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STATESOFMATTER

1.Thisquestionisaboutthephysicalchemistryofgases,withparticularemphasisonthe
inertgasargon.Argonexistsintheatmosphereassingleatoms.
(a)Statetwooftheassumptionsofthekinetictheoryasappliedtoaninertgas.
(i)..................................................................................................................................................
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(ii).................................................................................................................................................
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(b)Howmanyatomsofargonarepresentinonemoleofthegas?
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(c)Youaretocalculatethepercentageofthevolumeoccupiedbytheatomsthemselvesin
onemoleofargonatroomtemperatureandpressure.
(i)UsetheDataBooklettocalculatethevolumeofoneatomofargon.

(ii)Useyouranswerto(c)(i)tocalculatethevolumeofonemoleofargonatoms.

(iii)Statethevolumeoccupiedbyonemoleofargon(assumeittobehaveasanidealgas)at
roomtemperatureandpressure.
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(iv)Whatpercentageofthisvolumeisoccupiedbytheatomsthemselves?

(v)Explainhowyouranswerto(c)(iv)justifiesoneofyourassumptionsin(a).

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(d) Argonisusedtofillelectriclightbulbs.Thesehaveafinefilamentofametalwire,
usuallytungsten,whichglowswhitehotfromitselectricalresistancetothecurrent.
Suggestwhyargon,ratherthanair,isusedtofillelectriclightbulbs.
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2.(a) Theidealgasequationis pV = nRT.Explainasfullyasyoucanthemeaningofthe
followingterms,andgivetheunitsforeachtocorrespondwiththevalueofRgiveninthe
DataBooklet.
(i)

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(ii)

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(iii)

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(c)(i)Whenanevacuatedglassbulbofvolume63.8cm3isfilledwithagasat24Cand99.5
kPa,themassincreasesby0.103g.Deducewhetherthegasisammonia,nitrogenorargon.

(ii) Explainwhyammoniaisthemostlikelyofthesethreegasestodeviatefromidealgas
behaviour.
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3. Theunsaturatedhydrocarbonethyne(acetylene),C2H2,iswidelyusedinoxyacetylene
torchesforcuttingandweldingmetals.Inthetorch,ethyneisburnedinoxygentoproducea
flamewithatemperatureof3400K.
(a)Ethyneisalinearmoleculewithatriplebond,CC,betweenthetwocarbonatoms.
Drawadotandcrossdiagramofanethynemolecule.

(b) Whenusedforcuttingorwelding,ethyneistransportedincylinderswhichcontainthe
gasunderpressure.Atypicalcylinderhasavolumeof76dm 3 andcontainsethynegasat
1515kPapressureatatemperatureof25C.
Usethegeneralgasequation,pV=nRT,tocalculatetheamount,inmoles,ofethyneinthis
cylinder.

(c) In some countries, ethyne is manufactured from calcium carbide, CaC2, which is
producedbyheatingquicklimeandcoketogetherat2300K.
CaO+3C=CaC2+CO

When water is added to the CaC2, calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, and ethyne, C2H2, are
produced.
(i)Constructabalancedequationfortheformationofethynefromcalciumcarbide.
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(ii)Usethisequationandyouranswertopart(b)tocalculatethemassofCaC2whichwill
reactwithanexcessofwatertoproduceenoughethynetofill100cylindersofthegas.

4Anorganiccompound,E,hasthefollowingcompositionbymass:
C,48.7%;H,8.1%;O,43.2%.
(a)CalculatetheempiricalformulaofE.

(b)Whenvaporisedinasuitableapparatus,0.130gofEoccupiedavolumeof58.0cm3at
127Cand1.00105Nm2.
mRT
(i)Usetheexpression pv= Mr
tocalculateMrofE,
wheremisthemassofE.

(ii)HencecalculatethemolecularformulaofE.

5.Bicyclesmaybecarriedoncommercialairliners.Whencarriedonairliners,bicyclesare
placedintheluggagehold.Thisisapartoftheaircraftwhich,inflight,willhavedifferent
temperaturesandairpressuresfromthoseatsealevel.
Thisquestionconcernsthechangeinpressureinaninflatedbicycletyrefromwhenitisat
sealeveltowhenitisintheholdofanairlinerinflight.
(a)Atsealevelandatemperatureof20Caninflatedbicycletyrecontains710cm3ofairat
aninternalpressureof6x105Pa.
UsethegeneralgasequationPV=nRTtocalculatetheamount,inmoles,ofairinthetyreat
sealevel.

Thesamebicycle,withitstyresinflatedatsealevelasdescribedin(d)above,isplacedinthe
luggageholdofanairliner.Ataheightof10000m,thetemperatureintheluggageholdis5
Candtheairpressureis2.8x104Pa.
(e)Assumingthevolumeofthetyredoesnotchange,useyouranswerto(d)tocalculate
thepressureinsidethetyreataheightof10000m.

6.Thekinetictheoryofgasesisusedtoexplainthelargescale(macroscopic)propertiesof
gasesbyconsideringhowindividualmoleculesbehave.
(a)Statetwoconditionsunderwhichthebehaviourofarealgasapproachesthatofanideal
gas.
(i).................................................................................................................................................
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(b)Placethefollowinggasesindecreasingorderofidealbehaviour.
ammonia,neon,nitrogen
mostideal.....................................................................................................leastideal
Explainyouranswer.
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(c)Byusingthekineticmolecularmodel,explainwhyaliquideventuallybecomesagasas
thetemperatureisincreased.
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