adhanam
per f or med f or Him. The t er m sAdhanam r ef er s t o upAyam or means t o at t ain
Him. Sr I kRshnan point s out t hat t his nit ya Ar Adhanam should be per f or med
wit h Sr addhA, and f ull dedicat ion t o Him, and t hen bhagavAn accept s t his as
means or uapAyam t o at t ain Him, and so He is called yaj ~na-sAdhanaH.
Sr I vAsishTha explains t he nAma as – yaj ~naH sAdhyat e anena, yaj ~nam
sAdhayat i vA yaj ~na-sAdhanaH – He t hr ough whom t he yaj ~na get s
accomplished, or He Who f ulf ils t he yaj ~na, is yaj ~na-sAdhanaH.
Sr I Sa' nkar a explains t he nAma as – yaj ~nAH sAdhanam t at -pr Apt au it i
yaj ~na-sAdhanaH – He is yaj ~na-sAdhanaH because t he yaj ~na-s ar e a
sAdhana or a means t o at t ain Him.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj not es t hat He is called yaj ~na-sAdhanaH
because He enables t he devot ee t o per f or m t he yaj ~na, and He is also yaj ~na
sAdhanaH because He is at t ained t hr ough t he yaj ~na-s –
"yaj ~naH pUj A Ar Adhanam vA |
t am bhakt AnAm sAdhayat i it i yaj ~na- sAdhanaH |
t at hA yaj ~naH pUj A sAdhanam pr Apt aye yasya it i yaj ~na- sAdhanaH".
Sr i cinmayAnanda explains t he nAma as: "One Who f ulf ils all ya~j na- s. I t is by
His Gr ace alone t hat all noble endeavor s, under t aken in an honest and t r ue
sincer it y, gain spect acular success". Not ice again t hat Sr I cinmayAnanada
int er pr et s t he t er m yaj ~na in a br oad sense as "any ef f or t under t aken f or t he
public good, in a sense of self less under t aking".
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Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha uses t he meaning "means" f or t he t er m sAdhana, and
explains t he nAma as "yaj ~nasya sAdhanam sr uk sr uvAdikam mant r Adikam vA
yasmAt it i yaj ~na-sAdhanaH" – He is called yaj ~na sAdhanaH since it is He who
is t he cause f or t he means such as t he ladle, t he mant r a-s, et c. used dur ing
t he yaj ~na. The t er ms sr uk and sr uva r ef er t o t wo dif f er ent t ypes of ladles
used in t he yaj ~na (sr uva r ef er s t o t he smaller ladle, and sr uk r ef er s t o t he
lar ger ladle in which t he ghee is pour ed using t he smaller ladle – Monier -
Williams dict ionar y). Lor d kRshNa declar es in t he gI t A t hat He is t he means
f or all t he aspect s associat ed wit h a yaj ~na:
br ahmAr paNam br ahma haviH br ahmAgnau br ahmaNA hut am |
br ahmaiva t ena gant avyam br ahma kar ma samAdhinA | |
(gI t A 4.24)
"Br ahman is t he inst r ument t o of f er wit h; Br ahman is t he oblat ion. By Br ahman
is t he oblat ion of f er ed int o t he f ir e of Br ahman; Br ahman alone is t o be
r eached by him who medit at es on Him in his wor ks".
Bhagavad r AmAnuj a explains t he t er m ' br ahmAr paNam' as a r ef er ence t o t he
means f or of f er ing in a yaj ~na, such as a ladle –
ar pyat e anena it i ar paNam sr ugAdi, t ad br ahma kAr yat vAt br ahma, br ahma
yasya havishaH ar paNam t ad-br ahmAr paNam.. -
"That by which an of f er ing is given, such as a ladle, is an ar paNa. I t is called
Br ahman because it is an ef f ect of Br ahman, Br ahman being t he mat er ial cause
of t he Univer se. Br ahmAr paNam is t he oblat ion, of which t he inst r ument is
Br ahman…".
This is t he same idea t hat has been r ef lect ed by Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha in
his int er pr et at ion given above.
As if t o illust r at e t hat t he devot ees of t he Lor d can enj oy Him in His inf init e
dimensions t hr ough t heir t hought s, Sr i r aghunAt ha t I r t ha gives anot her
int er pr et at ion – yaj ~na SabdaH Subha-vAcI , t am sAdhayat i it i yaj ~na-
sAdhanaH – "The t er m yaj ~na r ef er s t o auspiciousness, and since bhagavAn
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gives auspicious r esult s, He is called yaj ~na-sAdhanaH".
nAma 981. nAma 981. nAma 981. 4¬l-6T 6 4¬l-6T 6 4¬l-6T 6 yaj ~nAnt a yaj ~nAnt a yaj ~nAnt a-- -kRt kRt kRt
He Who pr oduces t he f r uit of t he sacr if ices.
yaj~nAnta-kRte namaH.
yaj ~nasya ant am = samApt im phalam vA kar ot i it i yaj ~nAnt a-kRt – He Who
br ings about t he successf ul conclusion of t he yaj ~na, or He Who gives t he
f r uit s of t he yaj ~na. Thus, t her e ar e t wo appr oaches t o t he int er pr et at ion of
t he nAma – One Who helps in t he successf ul conclusion of t he yaj ~na, or One
Who gives t he f r uit s of t he yaj ~na at t he conclusion of t he yaj ~na. Some
int er pr et er s have chosen bot h t he explanat ions, and ot her s have chosen one of
t he t wo.
I t should be r emember ed t hat yaj ~na is a kar ma, and it s goal is t o at t ain t he
t r ue knowledge of bhagavAn, when it is per f or med wit hout mat er ial goals in
mind. Sr i BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion is t hat bhagavAn is called yaj ~nAnt a-kRt
since He makes t he at t ainment of t r ue knowledge about Him as t he end and
t he goal of all sacr if ices – yaj ~na par yavasAnam sva-t at t va j ~nAnam kar ot i it i
yaj ~nAnt a-kRt . (I t is well t o r emember her e t hat in vedic par lance, ' t r ue
knowledge' about somet hing means t he conduct of one' s lif e accor ding t o t hat
knowledge, and not t he mer e knowledge only). Sr I BhaTTar quot es t he gI t A in
suppor t of t his concept :
Sr eyAn dr avya mayAt yaj ~nAt j ~nAna yaj ~naH par ant apa |
sar vam kar ma akhilam pAr t ha j ~nAne par isamApyat e | |
(gI t A 4.33)
"Of t he t wo aspect s of kar ma yoga – knowledge and mat er ial aspect s, t he
component of knowledge is super ior t o t he component of mat er ial sacr if ices. O
ar j una, all act ions and ever yt hing else culminat e in knowledge".
Sr I vELukkuDi kRshNan r ef er s us t o t he Sr ut i vAkyam – "t amevam vidvAn
amRt a iha bhavat i | nAnyaH pant hA ayanAya vidyat e" – He Who r ealizes t hat
gr eat Br ahman at t ains t he moksha Ananadam; t her e is no ot her pat h t o at t ain
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moksha. I n ot her wor ds, it is t he knowledge about Him t hat ult imat ely leads t o
moksha accor ding t o t his Sr ut i vAkyam. BhagavAn gives t his knowledge as a
r esult of t he kar ma of yaj ~nam, and so He is called yaj ~nAnt a-kRt .
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives bot h t he int er pr et at ions ment ioned in t he int r oduct ion t o
t he nAma:
a) He Who gives t he f r uit s of t he yaj ~na at t he conclusion of t he yaj ~na –
yaj ~nasya ant am phala pr Apt im kur van yaj ~nAnt a-kRt ;
b) He Who br ings about t he successf ul conclusion of t he yaj ~na wit h t he
chant ing of t he vaishNavI Rk or t he pUr NAhut i mant r a as t he f inal oblat ion –
vaishNavI Rk-Samsanena pUr NAhut yA vA yaj ~na samApt im kar ot i it i
yaj ~nant a-kRt .
The idea t hat even when t her e ar e def iciencies dur ing t he per f or mance of t he
yaj ~na, bhagavAn makes t he yaj ~na complet e and successf ul wit h t he f inal
of f er ing of t he last Ahut i dedicat ed t o Him wit h pur e t hought s, has been
explained ear lier in nAma 976 – yaj ~na-bhRt . Sr I r AdhA kRshNa SAst r i quot es
t he f ollowing Sloka in suppor t :
yasya smRt yA ca nAmokt yA t apo yA Su-kr iyAdishu |
nyUnam sampUr Nat Am yAt i sat yo vande t am acyut am | |
"Our pr ost r at ions t o acyut a Who br ings t o successf ul complet ion any good act ,
by t he ver y t hought of Him or t he ment ion of His nAma".
Sr I cinmayAnanda' s explanat ion f or t he nAma is: "One Who per f or ms t he last ,
concluding act in all yaj ~na-s". He f ollows t he lead of Sr I Sa' nkar a in
int er pr et ing t he nAma as a r ef er ence t o t he f inal act of pUr NAhut i of f er ing
t o t he Lor d, and not es t hat "when t ot al sur r ender of all vehicles and t heir
act ions is accomplished (in t he f or m of pUr NAhut i of f er ing), t he
t r anscendent al exper ience of t he Self , nAr AyaNa alone, comes t o manif est in
all His divine Splendor ".
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj not es t hat t he nAma signif ies t hat bhagavAn
blesses t he conclusion of t he yaj ~na by His ver y auspicious appear ance, out of
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His sheer Mer cy –
yaj ~nAnAm ant o r amaNI yo bhagavad- Avir bhAvavelA |
t amapi kRpayA kar ot i it yaj ~nAnt a-kRt |
He gives suppor t f r om Sr I mad bhAgavat am:
yat r a yaj ~na-pat iH sAkshAt bhagavAn har ir _I Svar aH |
anvabhUyat a sar vAt mA sar va-loka-gur uH pr abhuH | | (4.19.3)
"The Supr eme Deit y, Lor d vishNu, Who has ever yt hing and ever yone as His
body, and Who is t he Lor d and Mast er of all, was of f er ed wor ship". (The
subsequent Sloka-s, e.g. 4.19.6) descr ibe bhagavAn' s act ual appear ance at t he
yaj ~na, accompanied by t he siddhas, kapila, nAr ada, dat t a, et c.).
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha not es t hat t he nAma signif ies t hat bhagavAn br ings
about t he successf ul conclusion of t he yaj ~na by r emoving all t he obst acles,
and also gives t he f r uit s of t he yaj ~na t o t he kar t A – vighnAn vihRt ya yo
yaj ~nam samApayat i, sampAdit asya t asya yaj ~nasya yo ant am = phalam ca
dadAt i sa yaj ~nAnt a-kRt abhidI yat e.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN chooses t he meaning t hat bhagavAn decides t he
f inal f r uit of t he yaj ~na – yaj ~nasya ant am phala niScayam kar ot i it i
yaj ~nAnt a-kRt .
I n an alt er nat ive int er pr et at ion, Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha uses t he r oot kR –
himsAyAm – t o hur t , t o kill, and explains t he nAma as "One Who dest r oys or
kills t he likes of subAhu and mAr I ci, who t r ied t o put a pr emat ur e end t o t he
ya~na by viSvAmit r a in t he r Ama incar nat ion – yaj ~nasya ant o nASo yebhyaH
t e yaj ~nAnt AH subAhu mAr icAdayaH, t An kRNot i it vA yan~nAnt a-kRt .
nAma 982. nAma 982. nAma 982. 4¬¬ GP 4¬¬ GP 4¬¬ GP yaj ~na yaj ~na yaj ~na-- -guhyam guhyam guhyam
He Who is t he secr et of t he sacr if ice.
yaj~na-guhyAya namaH.
The wor d guhyam is der ived f r om t he r oot guh – samvar aNe – t o cover , t o keep
secr et . Guhyam means ' r ahasyam' or secr et . Dif f er ent int er pr et er s have given
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t heir diver se anubhavam of how bhagavAn is t he hidden secr et behind yaj ~na-
s.
Sr i BhaTTar comment s t hat bhagavAn is t he ' secr et ' behind t he sacr if ice,
because not ever yone under st ands t hat He is t he ult imat e obj ect of t he
sacr if ice, and t hat even t hough bhagavAn is not in need of any of f er ing, He
st ill f eels sat isf ied as if He has been long expect ing t he of f er ings, and enj oys
t hem. Only t hose who ar e wise and knowledgeable about t he inj unct ions, t he
means and t he f r uit s of t he sacr if ices, r ealize t his secr et about Him; ot her s
do not r ealize t his secr et . Sr I BhaTTar quot es t he f ollowing f r om t he
mahAbhAr at a in suppor t :
sar ve vedAh sar va vedyAH sa-Sast r AH
sar ve yaj ~nAH sar va ij yaSca kRshNaH |
viduH kRshNam br AhmaNAs-t at t vat o ye
t eshAm r Aj an sar va-yaj ~nAH samApt AH | |
"All t he veda-s and all t hat has t o be lear nt , all t he SAst r a-s and all t he
sacr if ices, and all wor ship – all ar e Sr I kRshNa. Those who know kRshNa
cor r ect ly t his way, may be consider ed t o have complet ed all t he sacr if ices
successf ully".
j yot I gmshi Sukr ANi ca yAni loke
t r ayo lokAH loka-pAlas-t r ayI ca |
t r ayo' gnayaSca Ahut ayaSca pa' nca
sar ve devA devakI put r a eva | |
"All t he shining luminar ies in t he univer se, t he t hr ee wor lds, t he t hr ee
guar dians of t he wor ld, t he t hr ee f ir es, and t he f ive of f er ings in t hose holy
f ir es, and all t he gods, ar e all Sr I kRshNa, t he Son of devaki".
The above r ef er ences br ing out anot her subt le secr et t hat is elabor at ed by
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan: Even t hough t he of f er ing in a given yaj ~na
may be f or some of t he ot her deit ies, t he r eal Deit y Who ult imat ely r eceives
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all t he of f er ings is BhagavAn and no one else. BhagavAn is t he ant ar yAmi of all
t hese ot her deit ies, and while He f eels sat isf ied wit h t he of f er ing, He also
ensur es t hat t hese ot her deit ies ar e sat isf ied, and t hus it is no one ot her t han
BhagavAn Who is t he ult imat e obj ect of all yaj ~na-s. Not ever yone who
per f or ms yaj ~na-s under st ands t his, and t hus bhagavAn is t he secr et behind
t he yaj ~na-s in t his sense as well – yaj ~na-guhyam.
Sr i VeLukkuDi kRshNan br ings out anot her dimension t o t he anubhavam of t his
nAma: Accept ing t he r elat ively meager of f er ing in t he yaj ~na wit h gr eat
delight , BhagavAn can give t o t he per f or mer of t he yaj ~na, t he benef it even up
t o moksham; in ot her wor ds, t her e is no limit t o t he r et ur n t hat He can best ow
on t he per f or mer of t he yaj ~na in r et ur n f or t he r elat ively t r ivial of f er ing
t hat bhagavAn does not even need. This is a gr eat secr et t hat is not easily
under st ood by most people. He keeps t he means of yaj ~na as a gr eat secr et
t hat is under st ood only by a f ew who know t he yaj ~na SAst r a pr oper ly, and so
He is yaj ~na-guhyam.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i not es t hat t her e ar e t wo aspect s t o any sacr if ice –
t he mat er ial aspect s, and t he t hought s behind t he per f or mance of t he kar ma.
We dealt wit h t his discussion under nAma 981 (gI t A 4.33). Lor d kRshna
declar es t hat t he t hought behind t he act ions is mor e impor t ant t han t he act
it self . When t his t hought it self is dedicat ed t o bhagavAn, in ot her wor ds,
when t he t hought behind t he yaj ~na or of f er ing is not one t hat aims at
r eceiving some benef it f or t he per f or mer of t he yaj ~na, t his is t he best f or m
of yaj ~na. This is t he secr et behind t he per f or mance of yaj ~na-s in t heir
ult imat e t r ue sense. When such t hought is t he basis f or t he of f er ing, t his is a
manif est at ion of Br ahman Himself , and so t her e is no dif f er ence bet ween
Br ahman and t he yaj ~na or t he of f er ing, and so He is called t he ' secr et of t he
sacr if ice' or t he ' yaj ~na-guhyam' . This seems t o be t he meaning f or Sr i
Sa' nakar a' s int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma – yaj ~nAnAm guhyam j ~nAna-yaj ~naH
phalAbhisandhi-r ahit o vA yaj ~naH; t ad-abheda upacAr At Br ahma yaj ~na-
guhyam – "The secr et of sacr if ices is ' knowledge-sacr if ice' . Yaj ~na may also
mean any deed per f or med wit hout desir e f or t he f r uit ; Br ahman, as ident if ied
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wit h such deeds, is called yaj ~na-guhyam".
Sr I cinmayAnanda explains t he nAma as "The most pr of ound t r ut h t o be
r ealized in all yaj ~na-s". He elabor at es: "The Self is t he most noble t r ut h t o
be sought t hr ough ' of f er ing' all t he dr avya (obj ect s) int o t he
' consciousness' (f ir e) in t he ' body' (kuNDa). This kind of subj ect ive yaj ~na is
called in t he gI t A as Knowledge-sacr if ice ("j ~nAna-yaj ~na)". This is also called
in t he veda-s as Br ahma yaj ~na".
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN r einf or ces t he t r ue spir it behind t he
per f or mance of sacr if ices – I t is f or bhagavAn' s pleasur e alone, and not f or
any mat er ial benef it s f or t he per f or mer , t hat t he yaj ~na is t o be under t aken,
and so He is t he secr et behind t he yaj ~na-s – t ena yaj ~nena t asyaiva mukhya
uddeSyat vAt yaj ~na-guhyam.
nAma 983. nAma 983. nAma 983. H¬P H¬P H¬P annam annam annam
The obj ect of enj oyment .
annAya namaH.
The r oot f r om which t he nAma is der ived is ad – bhakshaNe – t o eat . at t i =
bhakshat i it i annam – He who consumes or enj oys is ' annam' . Alt er nat ively,
adyaH it i annam – That which is consumed or eat en, is annam.
Sr I vAsishTha gives anot her alt er nat e der ivat ion using t he r oot ana –
pr ANane – t o br eat he, t o live: anI t i it i annam, yadvA anyat e = pr ANyat e yena
t ad annam – He Who makes t he beings live, or He because of Whom t he beings
exist . This can r ef er t o t he vit al air t hat is necessar y f or t he beings t o
sur vive and live.
Sr I vAsishTha point s out t hat t he wor d ' annam' is used in t he Sr ut i t o r ef er
t o any of f er ing in a yaj ~na – t hat which can be of f er ed as havis, including
ghRt am (ghee) et c:
Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma as "bhokt R-Sakt ibhiH bhuj yat e it i annam" –
He Who is enj oyed, or is t he Obj ect of enj oyment by t hose who have been
blessed by Him wit h t he power t o enj oy Him. I n f act , f or t he t r ue devot ee,
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ever yt hing except bhagavAn is not an obj ect of enj oyment , and He is
ever yt hing f or t hem.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er us t o nammAzhvAr :
uNNum SORu par ugu nI r t innum veRRilai ellAm kaNNan * emper umAn enRenRE
kaNgaL nI l malgi maNNiNuL avan SI r vaLam mikkavan Ur vinavi t iNNam en iLa
mAn pugumUr t ir ukkOLUr E.
(t ir uvAi. 6.7.1)
"To His devot ee, all is kRshNa. Food - eat en t o sat isf y t he appet it e, wat er –
dr unk t o quench t he t hir st , and bet el leaves – consumed af t er t he f ood, ar e all
kRshNa only in t heir case. Saying His name, speaking of His qualit ies, and
t hinking of Him, His devot ee will f eel t he hunger and t he t hir st and all ot her
needs sat isf ied. They will not eat any ot her f ood since kRshNa-consciousness
is enough f ood f or t hem. Recit ing His name and enquir ing ever yone on t he way
"Am I on t he r ight pat h t o t ir ukkOLUr ? How f ar is it hence?” t he devot ee will
pr oceed wit hout any ot her need f or sust enance. The ver y t hought of His place
ser ves as nour ishment f or t he devot ee".
Sr I r AmAnuj an also r ef er s us t he gI t A in suppor t :
bahUnAm j anmanAm ant e j ~nAnavAn mAm pr apadyat e |
vAsudevas-sar vam it i sa mahAt mA sudur labhaH | |
(gI t A 7.19)
"At t he end of many bir t hs, t he man of knowledge f inds r ef uge in Me, r ealizing
t hat "vAsudeva is all" (annam). I t is ver y har d t o f ind such a gr eat -souled
per son".
The well-known Sr ut i vAkya f r om t ait t ir I ya Upanishad:
aham annam aham annam aham annam |
aham annAdo' ham annAdo' ham annAdaH |
bhagavAn is annam because He allows Himself t o be enj oyed by t hose who ar e
qualif ied and endowed wit h t he knowledge t o enj oy Him. He in t ur n enj oys
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t hose who t hus enj oy Him, and so He is also called annAdaH – Enj oyer (next
nAma).
Sr I vELukkuDi kRshNan r ef er s us t o t he pASur ams of nammAzhvAr wher e
AzhvAr r ef er s t o bot h t he aspect s of bhagavAn being annam and annAdaH. I n
t he t en pASur ams of t ir uvAimozhi 5-10, AzhvAr r epeat edly r ef er s t o bot h
t hese aspect s. We will deal wit h t he r ef er ences f or t he nAma annAdaH under
t he next nAma.
The whole of divya pr abandham is not hing but bhagavAn being enj oyed as
annam by t he dif f er ent AzhvAr s. Sr I kRshNan pr of usely keeps quot ing f r om
dif f er ent AzhvAr s. Couple of examples ar e given below:
pAlAzhi nee kiDakkum paNbai yAm kETTEyum kAl Azhum ne' nj u azhiyum kaN
Suzhalum * neelAzhic cOdiyAi! AzhiyAi! t ol vinai empAl kaDiyum neediyAi! niR-
cAr ndu ninRu.
(nammAzhvAr per iya t ir uvant Adi 34).
"Oh Lor d! You have t he br illiance of t he dar k Ocean, and You ar e t he Fir st
Cause of all t he univer ses. I t is Your nat ur e t o r emove t he blemishes in t he
likes of me. When I t hink of You and t he beaut y of Your r eclining in t he Milky
Ocean, t he exper ience is so pr of ound t hat my legs ar e not able t o suppor t me
any mor e, my mind is not able t o compr ehend Your beaut y, and my eyes
exper ience t he same pr of oundness".
ERaDar t t adum EnamAi nilam kI NDadum mun r AmanAi mARaDar t t adum maN
aLandadum Sollip pADi…
(per umAL t ir u. Of kulaSekhar a. 2.3)
"When I sing Your glor y – Your gr eat f eat of dest r oying t he seven might y
bulls, Your lif t ing t he whole Ear t h in Your var Aha incar nat ion, Your dest r oying
t he evil r Avana in your r Ama incar nat ion, t ear s of j oy well int o my eyes and
over f low like a r iver …..".
Sr i Sa' nkar a explains t he nAma as ' adyat e it i annam' = That which is consumed
by all beings is annam. Since He is t he sust aining power pr esent in all t he f ood
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consumed by all beings, He is called annam.
Sr I cinmayAnanda includes all t he sense-obj ect s t hat sat isf y t he needs of t he
sense-or gans under scope of annam r epr esent ed by Him, and explains t he
nAma as "One Who has Himself become t he sense- obj ect s which ar e t he
' f ood' consumed by t he sense-or gans".
Using t he def init ion at t i = bhakshat i it i annam – he Who eat s, bot h Sr i
Sa' nkar a and Sr I cinmyananda give t he alt er nat e int er pr et at ion t hat He is
called annam – One Who eat s - at t i bhUt Ani it i annam – He Who consumes
ever yt hing at t he t ime of pr alaya.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj uses t he r oot ana – pr ANane – t o br eat he, t o
live, and gives t he explanat ion – anyant e uapj I vyant e bhakt AH yena sva-
dar Sana-dAna dvAr A it i annaH – BhagavAn sust ains t he bhakt a-s by giving
t hem His dar Sanam, and so He is t he Sust ainer – annam. The applicat ion of
t he uNAdi sUt r a 3.10 adds t he af f ix na af t er t he r oot an, giving t he wor d
annam – f ood.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN ext ends t he t opic of yaj ~nam t hat has been t he
subj ect of t he pr evious nAma-s t o t he cur r ent one as well, and explains t he
nAma as indicat ing t hat at t he successf ul conclusion of t he yaj ~na by t he
devot ee, when t he devot ee r eaches t he ult imat e obj ect ives of Sr I
vaikunTham, bhagavAn pr esent s Himself t o t he devot ee in t he f or ms of t he
most enj oyable obj ect s in Sr I vaikunTham t hr ough His sa' nkalpa Sakt i, and so
He becomes t he ult imat e annam f or t he devot ee – yaj ~na labhye par ama vyomni
yad-divya-r asa- gandhAdikamadanI yam bhogyam.
nAma 984. nAma 984. nAma 984. H¬l7- H¬l7- H¬l7- annAdaH annAdaH annAdaH
The Enj oyer of t hose who enj oy Him.
annAdAya namaH.
The wor d annam can be der ived f r om t he r oot s ad - bhaksahNe, or ana -
pr ANane, as indicat ed in t he pr evious nAma, and one of t he meanings is f ood.
To t his wor d, t he st em - Ada is added, t o get t he wor d annAdaH. This st em
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it self (Ada) is again der ived f r om t he same r oot ad - bhakshaNe - t o eat ,
lit er ally giving t he meaning "The eat er of f ood". I n t he cur r ent cont ext , t he
meaning is t hat BhagavAn is t he Enj oyer of t hose who enj oy Him. The pr evious
nAma indicat ed t hat He is One who is enj oyed by His devot ees as annam, and
t he cur r ent nAma indicat es t hat He in t ur n enj oys t he devot ees who enj oy Him
- annam at t i it i annAdaH.
Sr I BhaTTar ' s wor ds in int er pr et at ion ar e: t AnSca t at hA bhu' nkt e it i
annAdaH - He is annAdaH since He also enj oys t hem in t he same way as t hey
enj oy Him. He pr oceeds t o explain t he signif icance of t he next t wo wor ds in
t he Slokam - eva and ca, which ar e not nAma-s of bhagavAn per se. He explains
t hat t he signif icance of t he wor d eva is t hat t her e is no one else like Him - ko
anya I dRSaH? it i eva-kAr aH. The signif icance of t he wor d ca is t hat all t hat
has been descr ibed t hus f ar ar e pr esent per f ect ly in t his one Deit y, namely
Lor d vishNu - ' ca' SabdaH sar vamukt am ekat r a asmin samuccinot i | .
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN echoes t he same int er pr et at ion f or t he wor ds
eva and ca -
na hyet AdRk anyo' st i it i bodhayit um eva-kAr aH |
nikhila bhhogya samuccAya ca-kAr aH
This mut ual love of t he devot ees t o BhagavAn (He being annam), and f or
bhagavAn t o His devot ees (He being annAdaH), is nicely descr ibed by
nammAzhvAr in his t ir uvAimozhi pASur am 9.7.9, almost like a mut ual
compet it ion of who enj oys whom most , and is r ef er enced by bot h Sr I
v.v.r AmAnuj an and by Sr I vELukkuDi kRshNan:
vAr ik koNDu unnai vizhu' nguvan kANil enRu Ar vuRRa ennai ozhiya ennil munnam
pAr it t u,
t An ennai muRRap par uginAn kAr okkum kATkar ai appan kaDiyanE.
(t ir uvAi. 9.7.9)
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AzhvAr says t hat he had been j ust wait ing t o see bhagavAn, and as soon as He
would see Him, his plan was t o j ust swallow Him complet ely wit h not hing lef t
f or anybody else. But even bef or e t hat could happen, bhagavAn planned mor e
skillf ully, and displayed His ext r eme sauSI lyam t o AzhvAr . This made AzhvAr
melt down complet ely, and bhagavAn j ust dr ank him t ot ally in t his ' dr avya'
f or m. AzhvAr exclaims t hat t his t ir ukkATkar aiappan is an ext r emely har d nut
t o cr ack, and One wit h whom no one can compet e in t his kind of game, or in
anyt hing else f or t hat mat t er . AzhvAr want ed t o make Him annam, but
bhagavAn inst ead became t he annAdan in t his case.
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives t he meaning - annam at t i it i annAdaH - "The Eat er of f ood"
t o t he nAma, and explains t hat t he nAma signif ies t hat bhagavAn is t he eat er
of t he whole wor ld as f ood. Sr I Sa' nkar a pr oceeds t o explain t he next t wo
wor ds eva and ca as f ollows:
sar vam j agat annAdi r UpeNa bhokt R-bhogyAt makam eva it i dar Sayit um eva-
kAr aH
"The par t icle eva is used t o show t hat t he ent ir e univer se of becoming enj oyer
and enj oyed, is t r aceable t o t he Lor d.
ca SabdaH sar va nAmnAm ekasmin par asmin pumsi samuccit ya vRt t im
dar Sayit um
The adj unct ca is used t o indicat e t hat all names ult imat ely indicat e a single
Super ior per son. Anot her t r anslat ion f ound f or Sr i Sa' nkar a' s wor ds is: The
wor d ca is used t o show t hat all t he names given in t he t ext can be applied t o
t he one Par amAt man.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i comment s t hat ever yt hing in t his wor ld can be
classif ied in t wo cat egor ies: f ood, and t he eat er of f ood. Thr ough t he nAmas
annam and annAdaH f or bhagavAn almost near t he conclusion of t he st ot r a,
Sr I bhI shma indicat es t o dhar maput r a t hat vAsudeva who is seat ed in f r ont of
t hem is t he One t hat has been descr ibed all along t hr ough all t he nAma-s
st ar t ing wit h viSvam, all t he way up t o t he cur r ent nAma. I n t he next Sloka,
he st at es explicit ly t hat Lor d vishNu who has been pr aised in all t he pr evious
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Sloka-s, is none ot her devakI -nandana kRshNa Who is seat ed in f r ont of t hem.
The concluding sect ion of bhRgu valli in t he t ait t ir I ya upanishad summar izes
t hat bhagavAn per vades f ood as well as t he eat er of f ood, and so He is bot h
of t he f or m of annam and annAdaH - aham annam annamadant amAdmi.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj explains t he nAma as - annam - svaj anopahRt am
modakAni at t i it i annAdaH - BhagavAn is called annAdaH because He gladly
accept s t he of f er ings f r om His devot ees.





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Slokam 106 Slokam 106 Slokam 106
HltP4l |+- F44 =l6l 4 Gl+- BlP¬l4+-· HltP4l |+- F44 =l6l 4 Gl+- BlP¬l4+-· HltP4l |+- F44 =l6l 4 Gl+- BlP¬l4+-·
7 4Tl+-7+- U7l |¬6lH- 9l9+lH+-+ °¤°+ 7 4Tl+-7+- U7l |¬6lH- 9l9+lH+-+ °¤°+ 7 4Tl+-7+- U7l |¬6lH- 9l9+lH+-+ °¤°+
Aat mayonih svayamj Aat O vaikhAnah sAmagAyanah |
devakI inandanah sr ashTaa kshit I sah pApanAsanah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 985. nAma 985. nAma 985. HltP4l |+- HltP4l |+- HltP4l |+- At ma At ma At ma-- -yoniH yoniH yoniH
He mixes wit h His devot ees ver y easily.
Atma-yonaye namaH.
The r oot f r om which t he wor d yoni is der ived is yu – miSr aNe amiSr aNe ca – t o
j oin, t o separ at e. The af f ix ni is added by applicat ion of t he uNAdi sUt r a 4.51,
leading t o t he wor d yoni – womb. One explanat ion f or t he nAma is At mA =
svayameva, svasya yoniH = kAr aNam – He Who is t he Cause f or Himself .
Sr I BhaTTar uses t he r oot yu – ' t o unit e, t o mix' , and int er pr et s t he nAma as
- "dughdeneva sit Avalayam At manA bhokt Ar am miSr ayat i it i At ma-yoniH" -
One Who mixes ot her s wit h Himself easily like milk wit h sugar . I n ot her wor ds,
it is bhagavAn' s sauSI lyam t hat is emphasized by Sr I BhaTTar t hr ough t his
nAma.
As has been point ed out in many pr evious nAma-s, Sr i BhaTTar ' s main emphasis
in his sahasr a nAma vyAkhyAnam is t o br ing out t he t wo guNa-s of bhagavAn
t hat ar e of ut most signif icance and impor t ance t o t he devot ees – namely
bhagavAn' s sauSI lyam and saulabhyam. The int er pr et at ion of t he cur r ent
nAma is a vivid example wher e Sr I BhaTTar uses his skills in int er pr et at ion t o
emphasize bhagavAn' s guNa of sauSI lyam – or His abilit y t o mix wit h His
devot ees wit h t he gr eat est ease, and let t hem enj oy Him easily and
complet ely, as long as t hey ar e sincer ely devot ed t o Him.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN echoes t he same t hought s as Sr i BhaTTar in his
int er pr et at ion – At mAnam svam yaut i bhakt aH sahavAsa bhoge it i At ma-yoniH
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– He Who mixes t he bhakt a-s wit h Himself indist inguishably f or t he pur pose
of t heir enj oyment of Him. He quot es t he ananda maya vidyA f r om Ananda valli
of t ait t ir I ya upanishad –
"yo veda nihit am guhAyAm par ame vyoman |
So' Snut e sar vAn kAnmAn saha |
br ahmaNA vipaScit et i | "
"He who knows Br ahman hidden in t he cavit y of t he hear t ,
enj oys in t he supr eme abode all t he auspicious qualit ies of Br ahman
along wit h t he all-knowing Br ahman".
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi pASur am 2.3.1 in
suppor t of Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion:
Unil vAzh uyir E nallai pO unnaip peRRu vAnuLAr per umAn maduSUdan en
ammAn
t Anum yAnum ellAm t annuLLE kalandu ozhindOm t Enum pAlum neyyum
kannalum amudum ot t E.
(t ir uvAi. 2.3.1)
"O my mind! Even t hough you ar e pr esent in t his physical body of f lesh and t he
like - all f ilt hy, you have ser ved me r ight in t he dir ect ion of deliver ance. What
I have enj oyed is what nit yasUr i-s enj oy in Sr I vaikunTham. BhagavAn has
subdued me even when I was in a mood t o leave Him, and has made me a happy
ser vant of His, and he has become one wit h me. I t is like honey mixing wit h
honey, milk wit h milk, sugar wit h sugar , ghee wit h ghee, and nect ar wit h
nect ar ."
I t is wor t h not ing t hat while Sr I BhaTTar says t hat bhagavAn mixes wit h His
devot ee like sugar and milk (see his vyAkhyAnam above), AzhvAr says
bhagavAn has mixed wit h Him like milk wit h milk it self (honey wit h honey, milk
wit h milk, ghee wit h ghee, et c.), a level mor e int imat e t han t he mixing of milk
and sugar .
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204
Sr I Sa' nkar a br ings out an aspect of bhagavAn' s f unct ion of cr eat ion t hr ough
t his nAma – At maiva yoniH – upAdAna kAr aNam na anyat it i At ma- yoniH –
Because He alone is t he mat er ial cause of t he univer se, and no ot her ,
t her ef or e He is called At ma-yoniH.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj also gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat since
bhagavAn has no cause ot her t han Himself , He is called At ma-yoniH –
svambhUt vAt At ma-yoniH. He gives suppor t f r om t he Upanishad: sa viSva-kRd
viSva-vid At ma-yoniH (Svet ASvat ar a. 6.16)
While Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he meaning svayam-bhU t o t he
wor d At ma-yoniH in t he upnaishadic passage above, Sr I N. S.
Anant ar a' ngAcAr ya t r anslat es t he t er m as "indweller in t he j I vAt man" in his
book t it led "Select ions f r om t he Upanishads", and t his t r anslat ion is based on
t he vyAkhyAna of Sr I r a' nga r AmAnuj a muni.
nAma 986. nAma 986. nAma 986. F44 =l6- F44 =l6- F44 =l6- svayam svayam svayam-- -j At aH j At aH j At aH
He Who is self -bor n.
svayam-jAtAya namaH.
svayam j Ayat e aj anishTa it i vA svayam-j At aH
He Who is self -bor n, or is not cr eat ed by anyone else is svayam-j At aH.
Sr I BhaTTar ' s anubhavam is t hat bhagavAn has t his nAma signif ying t hat He
t akes His incar nat ions as and when necessar y, wit hout wait ing f or t hose in
dif f icult y t o come and pr ay t o Him t o t ake His incar nat ion - pr Ar t hanA
nir apekshat ayA j At aH svayam-j At aH. I n ot her wor ds, He t akes t he incar nat ion
out of His concer n f or t he pr ot ect ion of t he good, t he dest r uct ion of t he evil,
and t he pr eser vat ion of dhar ma (par it r ANAya sAdhUnAm, vinASAya ca
dushkRt Am, dhar ma samst hApanAr t hAya sambhavAmi) - He Himself t akes
bir t h out of His own will. His main concer n is t he pr ot ect ion of t he j I va-s
t hat ar e His childr en; it is His Nat ur e t o be concer ned and t o pr ot ect (kAkkum
iyalvinan kaNNa per umAn - nammAzhvAr in t ir uvAimozhi 2.2.9), and so He
t akes incar nat ions f or t his pur pose as and when necessar y, out of His own
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sa' nkalpam.
Repeat ed r ef er ence has been made t o t he unique appr oach of Sr I BhaTTar in
int er pr et ing t he nAmas by emphasizing t hat all t hat BhagavAn does is f or t he
benef it of His devot ees. Even t hough t he out war d meaning f or t he nAma is
"One Who is bor n by Himself ", Sr I BhaTTar t akes t he oppor t unit y t o point
out t hat "He is bor n by Himself as and when necessar y t o r emove t he
suf f er ings of His devot ees", r at her t han t o j ust say t hat "Bhagavan has no
ot her Cr eat or ". The cur r ent nAma is one ot her inst ance of Sr I BhaTTar ' s
unique anubhavam in his int er pr et at ion of t he nAma-s.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an quot es t he t ir uvir ut t am pASur am in suppor t :
uyir aLippAn enninRa yOniyumAip piRandAi ! imaiyOr t alaivA |
(t ir uviut t am 1)
"You Who t ook bir t h volunt ar ily in or der t o liber at e us f r om t he bur den of
samsAr a".
Sr I vELukkuDi kRshNan gives a quot e f r om t he gI t A in suppor t , and not es
t hat bhagavAn get s ent angled in t he miser ies of t his wor ld j ust t o r elease us
f r om t he same miser ies:
na me pAr t ha ast i kar t avyam t r ishu lokeshu ki' ncana |
nAnavApt am avApt avyam var t a eva ca kar maNi | |
(gI t A 3.22)
"For me, ar j una, t her e is not hing in all t he t hr ee wor lds which ought t o be
done, nor is t her e anyt hing un-acquir ed t hat ought t o be acquir ed. Yet I go on
wor king".
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan point s out t hat it is f or r emoving t he bondage of
sever al ot her women t hat sI t A pir ATTi volunt ar ily lived f or t en mont hs in t he
pr ison of t he t en-headed r AvaNa, and it is f or r emoving our bondage t hat Lor d
kRshNa volunt ar ily chose t o be bor n in t he pr ison of kamsa. For t he Divine
Couple, all t hese volunt ar y suf f er ings ar e f or t he pur pose of r elieving our
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206
suf f er ings.
I n his vyAkhyAnam f or t he above gI t A Sloka, bhagavad r AmAnuj a explains
t hat bhagavAn st ill cont inues t o wor k f or t he pr ot ect ion of t he wor ld, even
t hough t her e is not hing f or Him per sonally t o be achieved by wor king
"kar maNA avApt avyam na ki' ncid api ast i,
at hApi loka r akshAyai kar maNi eva var t e".
Sr I Sa' nkar a had explained t he pr evious nAma (At ma-yoniH) as signif ying t hat
bhagavAn is t he Mat er ial cause of t he Univer se. He cont inues t his t hr ead in
t he cur r ent nAma, and explains t he nAma svayam- j At aH as signif ying t hat
bhagavAn is also t he I nst r ument al cause - nimit t a kAr aNam api sa eva it i
dar Sayit um svayam-j At a it i. The t er ms ' Mat er ial cause' and ' I nst r ument al
cause' can be br ief ly explained by r ef er ence t o t he making of a pot by a
pot t er , using t he mud, t he wheel, t he wat er et c. I n t his example, t he mud is
t he upAdAna kAr aNa or t he mat er ial cause. The nimit t a kAr aNa or t he
I nst r ument al cause is t he pot maker . The ot her supplement ar y mat er ials such
as t he wheel, t he wat er et c. ar e called t he sahakAr i kAr aNa-s. Sr I Sa' nkar a' s
int er pr et at ion f or t he pr evious and t he cur r ent nAma-s ar e t hat bhagavAn is
bot h t he I nst r ument al Cause and t he Mat er ial Cause in t he pr ocess of
cr eat ion. He gives suppor t f r om t he br ahma sUt r a (pr akRt iSca pr at ij ~nA
dRshTAnt a anupar odhAt (1.4.23)) t hat declar es t hat bhagavAn is not j ust t he
I nst r ument al cause but also t he Mat er ial cause. I n ot her wor ds, He per f or ms
t he f unct ion of cr eat ion wit h no ot her help or ext er nal means but f r om
Himself , by Himself . This is nicely capt ur ed by nammAzhvAr in his
t ir uvAimozhi pASur am 1.5.4 (t An Or ur uvE t ani vit t Ai t annil mUvar
mudalAya.).
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i explains t he nAma as ' One Who appear ed by
Himself ' , and gives t he r ef er ence f r om t ait t ir I ya upanishad in suppor t : t ad-
At mAnam svayam akur ut a - That Br ahman cr eat ed I t self by I t self
(Anandavalli in t ait t ir I ya upanishad). I f it be said t hat devaki ' gave bir t h' t o
kRshNa, Sr I Suka explains t hat bhagavAn j ust appear ed f r om her womb j ust
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as t he moon appear s in t he sky -devakyAm deva r UpiNyAm vishNuH sar va
guhASayaH Avir AsI t yat hA pr AcyAm diSi indur iva pushkalaH (Sr I mad
bhAgavat am 10.3.8). Lor d kRshNa chose t o ent er devaki' s womb f or some
t ime, and t hen chose t o come out when He chose t o come out ; t he connect ion
bet ween devaki and kRshNa is j ust t he same connect ion as bet ween t he east
dir ect ion and t he moon f r om which it appear s.
nAma 987. nAma 987. nAma 987. 4 Gl+- 4 Gl+- 4 Gl+- vaikhAnaH vaikhAnaH vaikhAnaH
He Who upr oot s (t he evils of t he wor ld).
vaikhAnAya namaH.
The r oot f r om which t he nAma is der ived is khana - avadhAr aNe - t o dig. vi-
is an upasar ga, and t he sense in which it is used her e is t o denot e int ensit y
(viSesheNa). The sense in which He ' digs' is int er pr et ed dif f er ent ly by
dif f er ent int er pr et er s.
Sr i BhaTTar uses t he r oot khana wit h t he meaning ' upr oot ' , and explains t he
nAma as One Who upr oot s t he miser ies of His devot ees - j anit vA, bhava
duHkha vikhananAt vaikhAnaH - Having t aken His bir t h or incar nat ion out of
His own will, t hen BhagavAn pr oceeds t o upr oot t he sor r ows of t he wor ld, in
par t icular t he sor r ow of r epeat ed bir t h and deat h.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN f ollows a similar int er pr et at ion -
j anit vAca sva-bhakt a duHkha vikhananAt vaikhAnaH
Taking bir t h volunt ar ily, He dest r oys t he sor r ows of His devot ees.
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavaan r ef er s us t o t he f ir st pASur am of
nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvir ut t am, wher e AzhvAr point s out t hat bhagavAn t akes
His bir t hs f or t he pur pose of r emoving our bondage t o t his samsAr a:
poi ninRa j ~nAnamum pollA ozhukkum, azhukku uDambum in ninRa nI r mai ini
yAm uRavAmai
uyir aLippAn en-ninRa yOniyumAip piRandAi!
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imaiyOr t alaivA mei-ninRu kETTu ar uLAi,
aDiyEn Seyyum viNNappamE.
"O Lor d of t he deva-s! You t ake Your bir t hs amongst us out of Your own f r ee
will in or der t o pr ot ect us, who live wit h f alse and incomplet e knowledge, bad
conduct , and an impur e body and mind, and ar e st uck deep in t he ocean of
samsAr a. You alone can r edeem us f r om t his deep miser y. Please bless us and
heed my plea and save us".
Sr i Sa' nkar a uses t he meaning ' dig' f or t he r oot khana, and uses t he inst ance
of bhagavAn' s var Aha incar nat ion t o illust r at e t he signif icance of t he nAma -
dhar aNI m viSeshena khanit vA pAt Ala vAsinam
hir aNyAksham vAr Aha r Upam Ast hAya j aghAna
it i pur ANe pr asiddham
I t is well-known in t he pur ANa-s t hat He, in t he f or m of a boar , dug up t he
ear t h, and killed hir aNyAksha, an asur a who lived in t he net her wor ld.
Sr i cinmayAnanda gives an int er est ing int er pr et at ion f or t he above pur ANic
incident - hir anya is gold, and aksha is eye, and t he t er m ' hir aNyAksha'
symbolizes our eye t owar ds mat er ialist ic pleasur es. BhagavAn has t o dig and
r each inside our ego t o r id us of t his desir e f or mat er ialist ic pleasur es, and in
t his sense He is vaikhAnaH.
* One of t he int er pr et at ions given by Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha uses t he
meaning ' dist ur bance' f or t he t er m ' khana' . Using t he meaning ' devoid of ' f or
t he upasar ga vi-, he int er pr et s t he t er m vikhAna as a r ef er ence t o t he mukt a-
s who ar e complet ely liber at ed, and t hen explains t he t er m vaikhAna as t he
Lor d of vikhAna-s or t he mukt a-s - vikhAnAH khanana r ahit AH mukt AH,
t at sambandhI vaikhAnaH.
Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha t akes t he wor d ' khana' as meaning ' t o dig, t o
complet ely undo' , and int er pr et s t he nAma as - viSesheNa Sat r um avadAr ayat i
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209

it i vikhAnaH, vikhAna eva vaikhAnaH - He who cut s int o pieces and dest r oys
t he enemy.
Using t he meaning ' dig' f or t he r oot khana, Sr I vAsishTha gives anot her
int er pr et at ion, and at t r ibut es t he exist ence of oceans et c., as t he wor k of t he
Lor d - He has specially pr ovided f or t hese as examples of His specially digging
out t hese r esour ces of wat er in nat ur e, which no one else can do - t asya ca
viSishThaH khAno samudr asya _ nahI dRk khananam kenacit t ad-anyena
kar t um Sakyam |
nAma 988. nAma 988. nAma 988. BlP¬l4+- BlP¬l4+- BlP¬l4+- sAma sAma sAma-- -gAyanaH gAyanaH gAyanaH
a) He bef or e Whom t he sAma hymns ar e sung.
b) He Who sings t he sAma gAna Himself .
c) He Who is t he f inal r esor t f or t hose who sing t he sAma gAna.
sAma-gayanAya namaH.
The wor d sAma is der ived f r om t he r oot so – ant aHkar maNi – t o dest r oy, t o
br ing t o an end. By applicat ion of t he uNAdi sUt r a 4.152 (sAt ibhyAm manin
maniNau), t he wor d sAma is obt ained, meaning ' t hat which is appeasing' . The
wor d also r ef er s t o t he sAma veda. The wor d gAyana means ' singer ' (der ived
f r om t he r oot gai – Sabde – t o sing, and t he pANini sUt r a 3.1.153 – NyuT ca).
sAma-gAyana means one who sings t he sAma, and sAma-gAyaNaH means One
Who has t he singer s of sAma hymns.
a) Sr I BhaTTar uses t he above int er pr et at ion and explains t he nAma as "One
Who has t he mukt a-s or t he Released souls singing t he sAma hymns in pr aise
of Him once t hey have at t ained Him" – sva-pr Apt i madhu pAnena "hAvu hAvu
hAvu" it i sAmAni gAyamAno mukt aH asya ast i it i sAma-gAyanaH. He gives t he
quot e f r om t ait t ir I ya Upanishad – "et at sAma gayannAst e" – (The r eleased soul
or mukt a) will be singing t his sAma chant ….
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj r ef er s us t o a passage in Sr I mad bhAgavat am
wher e t he descr ipt ion is given about bhagavAn being wor shipped t hr ough t he
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210
sAma gAna chant ing:
yam br ahmA r udr endr a var uNa mar ut aH st unvant i divyaiH st avaiH vedaiH
sA' nga pada kr amopanishadaiH gAyant i yam sAmagAH |
dhyAnAvast hit a t ad-gat ena manasA paSyant i yam yoginaH yasyAnt am na viduH
sur Asur a gaNA devAya t asmai namaH | | (12.13.1)
"Our obeisance t o Him who is wor shipped by t he likes of br ahmA, r udr a, indr a,
and mar ut -s t hr ough t he best of pr aises, t hr ough veda-s chant ed
syst emat ically wit h t heir a' nga-s and kar ma-s, whose pr aise is sung by t hose
who sing t he sAma gAna, who is seen t hr ough t he concent r at ed medit at ion of
t he yogi-s, and whose inf init e nat ur e is beyond r ealizat ion by t he deva-s and
asur a-s, and Who is ever r esplendent ".
Among t he f our veda-s, sAma veda is given special emphasis by Lor d kRshNa:
vedAnAm sAma vedo' smi devAnAmasmi vAsavaH |
indr iyANAm manaScAsmi bhUt AnAm asmi cet anA | |
(gI t A 10.22)
"Of t he veda-s I am sAma veda. Of gods, I am indr a. Of sense-or gans I am t he
manas. Of living beings, I am consciousness".
b) Sr i Sa' nkar a at t r ibut es t he singing of t he sAman t o kaNNan Himself , and
int er pr et s t he nAma as "One Who sings t he sAma gAnam" – sAmAni gAyant i it i
sAma-gAyanaH.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i comment s t hat t he br ahma j ~nAni sings t he sAma
gAnam in t he excit ement of his r ealizat ion, and Lor d kRshNa in His incar nat ion
sang in t he f lut e t he peacef ul and all-quiet ing sAma gAnam, and hence He is
sAma-gAyanaH.
c) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha der ives t he int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma by looking
at t he nAma as sAma + ga+ ayanaH. Those who sing t he sAma veda ar e called
sAma-gAH. SAmagAnAm ayanam = ASr ayaH par amo lakshayaH sAmagAyanaH –
He Who is t he f inal goal of t hose who sing t he sAma is sAmagAyanaH.
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211

Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha explains t he nAma as:
"yaj ~na vinASakAn r AkshasAn syat i hinast i
it i sAma gI yant e asmin it i gAyanaH |
sAmAni st ot r a viSeshAH gI yant e asmin
it i sAma-gAyanaH | "
"Ext olled by special hymns of pr aises f or His act s of killing t he demons who
r uin t he per f or mance of t he sacr if ice".
nAma 989. nAma 989. nAma 989. 7 4Tl+-7+- 7 4Tl+-7+- 7 4Tl+-7+- devakI devakI devakI -- -nandanaH nandanaH nandanaH
The Sour ce of j oy t o devaki.
devakI-nandanAya namaH.
Recall t hat t he whole vishNu sahasr a nAma has been r evealed t o yudhishThir a
by bhI shma in t he pr esence of kRshNa. Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion f or t he
nAma is t hat t hr ough t his nAma, bhI shma is clar if ying t o yudhisThir a t hat t he
nAma-s t hat have been r evealed all along ar e not about some Deit y who is
beyond r each, but t hey descr ibe none ot her t han devakI -nandana who is
seat ed j ust next t o him, and who has t aken incar nat ion as t he kinsman of
yudhishThir a. Sr I BhaTTar r ef er s us t o a Sloka f r om mahAbhAr at a:
sa esha pRt hudhI r gAkshaH sambandhI t e j anAr danaH |
esha bhUt am bhavishyacca bhavacca bhar at ar shabha | |
"O! Best of Bhar at a-s! J anAr dana, t he br oad and long-eyed Lor d is your
kinsman. He is all t hings in t he past , t he pr esent and t he f ut ur e".
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is also along t he same lines. He gives anot her
suppor t f r om t he mahAbhAr at a:
j yot I gmshi Sukr ANi ca yAni loke t r ayo lokA loka-pAlAS-t r ayI ca |
t r ayo agnayaSca Ahut ayaSca pa' nca sar ve devA devakI -put r a eva | |
(mahAbhAr at a 13, app. 1, 156-7)
"All t he luminar ies of t he wor ld, t he t hr ee wor lds t hemselves, t he pr ot ect or s
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212
of t he wor lds by guar ding t he quar t er s, t he t hr ee veda-s, t he t hr ee sacr ed
f ir es, t he f ive oblat ions ar e all but t he Son of devaki (kRshNa)".
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he r ef er ence f r om Sr I mad bhAgavat am,
descr ibing t he incar nat ion of Par amAt mA as t he Son of devaki:
devakyAm devar UpiNyAm devakI -nandanaH Sr I kRshNaH |
Avir AsI t yat hA pr AcyAm diSir -indur iva pushkalaH | |
(bhAga. 10.3.8)
"Lor d kRshNa, t he J oy of devaki, appear ed as t he child of t he divine devaki
j ust like t he moon appear ing f r om t he east er n dir ect ion".
While t he nAma devakI -nandana immediat ely r eminds us of Lor d kRshNa who
was ' bor n' t o devaki, a couple of int er pr et er s have t aken a dif f er ent appr oach
t o int er pr et ing t he nAma t hat does not r ef er t o t his incident of Lor d
kRshNa' s incar nat ion. A couple of t hese int er pr et at ions ar e included below as
an example:
Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha' s int er pr et at ion is:
devAnAm kam sukham asya ast i it i devakI somaH |
t ena devakinA somena nandat e it i devakI -nandanaH |
"The t er m devaki r ef er s t o soma j uice because it gives pleasur e t o t he deva-s;
The Lor d is called devakI -nandanaH because He is delight ed by t he of f er ing of
soma j uice". Or ,
devena pAshANena kr iyat e sUyat e it i devakI |
devakyA somena nandat e it i devakI -nandanaH |
"soma j uice is ext r act ed by t he use of st ones and so it is called devakI ; One
Who is delight ed by t he of f er ing of soma j uice ext r act ed t hr ough t he use of
st ones, is devakI -nandanaH".
Sr i sat yadevo vAsishTha also avoids any r ef er ence t o Lor d kRshNa in t his
nAma, and explains t he nAma as a r ef er ence t o sUr ya. We will not go int o t he
det ails of how he get s t his int er pr et at ion, but will only not e t hat f or some
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213

r eason, he also chose t o not use t he obvious int er pr et at ion t hat suggest s it self
f or t his nAma, namely t hat t he Supr eme Deit y Lor d vishNu is none ot her t han
kRshNa who was seat ed in t he midst of t he bhI shma and yudhishThir a.
One can only speculat e on why t hey chose t o t ake t his appr oach. One r eason
could be t hat kRshNa chose t o leave devaki wit hin a f ew moment s af t er He was
bor n t o devaki, and so He was not a sour ce of delight f or devaki at least f or a
f ew year s af t er He was bor n. A f ew int er pr et er s obser ve t hat anot her name
of yaSodA was devaki, and so He was a devakI -nandana (f or inst ance, Sr I
r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i and Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN bot h make t his
obser vat ion).
Bhagavad r AmAnuj a ment ions in his Sr I Bhashya, in t he explanat ion of t he
mahA vAkya ' t at t vam asi' , t hat "when a dir ect meaning of an expr ession is
suf f icient , it is illegit imat e t o seek an indir ect implied meaning – (Sr I
AdidevAnanda' s wor ds in his I nt r oduct i on t o t he t r anslat ion of bhagavad
r AmAnuj a' s git A bhAshyam). The ' indir ect implied meanings' have been
included her e f or t hose wit h academic int er est , and may kindly be ignor ed by
t he bhAgavat a-s of t his gr oup.
nAma 990. nAma 990. nAma 990. U7l U7l U7l sr ashTA sr ashTA sr ashTA
The Cr eat or .
srashTre namaH..
We st udied t his nAma ear lier (Slokam 63 - nAma 595). Please r ef er t o t he
wr it e-up f or nAma 595 also.
sRj at i it i sRashTA – vishNuH – He Who cr eat es. As has been explained in
sever al places bef or e, br ahmA cr eat es t he t hings inside t he br ahmANDa,
af t er bhagavAn cr eat es t he t hings out side br ahmANDa, and t he br ahmANDa
it self wit h br ahmA inside t he br ahmANDa, and gives t he power , t he knowledge
and t he r esponsibilit y t o br ahmA f or t he r est of t he cr eat ion. I t is because
bhagavAn is t he ant ar yAmi in br ahmA t hat br ahmA is able t o pr oceed wit h t his
f unct ion at t his point . Thus bhagavAn is t he Tr ue Cr eat or , as He is t he
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214
Dest r oyer and t he Pr ot ect or of all beings.
Sr I BhaTTar r eemphasizes t hr ough t he int er pr et at ion f or t his nAma t hat Sr I
BhI shma once mor e t ells yudhishThir a t hat devakI -nandana, Sr I kRshNa, is
none ot her t han par a-vAsudeva who is r esponsible f or cr eat ion. One can see
bhagavAn' s saulabhyam and sauSI lyam r ef lect ed t hr ough t hese ser ies of
nAma-s. Even t hough t he r ef er ence t o His f unct ion of cr eat ion can be t aken t o
illust r at e His par at t vam, t he f act t hat t he same par a-vAsudeva has made
Himself accessible t o all t he people in t he audience (wher e bhI shma is
inst r uct ing yudhisThir a on t he gr eat ness of bhagavAn' s nAma-s r ef lect ing His
kalyANa guNa-s) shows simult aneously His saulabhyam.
Sr I Sa' nkar a bhAshyam is: "sr ashTA sar va lokasya" – BhagavAn is called
sr ashTA because He is t he Cr eat or of all t he wor lds.
Sr I cinmayAnanda comment s: "Even t he cr eat or (meaning cat ur -mukha
br ahmA) can per f or m his j ob only by dr awing his abilit ies and capacit ies f r om
t he I nf init e Self , Sr I nAr AyaNa". I n ot her wor ds, br ahmA cr eat es only
because bhagavAn is t he ant ar yAmi of br ahmA.
nAma 991. nAma 991. nAma 991. |¬6lH- |¬6lH- |¬6lH- ksht I SaH ksht I SaH ksht I SaH
The Lor d of t he Ear t h.
kshitISAya namaH.
The r oot f r om which t he nAma is der ived is khsi – nivAsagat yoH – t o dwell. The
applicat ion of t he pANini sUt r a 3.3.94 – st r iyAm kt in, st r iyAm kt in, st r iyAm kt in, leads t o t he wor d
khsit iH – t he Ear t h; t asyA I SaH kshit I SaH – The Lor d of t he Ear t h.
Sr I BhaTTar not es t hat bhagavAn is t he Lor d of all t he wor lds, not j ust t he
Ear t h, as r evealed in t he f ollowing r ef er ence:
yo anant ar Upo akhila viSvar Upo gar bhe' pi lokAn vapushA bibhar t i | |
"He is of inf init e f or ms and is in t he f or m of t he ent ir e univer se. He bear s by
His body all t he wor lds in His womb".
However , in t his nAma, bhagavAn is par t icular ly singled out as t he Lor d of t he
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Ear t h. Dif f er ent anubhavam-s ar e given f or t his. Sr I BhaTTar point s out t hat
t her e is gener ally mor e suf f er ing in t he Ear t h t han in t he ot her wor lds such as
t he deva loka-s et c., and so bhagavAn t akes incar nat ions mor e of t en her e, t o
help r elieve t he suf f er ings of t he beings her e. So He is par t icular ly addr essed
as t he Lor d of t he Ear t h – kshit I SaH - sar va I Sat ve' pi Ar t i-bhUyishThat vAt
bhUyishTham bhUmeH I SaH it i kshit I SaH.

kshit I SAya namaH.
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan r ef er s us t o t he t ir uvAimozhi pASur am 3.3.4, wher e
nammAzhvAr point s out t hat even t hough bhagavAn is t he Lor d of t he deva-s,
He is mor e at t ached t o AzhvAr in t his wor ld mor e, because AzhvAr is in a
mor e helpless sit uat ion t han t he deva-s:
ESan vAnavar kku enban enRAl adu t ESamO t ir uvE' nkaTat t Anukku nI SanEn
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niRaivu onRum ilEn en kaN pASam vait t a par am SuDar SOdikkE.
(t ir uvAi. 3.3.4)
"We can declar e t hat t ir uvE' nkaTat t An is t he Lor d of nit yasUr i-s et c. But t his
in no way adds t o His glor y. His t r ue glor y is in His mingling wit h t he lowliest of
t he lowly people like me, being accessible t o all t he downt r odden et c. This, it is
His saulabhyam t hat adds t o His glor y, and not t he Lor dship over t he
nit yasUr i-s. He has shown a dot ing love t o me, endear ing me t hat way".
I t is t his love of bhagavAn t owar ds t he suf f er ing and downt r odden beings of
t he Ear t h t hat makes t hem dear t o Him, and so He is called t he Lor d of t he
Ear t h in t his nAma.. bhagavAn is "I San" f or all t he ot her wor lds, but His
"pASam" or love is wit h t he Ear t h.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN also int er pr et s t he nAma as "Lor d of t he Ear t h",
t he Lor dship being r ef lect ed in His being concer ned wit h t he r emoval of t he
suf f er ing of t he beings of t he wor ld and t heir pr ot ect ion – kshit er -bhAr am
apanI yat Am pAlayana kshit I SaH.
Sr I Sa' nkar a int er pr et s t he nAma as a r ef er ence t o t he r Ama incar nat ion –
The Lor d of t he ear t h, t he son of daSar at ha – kshit eH bhUmeH I SaH
daSar at hAt maj aH.
Sr I cinmayAnanda int er pr et s t he nAma as "The Consor t of Mot her Ear t h" –
kshit i r ef er r ing t o Mot her Ear t h or bhUmi pir ATTi.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha' s int er pr et at ion is: Kshiyant i = nivasant i, gacchant i
vA nASam bhUt Ani yasyAm sA kshit iH = bhUH, t asyA I SaH kshit I SaH – That
in which all beings ult imat ely mingle af t er t heir lif e her e, is kshit iH, or ear t h.
The Lor d of kshit i is kshit I SaH.
nAma 992. nAma 992. nAma 992. 9l9+lH+- 9l9+lH+- 9l9+lH+- pApa pApa pApa-- -nASanaH nASanaH nASanaH
The Dest r oyer of sins.
pApa-nASanAya namaH.
pApam nASayat i it i pApa-nASanaH.
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I t is ver y int er est ing t o look at t he der ivat ion of t he wor d pApa – it is der ived
f r om t he r oot pA – r akshaNe – t o pr ot ect . The addit ion of t he af f ix paH leads
t o t he wor d pApaH – t hat f r om which one should pr ot ect oneself is pApa, or
sin. Sr I vAsishTha gives t he der ivat ion f or t he wor d pApa as "pAt i asmAt
At mAnam it i pApaH – That f r om which one should pr ot ect oneself is pApaH or
sin.
Sr I BhaTTar explains t he nAma by r eminding us of t he gr eat value of
medit at ing on bhagavAn' s leelA-s. By medit at ing on t he nect ar -like st or ies of
His st ealing t he but t er and cur d, by r eminding our selves of His r Asa-kr I DA-s
wit h t he gopi-s, et c., t he sins in our minds ar e r emoved. I n f act , t his is one of
t he ways t hat bhagavAn annihilat es t he int er nal f laws in t he minds of Sr I
vaishNava-s – t hose who medit at e on Him wit h single-minded devot ion. Sr I
BhaTTar ' s wor ds ar e:
at ha dadhi-navanI t ast ainya r Asa kr I DAdi kat hAmRt ena par eshAm pApa-
nASanaH | avat Ar e' pi vaishNavAnAm bAhyAbhyant ar a Sat r u-nASanaH |
Even dur ing His incar nat ions, He annihilat es t he enemies, bot h int er nal and
ext er nal, of Sr I vaishNava-s (t he devot ees of vishNu insepar ably associat ed
wit h Sr I or mahA lakshmi). He annihilat es t he int er nal enemies when t hey
medit at e on His kalyANa guNa-s, and he annihilat es t he ext er nal enemies
t hr ough t he divine weapons t hat he car r ies f or t heir pr ot ect ion (which is t he
subst ance of t he next and last Sloka).
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan explains t hat or dinar y t hieves only st eal
mat er ial obj ect s, but bhagavAn st eals t he f eelings of st ealt h it self f r om t he
minds of t he devot ees – t he St ealer of t he t hought of st ealt h it self -
caur yasya caur yam j agat i pr asiddham – He is well- known as t he St ealer of t he
ver y t hought of st ealt h it self f r om t hose who medit at e on His leelA-s of
st ealing but t er , cur d et c.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr ' s t ir uvAimozhi pASur am 3.6.2,
wher e AzhvAr r ef er s t o bhagavAn by t he nama "pApanASan":
mUvar Agiya mUr t iyai mudal mUvar kkum mudalvan t annai SAvamuLLana
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nI kkuvAnai t aDam kDal kiDant An t annai dEva dEvanai t en ila' nkai er i ezhac
ceRRa villiyai pAva nASanai pa' ngayat t aDam kaNNanaip par avuminO.
(t ir uvAi. 3.6.2)
"I beseech all of you people t o devot e your selves t o t he Lot us-eyed Lor d who
is t he Chief among t he t r i-mUr t i-s, t he ant ar yAmi of r udr a and br ahmA, and
t heir Cr eat or . He is t he One Who r emoves t he cur ses of r udr a, br ahmA and
ot her gods whenever t hey get int o t r ouble. He is t he One Who is r eclining in
t he Milk Ocean, and t he same One Who t or t ur ed t he evil-minded r avAna and
his Sr I la' nkA t o r et r ieve sI t A pir ATTi. He is t he Lot us-eyed Lor d Who
r emoves all our sins by t he mer e cont emplat ion on Him".
Similar t hought s ar e expr essed by per iyAzhvAr :
emmanA! en kula daivamE! ennuDai nAyakanE! nin uLEnAip peRRa nanmai
ivvulaginil yAr peRuvAr ? namman pOlE vI zht t u amukkum nATTil uLLa pAvam
ellAm SummenAdE kai viTTo ODit t URugaL pAindanavE.
(per iAzhvAr t ir u. 5.4.3)
"My Lor d! How can I ever descr ibe t he gr eat benef it t hat I have r eceived
because of Your Gr ace? All t he sins t hat nor mally push me down mer cilessly t o
t he gr ound like demons and ghost s, have lef t me quiet ly like pr isoner s t hat
escape wit hout making any noise and hide in t he bushes".
Sr I vELukkuDi kRshNan r ef er s us t o t he gI t A Slokam 4.9:
j anma kar ma ca me divyam evam yo vet t i t at t vat aH |
t yakt vA deham punar -j anma nait i mAmet i so' r j una | |
(gI t A 4.9)
"He who t hus knows in t r ut h My divine bir t h and act ions does not get r ebir t h
af t er t his body; he will come t o Me, O ar j una".
Sr I kRishNan svAmi adds t hat if we medit at e on His bir t h, we won' t be bor n
again; if we medit at e on His dr inking His mot her ' s milk in His bir t h, we won' t
have t o be bor n t o dr ink a mot her ' s milk; if we enj oy His leelA of st ealing
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219

but t er and cur d, our sins will be st olen away by Him; if we medit at e on His
being bound by r opes by yaSodA, we won' t be bound again in samsAr a; such is
t he gr eat ness of t he t hought s about Him and His leelA-s.
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is: "kI r t it aH pUj it o dhyAyat aH smRt aH
pApar ASim nASayan pApa-nASanaH" – He Who dest r oys t he sins of t hose who
ador e Him, medit at e on Him, and r emember and sing hymns of pr aise on Him.
He gives suppor t f r om a wor k t it led vRddhaSAt At apa:
pakshopavAsAd yat -pApam pur ushasya pr aNaSyat i |
pr ANAyAma Sat enaiva t at -pApam naSyat e nRNAm | |
pr ANAya sahasr eNa yat -pApam naSyat e nRNAm |
kshaNa-mAt r eNa t at -pApam har er -dhyAnAt pr aNaSyat i | |
"What ever sins ar e r emoved by f ast ing f or a f or t night , ar e dest r oyed by
per f or ming a hundr ed pr ANAyAma-s. What ever sins ar e dest r oyed by a
t housand pr ANAyAma-s, ar e r emoved in a f r act ion of a second by medit at ing
on Har i".
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives an explanat ion f or how t he t hought of
bhagavAn' s leelA-s is able t o wash away one' s sins. These t hought s of
bhagavAn' s leelA-s have t he ef f ect of keeping Him always on our t hought s, and
t his is what causes one' s mind t o be pur if ied. This is what bhI shma t ells
yudhishThir a at t he beginning of t he st ot r a:
t asya loka pr adhAnasya j agannAt hasya bhUpat e |
vishNor -nAma sahasr am me Sr uNu pApa bhayApaham | |
"O king, hear f r om me t he t housand names of vishNu, t he Lor d of t he
Univer se, t he highest in t he wor lds; t hese r emove all sins and f ear ".
The next st anza clar if ies t hat t he nAma-s ar e but r epr esent at ions of
bhagavAna' s guNa-s – yAni nAmi gauNAni vikhyAt Ani mahAt manaH, and t hus,
medit at ion on t he names of vishNu, or t he guNa- s of vishNu, leads t o t he
r emoval of sins in t he mind of one who medit at es on vishNu.
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Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives suppor t f r om Sr I mad bhAgavat am:
nAma sa' nkI r t anam yasya sar va pApa pr aNASanam |
pr aNAmo duHkha SamanaH t am namAmi har im par am | |
(bhAga. 12.13.23)
"My pr ost r at ions t o Lor d Sr I Har i Whose nAma sa' nkI r t anam leads t o t he
er adicat ion of all sins, and by wor shipping Whom all sor r ows ar e weakened".
This is t he last Slokam of Sr I mad bhAgavat am, and can be consider ed t he
summar izing Slokam of Sr I mad bhAgavt am by Sr I sUt a muNi.
Sr I cinmayAnanda summar izes t he pur por t of t he nAma in t he f ollowing wor ds:
"Medit at ing upon Whom all vAsanA-s (sins) ar e liquidat ed. When an individual,
sur r ender ing in love t o Him, act s and f ulf ills his dut ies, all his exist ing vAsanA-
s ar e dest r oyed, and no new ones ar e cr eat ed. This is t he ver y r oot in t he
t heor y of kar ma yoga in t he veda-s. Thr ough medit at ion upon t he Self , all sins
ar e dissolved and t ot ally r emoved".
I n one of his alt er nat e int er pr et at ions, Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha looks at t he
nAma as pApanAH + aSnAt i – pApam nayat i it i pApanAH dait yAH, t An aSnAt i
it i pApaNASanaH. The asur a-s ar e called pApanAH because t hey lead in
commit t ing sins, and bhagavAn ' eat s away' or dest r oys t hese asur a-s, and so
He is called pApanASanaH.
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN also includes t he above t hought in one of his
alt er nat ive int er pr et at ions – pavit r aiH car it aiH Sr ot RRNAm nikhila kar mya
r Upam pApam vivar t ayan, asur AnAmapi nihat An At ma vidyAm nivar t ya mukt im
t ebhyo yacchat pApanASanaH – He is called pApa nASanaH because He
r emoves t he sins of t hose who hear t he st or ies of His leelA-s; He is calo called
pApa nASanaH because He dest r oys t he asur a-s, and in t he pr ocess, even f or
t hem He r emoves t heir sins by r edeeming t he knowledge about t he Self and
get s t hem t o moksha.


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Slokam 107 Slokam 107 Slokam 107
HH HŒŒ Œ¬ ¬-7Tl ¬4l Hlñ ¤-4l ¬7l¤¹-· ¬ ¬-7Tl ¬4l Hlñ ¤-4l ¬7l¤¹-· ¬ ¬-7Tl ¬4l Hlñ ¤-4l ¬7l¤¹-·
¹¤lñ9l|T¹¬l -4- B4 9r¹Tl4 ¤-+ °¤÷+ ¹¤lñ9l|T¹¬l -4- B4 9r¹Tl4 ¤-+ °¤÷+ ¹¤lñ9l|T¹¬l -4- B4 9r¹Tl4 ¤-+ °¤÷+
+ ~l B4 9r¹Tl4 ¤ Hl +P ²|6+ + ~l B4 9r¹Tl4 ¤ Hl +P ²|6+ + ~l B4 9r¹Tl4 ¤ Hl +P ²|6+
sankhabhr unnandakI cakr I sAr ngadhanvA gadAdhar ah |
r at hAngapANi r akshObhyah sar vapr ahar aNaayudhah | |
| | sr I sar vapr ahar aNaayudha Om nama it i | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 993. nAma 993. nAma 993. HH HŒŒ Œ ¬ 6 ¬ 6 ¬ 6 Sa' nkha Sa' nkha Sa' nkha-- -bhRt . bhRt . bhRt .
I n t his last Sloka of t he st ot r a bef or e phala-Sr ut i, bhagavAn' s celest ial
weapons ar e descr ibed. Ther e ar e sever al aspect s in which t he Ayudha-s or
weapons in bhagavAn' s hands ar e enj oyed by t he devot ees.
Sa'nkha-bhRte namaH
1) 2) These weapons ar e enj oyed by His devot ees as divine or nament s, while at
t he same t ime t hey ar e obj ect s of t er r or f or His enemies.
Even t hough bhagavAn has many weapons t hat decor at e Him (f or inst ance, t he
shoDaSAyudha st ot r am by svAmi deSikan descr ibing 16 weapons in t he hands
of Lor d sudar Sana), t he pa' nca Ayhudha-s ar e t he ones t hat r eceive ment ion in
t his Sloka. The pa' nca Ayudha-s or t he f ive weapons ar e also sung in t he
pa' ncAyudha st ot r am.
3) I n addit ion t o t he aspect t hat t he weapons in bhagavAn' s hands ar e
wor shipped as decor at ions f or Him (which is how most devot ees view t he
weapons), and t he aspect t hat He car r ies t hem f or t he pr ot ect ion of His
devot ees and t he dest r uct ion of t heir enemies, t her e is anot her aspect t hat is
t o be enj oyed. This is t he per spect ive of t he special devot ee such as
nammAzhvAr , who becomes ext r emely concer ned about t he saf et y of His Lor d
because of his int ense love t owar ds His Lor d. We alr eady know t hat
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per iAzhvAr sang ma' ngaLASAsaam t o t he Lor d and pr ayed f or a ' long lif e' f or
His Lor d (paLLANDu). Similar ly, nammAzhvAr get s concer ned t hat His Lor d
has been lef t t o car r y all t hese huge weapons in His hands, wit h nobody coming
f or war d t o help Him by car r ying t hem f or Him. Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us
t o t ir uvAimozhi pASur am 8.3.3:
ALum AL Ar , Azhiyum Sa' ngum SumappAr t Am vALum villum koNDu pin SelvAr
maRRillai
t ALum t OLum kaikaLai Ar at t ozhak kANEn nALum nALum nADuvan aDiyEn
j ~nalat t E.
The pASur am is one wher e AzhvAr is in deep bhagavad anubhavam, t o t he point
t hat he is wor r ied and concer ned t hat t her e is no t o one t o help His Lor d car r y
t hese heavy weapons, and inst ead t hey only keep calling on Him t o best ow on
t hem wor ldly t hings, inst ead of r ealizing t hat He is t he only t r ue obj ect t o
wish f or .
4) Ther e is a f our t h aspect t o t he Ayudha-s t hat Lor d vishNu holds on His
t ir umEni, t hat is descr ibed in Sr I vishNu pur ANam. Her e, t he Ayudha-s t hat
Lor d Har i holds in His divine body ar e descr ibed as r epr esent ing t he var ious
t at t va-s t hat ult imat ely ar e involved in t he cr eat ion of t he Univer se and it s
beings. Sr I kRshNan descr ibes t hese in det ail in his sahasr a nAma upanyAsam.
Br ief ly, t he f ollowing is a summar y:
1. cakr am – symbolizes t he const ant movement of manas - vAyu vegam
mano vegam
2. Sa' nkham – t Amasa aha' nkAr am, f r om which t he pa' nca bhUt a-s have
appear ed; (pRt hivi, ap, vAyu, t ej as, AkASam). e.g., Sabdam, one of t he
t an-mAt r as which is t he f ir st st age bef or e AkASa appear s, is t he
sound emanat ing f r om t he conch.
3. gadhA - – buddhi – unlike manas which is ca' ncalam, buddhi is t he
st abilizing f act or .
4. SAr ' nga – sAt t vika – t he f ive kar ma indr iya-s and t he f ive j ~nAna
indr iya-s. SAr ' nga is t he cont r olling f or ce f or t he indr iya- s.
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5. nandakI – t he swor d r epr esent s br ahma vidyA; t he sheat h f or t he knif e
is t he cont r olling f or ce t hat cont r ols avidyA.
The Sloka-s f r om Sr I vishNu pur ANam f r om chapt er 1.22 t hat descr ibe t he
above ar e:
pr adhAnam buddhir apyAst e gadA r Upena mAdhave | | (68)
bhUt Adim indr iyAdiSca dvidhAha' nkAr am I Svar aH |
bibhar t i Sa' nkha r UpeNa SAr ' nga r UpeNa ca st hit am | | (69)
bala svar Upam at yant a j avenAnt ar ivAnilam |
cakr a svar UpaSca mano dhat t e vishNuH kar e st hit am | | (70)
bibhar t i yac-cAsi r at nam acyut o' t yant a nir malam |
vidyomayant u t ad-j ~nAnam avidyA koSa samst hit am | (73)
"I nt ellect abides in Madhava in t he f or m of His mace. The Lor d suppor t s
egot ism (aha' nkAr a) in it s t wo-f old divisi on, int o element s and or gans of sense,
in t he emblems of His conch-shell and His bow. I n His hand vishNu holds, in t he
f or m of His discus, t he mind, whose t hought s f ly swif t er t han t he winds."
"The br ight swor d of acyut a is holy wisdom, concealed at some seasons in t he
scabbar d of ignor ance".
Thus Lor d vishNu embodies t he shapeless element s of t he wor ld as His
weapons and His or nament s, f or t he salvat ion of mankind.
5) Yet anot her aspect t o t he pa' cAyudha-s is t hat t hese ar e asAdhAr aNa
lakshaNa-s f or bhagavAn (t he symbols t hat ar e unique t o Him, and t o no ot her
god), as not ed by Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an.
Mandodhar I , r AvaNa' s wif e, descr ibes r Ama as "t amasaH par amo dhAt A
Sa' nkha cakr a gadA dhar aH".
Ar j una r equest s bhagavAn t o display His ' usual f or m' , wit h cr own and wit h
mace and discus in hand, af t er he sees bhagavAn' s viSva r Upam and becomes
f r ight ened.
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kir I Tinam gadinam cakr a hast am icchAmi t vAm dr ashTum aham t at hiva |
t enaiva r UpeNa cat ur -bhuj ena sahasr a bAho bhava viSvamUr t e | |
(gI t A 11.46)
"I wish t o see You as bef or e, wit h cr own and wit h mace and discus in hand.
Assume again t hat f our -ar med shape, O Thou t housand-ar med, of Univer sal
For m!".
Anot her r ef er ence t o t he pa' ncAyudha-s is given by Sr I kRshNa dat t a
bhAr advAj , f r om Sr I mad bhAgavat am:
sar vAt manI dam bhuvanam nir I kshya sar ve' sur AH kaSmalam Apur a' nga |
sudar Sanam cakr am asahya t ej o dhanuSca SAr ' ngam st anayit nughosham | |
par j anya ghosho j alaj aH pA' ncaj anyaH kaumodakI vishNu gadA t ar asvinI |
vidyAdhadr o' siH Sat a-candr a yukt aH t UNot t amau akshayasAyakau ca | |
"O King! Finding t he whole wor ld as t he body of Sr I Har i, t he asur a- s became
concer ned and sad. At t he same t ime, t he sudar Sana cakr a wit h incompar able
t ej as, t he bow called SAr ' nga t hat made t he sound of t he t hunder , t he conch
by name pA' ncaj anya t hat made t he sound of t he clouds about t o shower , t he
gadA wit h enor mous power , t he swor d t hat r epr esent s vidyA and t hat has a
hundr ed shar p edges wer e pr ost r at ing t o Lor d Har i….".
Now we will look at t he specif ic nAma Sa' nkha-bhRr t .
Sr I vAsishTha indicat es t he r oot f or t he wor d "Sa' nkha" as Sama – upaSame –
t o gr ow calm, t o put an end t o, t o st op. (This is also t he r oot f or t he wor d
SA' nt iH). The applicat ion of t he uNAdi sUt r a 1,102 (SameH khaH) leads t o t he
addit ion of t he af f ix kha t o t he r oot Sama, leading t o t he wor d Sa' nkha – t he
conch-shell. The wor d ' bhRt ' is der ived f r om t he r oot bhR – dhAr aNa
poshaNayoH – t o hold, t o suppor t . Sa' nkham bibhar t i it i, Sa' nkham pushNAt i
it i vA Sa' nkha- bhRt – He Who holds t he conch, He Who suppor t s t he conch,
He Who nour ishes t he conch, et c. The last int er pr et at ion is t he one t hat Sr I
BhaTTar emphasizes, and t he one t hat ANDAL r elishes, as we will see.
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Sa' nkha- bhRt e namaH
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Sr I BhaTTar , who has descr ibed t he pr evious 991 nAma-s by emphasizing
bhagavAn' s saulabhyam and sauSI lyam, f inishes t he last eight nAma-s by
r eminding us t hat t his same bhagavAn is none ot her t han t he Supr eme Lor d of
all t he Univer ses – in ot her wor ds, he descr ibes t he last eight nAma-s as
indicat ive of bhagavAn' s supr eme over lor dship – "par ama aiSvar ya cihna divya
AyudhadvAt ". At t he same t ime, he dir ect s his int er pr et at ion t o aspect s of
t hese Ayudha-s in His hands t hat evoke t he sense of bhakt i r asam in His
devot ees. Thus, his int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma Sa' nkha-bhRt is t hat
bhagavAn is suppor t ing or nour ishing t he Sa' nkha t hr ough t he adhar AmRt am
f r om His mout h (bhR – dhAr aNa poshNayoH – t o suppor t , t o nour ish). This is
t he anubhavam t hat ANDAL has about t he Sa' nklham in bhagavAn' s hands.
ANDAL devot es a f ull t ir uvAimozhi in pr aise of bhagavAn' s divine conch, and
enviously descr ibes how His conch is blessed t o be always wit h Him (unlike
cakr at t AzhvAn who has t o go wher ever t her e is need – such as t he gaj endr a
moksham incident , t o t ake car e of t he enemy, and t hen r et ur n). The conch is
r est ing eit her in His hand, or when it f eels t he need f or some nour ishment , it
j ust goes t o His mout h and enj oys t he dr oplet s of His adhar AmRt am, and t hen
r et ur ns back t o His hand f or r est . One sent ence t hat summar izes ANDAL' s
descr ipt ion of His pA' ncaj anyam –
"uNbadu Sollil ulagaLandAn vAyamudam, kaN paDai koLLil kaDal vaNNan kait -
t alat t E"
(nAcciyAr t ir u. 7.7).
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam f or t he nAma is: pA' ncaj anyAkhyam
bhUt Anaha' nkAr At makam Sa' nkham bibhr at Sa' nkha-bhRt – The Bear er of
t he conch shell, called t he pA' ncaj anya, which st ands f or t he t Amasa ahmkAr a,
f r om which t he f ive element s ar e bor n. The inner signif icance of t his
int er pr et at ion is seen in t he det ailed explanat ion t hat is given in Sr I vishNu
pur ANam t hat has been descr ibed ear lier .
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i not es t hat t he name pA' ncaj anyam it self signif ies
t hat t he divine conch is t he r epr esent at ion of t he t at t va called ahamkAr a t hat
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is t he or igin of t he pa' ncabhUt a-s. Of cour se, t her e is also t he vRt t Ant am
about bhagavAn slaying t he asur a by name pa' ncaj ana, who was in t he f or m of a
conch, and t his conch also became a decor at ion f or bhagavAn, and is known as
pA' ncaj anyam.
Sr I SAst r i not es t hat t he sound t hat emanat es f r om His pA' ncj anyam has t he
ef f ect of r emoving t he int er nal enemy in t he f or m of ignor ance in t he minds of
t he devot ees, as well as t he power f ul ext er nal enemies. Thus, in bot h senses
t he conch is a weapon t hat He bear s f or t he pr ot ect ion of t he devot ee and t he
annihilat ion of t he enemy of t he devot ee.
Sr I vAsishTha r ef er s us t o hymns f r om t he Rg-veda t hat ar e dir ect ed t o t he
pr aise of t he glor y of t he Sa' nkha. Ther e ar e t en mant r a-s in Rg veda 4.10
t hat all pr aise t he glor y of t he Sa' nkha. Even t hough Ralph T. Gr if f it h, t he
Eur opean t r anslat or of t hese mant r a-s int o English, descr ibes t hese mant r a-s
as r ef er r ing t o t hose ' accompanying t he invest it ur e of a per son wit h a
pr ot ect ive amulet of shell' , Sr I vAsishTha r ef er s t o t hem in t he cont ext of
bhagavAn' s nAma of Sa' nkha- bhRt , as a r ef er ence t o t he glor y of bhagavAn' s
Sa' nkha.
nAma 994. nAma 994. nAma 994. +-7Tl +-7Tl +-7Tl nandakI nandakI nandakI
He Who has nandakI , t he swor d.
nandakine namaH.
The r oot f or t he nAma is nand – samRddhau – t o be pleased, t o t hr ive. Bot h
Sr I BhaTTar and Sr I vAsishTha r ef er t o t he pANini sUt r a 3.1.150 – Asishi ca,
wher eby t he af f ix vun is added t o t he ver b when benedict ion is int ended. This
leads t o t he wor d nandakaH, wit h t he meaning ' may he be happy' . nandakI t hen
r ef er s t o One Who is insepar ably associat ed wit h t he swor d t hat is pr ayed f or
wit h t he pr ayer : "May He keep me happy" m j . Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he
nAma as a r ef er ence t o t he divine swor d t hat t he Lor d possesses, t o whom t he
Lor d makes t he pr ayer t o give Him j oy in His vict or ies.
Sr I vAsishTha on t he ot her hand int er pr et s t he nAma as "One Who has beings
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f or whom He wishes happiness always, and whom He can bless as "may he be
happy always" – ASamsanAr ham pr iyam vast u nit yam asya ast i it i ' nandakI ' .
Thus, he does not even r ef er t o t he divine weapon in his int er pr et at ion.
Sr i Sa' nkar a explains t he nAma as One Who car r ies t he swor d called nandaka,
r epr esent ing knowledge –"vidyA-mayo nadakAkhyaH asiH asya ast i it i nadakI ".
This f ollows t he descr ipt ion of t he divine weapons given in Sr I vishNu
pur ANam t hat we discussed in t he pr evious nAma. Sr I baladeva vidyA
bhUshaN gives t he same int er pr et at ion – vi~j nAnAt mako nandako asiH asya
ast i it i nandakI .
Sr I cinmayAnanda gives t he f ollowing explanat ion: "The Lor d' s swor d is called
nandaka. Ther ef or e, t his t er m indicat es One Who holds and wields t he nandaka
swor d. The wor d nanda-kam means "t hat which br ings bliss". The SAst r a-s sing
t hat t his divine swor d in t he sacr ed hands of Lor d Har i r epr esent s t he
Knowledge-Spir it ual (vidyA- t at t va) wit h which a seeker can dest r oy his
ignor ance of t he Self in him".
nAma 995. nAma 995. nAma 995. ¬4l ¬4l ¬4l cakr I cakr I cakr I
He Who has t he cakr a, t he Discus.
cakriNe namaH.
We have st udied t his nAma ear lier in Sloka 97 (nAma 908). Please r ef er t o
t hat wr it e-up as well.
Cakr a r ef er s t o t he Discus, and He who has t he Discus as one of His weapons is
cakr I . The cakr a in bhagavAn' s hand is called t he sudr aSana cakr a. As not ed
ear lier , it ser ves as t he ador nment f or bhagavAn, as well as a weapon against
t he enemies of His devot ees. Sr I BhaTTar not es t hat t he cakr a in His hands is
always smear ed wit h t he blood of t he r Akshasa-s who ar e t he swor n enemies
of t he gods who ar e His devot ees. I t is also ador ned by t he f lames of f ir e t hat
ar e shoot ing out of it . per iAzhvAr r ef er s t o Him as t aDavar ai t OL
cakkar apANi (per iAzh. 5.4.4) – "One wit h t he br oad shoulder s bear ing t he
cakr a (and t he SAr ' nga bow)".
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Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha t akes a mor e gener ic meaning f or t he t er m cakr a as
somet hing going r ound and r ound or happening again and again in cir cles, and
gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn has t he nAma cakr I because He has
est ablished t his wor ld wit h event s t hat happen again and again in cir cles – such
as t he appear ance of t he sun, t he moon, t he planet s, et c.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives r ef er ences t o Sr I mad bhAgavat am and
Sr I vishNu pur ANam:
1. sudar Sanam cakr am asahya t ej aH – "The sudr Sana cakr a wit h t ej as
t hat cannot be conf r ont ed" – Sr I mad bhAga. 8.20.30.
2. namast e cakr a hast Aya (Sr I VishNu pur A. 5.30.22)
Sr I cinmayAnanda explains t he nAma as "One Who car r ies t he Discus called
sudar Sana. sudar Sana means "t hat which gives t he auspicious vision. The
SAst r a-s at t r ibut e t o t his Discus-Divine t he r epr esent at ion of t he human
mind".
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN capt ur es t he t hought as: "t ej as-t at t vam
sudar Sana cakr am asya ast i it i cakr I " – He Who bear s t he sudar Sana cakr a
t hat r epr esent s t he t at t va of t ej as.
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan' s anubhavam is t hat bhI shma has int r oduced
' nandakI ' bet ween Sa' nkha and cakr a j ust so bhagavAn' s beaut y wit h Sa' nkha
and cakr a does not get t he dosham of dRshTi f r om t hose who ar e not His
devot ees.
Ot her names f or cakr a not ed by Sr I kRshNan ar e: het ir Aj an, r at hA' nga, and
sudar Sana. r at hA' ngapANi is t he nAma we will discuss af t er a couple of nAma-
s.
nAma 996 nAma 996 nAma 996. Hlñ ¤-4l Hlñ ¤-4l Hlñ ¤-4l SAr ' nga dhanvA SAr ' nga dhanvA SAr ' nga dhanvA
He Who has t he bow named SAr ' nga.
SAr'nga-dhanvane namaH.
SAr ' ngam dhanuH asya it i SAr ' nga-dhanvA – He Who has t he bow by name
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SAr ' nga.
The wor d SAr ' nga can be der ived f r om t he r oot SRR – himsAyAm – t o t ear t o
pieces, t o hur t , t o kill.
The wor d dhanush is der ived f r om t he r oot dhan – Sabde – t o sound.
Sr I BhaTTar descr ibes t he gr eat ness of t he SAr ' nga bow as one t hat is
capable of dest r oying not only t he evil f or ces, but even t he names and st at us
of t he enemies, by a mer e t wang (t he sound caused by t he vibr at ion of t he
chor d of t he bow) echoing in a power f ul and f ier y manner . Added t o t his is t he
power of t he shar p ar r ows issuing out of t he bow. Not e Sr I BhaTTar ' s
anubhavam t hat t he SAr ' nga dhanus dest r oys it s enemies in t wo ways: by t he
sound t hat emanat es when it s chor d is plucked, and t he shower of ar r ows
issuing f r om it – j yAgosha Sar a-var sha nASit a. The sound emanat ing f r om t he
st r ing of t he bow r ej uvenat es t he ASr it a-s and shat t er s t he will of t he
enemies.
Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan r eminds us of ANDAL' s pASur am singing t he
glor y of t he SAr ' nga dhanus, in her pASur am – Azhi pOl minni, valam pur i pOl
ninRu adir ndu t AzhAdE SAr ' ngam udait t a Sar a mazhai pOl vAzh ulaginil
peidiDAi. (t ir uppAvai 4) – an appeal t o t he Rain-god t o shower r ain like t he
shower of ar r ows t hat shoot out f r om SAr ' nga, t he divine bow in t he Lor d' s
hands. Not e t hat inst ead of compar ing t he shower of ar r ows t o t he r ain,
ANDAL compar es t he r ain t o t he shower of ar r ows, meaning t hat t he r ain can
only t r y t o mat ch t he shower of ar r ows shoot ing out f r om t he SAr ' nga bow.
For ANDAL, t he pr of use and ceaseless shower of ar r ows f r om His bow is t he
known (upamAna), and t he shower of r ain becomes only t he upameyam.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj r ef er s t o t he gr eat sound of t he bow as
descr i bed i n Sr I mad bhAgavat am – " dhanuSca SAr ' ngam
st anayit nughosham" (8.20.30) - The SAr ' nga bow t hat makes t he sound t hat
r esembles t hunder .
Sr i Sa' nkar a' s explanat ion is: indr iyAdi aha' nkAr a At makam SAr ' ngam nAma
dhanuH asya ast i it i SAr ' nga-dhanvA – He has t he bow called SAr ' nga,
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r epr esent ing t he senses and egot ism (aha' nkAr a).
Sr I cinmayAnanda explains t he nAma as: " "One Who aims His uner r ing Bow
called SAr ' nga". He cont inues: "This bow of nAr AyaNa is glor if ied in our t ext s
as r epr esent ing t he Ego, as t he apex of all t he sense or gans, aha' nkAr a-t at t va.
I n t his concluding st anza, t he inst r ument s of Blessing in Sr ee nAr AyaNa' s
hands ar e r emember ed wit h r ever ence and devot ion."
Sr I baladeva vidyAbhUshaN explains t he nAma as – kr iyA t at t vam SAr ' ngam
dhanuH asya it i SAr ' nga-dhanvA - He Who bear s t he bow by name SAr ' nga
t hat r epr esent s t he kr iyA t at t vam.
nAma 997. nAma 997. nAma 997. ¬7l¤¹- ¬7l¤¹- ¬7l¤¹- gadA gadA gadA-- -dhar aH dhar aH dhar aH
He Who bear s t he Mace.
gadA-dharAya namaH.
gada – vyakt AyAm vAci – t o speak. gadat i – Sabdam kar ot i it i gadA – t hat which
gener at es sound is gadA. dhar a is der ived f r om dhR' nj – dhAr aNe – t o hold, t o
bear , t o suppor t . gadAyAH dhar aH gadA-dhar aH – He Who holds or bear s t he
mace. BhagavAn' s Mace is called kaumodakI . Sr I BhaTTar descr ibes t he
kaumodakI as t he ' queen of maces, t hat gives Him pleasur e and t hat emit s
f lames all ar ound like t he f ir e at t he f inal dissolut ion of all t he wor lds".
Sr I vAsishTha compar es t he sound t hat emanat es f r om t he kaumodakI t o t he
sound t hat one hear s f r om t he t hunder s.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r elat es t he incident of t he dest r uct ion of kANDa
vanam by ar j una wit h t he help of kRshNa. At t hat t ime, t he kaumodakI was
given as a gif t by var uNa t o kRshNa, accor ding t o a descr ipt ion in mahA
bhAr at a. He also gives anot her der ivat ion f or t he nAma: kumudaH is One Who
r ej oices in t he company of Bhumi devi. kumodakaH is One Who makes t he
ear t h happy. KaumodakI is t hat which belongs t o Him – kumodakasya idam.
The vishNu pur ANa descr ipt ion given at t he beginning of t his Sloka at t r ibut es
t he buddhi t at t va wit h t he gadA, and Sr I Sa' nkar a gives his int er pr et at ion
accor ding t o t he vishNu pur ANam – buddhi- t at t vAt mikAm kaumodakI nAma
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gadAm vahan gadA-dhar aH – The Bear er of t he club called kaumodakI
r epr esent ing t he pr inciple of int ellect .
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives r ef er ence t o Sr I mad bhAgavat am:
kaumodakI vishNu gadA t ar asvinI (8.20.31) - vishNu' s gadA t hat has enor mous
st r engt h.
nAma 998. nAma 998. nAma 998. ¹¤lñ9l|T- ¹¤lñ9l|T- ¹¤lñ9l|T- r at hA' nga r at hA' nga r at hA' nga-- -pANiH pANiH pANiH
He Who is ar med wit h t he wheel in His hand.
rathA'nga-pANaye namaH.
r at hA' ngam, cakr am pANau yasya it i r at hA' nga-pANiH.- He Who has t he
discus in His hand. Sr I vAsishTha gives t he f ollowing der ivat ion: The wor d
r at ha is der ived f r om t he r oot r amu – kr I DAyAm – t o play, t o spor t ; by t he
applicat ion of t he uNAdi sUt r a 2.2, t he af f ix kt han is added, leading t o t he
wor d r at ha – char iot (r amat e = kr I Dat i yasmin yena vA r at haH). The wor d
a' nga is der ived f r om t he r oot agi – t o go. r at hah a' ngat i yena t ad r at hA' ngam
– That which makes t he char iot go is r at hA' ngam or wheel.
I n one int er pr et at ion f or t his nAma, t he r ef er ence is t o t he wheel or discus in
His hand. We st udied t he nAma cakr I (nAma 995), and one might f eel t hat
t her e is r edundancy bet ween t he t wo nAma-s. Sr I BhaTTar point s out t hat in
nAma 995, bhagavAn being t he Possessor of t he Ayudham or weapon was
descr ibed, wher eas in t he cur r ent nAma His r eadiness f or act ion (having t he
cakr a r eady in His hand f or r elease) is descr ibed, and t hus t her e is no
r epet it ion. I t is His r eadiness f or act ion at all t imes t hat is enj oyed in t he
cur r ent nAma. I n per iya t ir uvant Adi-87 t his r eadiness is descr ibed by
nammAzhvAr as "eppozhudum kai kazhalA nEmiyAn" – He Who has t he discus
t hat never leaves His hand.
Anot her int er pr et at ion given f or t he nAma is a r ef er ence t o t he incident
wher e bhagavAn j umped f r om t he char iot and r ushed t owar ds bhI shma dur ing
t he mahA bhAr at a war wit h t he wheel of t he char iot in His hand, j ust t o make
t he pr omise of His devot ee bhI shma come t r ue, even when it involved His
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br eaking His own pr omise not t o t ake t o weapons dur ing t he war . Sr I mad
Sr I mushNam ANDavan r eminds us of t his incident in explanat ion of t his nAma.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r ef er s us t o bhI shma' s own descr ipt ion of t his
incident :
sva-nigamam apahAya mat -pr at ij ~nAm
Rt am adhikar t um avaplut o r at hast haH |
dhRt a r at ha car aNah abhyayAt calat guH
har ir iva hant um ibham gat ot t ar I yaH | |
(bhAga. 1.9.37)
"Giving up His pr omise not t o t ake ar ms in t he bat t le, and j ust t o f ulf ill my
pr omise t hat I will make Him t ake ar ms, He who had ascended t he char iot
j umped down and r ushed t owar ds me wit h t he hast e t hat made t he ear t h
shake, like a lion t hat was r ushing t o kill an elephant ".
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN also gives t he int er pr et at ion in t er ms of
bhagavAn bear ing t he wheel of t he char iot in or der t o f ulf ill t he vow of His
devot ee – bhakt a pr at ij ~nA pr at ipAlakat Am at i-SlAghyat vAt punar Aha
r at hA' ngapANir it i bhI shmam pr at i pr adar Sit am et at .
nAma 999. nAma 999. nAma 999. H¬l -4- H¬l -4- H¬l -4- akshobhyaH akshobhyaH akshobhyaH
He Who is unshakable.
akshobhyAya namaH.
We st udied t his nAma ear lier in Slokam 86 – nAma 807. Please r ef er t o t hat
wr it e-up f or addit ional insight s on bhagavAn' s akshobhyat vam.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he f ollowing der ivat ion f or t he nAma: The
nAma is der ived f r om t he r oot kshubh kshobh – sa' ncalane – t o be agit at ed or
dist ur bed. The applicat ion of pANini sUt r a 3.1.124 – R- halor -Nyat , r esult s in
t he wor d kshobhyah, giving t he sense of SakyAr t he ar hAr t e vA - ' one who is
capable of ' , and ' or one who is f it t o be' .. Thus, khshobhyah means ' one who
can be agit at ed, per t ur bed, shaken' , and akshobhyaH means "One who cannot
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be shaken' - na kshobhayit um = sa' ncalayit um Sakyah akshobhyah.
Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is – pr apanna abhaya dAna dAr DhyAt sva-
mahimnA' pi akshobhyaH – He Who cannot be shaken f r om t he f ir m vow t hat
He has t aken t o pr ot ect t hose who have sur r ender ed t o Him; t his vow of His
cannot be shaken even by His own Gr eat Self ". One is r eminded of t he wor ds
of bhagavAn f ound in Sar aNagat i gadyam of bhagavad r AmAnuj a:
anRt am nokt a pUr vam me na ca vakshye kadAcana
I have never ut t er ed an unt r ut h bef or e, and will never ut t er one ever .
r Amo dvir -nAbhibhAshat e
r Ama never t alks wit h t wo t ongues
sakRdeva pr apannAya t avAsmI ca yAcat e |
abhayam sar va bhUt ebhyo dadAmyet ad vr at am mama | |
(yuddha. 18.33)
"I t is My vow t o pr ot ect uncondit ionally f r om ever y living being, anyone t hat
sur r ender s t o Me even once, or seeks my pr ot ect ion saying "I am your
ser vant "".
sar va dhar mAn par it yaj ya mAm ekam Sar aNam vr aj a |
aham t vAsar va pApebhyo mokshayishyAmi mA Sucah | |
(gI t A 18.66)
"Complet ely r elinquishing all Dhar ma-s, seek Me alone f or r ef uge. I will r elease
you f r om all sins. Gr ieve not ".
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan point s t o t he incident wher e sI t A t r ies t o per suade
r Ama not t o bear ar ms while in t he f or est , but t o f ollow t he pat h of penance
inst ead. Lor d r Ama' s r esponse is t hat He had given His wor d t o t he Rshi-s in
t he f or est t hat t hey will be pr ot ect ed f r om t he r Akshasa-s at all cost s, and
t hat He won' t swer ve f r om His wor d even if it involves losing sI t A and
lakshmaNa:
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apyaham j I vit am j ahyAm t vAm vA sI t e sa-lakshmaNam |
na t u pr at ij ~nAm samSr ut ya br AhmaNebhyo viSeshat ah | |
(Ar aNya. 10.19)
"O sI t A! I would r at her give up My lif e, or even you and lakshmaNa, t han br eak
My pr omise, especially t hat which has been made t o br Ahmins".
Lor d r Ama r einf or ces His commit ment t o pr ot ect anyone who appr oaches Him
wit h sincer it y, dur ing vibhI shaNa Sar aNAgat i:
mit r a bhAvena sampr Apt am na t yaj eyam kat ha' ncana |
dosho yadyapi t asya syAt sat Am et at agar hit am | |
(yuddha. 18.3)
"I will not f or sake anyone who has appr oached Me wit h a f eeling of t r ue love,
even if t his per son has any f ault s. This is t he conduct t hat will be consider ed
blemish-less by elder s".
The wr it e-ups f or t he nAma sat ya-sandhah (Slokam 54), acyut ah et c., give
ample suppor t t o His akshobhyat vam.
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s int er pr et at ion is – at a eva aSakya-kshobhaNa it i akshobhyaH –
' t hus equipped wit h t he var ious weapons, He is said t o be unassailable' .
I n ot her wor ds, Sr I Sa' nkar a associat es t he unassailabilit y wit h t he pr evious
nAma-s descr ibing His weapons.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i' s anubhavam is t hat bhI shma is descr ibing t he Lor d
whom He saw f or 10 days in t he bat t lef ield t hr ough t hese last f ew nAma-s
(r at hA' nga pANiH - t he pr evious nAma, and akshobhyah – t he cur r ent nAma).
Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives essent ially t he same int er pr et at ion – t yakt a
Sast r o' pi kshobhayit um ghar shit um a- Sakyat vAt akshobhyah.
Anot her anubhavam of His being unshakable, is given by Sr I cinmayAnanda
t hr ough t he f ollowing wor ds: "One Who cannot be exasper at ed by anyone, by
any act or act s, however blasphemous t hey may be; One Whose peace and calm
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cannot be st or med out by any happening in his out er wor ld; Ever -peacef ul. The
t er m suggest s I nf init e pat ience, love and kindness t owar ds man and his
f r ailt ies".
nAma 1000. nAma 1000. nAma 1000. B4 9r¹Tl4 ¤- B4 9r¹Tl4 ¤- B4 9r¹Tl4 ¤- sar va sar va sar va-- -pr ahar aNAyudhaH pr ahar aNAyudhaH pr ahar aNAyudhaH
He Who has all weapons t hat act against evil.
sarva-praharaNAyudhAya namaH.
pr ahar aNam means ' st r iking, beat ing, at t acking, hur t ing' et c. sar vANi
pr ahar aNAni AyudhAni yasya it i sar va-pr ahar aNAyudah. – He Who has all kinds
of dest r uct ive weapons t o punish t he evil.
I n t his Slokam, st ar t ing f r om nAma 993, and up t o nAma 999, bhI shma has
explicit ly r ef er r ed t o t he f ollowing Ayudha-s of bhagavAn – Sa' nkha – t he
divine conch, nandaka – t he divine swor d, cakr a – t he divine discus, Sar ' nga –
t he divine bow, and gadA – bhagavAn' s mace. These ar e t he f ive weapons t hat
ar e pr ominent ly sung in t he pa' ncAyudha st ot r am. Then we have t he
shoDaSAyudha st ot r am t hat descr ibes t he 16 weapons t hat cakkar at t AzhvAn
himself has. This in no way is t he limit of His weapons. He has limit less number
of weapons t hat can st r ike at t he enemy. This is t he message conveyed in t his
nAma. The dif f er ence in t he anubhavam of t he dif f er ent vyAkhyAna-kar t A-s
is on why He is car r ying t hese weapons.
Sr I bhaTTar explains t hat t he nAma signif ies t hat bhagavAn possesses
count less Ayudha-s t hat ar e ver y power f ul in r emoving all t he obst acles
encount er ed by t he pr apanna-s (t hose who have uncondit ionally sur r ender ed t o
Him), ar e bef it t ing His gr eat ness, possess t he gr eat power t o dest r oy t he
enemies of His devot ees, ser ve as bot h or nament s and ar mament s t o Him, and
which have t aken a vow as it wer e, t o pr ot ect His devot ees always, in all places,
and t hr ough all means. J ust as He has inf init e Sakt i, He has inf init e Ayudha- s.
These weapons ar e not t o be looked upon simply as mer e t ools of machiner y in
t he mundane physical sense. Each of t hese weapons possesses inf init e power .
(Sr I bhaTTar ' s wor ds ar e – sva-nishThAnAm sar va anishTa unmUlayit RRNi ……
sadA, sar vat r a, savat hA, sar va-pr akAr a samASr it a….). These weapons help Him
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dischar ge His r esponsibilit y as t he Supr eme Lor d of t he Univer se, t o r oot out
all t he miser ies of His devot ees".
The yAga t hat is ment ioned by Sr I BhaTTar in his vyAkhyAnam – dI r gha sat r a
yAga, could also be enj oyed as r ef er r ing t o bhagavAn' s long and never -ending
yAga or under t aking of t he ' pr ot ect ion of t he people, and all His cr eat ion' .
This aspect – namely, t hat what ever bhagavAn does, including t he car r ying of
weapons, is solely f or t he pr ot ect ion of His devot ees, has been t he emphasis
t hr oughout Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam f or all t he nAma-s. We will enj oy mor e
of t his commit ment of bhagavAn t o pr ot ect ion of all of His cr eat ion in a
subsequent wr it e-up.
The wor ds sar va and pr ahar aNa ar e adj ect ives t o t he wor d ' Ayudhah' . ' sar va'
signif ies t hat in addit ion t o t he Ayudha-s t hat have been ment ioned explicit ly,
He has many mor e such Ayudha-s not ment ioned her e, which ar e all aspect s of
His indescr ibable splendor .
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an' s anubhavam is t hat bhagavAn, who can dest r oy all His
enemies t hr ough His mer e Will, st ill car r ies t he weapons j ust t o cause t er r or
in t he hear t s and minds of t he wicked people.
Sr I Sa' nkar a explains t he nAma as ' et Anyeva AyudhAni asya it i na niyamyat e,
api t u sar vANyeva pr ahar aNAni AyudhAni asya it i sar va- pr ahar aNAyudhah –
He has all of kinds of dest r uct ive weapons, and it cannot be cat egor ically
declar ed t hat He possesses only such and such weapons. Sr I Sa' nkar a
comment s t hat even t hough f inger -nails ar e not consider ed Ayudham by any
st andar ds, in His case, He uses t hem as Ayudham as well, as He showed in t he
case of hir aNya-kaSipu – Ayudhat vena apr asiddhAnyapi kar aj AdI ni asya asya
AyudhAni bhavant i it i. Sr I Sa' nkar a f ur t her comment s t hat t his f inal nAma
declar ing t hat "He is One Who possesses all kinds of weapons wit h which He
can st r ike", is chosen t o show His sat ya-sa' nkalpam and His Lor dship over all.
He r ef er s us t o t he bRhadAr aNyaka upoanishad – "esha sar veSvar aH" (BU
4.4.22).
I t may be r ecalled f r om discussions of sever al pr evious nAma-s t hat a maj or
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dist inguishing f eat ur e bet ween Sr I Sa' nkar a' s and Sr I BhaTTar ' s
comment ar ies is t hat t he f or mer emphasizes Lor d vishNu' s par at vam
(Supr emacy), wher eas t he lat t er st r esses His saulabhyam and sauSI lyam, and
above all, His supr eme concer n f or t he welf ar e of His devot ee. The r espect ive
vyAkhyAna-s f or t his f inal nAma by t he t wo vyAkhyAna-kar t A-s r ef lect s t his
aspect of t heir appr oach t o t he comment ar y ver y dist inct ly – Sr I Sa' nkar a
concludes t hat t he f inal nAma r einf or ces Lor d' s sar veSvar at vam – Lor dship
over all, wher eas Sr I bhaTTar concludes t hat t he nAma signif ies bhagavAn' s
ever - r eadiness t o go f or t he pr ot ect ion of His devot ees wit h all His weapons.
While Sr I Sa' nkar a ment ioned bhagavAn' s use of even His f inger nails as
Ayudham, Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i goes one st ep f ur t her – The Lor d used
gr ass as a weapon (kAkAsur a), t he sucking of t he br east milk f r om a demoness
(pUt anA) as a weapon, et c.
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan not es t hat bhagavAn used t he dar bha gr ass in t he
case of Sukr AcAr ya who t r ied t o int er f er e in bhagavAn' s scheme t o get t hr ee
f eet of land f r om vAmana. The point t o enj oy is t hat j ust as He uses anyt hing
as a weapon t o dest r oy t he wicked, He will use anyt hing t o pr ot ect His devot ee
as well – He is sat ya-sa' nkalpan; by His mer e Will, He can accomplish anyt hing
He wishes.
A legit imat e quest ion t hat can be r aised, is: "Why does t he Lor d even need any
weapons at all t o dest r oy His devot ees' enemies, when He can achieve t his by
His mer e sa' nkalpam? For inst ance, Lor d r Ama Himself t ells sugr I van:
piSAcAn dAnavAn yakshAn pRt hivyAm caiva r AkshasAn |
a' ngulyagr eNa t An hanyAm icchan har igaNeSvar a | |
(yuddha. 6.18.22)
"O King of t he ar my of monkeys! I t is quit e possible f or Me t o dest r oy all t he
ghost s, t he asur a-s, t he yaksha-s, and all t hese r Akshasa-s wit h t he t ip of My
f inger , if I so desir e".
Then why is it t hat He car r ies all t hese weapons? On r eason given is t hat He
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car r ies t hem so t hat t hey will induce t er r or in t he hear t s of t he enemies of
His devot ees, and at least in some cases, t hey will desist f r om har ming His
devot ees, wit hout His having t o punish t hem.
Sr I v. v. r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o ANDAL' s t ir uppAvai (25): "ka' nj an vayiRRil
ner ppenna ninRa neDumAlE!" – He st r uck f ear deep down in t he bowels of
kamsan by His ver y t hought . Anot her anubhavam is t hat when dealing wit h
t hose who show enmit y t o Him alone, He uses His sa' nkalpa Sakt i t o punish
t hem, but if anyone ill- t r eat s His devot ee, t hen bhagavAn becomes angr y, and
inst ead of dest r oying t hem t hr ough His sa' nkalpa Sakt i alone, He r esor t s t o
His weapons t o punish t hem (t ir uvAi. 4.8.1).
Anot her aspect of His many divya Ayudha-s is t hat t hey ar e nit ya-sUr i- s who
wor r y about His pr ot ect ion out of t heir love and at t achment t o Him, even
t hough He does not need any pr ot ect ion Himself . But it is t heir love of Him
t hat makes t hem be always on t he lookout f or His pr ot ect ion, and so t hey all
r eside in His t ir umEni, always wat ching out f or any unf or eseen enemies. Recall
per iyAzhvAr singing pallANDu f or Him, f or His divine weapons, et c., all because
of his concer n f or t he welf ar e of emper umAn, dr iven by His deep love t o Him.
This nAma f or mally concludes t he wr it e-up on t he 1000 nAma-s of Lor d vishNu.
We st ill have t he phala Sr ut i Sloka-s t o cover . I n addit ion, a member of t he
list who has been giving me gr eat encour agement and suppor t in all my wor ks
(including sahasr a nAma, t At par ya r at nAvaLi, et c.), r aised a ver y int er est ing
quest ion: I s t her e any special signif icance t hat t he enumer at ion of t he most
pr ominent nAma-s chosen by bhI shma based on t he nAma-s most commonly
sung by t he Rshi-s et c. (Rshibhih par igI t Ani), ends wit h a descr ipt ion of
bhagavAn' s weapons? We will cover t his in a separ at e wr it e-up devot ed f or
t his subj ect .
~l B4 9r¹Tl4 ¤ Hl +P ²|6 ~l B4 9r¹Tl4 ¤ Hl +P ²|6 ~l B4 9r¹Tl4 ¤ Hl +P ²|6
sar va-pr ahar aNAyudha om nama it i |
Slokam 107 t hat we concluded in our last post ing, has dif f er ent ver sions in
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dif f er ent books. The ver sion we used in our last post ing is t he ver sion used by
some; t her e ar e some who include t he wor ds ' sar va-pr ahar aNAyudha om nama
it i' as par t of Slokam 107, at t he end of t he Sloka t hat we had in our last
post ing. Ther e ar e some ver sions t hat j ust include t he nAma ' sar va-
pr ahar aNAyudhaH' once mor e at t he end as par t of Slokam 107, f ollowed by
t he wor ds ' om nama it i' as t he next sent ence.
This is t hen f ollowed by phala Sr ut i. Not all comment at or s have included
vyAkhyAna beyond what we cover ed in our pr evious post ing. Some pr oceed
f ur t her , and give int er pr et at ion f or t he wor ds ' sar va- pr ahar aNAyudha om
nama it i' , f ollowed by int er pr et at ion f or t he phala Sr ut i Sloka-s; ot her s give
vyAkhyAnam f or "sar va-pr ahar aNAyudha om nama it ", but do not include a
comment ar y f or t he phala Sr ut i Sloka-s.
Sr I sat ya devo vAsishTha, Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj , Sr I M. V.
r AmAnuj AcAr ya, NS Sr I cinmayAnanda, ar e among t hose who end t heir
comment ar ies WI TH Slokam 107 as we had in t he pr eceding post ing.
Sr I BhaTTar , Sr I Sa' nkar a, Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an, ar e among t hose who cont inue
t heir vyAkhyAna-s f ur t her , even t hough t hey do not all cover ever yt hing
beyond t his point .
sar va-pr ahar aNAyudha om nama it i
I came t o know about a ' Cr it ical edit ion' of mahA bhAr at a by t he Bhandar kar
Or ient al Resear ch I nst it ut e. Following is a br ief descr ipt ion of t he ' Cr it ical
Edit ion' pr ovided t o me by Dr . Bob Evans of t he Univer sit y of Chicago:
"The pr oj ect t ook decades. Some of t he gr eat est Sanskr it scholar s of I ndia
and t he West wor ked on t he pr oj ect at dif f er ent t imes. What I r ecall f r om
Pr of essor van Buit enen at t he Univer sit y of Chicago (f r om Sanskr it classes
near ly 30 year s ago), is t hat t he goal was t o t r y t o r econst r uct Vyasa' s or ginal
t ext by compar ing t he oldest dat ed manuscr ipt s f r om all over I ndia. As
manuscr ipt s wer e copied and r ecopied over t housands of year s, var iat ions
cr ept in. Some wer e mist akes made by t he copier s, ot her s wer e cor r ect ions
based on t he lear ning of t he copier , et c. et c. I n some cases, t her e wer e st or ies
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t hat exist only in one r egion and not in ot her r egions. The dif f er ences wer e
culled out (and f ully document ed in not es). I n a nut shell, t he edit or s at t empt ed
t o r ecover t he "or iginal" t ext bef or e t he var iat ions cr ept in over t ime. I n t he
West , t his appr oach has been used t o "r ecover " t he "or iginal" t ext s of t he
Bible. I n I ndia, t his appr oach has been used t o edit t he Ramayana (pr oj ect
complet ed) and t he Bhagavat a Pur ana (pr oj ect in pr ogr ess at Tir upat i)".
The edit ing of t his manuscr ipt f or mahabhAr at a ext ended over sever al year s
(t he cover page of t he Cr it ical Edit ion t hat I have list s t he st ar t ing dat e as
August 1925, and t he ef f or t was on-going as of at least Apr il, 1961). The
r eason f or my br inging up t his inf or mat ion is t hat t his Cr it ical Edit ion does not
have t he wor ds "sar va- pr ahar aNAyudha om nama it i" in it s t ext . This may
par t ly explain why cer t ain vyAkhyAna-kar t A-s have omit t ed t his line f r om
t heir comment ar ies. However , it is wor t h not ing t hat Adi Sa' nkar a, t he f ir st
one known t o have wr it t en a vyAkhyAnam f or Sr I vishNu sahasr a nAmam, has
included t hese wor ds in his vyAkhyAnam, and has comment ed on t he phr ase.
Ot her s have included his vyAkhyAnam when t hey have included t he
vyAkhyAnam f or t his line in t heir publicat ions.
I am unable t o f ind a vyAkhyAnam f or t his line by Sr I BhaTTar in t hr ee t ext s
t hat I have. asmad AcAr yan, Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan, does not include
t his in his upanyAsam on Sr I vishNu sahasr a nAmam, and cont inues dir ect ly t o
t he phala Sr ut i af t er Slokam 107. However , Pr of . A. Sr inivasa Raghavan, in his
English t r anslat ion of Sr I BhaTTar ' s ' bhagavad guNa dar paNam' , has added an
explanat ion in English f or t he line ' sar va-pr ahar aNAyudha om nama it i' , which
esent iallay echoes Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam. The same is t he case wit h t he
English t r anslat ion f or Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam by Sr I vishNu sahasr a
nAma sat sa' ngam, New Delhi.
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam f or t his line is:
"dvir -vacanam samApt im dyot ayat i |
OmkAr aSca ma' ngalAr t haH | "
The r epet it ion "sar va- pr ahar aNAyudhah" mar ks t he end of t he wor k. The
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syllable "OM" is used f or auspiciousness. He gives suppor t f r om t he bRhan-
nAr adI ya pur ANam (51.10):
Om-kAr aScAt ha SabdaSca dvAvet au br ahmaNah pur A |
kaNTham bhit vA vinir yAt au t asmAn-mA' ngaLikAvubhau | |
"As t he wor ds OM and at ha pr oceeded f r om t he t hr oat of br ahmA at t he
beginning, t hey ar e auspicious".
He f ur t her comment s t hat by t he wor d namaH, t he aut hor of t he st ot r a
of f er s obeisance t o Lor d vishNu. He gives suppor t f r om t he Sr ut i:
bhUyishThAm t e nama ukt im vidhema |
(I SA. 18)
"We of f er Thee many wor ds of salut at ion wit h t he wor d namaH".
Sr I Sa' nkar a not es t hat it is t he pr act ice f ollowed by elder s t o of f er
salut at ion t o bhagavAn at t he beginning of an act as well as t he end of t he act .
(ant e' pi namaskAr asya SishTaiH Acar aNAt ).
He concludes his vyAkhyAnam of t he t ent h hundr ed wit h t he f ollowing Sloka-s
point ing out t he gr eat ness at t ained by pr ost r at ing t o Lor d kRshNa:
eko' pi kRshNe sukRt ah pr aNAmo daSASvamedhAvabRt hena t ulyah |
daSASvamedhI punar et i j anma kRshNa pr aNAmI na apunar -bhavAya | |
"Even one salut at ion, of f er ed wit h sincer it y t o Lor d kRshNa, is equivalent t o
t en aSva-medha yAga-s pr oper ly per f or med. He who has per f or med t he
aSvamedha yAha can st ill t ake anot her bir t h, but he who salut es kRshNa is
never r e-bor n."
at asI pushpa sa' nkASam pI t a-vASasam acyut am |
ye namasyant i govindam na t eshAm vidyat e bhayam | |
"Ther e is no f ear f or t hose who bow down bef or e Govinda, whose color
r esembles t hat of t he at asI f lower , who is clad in yellow pI t Ambar am, and who
never let s His devot ees f all."
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loka-t r ayAdhipat im a-pr at ima-pr abhAvam
I shat pr aNamya Sir asA pr abhavishNum I Sam |
j anmAnt ar a pr alaya kalpa sahasr a j At am
Asu pr aNASam upayAt i nar asya pApam | |
"The non-r ight eous act s commit t ed by a man in his past bir t hs, over a t housand
kalpa-s and pr alaya-s, ar e immediat ely dest r oyed by slight ly bowing down his
head bef or e t he Supr eme Lor d, vishNu, of incompar able excellence, and t he
Mast er of t he t hr ee wor lds."
Sr I v. v. r AmAnuj an not es t hat in t he gI t A, it is declar ed t hat t he syllable
' OM' is t he r epr esent at ion of Br ahman in sound f or m ? ' omit yekAkashar am
br ahma' (gI t A 8.13). Lor d kRshNa declar es again ?
t asmAt OM it i udAhRt ya yaj ~na dAna t apaH kr iyAH |
pr avar t ant e vidAnokt AH sat at am br ahma vAdinAm | |
(gI t A 17.24)
"Ther ef or e, t he sacr if icial act s per f or med as specif ied in t he veda- s, gif t s
and aust er it y by t he expounder s of t he veda-s, or such act s by t hose belonging
t o t he f ir st t hr ee st at ions, ar e always and at all t imes begun af t er pr onouncing
t he syllable OM at t he beginning".
The same pr act ice applies t o t he complet ion of an act as well, accor ding t o t he
pr act ice of elder s.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha uses a ver sion of Sloka 107 t hat cont ains a r epet it ion
of t he nAma saeva-pr ahar aNAyudaH, f ollowed by t he wor ds ' om nama it i' , as
f ollows:
Sa' nkha-bhRn_nandakI cakr I SAr ' nga-dhanvA gadA-dhar aH |
r at hA' nga-pANr _akshobhyaH sar va-pr ahar aNAyudhaH
sar va- pr ahar aNAyudhaH | |
om nama it i | |
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This pATham r et ains t he r ecur r ence of t he nAma sar va-pr ahar aNAyudhaH
t wice in sequence, f ollowed by t he wor ds ' om nama it i' , as a separ at e phr ase
f ollowing t his ver sion of Slokam 107. Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha also point s t o
t he common pr act ice t hat t he last wor d(s) ar e r epeat ed at t he end, t o signif y
conclusion of t he wor k ? adhyAyAnt e dvir -ukt iH syAt vede vA vaidike' pi vA |
Sr I veLLukuDi kRshNan includes comment s f or t he phr ase ' sar va
pr ahar aNAyudha om nama it i' , and his vyAkhyAnam also echoes t he spir it of
Sr I Sa' nkar a bhAshyam. He gives t he example of t he br ahma sUt r a, wher e t he
last wor d(s) at t he end of each of t he f our adhyAya-s ar e r epeat ed, t o signif y
t he end of t he adhyAya:
1. et ena sar ve vyAkhyAt A vyAkhyAt Ah | (at end of chapt er 1 )
2.
vaiSeshyAt t u t ad-vAdas-t ad-vAdah ? (at end of 2nd adhyAya )
3.
evam mukt iphalAniyamas-t adavast hAvadhRt es-t adast hAvadhRt eh - (at
end of 3r d adhyAya )
4.
anAvRt t i SabdAt anAvRt t i-SabdAt | - (at end of 4t h adhyAya.)
This is t he f or m of t he sUt r a t hat is used by bot h Adi Sa' nkar a and bhagavad
r AmAnuj a in t heir bhAshya-s f or t he br ahma sUt r a, conf ir ming t hat t his is t he
f or m in which bAdar AyaNa himself has given t he sUt r a t o us (wit h t he wor ds
r epeat ed at t he end t o indicat e conclusion).
Thus, in conclusion of t he wr it e-up on t he phr ase ' sar va- pr ahar aNAyudha om
nama it i' , we not e t hat t his phr ase is not f ound in t he Cr it ical Edit ion of mahA
bhAr at a. Sr I Sa' nkar a has comment ed on t his line, and many subsequent
comment at or s have f ollowed his comment ar y. As expect ed, his comment ar y
f ollows t he vedic t r adit ion of indicat ing t he conclusion of t he wor k by
r epet it ion of t he last nAma, f ollowed t he ' OM' and ' namaH' Sabda-s.

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Slokam 107 Slokam 107 Slokam 107 -- - Addit ional Comment s. Addit ional Comment s. Addit ional Comment s.
As I st ar t ed on t he wr it e-up f or Slokam 107, I r eceived t he f ollowing
f eedback f r om a devot ee: "I n t ext s t hat ar e or ganized and or der ed (i.e. t ext s
t hat ar e not r andomly or ganized), t he f inal por t ions ar e of t en r eser ved f or
summar y or conclusive st at ement s. Do any of t he comment at or s explain why
t he f inal Sloka of nAmas is r eser ved f or t he Lor d' s weapons? Or , ar e t he
nAmas r andomly or ganized, so t hat t he f inal ver se of nAmas has no mor e
special signif icance t hat t he ot her nAmas?"
The cur r ent wr it e-up is an ef f or t t o addr ess t his comment . The answer t o t he
quest ion of whet her t he nAma- ar e a r andom collect ion, or whet her t her e is
any or ganizat ion t o t he nAma-s, is answer ed easily. I have r epr oduced one
par agr aph f r om t he I nt r oduct ion t hat I wr ot e f or t he cur r ent ser ies sever al
year s back: "I n his comment ar y on Sr i vishNu sahasr a nAmam, Sr I BhaTTar
has beaut if ully t r aced a t hr ead of connect ivit y in t he sequence of t he 1000
nAma-s as t hey occur in t he st ot r am. He has ident if ied an or ganizat ion and
st r uct ur e in t he composit ion t hat r ef er s t o t he guNas of t he Lor d in t he f ive
manif est at ions in which He has r evealed Himself t o us, as descr ibed in t he
pA' ncar At r a Agamas. These manif est at ions ar e: par a, vyuha, vibhava, ar cA, and
ant ar yAmi. Thus, f or inst ance, Sr I BhaTTar has not ed t hat t he f ir st 122
nAma-s in t he st ot r am descr ibe t he qualit ies of t he Lor d in his par a vAsudeva
f or m. The next set of nAma-s descr ibe t he vyuha f or ms et c. Thus t he nAma-s
as t hey occur in t he st ot r am ar e not j ust a r andom collect ion of nAma- s, but
have a beaut if ul t hr ead of or ganizat ion and st r uct ur e t o t hem. Sr I BhaTTar
has ident if ied 44 such manif est at ions of BhagavAn in his exposit ion. Sr i
Sr inivasachar iar , in his edit or ial int r oduct ion t o Sr I vishNu sahasr a nAmam
published by LI FCO, (1967), descr ibes t his beaut if ully as an ar r angement of
t he pet als of a r ose 44 layer s deep, or a st ep of st air s wit h 44 st eps leading t o
t he enj oyment of t he Supr eme. I will not go int o t he enumer at ion of t hese 44
f or ms at t his st age, but will ident if y t hese as we go along. The enumer at ion
and t he cor r esponding Slokas can be f ound in t he LI FCO publicat ion".
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I t is t he unique cont r ibut ion of Sr I BhaTTar ' s comment ar y t hat he has
ident if ied t his connect ivit y or or ganizat ion in t he sequence of t he nAma-s. No
ot her comment at or has ident if ied t his t hr ead of connect ivit y in t he sequence
of nAma-s. This connect ivit y and or ganizat ion have been point ed out t hr ough
t he ser ies of subsequent post ings af t er t he above I nt r oduct ion was wr it t en.
Having t hus answer ed t he quest ion of or ganizat ion, and not ed t hat t her e is
def init e or ganizat ion and st r uct ur e t o t he sequence in which t he nAma-s have
been st r ung t oget her by bhI shma, we now look at t he quest ion of signif icance
of t he r ef er ence t o bhagavAn' s Ayudham-s in t he f inal Slokam 107. I n ot her
wor ds, why, of all t he possible endings f or t he st ot r am, did bhI shma choose t o
sing t he pr aise of emper umAn wit h His divine weapons t o conclude t he
st ot r am?
Per haps t he best r eason f or including a descr ipt ion of bhagavAn wit h His
weapons as t he concluding Slokam, can be best appr eciat ed by under st anding
why He bear s t he weapons t o st ar t wit h. I n t he viSisTAdvait a t r adit ion, t wo
anubhavam-s ar e given f or His bear ing t he weapons. One is t hat t hey ar e par t
of His ador nment s. The second, and t he one t hat is r elevant in t he cur r ent
cont ext , is t hat He is car r ying t hem f or t he pr ot ect ion of His devot ees against
t he asur a-s et c. Af t er singing His guNa-s of saulabhyam and sauSI lyam
t hr ough 992 nAma-s, Sr I bhI shma per haps sees it f it t o point out t hat all
t hese guNa-s of bhagavAn ar e pur ely f or t he benef it of His devot ees, and t hat
He st ands r eady, car r ying His most f er ocious weapons, ever r eady t o pr ot ect
His devot ees at all cost s. Pr ot ect ion of t he devot ees is t he pr imar y and only
concer n of bhagavAn. Ever yt hing He does, including His f unct ions of Cr eat ion,
is f or t he pr ot ect ion of t he j I va-s. I t is t his aspect of bhagavAn' s
commit ment t o Pr ot ect ion of His devot ees t hat is signif ied in t his concluding
Slokam of t he st ot r am, and t hat is r evealed t o us by pr esent ing Him wit h His
f er ocious weapons. The devot ees t hemselves enj oy t hese weapons as
ador nment s on His divine t ir umEni, and at t he same t ime, t hese weapons ar e
t he obj ect s of t er r or in t he hear t s of t he most f er ocious enemies of t he
devot ees (hir aNyakaSipu, r AvaNa, SiSupAla, et c.).
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I n his vyAkhyAnam f or t he nAma akshobhyaah, Sr I BhaTTar descr ibes t he
vr at am of bhagavAn in pr ot ect ing His devot ees – t o t he point t hat He won' t
even mind f or saking His dear br ot her lakshmaNa, or separ at ing f r om sI t A
pir ATTi. His vyAkhyAnam, t aken f r om t he wr it e-up f or t he nAma akshobhyah,
is – pr apanna abhaya dAna dAr DhyAt sva-mahimnA' pi akshobhyaH – He Who
cannot be shaken f r om t he f ir m vow t hat He has t aken t o pr ot ect t hose who
have sur r ender ed t o Him; t his vow of His cannot be shaken even by His own
Gr eat Self ". One is r eminded of t he wor ds of bhagavAn f ound in Sar aNagat i
gadyam of bhagavad r AmAnuj a: anRt am nokt a pUr vam me na ca vakshye
kadAcana - I have never ut t er ed an unt r ut h bef or e, and will never ut t er one
ever . r Amo dvir -nAbhibhAshat e – r Ama never t alks wit h t wo t ongues sakRdeva
pr apannAya t avAsmI ca yAcat e | abhayam sar va bhUt ebhyo dadAmyet ad
vr at am mama | | (yuddha. 18.33) "I t is My vow t o pr ot ect uncondit ionally f r om
ever y living being, anyone t hat sur r ender s t o Me even once, or seeks my
pr ot ect ion saying "I am your ser vant "". sar va dhar mAn par it yaj ya mAm ekam
Sar aNam vr aj a | aham t vAsar va pApebhyo mokshayishyAmi mA Sucah | | (gI t A
18.66) "Complet ely r elinquishing all Dhar ma-s, seek Me alone f or r ef uge. I will
r elease you f r om all sins. Gr ieve not ".
Sr I veLukkuDi kRshNan point s t o t he incident wher e sI t A t r ies t o per suade
r Ama not t o bear ar ms while in t he f or est , but t o f ollow t he pat h of penance
inst ead. Lor d r Ama' s r esponse is t hat He had given His wor d t o t he Rshi-s in
t he f or est t hat t hey will be pr ot ect ed f r om t he r Akshasa-s at all cost s, and
t hat He won' t swer ve f r om His wor d even if it involves losing sI t A and
lakshmaNa:
apyaham j I vit am j ahyAm t vAm vA sI t e sa-lakshmaNam |
na t u pr at ij ~nAm samSr ut ya br AhmaNebhyo viSeshat ah | |
(Ar aNya. 10.19)
"O sI t A! I would r at her give up My lif e, or even you and lakshmaNa, t han br eak
My pr omise, especially t hat which has been made t o br Ahmins".
Lor d r Ama r einf or ces His commit ment t o pr ot ect anyone who appr oaches Him
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wit h sincer it y, dur ing vibhI shaNa Sar aNAgat i:
mit r a bhAvena sampr Apt am na t yaj eyam kat ha' ncana |
dosho yadyapi t asya syAt sat Am et at agar hit am | | (yuddha. 18.3)
"I will not f or sake anyone who has appr oached Me wit h a f eeling of t r ue love,
even if t his per son has any f ault s. This is t he conduct t hat will be consider ed
blemish-less by elder s".
That is t he level of commit ment of bhagavAn t o t he Pr ot ect ion of His
devot ees.
BhagavAn' s supr eme commit ment t o t he Pr ot ect ion of His devot ees is sung by
nammAzhvAr and ot her pUr vAcAr ya-s over and over again. BhagavAn is in f act
t he One r esponsible f or Cr eat ion, Pr ot ect ion and t he Dest r uct ion of all t hings.
But Pr ot ect ion is t he dr iving f or ce f or His f unct ions of Cr eat ion and
Dest r uct ion as well. His f undament al nat ur e is one of pr ot ect ion. He per f or ms
cr eat ion and dest r uct ion only as act s t hat ar e dir ect ed t owar ds pr ot ect ion.
kAkkum iyalvinan kaNNa per umAn SEr kkai Seidu t an undi uLLE vAit t a t iSai-
mugan indir an vAnavar AkkinAn deiva ulagugaLE.
(t ir uvAimozhi 2.2.9)
This pASur am st at es t hat kaNNa pir An has, as His nat ur e, t he f unct ion of
pr ot ect ion. Because t his is His nat ur e, He pr ot ect s all t he j I va- s in His
st omach at t he t ime of pr alaya, but it is r eally pr ot ect ion. This ' dest r uct ion'
again, is a pr elude t o cr eat ion t hat is in t he welf ar e of t he j I va-s, by giving
t hem anot her oppor t unit y t o at t ain Him by giving t hem a body and all t he
comf or t s t o enj oy, and is t hus r eally pr ot ect ion in t r ut h. BhagavAn is t he One
who cr eat es br ahmA f ir st f r om t he br ahmANDam t hat emanat es f r om His
navel, and t hen gives him t he power t o cr eat e all ot her t hings, and t hus He is
t he t r ue Cr eat or t hr ough br ahmA also. Similar ly, br ahmA cr eat es r udr a, and
bhagavAn r emains as t he ant ar yAmi of r udr a, and enables him t o per f or m t he
f unct ion of ' dest r uct ion' , t he f unct ion t hat He has ent r ust ed t o r udr a. I t is
bhagavAn' s nat ur e t o pr ot ect t he j I va-s. This is what He consider s mor e
impor t ant t han t he f unct ions of dest r uct ion and cr eat ion. These ot her t wo
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f unct ions ar e done only t o f acilit at e t he pr ot ect ion of t he j I va-s, so t hat
ult imat ely t he j I va-s will at t ain moksham, and j oin Him in Sr I vaikunTham f or
ever . The Supr eme Deit y (per umAn) t akes incar nat ions f or t he pr imar y
pur pose of pr ot ect ion, because t his is His ver y nat ur e (kAkkum iyalvinan). Not e
Lor d kRshNa' s declar at ion – par it r ANAya sAdhUnAm, vinASAya ca dushkRt Am
– For t he pr ot ect ion of t he good, and t he dest r uct ion of t he evil. Pr ot ect ion is
ment ioned f ir st , and dest r uct ion only f ollows as t he next f unct ion in
impor t ance. Like r emoving t he weeds so t hat t he int ended gr ains can gr ow,
dest r uct ion of t he evil is only f or t he pr ot ect ion of t he good.
The f ir st set of wor ds in AzhvAr ' s pASur am – kAkkum iyalvinan, r ef er s t o t he
f unct ion of pr ot ect ion, which is His nat ur e. SEr kkai Seidu – The second set of
wor ds, r ef er s t o t he f unct ion of dest r uct ion. This is subser vient t o t he
f unct ion of pr ot ect ion. I t is f or t he pur pose of pr ot ect ing t he j I va-s f r om
being dest r oyed dur ing t he pr alaya, t hat He saves ever yt hing in His st omach at
t he t ime of pr alaya, even ensur ing t hat t hey do not bump int o each ot her and
suf f er any damage. AkkinAn – The t hir d f unct ion in t his sequence, namely
cr eat ion, is dependent on t he pr evious st ep, t hat of samhAr am, which again
was meant f or pr ot ect ion.
I n or der of impor t ance, pr ot ect ion is t he most impor t ant . By saying "kAkkum
iyalvinan AkkinAn", AzhvAr emphasizes t hat t he main pur pose is pr ot ect ion,
and cr eat ion is only a means of pr ot ect ion – giving a body t o t he j I va-s so t hat
t hey can expend t heir kar ma-s and at t ain Him. By saying "SEr kkai Seidu
AkkinAn", AzhvAr clar if ies t hat Ser ikkai Seidal or dest r uct ion is again a
pr elude t o "Akkal" or cr eat ion. svAmi deSikan capt ur es t he gist of t his
pASur am as "r akshNAya avat I r Nam" – BhagavAn t akes incar nat ions solely f or
t he pur pose of pr ot ect ion. The dest r uct ion of r AvaNa, hir aNyakaSipu et c.,
r eally r esult in t heir at t aining moksham – t he ult imat e pr ot ect ion, even t hough
we only see t hem as ' killing of r AvaNa or hir aNyakaSipu' . We have t he well-
known Slokam f r om t he j it ant e st ot r am t hat declar es t hat ever yt hing t hat
bhagavAn possesses including His divine weapons, is f or t he benef it of His
devot ees: na t e r Upam na cAkAr o nAyudhAni na cAspadam | t at hA' pi
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pur ushAkAr o bhakt AnAm pr akASase | | (j it ant e. 1.5)
"Neit her Your divya At ma svar Upam, nor Your divya ma' ngaLa vigr aham, nor
f or t hat mat t er Your weapons, or Your own Sr I vaikunTham, ar e f or Your
benef it (t hey ar e all f or Your devot ees' benef it , and t hus You ar e not
independent , but You ar e t he possession of Your devot ees). Even so, You shine
as t he Supr eme Being".
Having t hus under st ood t hat t he concluding Slokam of t he vishNu sahasr a
nAma st ot r am emphasizes t he concer n of Pr ot ect ion t hat bhagavAn has f or
His devot ees by ment ioning His divine f or m wit h His weapons, a ver y logical
quest ion t hat can ar ise in some people' s minds is: "Obviously emper umAn can
dest r oy His devot ees' enemies mer ely by His Will power . Why does He have t o
car r y weapons t o dest r oy t hese sinner s?"
To under st and t his, let us look at nammAzhvAr ' s pASur am (t ir uvAi. 4.8.1):
ERu ALum iRaiyOnum, t iSai muganum, t ir umagaLum kURu ALum t ani uDamban,
kulam kulamA asur ar gaLai neeRu Agum paDiyAga nir umit t u, paDai t oTTa
mARALan kavar Ada maNimAmai kuRai ilamE.
Many of bhagavAn' s kalyANa guNa-s ar e t o be enj oyed in t his pASur am;
however , let us look at t he f ollowing in t he cur r ent cont ext : - kulam kulamA
aSur ar gaLai neeRu Agum paDiyAga nir umit t u, paDai t oTTa mARALan – He is
also t he One who made t he decision t hr ough His mer e Will t hat t he wicked
asur a-s who wer e enemies of His devot ees will be dest r oyed wit hout t r ace, by
number s upon number s, and Who used His weapons t o dest r oy t hem.
The key wor ds t o not e ar e ' nir umit t u' (having decided in His mind), and paDaai
t oTTa (He Who t hen used His weapons t o dest r oy t hem). So bhagavAn has
made up in His mind t hat t he asur a-s will be dest r oyed wit hout t r ace. But how
does He accomplish t his – not j ust by His sa' nkalpam alone, but t hough t he use
of His weapons. Her e is t he anubhavam by our pUr vAcAr ya-s:
nir umit t u – sankalpit t u: emper umAn is also One Who could have dest r oyed t he
asur a-s, who wer e enemies of His devot ees, t hr ough a minut e f r act ion of His
I nf init e Will power . But inst ead of dest r oying t hem t hus wit h His Will power
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alone, bhagavAn chooses t o use His weapons t o kill t hem. He would have
dest r oyed t hem t hr ough His Will power alone if t hey wer e showing enmit y only
t owar ds Him; but inst ead, t hey wer e showing enmit y t owar ds His devot ees, and
t his is somet hing t hat He could not t oler at e. So He became angr y, and used
His weapons t o dest r oy t hem. Thr ough his choice of wor ds, AzhvAr shows t hat
bhagavAn will not t oler at e any of f ense t o His devot ees – He will not t oler at e
bhAgavat a apacAr am.
kulam kulamA asur ar gaLai nI r Agum paDiyAga nir umit t u paDai t oTTa – r ef er s
t o His veer yam - one His six pr imar y guNa-s.
mARu ALan – He Who consider s t he enemies of His devot ees as His own
enemies; He Who lit er ally exchanges His posit ion wit h t hat of t he devot ee, and
dest r oys t heir enemies. Not e Lor d kRshNa' s r ef usal t o eat in dur yodhana' s
place, j ust because t he lat er was an enemy of t he pANDava-s; in ot her wor ds,
He consider ed t he enemy of t he pANDava-s as His own enemy –
dvishad-annam no bhokt avyam dvishant am naiva bhoj ayet |
pANDavAn dvishase r Aj an mama pr ANA hi pANDavAH | |
Thus, bhagavAn' s weapons ar e a sign of His ar dent desir e t o pr ot ect His
devot ees. By singing bhagavAn' s For m wit h His weapons in t he last Slokam,
bhI shma want s t o br ings out t his guNa of bhagavAn, namely His commit ment
t o pr ot ect His devot ees against all f or ces opposed t o His devot ees.
Sr I BhaTTar r ef lect s t he int ensit y of bhagavAn' s commit ment of pr ot ect ion
of His devot ees t hr ough His super b choice of wor ds: ' at all t imes, in all places,
by all means, et c' . I n f act , Sr I BhaTTar ext ends t his commit ment t o pr ot ect
t he devot ees, not only t o bhagavAn, but t o t he divine weapons as well – who ar e
all nit ya-sUr i- s who have t aken t he f or ms of His divine weapons. Let us look at
his comment ar y: - Sr I BhaTTar gives his summar y at t he conclusion of t he last
nAma sar va-pr ahar aNAyudah – He Who has all t he weapons t hat act against
evil. He elabor at es t his f ur t her , and t he t r anslat ion of t his explanat ion is: "He
has also number less ot her divine weapons bef it t ing Him which ar e power f ul
enough t o upr oot complet ely t he dist r ess of His devot ees who ar e r oot ed in
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Him – weapons t hat have t aken a vow as it wer e, in a long sacr if ice t o pr ot ect
at all t imes at all places by all means, and in all ways t hose who have r esor t ed
t o Him; which have unlimit ed power , which ar e like or nament s t o Him and which
help Him t o dischar ge His dut ies as t he Supr eme Lor d of t he Univer se". As we
will see below, bhagavAn' s main f unct ion in His leelA is t he pr ot ect ion of t he
j I va-s. All His kalyANa guNa-s, and ever yt hing He possesses, ar e f or t he
benef it of t he devot ee. J ust as t her e is no limit t o bhagavAn' s kalyANa guNa-
s, t her e is no limit t o t he enj oyment of His kalyANa guNa-s as well. And t her e
is no limit t o t he ext ent t o which He will go in ensur ing pr ot ect ion of His
devot ees. I t is hoped t hat t he signif icance of t he concluding st ot r am of Sr I
vishNu sahasr a nAmam, wit h a r ef er ence t o bhagavAn' s f or m bear ing His
f er ocious weapons, is t hus under st ood in t er ms of His most impor t ant guNa –
Pr ot ect ion of His devot ees at all cost s, under all cir cumst ances, in all places, at
all t imes, t o quot e Sr I BhaTTar .















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vanamalee Slokam vanamalee Slokam vanamalee Slokam
4+Pl¬l ¬7l Hlñl H 4+Pl¬l ¬7l Hlñl H 4+Pl¬l ¬7l Hlñl HŒŒ Œl ¬4l ¬ +-7Tl· l ¬4l ¬ +-7Tl· l ¬4l ¬ +-7Tl·
~lPl+ +l¹l4Tl |4!T 4l B 7 4l 5|¬¹¬6 + ~lPl+ +l¹l4Tl |4!T 4l B 7 4l 5|¬¹¬6 + ~lPl+ +l¹l4Tl |4!T 4l B 7 4l 5|¬¹¬6 +
+ ~l4lB 7 4l 5|¬¹¬6 Hl +P ²|6+ + ~l4lB 7 4l 5|¬¹¬6 Hl +P ²|6+ + ~l4lB 7 4l 5|¬¹¬6 Hl +P ²|6+
vanamAlI gadI sAr ngI sankhI chakr I ca nandakI |
sr I mAn nAr AyaNO vishhNur vAsudevO=bhir akshat u | |
| | sr I vAsudevO5bhir akshat u Om nama it i | |
This Slokam is not f ound in t he Cr it ical Edit ion we r ef er r ed t o in t he post ing
on ' sar va pr ahar aNAyudhaH' . However , many people chant t his as a r esult of
t heir t r adit ional t r aining. Sr I BhaTTar has not included it in his vishNu
sahasr a nAma bhAshyam. However , Pr of . Sr inivasa Raghavan has added t he
meaning in English, af t er not ing t hat it is not f ound in t he mahAbhAr at a and is
not comment ed by Sr I BhaTTar . Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i also makes t he
same comment , and has given t he meaning in t amizh. The meaning in English is
given below:
"Sr I man nAr AyaNa is ador ned by t he gar land by name vanamAlA, and is ar med
wit h t he Mace, SAr ' nga – t he bow, t he Conch, t he Discus and t he swor d by
name nandaka. He is vishNu (all-per vasive), and vAsudeva (Who r esides in all
and in Whom all r eside). May t hat vAsudeva pr ot ect us all".
Af t er I post ed t he above br ief wr it e-up f or t he above Sloka, I r eceived t he
comment t hat t his Slokam is consider ed t o cont ain t he essence of Sr I vishNu
gAyat r I , by an aut hor by name Nallan Chakr avar t i Raghunat hachar yulu in his
t elugu t r anslat ion of Sr I BhaTTar ’s bhAshyam published by Mudr a Of f set
Pr int er s, Vij ayawada (2002 edit ion). The comment was also made t hat ' t his
int er pr et at ion is consist ent wit h t he t r adit ional way of concluding invocat ions
on many deit ies wit h t he gAyat r I mant r a f or t he deit y, and so t his Sloka can
be int er pr et ed t o be a f it t ing conclusion f or t he vishNu sahasr a nAma st ot r a' .
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However , it is t o be not ed t hat t he Sloka is not par t of Sr I vishNU
sahasr anAma as f ound in t he Cr it ical Edit ion r ef er r ed t o ear lier . I t is also t o
be not ed t hat Sr I Sa’nkar a, Sr I BhaTTar , Sr I r aghunAt ha t I r t ha, and t he
ot her vyAkhyAna kar t A-s whose wor ks have been used as r ef er ence t hr ough
t his wr it e-up, have not comment ed on t his Sloka, which is consist ent wit h t he
view t hat t his Slokam is not par t of t he Sr I vishNu sahasr a nAma st ot r am as
f ound in t he mahAbhAr at a. On t he ot her hand, t her e is not hing wr ong in
chant ing any Sloka on Sr I man nAr AyaNa wit h f ait h, including chant ing t he
Sloka wit h t he f ait h t hat it is t he essence of t he gAyat r I – chant ing His
nAma-s wit h devot ion and f ait h will conf er all t he benef it s t o be descr ibed in
t he r est of t his phala Sr ut i wr it e-up.


















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SrI vishNu sahasra nAmam SrI vishNu sahasra nAmam SrI vishNu sahasra nAmam –– – phala Sruti phala Sruti phala Sruti
²6l7 Tl6 +l4F4 T 94F4 PrltP+-· ²6l7 Tl6 +l4F4 T 94F4 PrltP+-· ²6l7 Tl6 +l4F4 T 94F4 PrltP+-·
+lVl BrU |7-4l+lPH 9 T 9Tl|6 6P + ° +lVl BrU |7-4l+lPH 9 T 9Tl|6 6P + ° +lVl BrU |7-4l+lPH 9 T 9Tl|6 6P + °
it i idam kI r t anI yasya keSavasya mahAt manah |
nAmnAm sahasr am divyAnAm asesheNa pr akI r t it am | | (1)
The above is addr essed by bhI shma t o yudhisThir a at t he end of t he 107
Sloka-s cont aining t he 1000 nAma-s of bhagavAn. The meaning is: "Thus, t he
t housand divine names of bhagavAn keSava, t he Supr eme Being, Who is wor t hy
of being pr aised, have been sung in t heir ent ir et y".
Sr I BhaTTar comment s t hat t he wor d ' kI r t anI yasya' has been chosen t o
indicat e t hat bhagavAn r ichly deser ves t he pr aise, and t hat by using t his wor d,
bhI shma is t elling yudhishThir a t hat he should begin t he r ecit at ion of t he
names r ight away. The r eason f or t he same is given by t he choice of t he name
keSava (t he Cr eat or of br ahmA and Siva – see t he int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma
keSava – nAma-s 23 and 654), and mahAt manah (He is t he Supr eme Being).
The wor d ' divyAnAm' (divine) applied t o t he nAma-s signif ies t hat t he nAma-s
ar e wor t hy of being sung in t his wor ld as well as in Sr I vaikunTham. The wor d
' aSesheNa' is used t o denot e t hat not hing t hat is signif icant or impor t ant has
been lef t out by bhI shma in his communicat ion t o yudhisThir a, and ever yt hing
t hat needs t o be known has been t aught .
Sr I Sa' nkar a explains t he wor d ' aSesheNa' t o mean ' a-nyUna, an- at ir ikt a' –
neit her less, nor mor e, but exact ly t housand nAma-s. The implicat ion is t hat
t he choice of t he t housand names by bhI shma ar e signif icant , and ar e not
r andomly chosen. Sr I Sa' nkar a also r ef er s us back t o one of t he init ial six
quest ions – kim j apan mucyat e j ant uh (see I nt r oduct ion f or det ailed meanings),
and point s out t hat t hese 1000 divine nAma-s ar e t he ones t hat ar e t he obj ect
of ' j apa' r ef er r ed t o t her ein. He point s out t hat ' j apa' consist s of t hr ee kinds
- ucca, upAmSu, and mAnasa – loud, whisper , or in t he mind (t r ividha j apo
lakshyat e – uccaA, upAmSu, mAnasa lakshaNah t r ividho j apah). The wor ds
pr akI r t it am in t he cur r ent Sloka answer s t hat all t hr ee means – chant ing
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256
loudly, t hr ough a low t one, or by cont emplat ing in t he mind, can be used in
singing His pr aise (kI r t ana).
This Slokam emphasizes t hat t hese nAma-s ar e divine, and ar e sung in Sr I
vaikunTham by t he nit ya sUr i-s t hemselves. They ar e specif ically select ed as
sung by t he Rshi-s (Rshibhih par igI t Ani – see t he I nt r oduct or y sect ion). This
st ot r am is unlike any ot her st ot r am t hat we know of . I t was f ir st r evealed in
Lor d kRshNa' s pr esence.

4 ²7 ~ T 4l|¬t4 4¾l|9 9|¹Tl6 4 6 · 4 ²7 ~ T 4l|¬t4 4¾l|9 9|¹Tl6 4 6 · 4 ²7 ~ T 4l|¬t4 4¾l|9 9|¹Tl6 4 6 ·
+lH ¬ 9lU 4l6 |T|-¬6 Bl 5P × r ¬ Pl+4-+ - +lH ¬ 9lU 4l6 |T|-¬6 Bl 5P × r ¬ Pl+4-+ - +lH ¬ 9lU 4l6 |T|-¬6 Bl 5P × r ¬ Pl+4-+ -
ya idam SRNuyAt nit yam yaScApi par ikI r t ayet |
nA' Subham pr ApnuyAt ki' ncit so' mut r eha ca mAnavaH | | (2)
I n t his Sloka, t he qualif icat ions f or r ecit ing t he st ot r a, and t he r esult f r om
r ecit at ion ar e declar ed in gener al t er ms. "Not hing inauspicious or unwelcome
will accr ue t o t hat man in t his wor ld or in t he wor ld beyond, when one hear s
t his daily or r ecit es it ".
Sr I BhaTTar comment s t hat he, who accor ding t o his qualif icat ion and abilit y,
hear s it or medit at es on it in his mind, will encount er not hing inauspicious in
t his wor ld, or her eaf t er . Not e t hat t he benef it is at t ained by chant ing, as well
as by list ening.
By t he t er m ' her eaf t er (amut r e ca)' , lesser wor lds t han Sr I vaikunTham, such
as svar gam, br ahma lokam et c. ar e meant . Sr I Sa' nkar a point s t he case of
yayAt i and his f at her nahusha, bot h of whom ended up suf f er ing af t er
r eaching br ahma lokam and indr a lokam r espect ively, because t hey commit t ed
sins against br AhmaNa-s af t er r eaching t hese higher wor lds. Such inauspicious
inst ances won' t happen t o t hose who chant or hear t his divine st ot r am – yayAt i
nahushAdivat aSubha pr Apt i abhAvam.

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4 7l-6¬l ¤lOT-F4l6 ¬|×4l |4=4l ¬4 6 · 4 7l-6¬l ¤lOT-F4l6 ¬|×4l |4=4l ¬4 6 · 4 7l-6¬l ¤lOT-F4l6 ¬|×4l |4=4l ¬4 6 ·
4 74l ¤+ BP ¤- F4l¬7 ã- B GP4lU 4l6 + ° 4 74l ¤+ BP ¤- F4l¬7 ã- B GP4lU 4l6 + ° 4 74l ¤+ BP ¤- F4l¬7 ã- B GP4lU 4l6 + °
vedAnt a-go br AhmaNah syAt kshat r iyo vij ayI bhavet |
vaiSyo dhana samRddhah syAt Sudr aH sukham avApnuyAt | | (3)
The next f ew Sloka-s declar e t he benef it s at t ained by chant ing t he hymn,
hear ing it chant ed et c. Sr I BhaTTar has cat egor ized t he benef it s as f ollows:
The cur r ent Slokam declar es t he benef it s at t ained by people of t he f our
var Na-s, when t hey chant t he st ot r am wit hout necessar ily dir ect ing t heir
chant ing f or any specif ic benef it , and do so wit hout necessar ily f ollowing any
special discipline et c.
The next Slokam (Slokam 4 in t his sequence) declar es t he benef it s at t ained by
t hose who chant t he st ot r am wit h specif ic benef it s in mind.
Sloka-s 5 t o 8 declar e t he benef it s at t ained by t hose who chant t he hymns
f ollowing discipline such as get t ing up ear ly in t he mor ning, t aking a bat h et c.,
bef or e chant ing.
The or ganizat ion along t he above lines will be clear er as we see t he meanings
of t he Sloka-s, in par t icular , Slokam 5 et c.
Thus, t her e is benef it t hat is best owed by t he r ecit at ion of t he hymn,
whet her it is done by t hose wit h int ense devot ion or is chant ed wit hout
necessar ily f ollowing any specif ic discipline, whet her specif ic benef it s ar e
sought by t he per son chant ing t he hymn or not , et c. (Not e: Based on Slokam 2
of t his sequence, what ever benef it is descr ibed f or chant ing t he hymn, equally
applies f or list ening t o t he hymn being chant ed).
The cur r ent Sloka declar es t hat by r ecit ing t his hymn or hear ing it being
chant ed, (wit hout necessar ily f ollowing any specif ic r ules et c., and wit hout
specif ically seeking any benef it ), st ill cer t ain benef it s ar e at t ained by people
belonging t o t he f our var Na-s. Thus, a br AhmaNa r eaches t he knowledge of
t he vedAnt a-s, in ot her wor ds, t he knowledge of t he self and it s r elat ion t o
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t he Supr eme Self . I f he is a kshat r iya, he will be vict or ious in war . A vaiSya
(businessman) will at t ain immense wealt h, and a SUdr a will be best owed wit h
gr eat happiness.
Sr I Sa' nkar a gives an elabor at e explanat ion f or t he wor ds ' vedAnt a-go
br AhmaNah syAt ' , and using t he meaning "The br AhmaNa will get
KNOWLEDGE of t he vedAnt a-s, he pr oceeds t o ar gue t hat sage vyAsa is
declar ing t hr ough t his Slokam t hat simply r ecit ing t he hymn is not t he means
t o salvat ion (j apa kar maNA sAkshAt mukt i Sa' nkAyAm, kar maNAm sAkshAt
mukt i het ut vam nAst i, api t u j ~nAnenaiva moksha it i dar Sayit um ` vedAnt ago
br AhmaNah syAt ' it yukt am), but t he knowledge obt ained by t he r ecit at ion is
t he pat h t o salvat ion. We won' t go int o elabor at e det ails of Sr I Sa' nkar a' s
ar gument on t his point in t he vyAkyAnam f or t his Slokam; however , t his is one
inst ance of how t he vyAkhyAna-kar t A-s or ient t heir vyAkhyAna-s so t hat t hey
can est ablish t heir philosophy, and ar gue t hat impor t ant wor ks such as t his one
by veda vyAsa can be ' shown' t o suppor t t heir syst em of philosophy.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an explains t hat t he knowledge t hat is at t ained by chant ing
t he hymn is t he r ealizat ion of t he et er nal r elat ionship bet ween t he soul and
t he Supr eme Soul as ser vant and Mast er (not t he r ealizat ion t hat ever yt hing is
imaginar y and non- exist ent , except Br ahman, as Sr I Sa' nkar a def ines t r ue
knowledge).
One comment at or adds t hat t his Slokam – by r ef er r ing t o t he benef it s
at t ained by all t he f our var Na-s, implies t hat t her e is no const r aint in anyone
chant ing t he hymns. Some AcAr ya-s have asked t he women among t heir
f ollower s t o r ef r ain f r om chant ing t he hymn eit her in par t or in f ull. The
inst r uct ions var y f r om being allowed t o chant only t he 107 Sloka-s st ar t ing
f r om "viSvam vishNuh" up t o "Sa' nkhabRn- nandakI ", not chant ing anyt hing,
chant ing t he st ot r a in it s ent ir et y, et c. To my knowledge, t her e is no
r est r ict ion list ening t o t he hymn, which is as power f ul in conf er r ing benef it s as
chant ing t he hymn. I n all cases, one' s own AcAr yan' s inst r uct ions should be
r igor ously f ollowed.
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¤Pl ¤l 9lU 4l&P P¤l ¤l ¬l¤ PlU 4l6 · ¤Pl ¤l 9lU 4l&P P¤l ¤l ¬l¤ PlU 4l6 · ¤Pl ¤l 9lU 4l&P P¤l ¤l ¬l¤ PlU 4l6 ·
TlPl+4lU 4l6 TlPl 9=¤l ¬lU 4l6 9=l-+ v TlPl+4lU 4l6 TlPl 9=¤l ¬lU 4l6 9=l-+ v TlPl+4lU 4l6 TlPl 9=¤l ¬lU 4l6 9=l-+ v
dhar mAr t hI pr ApnuyAddhar mamar t hAr t hI cAr t hamApnuyAt |
kAmAnavApnuyAt kAmI pr aj ar t hI cApnuyAt pr aj Ah | | (4)
I n t his Slokam, it is declar ed t hat t hose who desir e r ight eousness (dhar ma),
will be blessed wit h t hat ; t hose who desir e wealt h will be blessed wit h wealt h;
t hose who ar e af t er t he pleasur es of lif e, will be best owed wit h all pleasur es
of lif e; t hose who desir e pr ogeny will be blessed wit h childr en.
¬|±Pl+ 4- B7l t¤l4 H |¬F6ã6 Pl+B-· ¬|±Pl+ 4- B7l t¤l4 H |¬F6ã6 Pl+B-· ¬|±Pl+ 4- B7l t¤l4 H |¬F6ã6 Pl+B-·
BrU 4lB 7 4F4 +lVlP 66 9Tl6 4 6 + - BrU 4lB 7 4F4 +lVlP 66 9Tl6 4 6 + - BrU 4lB 7 4F4 +lVlP 66 9Tl6 4 6 + -
bhakt imAn yah sadot t hAya Sucis-t ad-gat a mAnasaH |
sahasr am vAasudevasya nAmnAmet at pr akI r t ayet | | (5)
Sr I BhaTTar gr oups t he f our Sloka-s, 5 t o 8, as a st at ement of t he benef it s
accr uing t o a devot ee (bhakt a) who r ecit es t he nAma-s as a j apa (chant ing)
in accor dance wit h t he r ules laid down f or t he same. Sr I BhaTTar ' s wor ds ar e:
"at ha niyama viSeshavat j apa r Upa sa' nkI r t ane bhakt asya sar va samRddhim
Aha".
Fr om t he pr evious t wo Sloka-s, it is not ed t hat t he act of chant ing – eit her
aloud or in a whisper or in t he mind, or j ust list ening t o ot her s chant ing t he
st ot r am, leads t o benef it s, eit her explicit ly desir ed and sought , or t hose
consist ent wit h t he var Na dhar ma-s of t he one who chant s or list ens t o t he
st ot r am. Now vyAsa point s out t hat if a per son get s up ear ly in t he mor ning,
pur if ies himself wit h a bat h and t he obser vance of t he r it es and r it uals
consist ent wit h his dhar ma as laid down in t he SAst r a-s (accor ding t o his
var Na and ASr ama), and r ecit es t he t housand nAma-s of vAsudeva wit h his
mind f ir mly f ixed on Him, he will be best owed wit h salvat ion it self (anut t amam
Sr eyah pr Apnot i – Slokam 6).
Sr I Sa' nkar a' s vyAkhyAnam is: "bhakt imAn it yAdinA bhakt imat ah Suceh
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sat at am udyukt asyaikAgr a cit t asya Sr addhAlor viSishTAdhikAr iNah phala
viSesham dar Sayat i"
The special benef it s accr uing t o one who is devout , pur e, ever per sever ing wit h
one-point ed at t ent ive medit at ion, and wit h f ait h, ar e r evealed next .
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i not es t hat t he benef is st at ed next ar e t hose t hat
accr ue t o one who has single-minded devot ion t o vAsudeva, medit at es on him
const ant ly, is pur e in t hought , wor d and deed, and chant s t he t housand nAma-s
of vAsudeva as laid down in t his Slokam.
I n or der t o r einf or ce t he t hought s embedded in t his Slokam, let us look at t he
individual meanings of a f ew wor ds in t he Slokam:
1. bhakt imAn – A devot ee. Specif ically, it r ef er s t o t he devot ee of
vAsudeva (vAsudevasya nAmnAm). Single-minded devot ion is of
impor t ance her e, as not ed in t he above.
2. anya devat A wor ship – r esor t t o ot her devat A-s, is t o be avoided. -
3. sadA ut t hAya – always get t ing up ear ly in t he mor ning. Sucih – Pur if ies
himself . The pur it y r ef er r ed t o is bot h ext er nal and int er nal. The
ext er nal pur it y involves t aking a bat h et c. The ot her aspect s of
pur if icat ion involved her e ar e t he st r ict obser vance of nit ya kar ma-s as
laid down in t he SAst r a-s f or t he devot ee – t he var NASr ama dhar ma-s.
Our AcAr ya-s r epeat edly emphasize t hat any act ivit y under t aken wit hout
obser ving t he nit ya kar ma-s will end up as wast ed ef f or t . t ad-gat a-mAnasaH –
The mind of t he devot ee should be concent r at ed on bhagavAn vAsudeva. This
is a r e-emphasis on t he single-minded devot ion t o vAsudeva t hat was
ment ioned under ' bhakt imAn' . pr akI r t ayet – kI r t ana specif ically r ef er s t o
chant ing, r ecit at ion. The specif ic benef it s t hat such a devot ee will at t ain ar e
specif ied in t he next t hr ee Sloka-s:
4H 9lUl |6 |49 ¬P ¬l|6 9l¤l-4P 4 ¬· 4H 9lUl |6 |49 ¬P ¬l|6 9l¤l-4P 4 ¬· 4H 9lUl |6 |49 ¬P ¬l|6 9l¤l-4P 4 ¬·
H¬¬l |~4PlUl |6 ~ 4- 9lUl t4+ ¬PP + ° H¬¬l |~4PlUl |6 ~ 4- 9lUl t4+ ¬PP + ° H¬¬l |~4PlUl |6 ~ 4- 9lUl t4+ ¬PP + °
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+ ¬4 14|¬6lUl |6 4l4 6 =¾ |4-7|6· + ¬4 14|¬6lUl |6 4l4 6 =¾ |4-7|6· + ¬4 14|¬6lUl |6 4l4 6 =¾ |4-7|6·
¬4t4¹l ¬l H |6Pl+ 4¬-9¬ Tl|-46-+ ÷ ¬4t4¹l ¬l H |6Pl+ 4¬-9¬ Tl|-46-+ ÷ ¬4t4¹l ¬l H |6Pl+ 4¬-9¬ Tl|-46-+ ÷
¹l ¬l6l P ¬46 ¹l ¬lä&l P ¬4 6 4-¤+l6 · ¹l ¬l6l P ¬46 ¹l ¬lä&l P ¬4 6 4-¤+l6 · ¹l ¬l6l P ¬46 ¹l ¬lä&l P ¬4 6 4-¤+l6 ·
¬4l-P ¬4 6 ¬l6F6 P ¬4 6l9¬ Hl97-+ < ¬4l-P ¬4 6 ¬l6F6 P ¬4 6l9¬ Hl97-+ < ¬4l-P ¬4 6 ¬l6F6 P ¬4 6l9¬ Hl97-+ <
yaSah pr Apnot i vipulam j ~nAt i pr AdhAnyameva ca |
acalAm Sr iyamApnot i Sr eyah pr Apnot yanut t amam | | (6)
na bhayam kvacit Apnot i vI r yam t ej aSca vindat i |
bhavat yar ogo dyut imAn balar UpaguNanvit ah | | (7)
r ogAr t o mucyat e r ogAdbaddho mucyet a bandhanAt |
bhayAnmucyet a bhI t ast u mucyet Apanna ApadaH | | (8)
Sr I BhaTTar has given his int er pr et at ion f or t he above Sloka-s in t wo shor t
sent ences
"anut t amam Sr eyah – mukt ih |
anye abhyudaya viSeshAh | | "
' "anut t amam Sr eyah in Slokam 6 means ' salvat ion' ; all t he ot her f r uit s
ment ioned ar e f r uit s of success in t his wor ld".
Pr of . Sr inivasa Raghavan has given t he f ollowing t r anslat ion f or t he above
Sloka-s:
"He becomes endowed wit h gr eat r eput at ion and becomes t he f or emost among
his kit h and kin. He acquir es wealt h t hat never diminishes in t his wor ld, and he
also get s unexcelled pr osper it y in t he next (namely, salvat ion). Ther e is no f ear
f or him f r om any quar t er s. He acquir es valor and power . He is never unwell, and
always shines. He becomes endowed wit h st r engt h, a healt hy body, and noble
qualit ies. He who is suf f er ing f r om any disease will get over it . He who is in
bondage will be r elieved of it . He who is af f ect ed by f ear will become f r ee
f r om it , and he who is in dif f icult ies will become r id of t hem".
Sr I Sa' nkar a also does not comment on t he above Sloka-s. The idea is t hat
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bot h Sr I BhaTTar and Sr I Sa' nkar a consider t hat t he meaning is self -
explanat or y.
The most impor t ant benef it is t he one t hat Sr I BhaTTar has comment ed on -
anut t amam Sr eyah – moksham.
The ot her benef it s can all be under st ood as aid t o t his most impor t ant , and in
f act t he only phalan t hat such a devot ee will aspir e f or .
1. Thus, f or inst ance, being r id of f ear in t his wor ld can be under st ood as
t he f ull conf idence t hat bhagavAn will def init ely r edeem us f r om t he
ocean of samsAr a at t he end of our cur r ent bir t h in t his wor ld, - mahA
viSvAsam
2. acalAm Sr iyam – undiminished wealt h in t his wor ld
3. t he oppor t unit y and blessing t o be involved in kai' nkar yam t o Him always
– t he ka' inkar ya Sr I ;
4. r ogAr t o mucyat e r ogAt – t he devot ee will be r id of t he gr eat est of
diseases, namely at t achment t o t he wor ldly and mat er ialist ic obj ect s of
t his lif e, and, above all, t he at t achment t o t his body and t o all t he
t hings associat ed wit h t he body;
5. bhayAn mucyet a bhI t ah – t he devot ee will be r id of t he gr eat est of all
f ear s – t he f ear of r epeat ed bir t hs, t he f ear of samsAr a;
6. yaSah pr Apnot i – t he devot ee will be known f or his single-minded
devot ion t o vAsudeva, as his gr eat est accomplishment ;
7. dyut imAn, t ej aSca vindat i – t he t ej as of such a devot ee will be self -
r evealing, as we can f eel in t he pr esence of our AcAr ya-s.
Next , it is st at ed t hat if a per son is exclusively devot ed t o Sr I kRshNa and his
only desir e is t o at t ain Him, all his dif f icult ies will aut omat ically vanish even
t hough he does not pr ay t o t he Lor d f or any r elief f r om t hem.
T¬l '4|66¹t4lH 9 69- 9 69l ¬PP · T¬l '4|66¹t4lH 9 69- 9 69l ¬PP · T¬l '4|66¹t4lH 9 69- 9 69l ¬PP ·
F6 4¬lPBrU T |+t4 ¬|± BP|-46-+ ° F6 4¬lPBrU T |+t4 ¬|± BP|-46-+ ° F6 4¬lPBrU T |+t4 ¬|± BP|-46-+ °
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dur gANyat it ar at yASu pur ushah pur ushot t amam |
st uvannAmasahasr eNa nit yam bhakt i samanvit ah | | (9)
"That per son, who, wit h devot ion, pr aises t he Supr eme Being (pur ushot t aman)
r ecit ing his t housand nAma-s daily, sur mount s all dif f icult ies ver y easily.
Sr I BhaTTar comment s t hat t he next t wo Sloka-s speak of t he at t ainment of
t he Lor d by such devot ees.
4lB 7 4l~4l Pt4l 4lB 7 4 9¹l4T-· 4lB 7 4l~4l Pt4l 4lB 7 4 9¹l4T-· 4lB 7 4l~4l Pt4l 4lB 7 4 9¹l4T-·
B4 9l9|4H &ltPl 4l|6 ¤O B+l6+P + °¤ B4 9l9|4H &ltPl 4l|6 ¤O B+l6+P + °¤ B4 9l9|4H &ltPl 4l|6 ¤O B+l6+P + °¤
+ 4lB 7 4¬±l+lPH ¬ |4H6 14|¬6 · + 4lB 7 4¬±l+lPH ¬ |4H6 14|¬6 · + 4lB 7 4¬±l+lPH ¬ |4H6 14|¬6 ·
=-PP t4 =¹l-4l|¤¬4 4l-4 9=l46 + °° =-PP t4 =¹l-4l|¤¬4 4l-4 9=l46 + °° =-PP t4 =¹l-4l|¤¬4 4l-4 9=l46 + °°
vAsudevASr ayo mar t yo vAsudeva par AyaNaH |
sar vapApaviSuddhAt mA yAt i br ahma sanAt anam | | (10)
na vAsudevabhat AnAmaSubham vidyat e kvacit |
j anmamRt yuj ar AvyAdhibhayam vApyupaj Ayat e | | (11)
"That man, who has t aken r esor t t o vAsudeva wit h t he t hought t hat vAsudeva
is t he highest goal t o be r eached, becomes cleansed of all sins and his mind
becomes pur e. He f inally at t ains t he Et er nal Br ahman."
"Not hing inauspicious ever occur s t o t he devot ees of vAsudeva. Nor do t hey
have any f ear f r om bir t h or deat h or old age or disease".
²P F64P¤l4l+- ~&l¬|±BP|-46-· ²P F64P¤l4l+- ~&l¬|±BP|-46-· ²P F64P¤l4l+- ~&l¬|±BP|-46-·
4 74 6ltPB G¬l|-6- ~l¤ |6FP |6Tl|6 |¬-+ °- 4 74 6ltPB G¬l|-6- ~l¤ |6FP |6Tl|6 |¬-+ °- 4 74 6ltPB G¬l|-6- ~l¤ |6FP |6Tl|6 |¬-+ °-
imam st avamadhI yAnah Sr addhAbhakt isamanvit ah |
yuj yet At masukhakshAnt ih Sr I dhRt ismRt ikI r t ibhih | | (12)
"The per son who chant s t his hymn wit h zeal and devot ion, is blessed wit h
happiness of t he self , f or bear ance, r iches, f ir mness of mind, excellent
memor y, and gr eat f ame".
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Sr I BhaTTar comment s – niyamavat o bhakt asya anusha' ngiNI m abhyudaya
siddhim Aha – For t he devot ee who r ecit es t he names in accor dance wit h
scr ipt ur al inj unct ions, t her e is at t ainment of pr osper it y of all kinds t hat come
as a mat t er of cour se". He explains t he t er m Sr addhA as sa-gaur ava t var A –
Eager ness associat ed wit h r espect . He also comment s t hat bhakt i is a r esult of
highly mer it or ious act s - bhagavat i bhakt ih mahat ah su-kRt asya phalam. Thus a
t r ue devot ee should chant t he st ot r am wit h sincer e devot ion and int er est , and
should accompany t he chant ing wit h ot her mer it or ious act s as par t of his way
of lif e. Sr I BhaTTar f ur t her adds: govinda bhakt yabhyadhikam Sr eyaSca
anyat na vidyat e – Ther e is no act super ior t o devot ion t o Lor d govinda.
Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam f or Sloka-s 5 t o 8 was "at ha niyama viSeshavat
j apa r Upa sa' nkI r t ane bhakt asya sar va samRddhim Aha". For t he cur r ent
Sloka, his int er pr et at ion is "niymavat ah bhakt asya anusha' ngiNI m abhyudaya
siddhim Aha". Thus t he int er pr et at ions in bot h cases descr ibe t he benef it f or
a ' bhakt a' or devot ee who f ollows ' niyama' or r ules as laid down in t he
scr ipt ur es. Slokam 5 r ef er s t o t he bhakt a who f ollows niyama and does
pr akI t anA (pr aising, ext olling, lauding) of bhagavAn t hr ough t he st ot r am,
wher eas t he cur r ent Slokam r ef er s t o t he bhakt a wit h niyama who is
' adhI yAnah' (a st udent , or one who goes over t he st ot r a eit her as a st udent or
as a t eacher ).
Sr I v. v. r AmAnuj an has used t he t er m anusandhAnam (which means inquir y,
invest igat ion, scr ut iny et c.), in t he cont ext of t his Slokam. Thus, t he
dif f er ence bet ween t he t wo, if one wer e t o look f or a dif f er ence, is t hat t he
f ir st discusses t he benef it s at t ained by t he bhakt a who chant s t he st ot r am,
and t he second about t he benef it s at t ained by t he bhakt a who pr opagat es or
delves deep int o t he meanings et c.
One t r anslat or of Sr I Sa' nkar a bhAshyam has gr ouped t he Sloka-s f r om 5
(bhakt imAn…) t o 12 (imam st avam…) int o one gr oup, and has ascr ibed Sr I
Sa' nkar a' s shor t comment ar y as f ollows, f or all t hese Sloka-s as one gr oup –
" bhakt imAn it yAdinA bhat imat ah Suceh sat at amudyukt asyaikAgr a cit t asya
Sr addhAlor vivishTa adhikAr iNah phala viSesham dar Sayat i" – "I n t he ver ses
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265

beginning wit h bhakt imAn et c., t he st at ed r esult s ar e pr omised t o one who is
devout , pur e, ever - per sever ing wit h one-point ed at t ent ive medit at ion, wit h
f ait h".
Sr I Sa' nkar a f ur t her explains:
"Sr addhA Ast ikya buddhih |
bhakt ih bhaj anam t At par yam |
At manah sukam At ma-sukham |
t ena ca kshAnyat ibhiSca ucyat e | "
This is t r anslat ed as: "Fait h means belief in God; bhakt i r ef er s t o wor ship;
At ma sukham means spir it ual bliss – by t his t er m, ot her qualit ies such as
pat ience, f or giveness et c. ar e also meant ".
+ 4l ¤l + ¬ PltB4 P + ¬l ¬l +lH ¬l P|6-· + 4l ¤l + ¬ PltB4 P + ¬l ¬l +lH ¬l P|6-· + 4l ¤l + ¬ PltB4 P + ¬l ¬l +lH ¬l P|6-·
¬4|-6 T 6 9 '4lTl ¬±l+l 9 6Hl ¬P + °° ¬4|-6 T 6 9 '4lTl ¬±l+l 9 6Hl ¬P + °° ¬4|-6 T 6 9 '4lTl ¬±l+l 9 6Hl ¬P + °°
na kr odho na ca mAt sar yam na lobho nAsubhA mat ih |
bhavant i kRt a puNyANAm bhakt AnAm pur ushot t ame | | (13)
"Neit her anger nor j ealousy, neit her gr eed nor evil t hought s haunt t he minds
of t hose people who ar e devot ees of pur ushot t ama (The Supr eme Being) and
who have acquir ed mer it by vir t uous deeds".
Sr I BhaTTar comment s t hat as a mat t er of nat ur al cour se, t hese def ect s by
t hemselves keep away f r om t he devot ees. Sr I Sa' nkar a emphasizes t he point
t hat in t he Slokam, kr dha, lobha and aSubhAmat ih occur wit hout a ' ca' ,
wher eas mAt sar ya occur s wit h a ' ca' . He explains t hat t his means t hat not only
kr odha, lobha and aSubhA mat i anger , lust and evil t hought s) ar e absent in
t hese devot ees, but also j ealousy is absent .
Hl - B¬-ãlT +¬×l G |7Hl ¬ P rl 7|¤-· Hl - B¬-ãlT +¬×l G |7Hl ¬ P rl 7|¤-· Hl - B¬-ãlT +¬×l G |7Hl ¬ P rl 7|¤-·
4lB 7 4F4 4l4 T |4¤ 6l|+ PrltP+-+ °v 4lB 7 4F4 4l4 T |4¤ 6l|+ PrltP+-+ °v 4lB 7 4F4 4l4 T |4¤ 6l|+ PrltP+-+ °v
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266
dyauH sa-candr Ar ka nakshat r A kham diSo bhUh mahodadhiH |
vAsudevasya vI r yeNa vidhRt Ani mahAt manaH | | (14)
"The f ir mament , along wit h t he moon, t he Sun, t he st ar s, t he sky, t he
dir ect ions, Ear t h, t he gr eat sea ar e all suppor t ed by t he valor of vAsudeva,
t he Supr eme Lor d".
Unt old benef it s have been ment ioned in pr evious Sloka-s, including moksham,
f or t hose who chant t he st ot r am wit h devot ion et c. Sr I BhaTTar point s out
t hat t her e may be t hose who, because of t heir misf or t une, may indulge in
illogical r easoning, and doubt t he above st at ement s about t he f r uit s. He
st r esses t hat t his view is incor r ect , and t her e is not hing t o doubt about t he
power and gr eat ness of bhagavAn vishNu, as descr ibed in t he cur r ent Slokam
and t he next f ew - na ayam phala ar t ha vAdah Sa' nkyah nir -bhAgyaih ku-
t Ar kikaih bhagavat -pr abhAvasya asambhAvya abhAvena at ivAda apavAdayoh
asambhavAt it i abhipr iyan, t asya t am pr abhAvam Aha.
Sr I Sa' nkar a has made t he comment wit h r egar d t o t he pur pose of t his Sloka:
' dyauh sa-candr Ar ka nakshat r A' it yAdinA st ut yasya vAsudevasya mahAt mya
kat hanena ukt AnAm phalAnAm pr Apt i vacanam yat hAr t ha kat hanam na ar t ha
vAda it i dar Sayat i | |
By t he ver se ' dyauH' et c., it is indicat ed t hat t he ef f ect s of r ecit ing t his
hymn as laid down ar e lit er ally t r ue and not mer ely glor if ying ut t er ance or
hyper bole.
Not e t hat bot h Sr I Sa' nkar a and Sr I bhaTTar make similar comment s f or t his
Slokam r ej ect ing t he posit ions of non-believer s.
A mat t er of gr ammat ical int er est is made her e by Sr I bhaTTar :
vidhRt Ani nAnAli' ngAnAm "napumsakam a-napumsakena ekavat ca asya
anyat ar asyAm"
(ashTAdhyAyI 1.2.69)
Wor ds in dif f er ent gender (f ir mament , moon, Sun, et c) occur in t he Sloka.
VidhRt Ani is a wor d in neut er gender t hat qualif ies t he wor ds in dif f er ent
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gender s. The gr ammat ical r ule st at ed says t hat t he par t iciple f or m of a
neut er ver b is put in t he neut er gender when one ver b qualif ies sever al wor ds
in dif f er ent gender s, one of which is in neut er gender .
Having t hus st at ed t hat ever yt hing f unct ions by t he power of bhagavAn, next
it is st at ed t hat He is also t heir Cont r oller .
BB ¹lB ¹¬-¤4 B4¬l ¹¬¹l¬BP · BB ¹lB ¹¬-¤4 B4¬l ¹¬¹l¬BP · BB ¹lB ¹¬-¤4 B4¬l ¹¬¹l¬BP ·
=¬ãH 46 6 7 T 7TF4 B¬¹l¬¹P + °- =¬ãH 46 6 7 T 7TF4 B¬¹l¬¹P + °- =¬ãH 46 6 7 T 7TF4 B¬¹l¬¹P + °-
sa-sur Asur a-gandhar vam sa-yakshor aga-r Akshasam |
j agad-vaSe var t at edam kRshNasya sa-car Acar am | | (15)
"This wor ld along wit h all t he sent ient and non-sent ient obj ect s, wit h gods,
asur a-s, gandhar va-s, as well as yaksha-s, ser pent s, and r Akshasa-s, is under
t he cont r ol of Sr I kRshNa".
Sr I bhaTTar not es t hat t he j oining of t he wor ds var t at a and idam int o t he
compound wor d ' vat at edam' is Ar sha pr ayogam (ancient usage); accor ding t o
st r ict gr ammat ical r ule, t he pATham should be ' var t at a idam' , alt er nat ively,
t he pATham could be ' avar t at a idam' , meaning ' t his was' .
Sr I Sa' nkar a does not pr ovide a vyAkhyAnam f or t his Slokam separ at ely.
²|-ã4l|T P+l 4 |&- Bx4 6 =l 4¬ ¤ |6-· ²|-ã4l|T P+l 4 |&- Bx4 6 =l 4¬ ¤ |6-· ²|-ã4l|T P+l 4 |&- Bx4 6 =l 4¬ ¤ |6-·
4lB 7 4ltPTl-4l=- ¬ × ¬ ׬ 94 ¬+ °° 4lB 7 4ltPTl-4l=- ¬ × ¬ ׬ 94 ¬+ °° 4lB 7 4ltPTl-4l=- ¬ × ¬ ׬ 94 ¬+ °°
indr iyANi mano buddhih sat t vam t ej o balam dhRt iH |
vAsudevAt makAnyAhuH kshet r am kshet r aj ~na eva ca | | (16)
"The sense-or gans, mind, int ellect , t he qualit y of st t va, power st r engt h,
f ir mness, as well as t he body and t he individual soul all of t hem have vAsudeva
as t heir At mA or I nner Soul. So it is st at ed (by t he SAst r a-s)".
vAsudevasya At makAni - all of t hem ar e His bodies. Sr I BhaTTar comment s
t hat t his st at e of all t hings being under t he cont r ol of vAsudeva is
par t icular ized as t he body-soul r elat ionship bet ween all obj ect s and bhagavAn
in t his Sloka.
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268
This r elat ionship bet ween t he individual soul and t he Supr eme Soul as one of
body-soul r elat ionship is a key aspect of t he viSishTAdvait a siddhAnt a.
Sr I bhaTTar comment s t hat in t his Slokam, it is point ed out t hat all t he
t at t va-s (Realit ies) ar e under t he cont r ol of bhagavAn, as declar ed by t he
SAst r a-s, which ar e t hemselves under t he cont r ol of bhagavAn. I n t he next
Slokam, it is point ed out t hat all t he SAst r a- s t hat declar e t he inj unct ions f or
t he pr act ice of r it es et c., including AcAr a t hat f or ms t he basis of all r it es, ar e
also under His cont r ol.
I n ot her wor ds, t at t va SAst r a-s as well as anushThAna SAst r a-s ar e under His
cont r ol.
B4l ¬Pl+lPl¬l¹- 9¤P 9|¹T|-96-· B4l ¬Pl+lPl¬l¹- 9¤P 9|¹T|-96-· B4l ¬Pl+lPl¬l¹- 9¤P 9|¹T|-96-·
Hl¬l¹9¤Pl ¤Pl ¤P F4 9¬ ¹¬4 6-+ °÷ Hl¬l¹9¤Pl ¤Pl ¤P F4 9¬ ¹¬4 6-+ °÷ Hl¬l¹9¤Pl ¤Pl ¤P F4 9¬ ¹¬4 6-+ °÷
sar vAgamAnAmAcAr ah pr at hamam par ikalpyat e |
AcAr a pr at hamo dhar mo dhar masya pr abhur -acyut ah | | (17)
"Right conduct is t he f or emost discipline t o be obser ved by all t he scr ipt ur es".
+94- |96¹l 7 4l- Prl¬ 6l|+ ¤l64-· +94- |96¹l 7 4l- Prl¬ 6l|+ ¤l64-· +94- |96¹l 7 4l- Prl¬ 6l|+ ¤l64-·
=ñPl=ñP ¬ 7 =¬¬l¹l4Tl T4P + °< =ñPl=ñP ¬ 7 =¬¬l¹l4Tl T4P + °< =ñPl=ñP ¬ 7 =¬¬l¹l4Tl T4P + °<
Rshayah pit ar o devAh mahAbhUt Ani dhAt avah |
j a' ngamAj a' ngamam ca idam j agat nAr AyaNodbhavam | | (18)
"All t he Sages, t he depar t ed ancest or s, t he dif f er ent gods, t he gr eat
element s, t heir ef f ect s, t he moving and t he non-moving obj ect s t hat compr ise
t he Univer se, all have t heir or igin on nAr AyaNa".
This Slokam and t he next one declar e t hat ever yt hing t hat exist s, has exist ed
and will ever exist have as t heir or igin and suppor t bhagavAn Sr I man
nAr AyaNa.
Sr I bhaTTar not es t hat anyt hing and anyone t hat is under t he inf luence and
cont r ol of dhar mam has bhagavAn as t heir or igin: dhar mAnubandhinAmapi t ad-
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udbhavat vam Aha.
Sr I bhaTTar pr ovides wor d-by-wor d explanat ion:
1. Rshayah | | manvAdayah, t asya smar t Ar ah, anushThAt Ar aSca (Manu and
ot her s; t he wr it er s of smRt i-s as well as t hose who pr act ice t hem);
2. pit ar ah, devAh | | avAnt ar a | | Ar AdhyAh | | The Manes and t he gods
who ar e t he subsidiar y divinit ies t hat ar e t o be wor shiped.
3. mahA bhUt Ani | | viyadAdI ni | | The f ive gr eat element s (air , wat er ,
f ir e, ear t h and et her )
4. dhAt avah - t at -kAr yANi, t vak car mAdI ni et Ani kar ma phala bhoga
uapakar aNAni | | skin et c., t hat ar e pr ovided as t he means of enj oyment
of t he f r uit s of kar ma
5. j a' ngama aj a' ngamam ca idam j agat | | This wor ld of beings bot h moving
and non-moving, t hat enj oy t he f r uit s of kar ma-s.
6. nAr AyaNa udbhavam | | all or iginat ed f r om nAr AyaNa.
4l ¬l ¬l+ 6¤l Bl ¹4 |4Hl- |H-9l|7TP ¬· 4l ¬l ¬l+ 6¤l Bl ¹4 |4Hl- |H-9l|7TP ¬· 4l ¬l ¬l+ 6¤l Bl ¹4 |4Hl- |H-9l|7TP ¬·
4 7l- HNl|T |4¬l+P 6tB4 =+l7 +l6 + °° 4 7l- HNl|T |4¬l+P 6tB4 =+l7 +l6 + °° 4 7l- HNl|T |4¬l+P 6tB4 =+l7 +l6 + °°
yogo j ~nAnam t at hA sA' nkhyam vidyAh SilpAdikar ma ca |
vedAh Sast r ANi vij ~nAnam et at sar vam j anAr danAt | | (19)
"The knowledge of yoga, sA' nkhya, ot her br anches of lear ning, ar t s, wor ks,
Vedas and SAst r a-s - a knowledge of all t hese spr ings f r om bhagavAn
j anAr dana".
The Cr it ical Edit ion has t he pATham "SilpAni", and Sr I bhaTTar has used t he
pATham "SilpAdi". Also, Sr I bhaTTar seems t o have used t he pATham yoga
j ~nAnam inst ead of ' yogo j ~nAnam' . The f or mer would mean ' knowledge of
yoga' spr ung f r om j anAr dana, and t he lat er would mean ' yoga and j ~nAna'
or iginat ed f r om j anAr dana.
The pr evious Slokam declar ed t hat bhagavAn is t he sour ce and or igin of all
cet ana-s and acet ana-s (sent ient and insent ient beings). This Slokam declar es
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t hat bhagavAn is t he Sour ce of all knowledge as well. Again, Sr I bhaTTar gives
wor d-by-wor d meanings.
1. yoga j ~nAnam | | yogasya j ~nAnam; j ~nAnam | | SAst r am. yogo dvi-
vidhah samAdhi yogah, kar ma yogaSca | j ~nAnam = SAst r a-s; yoga is of
t wo kinds bhakt i yoga and kar ma yoga. So yoga j ~nAnam means t he
knowledge of t he SAst r a-s r elat ed t o bhakt i yogam and kar ma yogam.
2. sA' nkhyam | | sa' nkhyayA t at t vAnAm avadhAr aNam sA' nkhyam | | The
science by which t he nat ur e of t he Realit ies is ar r ived at by means of
sankhyA or int ellect .
3. vidyAh | | vyAkar aNAdi a' nga vidyAh, dhanur , Ayur , gAndhar va
pr abhRt I ni dRshTAr t hAni upa-vidyAh - The subsidiar y br anches of
knowledge such as gr ammar , ar cher y, medicine, music, dancing et c.
(veda-s ar e consider ed t he f or emost among sciences, as we see below).
4. Silpa Adi | | Sculpt ur es, ar chit ect ur e, et c.
5. kar ma | | sar vat r a anushTheyam kar ma - Obser vance of dut ies in all
places.
6. vedAh | | pr adhAna vidyAh - The f or emost among all sciences.
7. SAst r ANi | | smRt i, it ihAsa pur ANAni| | smRt i, it ihAsa-s and pur ANa-
s.
8. sar vam et at vij ~nAnam | | all t hese SAst r a-s
9. j anAr danAt (udbhavant i) | | All t hese sciences ar e bor n of j anAr dana.
The gr eat ness of BhagavAn as r evealed by His possession of all t hings and
beings in bot h t he nit ya vibhUt i (Sr I vaikuNTham) and t he leelA vibhUt i (all
t he ot her Univer ses), is sung in t he next Slokam.
9Tl |4!T P rT 6 9 ¤1¬ 6l-4+ TH-· 9Tl |4!T P rT 6 9 ¤1¬ 6l-4+ TH-· 9Tl |4!T P rT 6 9 ¤1¬ 6l-4+ TH-·
×l-¬l Tl+ -4l-4 ¬ 6ltPl ¬ “ |4H¬ ¬-44-+ -¤ ×l-¬l Tl+ -4l-4 ¬ 6ltPl ¬ “ |4H¬ ¬-44-+ -¤ ×l-¬l Tl+ -4l-4 ¬ 6ltPl ¬ “ |4H¬ ¬-44-+ -¤
eko vishNur _mahad-bhUt am pRt hak-bhUt AnyanekaSah |
t r I n-lokAn vyApya bhUt At mA bhu' nkt e viSva-bhuk avyayah | | (20)
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"vishNu is t he unique and unpar alleled Deit y in t hat He per vades t he many,
var ious, and dif f er ent obj ect s of t he t hr ee Univer ses, and t he t hr ee wor lds of
souls.
Remaining as t he I nner Soul of ever yt hing, He pr ot ect s and enj oys t he
Univer se, and yet r emains unt ouched by t heir f oibles and def ect s".
Again Sr I bhaTTar pr ovides wor d-by-wor d meanings and int er pr et at ion.
1. ekah - svayam ekah san, Being t he Supr eme Deit y above all else
2. vyApya | | t eshAm niyama Seshit vAdibhih At mA bhavan | | By per vading,
by being t he I nner Soul of , Cont r oller of , and Mast er of
3. anekaSah pRt hak bhUt Ani - asa' nkhyeyat ayA r Upa-pr akAr a- par iNAma-
pr ayoj ana bhedena pRt hak ca st hit Ani mahAnt i bhUt Ani - The gr eat
Element s t hat ar e of count less f or ms, manner s, mut at ions, and ut ilit y
which ar e dist inct and dif f er ent f r om one anot her .
4. t r I n lokAn ca | | baddha mukt a nit yAn cet anAn | | and of t he t hr ee
wor lds of souls, namely, t he bound souls, Released souls, and Et er nal
angels.
5. viSva-bhuk | | sar vat hA par ipAlakah; and by being t he Sole Pr ot ect or of
ever yt hing in all t he Univer ses
6. t at hA' pi | | Even so,
7. avyayah | | t ad-doshaih apar AmRshTah, punaSca par a vibhUt yA | | being
unt ouched by t he f ault s of any of t he souls whose At mA He is.
8. mahad-bhUt am | | avA' ng-manasa gocar aSca bhavan | | His gr eat ness is
beyond descr ipt ion t hr ough wor ds, imaginat ion by t he mind, et c.
9. bhu' nkt e | | leelA bhoga r asam anubhavat i | | and He enj oys t he pleasur e
of Divine Spor t and Divine Bliss.
Sr I Sa' nkar a has not comment ed on t his Slokam. However , Sr I T. S.
Kr ishnamoor t hy, who has pr ovided a t r anslat ion f or Sa' nkar a bhAshyam,
pr ovides t he f ollowing t r anslat ion:
"vishNu, t he one gr eat Being, per vades innumer able individual beings and t he
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272
t hr ee wor lds; and being t he undecaying Self and enj oyer of all, He exper iences
ever yt hing (and also pr ot ect s)". He has essent ially echoed t he t r anslat ion
pr ovided by Sr I R. Anant akr ishna Sast r y.
An int er pr et at ion t hat is mor e r ef lect ive of t he advait ic philosophy is given by
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i, a r ough t r anslat ion of which f ollows:
"Lor d vishNu who per meat es ever ywher e, became mahat , t he basis f or all t he
t hr ee wor lds. Then He became many, t ook dif f er ent f or ms, and f illed all t he
wor lds wit h t hese f or ms; He is t he soul of all t hings t hat appear ed t hus. He is
enj oying t hese wor lds wit hout being dist inct f r om t hem in t he slight est way.
He ult imat ely cont ains ever yt hing wit hin Himself . (He is t he One who per f or ms
cr eat ion, pr ot ect ion, and dest r uct ion)".
Conclusion Conclusion Conclusion
This post ing f or mally concludes t his pr oj ect on Sr I vishNu sahasr a nAma t hat
adiyEn st ar t ed on May 7, 1997. Lit t le did aDiyEn expect at t hat t ime t hat it
would t ake close t o 10 year s t o complet e. What ever lit t le adiyEn knows about
our sampr adAyam, is complet ely owed t o t his ef f or t over a per iod of 10 year s.
I t was of immense benef it t o me in t aking me a t iny bit closer t o t he lif e' s
ult imat e goal. I n our sampr adAyam, our AcAr yan is our Lor d in r eal lif e.
Today is t he Sat amAna ut savam (cent enar y celebr at ion) of our gr eat AcAr yan
Sr I mad t ir ukuDant hai ANDavan, and aDiyEn is delight ed t o pr esent t his
concluding wr it e-up wit h t he sweet memor ies of t he f ew moment s in my lif e
when aDiyEn was blessed wit h his kaTAksham, and place t his wor k at t he Lot us
f eet of asmad AcAr yan Sr I r a' nga r AmAnuj a mahA deSikan.
²P F64 ¬¬46l |4!Tl -4l B + Tl|6 6P · ²P F64 ¬¬46l |4!Tl -4l B + Tl|6 6P · ²P F64 ¬¬46l |4!Tl -4l B + Tl|6 6P ·
9ó H ²¬ 6 9 69- ~ 4- 9l8 B Gl|+ ¬+ -° 9ó H ²¬ 6 9 69- ~ 4- 9l8 B Gl|+ ¬+ -° 9ó H ²¬ 6 9 69- ~ 4- 9l8 B Gl|+ ¬+ -°
imam st avam bhagavat o vishNor -vyAsena kI r t it am |
paThed-ya-icchet pur ushah Sr eyah pr Apt um sukhAni ca | | (21)
"That per son, who desir es t o obt ain supr eme bliss and t he pleasur es of t he
wor ld, should r ead t his st ot r a of bhagavAn vishNu sung by t he gr eat sage
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273

vyAsa".
Sr I bhaTTar ' s comment can be summar ized t hus: "This st ot r a sings t he pr aise
of Lor d vishNu, possessed of unlimit ed gr eat ness. The one who pr aises him
t hr ough t his st ot r a is none ot her t han Sage veda vyAsa, who has dr unk t his
gr eat ness in f ull, and who has no shor t ness of wor ds t o descr ibe t hat
gr eat ness. This gem of a Hymn has t he gr eat ness of t he One who is pr aised as
well as t he one who is pr aising Him. This wor ld t hat is f illed wit h dest it ut ion, is
eminent ly qualif ied t o benef it by t he chant ing of t his Hymn, which is capable
of r edeeming t his wor ld f r om it s dest it ut ion. Thus, ever yt hing is per f ect about
t his hymn-t he per son who is sung, t he per son who sings, and t he benef iciar y
who is qualif ied t o benef it by singing His pr aise. Ther ef or e, any per son
desir ous of supr eme Bliss or mat er ial pleasur es, whoever he may be, can r esor t
t o it ".
Some of t he or iginal wor ds used by Sr I bhaTTar in giving his summar y above
ar e: ' st ava r at nam' t o descr ibe t he vishNu sahasr a nAma st ot r am, ' mahA
dAr idRyam idam j agat ' t o descr ibe t he deplor able st at e of t his wor ld which is
st r aying away f r om dhar ma, ' nir viSa' nkah sevat Am' -- t he benef it s will be
at t ained wit hout any doubt . The Sloka it self declar es t hat bot h Sr eyas
(denot ing moksham), and t he lesser pleasur es (sukhAni ca) ar e at t ained by t he
chant ing of t his Hymn.
Sr I Sa' nkar a pr ovides t he f ollowing comment ar y f or t he Sloka:
"imam st avam it yAdinA sahasr a SakhAj ~nena sar vaj ~nena bhagavat A
kRshNadvaipAyanena sAkshAt nAr AyaNena kRt am it i sar vair eva ar t hibhih
sAdar am paThit avyam sar va phala siddhaya it i dar Sayat i"
By t he ver se beginning wit h ' imam st avam' , bhI shma indicat es t hat t his hymn
is composed by t he r ever ed kRsh dvaipAyana, t he omniscient , t he knower of
t he t housand br anches of veda, who is nAr AyaNa Himself , and hence t his hymn
is t o be r ecit ed by all wit h f ait h, in or der t o achieve all t he ends.

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274
|4H H¹P= 7 4 =¬6- 9¬4l-44P · |4H H¹P= 7 4 =¬6- 9¬4l-44P · |4H H¹P= 7 4 =¬6- 9¬4l-44P ·
¬=|-6 4 9 !T¹l¬ + 6 4l|-6 9¹l¬4P + -- ¬=|-6 4 9 !T¹l¬ + 6 4l|-6 9¹l¬4P + -- ¬=|-6 4 9 !T¹l¬ + 6 4l|-6 9¹l¬4P + --
+ + 6 4l|-6 9¹l¬4P Hl +P ²|6+ + + 6 4l|-6 9¹l¬4P Hl +P ²|6+ + + 6 4l|-6 9¹l¬4P Hl +P ²|6+
viSveSvar am aj am devam j agat ah pr abhavApyayam |
bhaj ant i ye pushkar Aksham ne t e yAnt i par Abhavam | | (22)
| | ne t e yAnt i par Abhavam oM nama it i | |
"The Lot us-eyed bhagavAn is t he bir t hless Supr eme Deit y, t he Ruler of t he
Univer se, and t he Cause of t he cr eat ion and dest r uct ion of t he Univer se.
Those who sing His pr aise will never meet wit h disr espect or discomf it ur e of
any kind".
We will f ir st look at Sr I Sa' nkar a' s comment ar y f or t his last Slokam, and
conclude wit h Sr I bhaTTar ' s wor ds of conclusion.
Sr I Sa' nkar a st r esses t he impor t ance of wor shiping Har i f or t he f ulf illment of
all t hat is desir ed, f or t he r emoval of all def iciencies in all kar ma-s per f or med
wit h benef it as t he obj ect ive, et c. He t hen point s out t hat wor ship of Har i will
best ow moksham it self - r elease f r om t he bondage of samsAr a. He concludes
by dedicat ing his bhAshyam at t he Lot us Feet of Har i.
He gives t he f ollowing Sloka-s in suppor t of his vyAkhyAnam:
pr amAdAt kur vat Am kar ma pr acyavet Adhvar eshu yat |
smar aNAdeva t ad-vishNoh sampUr Nam syAt it i Sr ut ih | |
(gar u. Pur A. 230.50)
"The Sr ut i-s say t hat any act s t hat have been car elessly per f or med, such as
ir r egular pr ocedur es in sacr if ices et c., ar e r ender ed per f ect by medit at ing on
vishNu".
(Not e t he Slokam - "kAyena vAcA manasA -- nAr AyaNayet i samar payAmi" t hat
is always chant ed at t he conclusion of any kar ma by t he f ollower s of any
sampr adAyam of t he Hindu f ait h).
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Sr I Sa' nkar a quot es anot her Slokam f r om vyAsa:
Adar eNa yat hA st aut i dhanavant am dhanecchayA |
t at hA ced-viSvakar t Ar am ko na mucyet a bandhanAt | |
"I f one pr aises t he Cr eat or of t he Univer se wit h t he same ar dor wit h which
one pr aises a r ich man t o get wealt h f r om him, would not one be r elieved f r om
t he bonds of samsAr a"
Sr I Sa' nkar a concludes his vishNu sahasr a nAma bhAshyam wit h t he f ollowing
Sloka of his own:
sahasr a nAma sambandhi vyAkhyA sar va sukhAvahA |
Sr ut i smRt i nyAya mUlA r acit A har i-pAdayoH | |
"This comment ar y of sahasr a nAma which br ings happiness t o all, and which
was wr it t en consist ent wit h t he Sr ut i, smRt i and nyAya, is dedicat ed t o Har i
(laid at His Feet )".
Sr I bhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is:
"evam svabhAvat a eva samast a-dvandva- pr at idvandvi - sakala kalyANa
guNAkar am, pr apanna pAr i j At am, puNDar I kAksham, lakshmI -pat i m,
bhagavant am bhaj amAnAnAm sa eva sar vasvam it i, t ad-sampado vAcAm
agocar Ah | kut ah sAmsAr ika- par ibhava-pr asa' ngah it i par yApt ayat i -
visveSvar am it i | | "
"bhagavan nAr AyaNa, t he Consor t of lakshmI and t he Lot us-eyed Lor d, is by
nat ur e opposed t o all kinds of unwelcome t hings (like happiness and sor r ow,
good and evil), and is t he mine of all auspicious qualit ies. He is like t he celest ial
pAr ij At a t r ee f or t hose who have r esor t ed t o Him. They consider t hat He
alone is t heir wealt h. Ther ef or e t he r iches and well being of t hose people ar e
beyond wor ds. This being t he case, wher e is t her e any occasion f or t hem f or
dishonor or disgr ace."
Sage vyAsa concludes t he Hymn wit h t he oat h r epeat ed t wice:
"na t e yAnt i par Abhavam
.. na t e yAnt i par Abhavam"
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"NEVER DO THEY MEET WI TH ANY DI SRESPECT. NEVER DO THEY MEET
WI TH ANY DI SRESPECT".
Sr I bhaTTar concludes his bhagavad guNa dar paNam wit h t he f ollowing:
asmAkam at r a ca par at r a' nca sar va duhkham
unmI lya sampadam aSesha vidhAm vidhAya |
Sr I r a' ngar Aj a mahishI sa ca vaishNavAnAm
sa' ngAt sukham saha j ayena sadA kr iyAst Am | |
"May bot h Sr I r a' nganAyaki, t he Queen Consor t of Sr I r a' ngar Aj a, along wit h
Sr I r a' ngar Aj a, r oot out all t he dist r ess her e and her eaf t er ,
conf er wealt h of all kinds on us, and always bless us wit h t he company of t he
devot ed Sr I vaishNava-s, happiness and vict or y."

| | Sr I kRshNAr paNamast u| |
Dedicat ed in all humilit y t o Lor d kRshNa.