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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES

EXAMINATIONS
Code and Name of Course:

OF

APRIL/MAY 2003

CH26B Process Dynamics and Control I

Paper:

Date and Time:

Duration:

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES: This paper has

pages and

3 hrs.

questions

Calculators may be used in this examination. They must be silent and cordless.
Calculators will be examined to ensure that they comply with these requirements. A Table with Laplaces
transform is included

Answer questions 1, 2, 3, and two of questions 4, 5, 6.


1.

A chemical process is given in Figure 1. The feed is taken from a storage tank, and the product is pre-heated
with hot oil before being sending to a CSTR. The reactions are A B C, with component B the desired
product. The reaction is exothermic. NOTE: The column C is a high pressure vessel where the output is gas on
the top and liquid at the bottom.

a. Determine the valve(s) that affect the temperature T7. Briefly explain the causal relationship;
b. Explain briefly one closed-loop control system which keeps the pressure of column ( C ) constant. Identify the
manipulated variable and the number of the valve that you want to use.
c. Identify the valve(s) that could be used to control the liquid level in the reactor.

Figure 1. Reaction process with recycle.


d. Define the following concepts: Controlled variable, manipulated variable, PID controller, poles, zeros,
transfer function.
[15 marks]
2. Derive the dynamic model (differential equation(s)) for the system in Figure 2. Linearize the model, if
necessary.
The University of the West Indies

Course Code

CH26B

2002/2003

DO NOT WRITE ON THE BACK OF THIS SHEET: USE ONE SIDE ONLY
INSTRUCTIONS: Each page of this draft must be signed by the UNIVERSITY EXAMINER. Completed forms should be handed to the Assistant
Registrar (Examinations). The EXTERNAL EXAMINER is requested to sign the draft paper and return it with comments, if any, to the Assistant
Registrar (Examinations).
...........................................
First Examiner

...........................................
University Examiner

........................................
Second Examiner

External Examiner (where applicable)

Date: 20....../......./......

Date: 20././.

page 2

a. Determine the transfer function CA(s)/T0(s) using the model.


b. Sketch a block diagram for a control loop which regulates Ca(t) by manipulating q(t).

Figure 2. Continuous stirred tank reactor.


[25 marks]

3.

a. Find the maximum value of the proportional gain for which the following process
remains stable under P-only control: Gp ( s )

1
. NOTE: Sensor and
(3s 1)( 2 s 1)( s 1)

actuator dynamics are fast enough to be ignored and their gains are lumped in other
transfer function.
b. The response of the system to unit step using the value of critical proportional gain is
shown in Figure 3. Calculate the ultimate period P u and design an ideal PID controller
based on Ziegler-Nichols method tuning parameters.
[20 marks]

The University of the West Indies

Course Code

CH26B

2002/2003

DO NOT WRITE ON THE BACK OF THIS SHEET: USE ONE SIDE ONLY
INSTRUCTIONS: Each page of this draft must be signed by the UNIVERSITY EXAMINER. Completed forms should be handed to the Assistant
Registrar (Examinations). The EXTERNAL EXAMINER is requested to sign the draft paper and return it with comments, if any, to the Assistant
Registrar (Examinations).
.........................................
First Examiner

...........................................
University Examiner

..........................................
Second Examiner

External Examiner (where applicable)

Date: 20....../......./......

Date: 20././.

page 3

1.6
1.4
1.2

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
150

155

160

165

170

175
180
Time(min)

185

190

195

200

Figure 3. Response of the system using ultimate proportional gain.


4. Sketch the root locus for G ( s)

K ( s 1)
with unity feedback:
s ( s 3.6)
2

[20 marks]

5. The Figure 5 illustrates a step test for a heat exchanger system. Determine the value of and
from the graphic and calculate the error in steady state and recognize the type of the
function.
1.4
1.2
1

c(t)

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

The University of the West Indies

Course Code

5
Time

CH26B

10

2002/2003

DO NOT WRITE ON THE BACK OF THIS SHEET: USE ONE SIDE ONLY
INSTRUCTIONS: Each page of this draft must be signed by the UNIVERSITY EXAMINER. Completed forms should be handed to the Assistant
Registrar (Examinations). The EXTERNAL EXAMINER is requested to sign the draft paper and return it with comments, if any, to the Assistant
Registrar (Examinations).
.........................................
First Examiner

...........................................
University Examiner

..........................................
Second Examiner

External Examiner (where applicable)

Date: 20....../......./......

Date: 20././.

page 4

Figure 5. Heat exchanger step response.


[20 marks]
6. The model used to predict concentration of the product, Cb in an isothermal CSTR will be formulated
in this exercise. The reaction occurring in the reactor is AB with ra=-VkCa. The concentration of
component A in the feed is Ca0 and there is no component B in the feed. The assumptions for this
problem are: Constant flow rates, constant volume, and heat of reaction is equal to zero. Get the
transfer function Cb(s) vs Ca0(s).

Figure 6. Isothermal continuous stirred-tank reactor.


Use the following numerical values: k=1h-1, F=2 L/h, V=1 L and Ca0=6 mol/L. Estimate the
behavior of the system and calculate and when you apply a unit step to C a0. Derive the
response of the system when a pure dead time of 2 time units is included (=2).
[20 marks]
END OF QUESTION PAPER

The University of the West Indies

Course Code

CH26B

2002/2003

DO NOT WRITE ON THE BACK OF THIS SHEET: USE ONE SIDE ONLY
INSTRUCTIONS: Each page of this draft must be signed by the UNIVERSITY EXAMINER. Completed forms should be handed to the Assistant
Registrar (Examinations). The EXTERNAL EXAMINER is requested to sign the draft paper and return it with comments, if any, to the Assistant
Registrar (Examinations).
.........................................
First Examiner

...........................................
University Examiner

..........................................
Second Examiner

External Examiner (where applicable)

Date: 20....../......./......

Date: 20././.