You are on page 1of 15

LaChance, McGinnis, Nguyen 1

Alexis LaChance, Amber McGinnis, Kyle Nguyen


National History Day
January 14, 2015
Works Cited
Primary Sources
Alpha Phi Alpha Pledges at Lincoln University. Nu1912. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.nu1912.org/nu-chapter-history.html>. This photograph depicts Marshall
with his fraternity, Alpha Phi Alpha from Lincoln University. This is important to show
readers how Marshall was involved with Civil Rights groups from a young age.
The Amendment That Freed U.S.All; 13th Amendment. 2011. Modern American History. Web. 28
Nov. 2014. <http://blogs.baruch.cuny.edu/his1005spring2011/tag/civil-war/>. This is a
photograph of the official thirteenth amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The Thirteenth
Amendment detailed the abolishment on slavery, which was an important step in the
beginning to the Civil Rights Movement.
"Attorneys for Negro Plaintiffs." Library of Virginia. Library of Virginia, n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.lva.virginia.gov/exhibits/brown/whatwas.htm>. This is a primary source
because it is a picture of Thurgood Marshall and some other plaintiffs that worked on the
case. We used this picture on our Brown v. Board of Education to help to show some of
the plaintiffs working on the case.
Black/White & Brown: Brown Versus The Board of Education of Topeka. 2014. GPB. Web. 1
Dec. 2014. <http://www.gpb.org/blackwhiteandbrown>. This photograph shows black
and white children in the same school. We used this picture as a Brown v. Board of
Education button to reflect the goal of the verdict in the case.
"Brief for Appellants." Library of Congress. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/brown-brown.html>. This primary source shows the
document listing the five appellants for the Brown v. Board case. This case was a pivotal
event in Marshall's career.

LaChance, McGinnis, Nguyen 2


Bubley, Esther. "A Sign at the Greyhound Bus Station." Library of Congress. Lib. of Cong., 16
Jan. 2013. Web. 13 Jan. 2015. <http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/085_disc.html>. This
photograph depicts bus station sign pointing towards the all-colored waiting room. This
source was one of many pictures we utilized to express and show the reality of public
segregation in the lives of American people after the signing of the Emancipation
Proclamation during the early Civil Rights Movement.
Carpenter, Francis Bicknell. First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation before Lincoln's
Cabinet. 1864. White House Historical Association. Web. 28 Nov. 2014.
<http://www.whitehousehistory.org/whha_classroom/classroom_documents-1863.html>.
This a painting depicting the reading of The Emancipation Proclamation. This was an
important event in our timeline of the early civil rights movement.
Charles Hamilton Houston. Portraits of a City: The Scurlock Photographic Studio's Legacy to
Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Institution, n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2014.
<http://amhistory.si.edu/archives/scurlock/about_the_scurlocks/notables/Houston.htm>.
Charles Houston was a crucial influence on Marshall when he receiving his education
and also served as a role model. This photograph depicts an important mentor in
Marshall's growth and road to leadership.
Charles Houston. N.d. Lib. of Cong. Library of Congress. Web. 26 Nov. 2014.
<http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2002706885/>. This photograph of Charles Houston
depicts him during his influential period. We used this as a button for Marshall's legal
influences.
Civil Rights History Project. Cecilia Suyat Marshall Oral History Interview Conducted by
Emilye Crosby in Washington, D.C., 2013-06-30. Library of Congress. N.p., n.d. Web. 18
Oct. 2014. <http://www.loc.gov/item/afc2010039_crhp0097/>. This is a primary source
because it is an interview with Thurgood Marshall's wife, Cecelia Suyat Marshall. This

LaChance, McGinnis, Nguyen 3


was an important source because we got to see what Cecelia had to say about Thurgood's
work, segregation, and the different court cases that she experienced.
Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. 28 Aug. 1963. Photograph. Library of Congress,
Washington D.C. This photograph show African Americans protesting for equal rights
during the March on Washington. The March on Washington was an important step in
the Civil Rights Movement.
Discussing the Supreme Court's Rulings May 20. 20 May 1963. Library of Congress. Library of
Congress. Web. 30 Nov. 2014. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/00651536/>. This
photograph depicts Jack Greenberg working at the Legal Defense Fund. This
organization was founded by Marshall and Greenberg was one of his successors.
Early Students of the Colored High and Training School. VideoVrit. VideoVrit, 2008. Web. 5
Jan. 2015. <http://www.videoverite.tv/pages/filmdouglastimeline.html>. Marshall
attended an African American high school. This shows how Marshall dealt with
segregation from an early age.
"Frederick Douglass High School." Public School Review. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.publicschoolreview.com/school_ov/school_id/35876>. In the Law education
section, we utilized this quote about the current demographics of his former high school,
Fredrick Douglass High School. It shows the high amount of the African American
population in this school.
Frederick Douglass High School Student Demographic. Movoto. Movoto Real Estate, n.d. Web.
1 Dec. 2014. <http://www.movoto.com/schools/baltimore-md/frederick-douglass-highschool-240009000209/>. This pie chart depicts the high school demographic today. It
shows how it is similar to the demographic when Marshall attended.
Hon. Thurgood Marshall. The Trial Lawyer Hall of Fame. Temple University, 2014. Web. 8 Oct.
2014. <http://www.triallawyerhalloffame.org/inductee/thurgood-marshall/>. This image

LaChance, McGinnis, Nguyen 4


of Thurgood Marshall introduces the viewer to the main focus of our project. We picked
this picture to show a depiction of what he looked like.
Howard Rabble at Hampton. 1914. Washington D.C. Howard University. Web. 1 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.howard.edu/explore/history.htm>. This photograph depicts Howard
University students in 1914. Marshall attended Howard to achieve his law education.
Johnson, Lyndon B., President. "Thurgood Marshall's Nomination into the Supreme Court."
Letter to Thurgood Marshall. 13 June 1967. TS. National Archives. The National
Archives and Records Administration, Washington. 306369. This is a picture of the
original document nominating Marshall into the Supreme Court by President Lyndon
Johnson. It was a huge step in Marshall's career, becoming the first African American
supreme court justice.
John W. Davis Discussing Brown v. Board of Education. Separate Is Not Equal: Brown v. Board
of Education. Smithsonian Institution, n.d. Web. 7 Dec. 2014.
<http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/5-decision/defenders.html>. This
photograph shows the Defenders of segregation in the case Brown v. Board of Education.
This group, led by John Davis believed that schools could be separate and equal.
Justice Thurgood Marshall. N.d. My-ecoach.com. Web. 6 Dec. 2014. <http://myecoach.com/modules/custombuilder/popup_printable.php?id=14794>. This photograph
shows Marshall in his Supreme Court Justice robe. He was involved in many cases over
his long career.
Justice Thurgood Marshall Speaks with President Lyndon Johnson on August 1967. CNN. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 8 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.cnn.com/2011/POLITICS/02/24/thurgood.marshall.court/>. This photograph
depicts Marshall working as a Justice speaking with President Lyndon Johnson. It was a
struggle in his early years as a lawyer because there were not many African American
lawyers in his profession.

LaChance, McGinnis, Nguyen 5


Little Rock Nine. N.d. Marquette University. Web. 22 Nov. 2014.
<http://www.marquette.edu/littlerocknine/>. The Little Rock Nine, shown in this
photograph, are a group of students that were one of the first to attend an all white school.
They were inspired by Marshall's work, as they were activists after him.
Lyndon B. Johnson. N.d. National Archives. Washington, D.C. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 6
Dec. 2014. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/12125/Lyndon-B-Johnson>.
Lyndon B. Johnson was the president who nominated Marshall as a Supreme Court
Justice. This photograph depicts him in the years of his presidency.
March on Washington. 28 Aug. 1963. Archives Foundation. National Association of the Deaf.
Web. 30 Nov. 2014. <http://nad.org/news/2013/8/nad-celebrates-50th-anniversary-civilrights-movement>. This photograph from 1963 is showing a depiction from the March on
Washington. The March on Washington was an important step in the civil rights
movement.
Martin Luther King, Jr. N.d. The Think Tank. Web. 22 Nov. 2014.
<http://thinktank.uchicago.edu/blog/2014/1/15/the-purpose-of-education-according-to-drmartin-luther-king-jr>. This photograph shows Martin Luther King Jr. in the peaceful
manner he is known for. He is a very important member of the Civil Rights Movement
after Marshall.
Middle-Aged Thurgood Marshall. America's Story. Lib. of Cong., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2014.
<http://www.americaslibrary.gov/aa/marshallthrgd/aa_marshallthrgd_subj.html>. This is
a photograph of Marshall taken in his middle-aged years. We used this to show our
viewers how Marshall looked when he did much of his main work and how he changed
as he grew up.
NAACP Legal Defense Fund Attorneys, 1962. 1962. Blackpast.org. Web. 7 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.blackpast.org/aah/naacp-legal-defense-and-educational-fund-founded1940>. The Legal Defense Fund is an organization founded by Marshall that still

LaChance, McGinnis, Nguyen 6


continues today. This photgraph shows members of the LDF years after Marshall
established it.
O'Halloran, Thomas J. School Integration, Barnard School, Washington, D.C. 27 May 1955. Lib.
of Cong. Library of Congress. Web. 18 Oct. 2014.
<http://blogs.loc.gov/picturethis/2012/05/brown-v-board-of-education-getting-thepicture-one-year-later/>. This photograph shows a school in Washington D.C. in 1955,
one year after the case Brown V. Board of Education. We used this to show the effects of
Marshall's cases and how integration began very soon after, although slowly.
Older Thurgood Marshall. Osu.edu. Ohio State U., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2014.
<http://u.osu.edu/mcncomm3404blog/>. This photograph depicts Marshall at an older
age. We wanted to show how he changed through the
years.
Portrait of Thurgood Marshall. GQ. Cond Nast, 18 Feb. 2012. Web. 13 Jan. 2015.
<http://www.gq.com/style/blogs/the-gq-eye/2012/02/your-morning-shot-thurgoodmarshall.html>. This close-up portrait photograph of Thurgood Marshall proved useful in
helping show readers what he looked like, making him a more real and personal figure.
"Pupils Gather with Their Teacher in Front of the Diboll School House." Texas Beyond History.
The History Center, Diboll, 1907. Web. 26 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/aldridge/images/blackschool.html#>. This
photograph, taken in 1907, depicts the segregation throughout schools. We used this
photo to show our reader how Marshall played a significant role in integrating U.S.
schools.
Rosa Parks. N.d. Bio. Web. 22 Nov. 2014. <http://www.biography.com>. This website gave us
information on Rosa Parks, an important civil rights activist that came after Marshall.

LaChance, McGinnis, Nguyen 7


This shows that Marshall inspired Civil Rights activists after he did his work to continue
working for the same cause.
Segregated Fountains. N.d. Johnson's Legacy. Web. 29 Nov. 2014.
<http://ows.edb.utexas.edu/site/marys-site/social>. This is a photograph taken before
Marshall did his work. Segregated facilities, like water fountains, were limited to either
African Americans or whites. This photograph shows the reader how Marshall's
leadership changed the way the U.S. was run.
Segregation Signs. 2013. UMBC. Web. 4 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.umbc.edu/cadvc/foralltheworld/section1/segregation.php>. This photograph
shows a sign specifically used to distinguish between white or black facilities when
segregation was legal. This shows how Marshall was a big reason segregation was
abolished.
Shahn, Ben. "Sign on a Restaurant." Library of Congress. Lib. of Cong., 16 Jan. 2013. Web. 13
Jan. 2015. <http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/085_disc.html>. This photograph depicts
restaurant sign bearing the words "We Cater to White Trade Only." This source was one
of many pictures we utilized to express and show the reality of public segregation in the
lives of American people after the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation during the
early Civil Rights Movement.
Theatre in Leland, Mississippi. June 1937. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. Library of
Congress. Web. 30 Nov. 2014. <http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/fsa.8b32104/>. This
photograph taken in 1937 depicts a typical segregated facility. Segregated facilities like
these existed before Marshall did his work in the Civil Rights Movement, so this helps us
show his legacy.
Thurgood Marshall and his Team for Brown v. Board of Education. Legal Defense Fund.
NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, n.d. Web. 7 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.naacpldf.org/case/brown-v-board-education>. For Marshall's main case,

LaChance, McGinnis, Nguyen 8


Brown v. Board, many other lawyers contributed to the effort. This photo shows the legal
team for this case.
Thurgood Marshall and the Integrationists' Legal Team. Columbia Law School Magazine.
Columbia Law School, n.d. Web. 7 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.law.columbia.edu/magazine/interactive/18148/a-common-purpose-imagegallery>. Marshall worked with others, and his teamwork helped him in his work. This
photograph shows Marshall and the rest of the legal team for his main case, Brown v.
Board.
Thurgood Marshall as a Child. Bio.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2014.
<http://www.biography.com/people/thurgood-marshall-9400241/videos/thurgoodmarshall-early-life-1468483803#related-video-gallery>. This photograph was chosen to
show Marshall when he was a child. His personality traits were shown at an early age.
Thurgood Marshall Between 1935 and 1940. 1935. Photograph. Library of Congress. This
photograph of Marshall shows him during his early career. This shows readers how he
looked in his prime.
Thurgood Marshall during his Earlier Cases. The New Yorker. N.p., 2 May 2014. Web. 8 Dec.
2014. <http://www.newyorker.com/books/double-take/letter-from-the-archive-a-journeywith-thurgood-marshall>. This photograph shows Marshall working. We used this to
show Marshall during his early cases.
Thurgood Marshall Memorial Statue. Maryland State Archives. Maryland State Archives, 21
June 2006. Web. 9 Nov. 2014.
<http://msa.maryland.gov/msa/stagser/s1259/121/6259/html/0001.html>. A way people
remember and live in Marshall's legacy is through this memorial statue in Maryland. We
used this photo of it to show in his legacy.
Walter White. 1942. Brittanica Online. Web. 1 Dec. 2014.
<http://kids.britannica.com/comptons/art-165122/Walter-Francis-White-in-1942>. This

LaChance, McGinnis, Nguyen 9


photograph depicts Walter White. He was an important civil rights activist who was the
executive secretary of the NAACP.
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois. 2009. naacp.org. Web. 1 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.naacp.org/pages/naacp-history-w.e.b.-dubois>. This photograph depicts
Wiliam Du Bois. He was an important civil rights activist who led the NAACP before
Marshall.
Wolcott, Marion Post. "Negro Man Entering Movie Theater by 'Colored' Entrance." Library of
Congress. Lib. of Cong., 16 Jan. 2013. Web. 13 Jan. 2015.
<http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/085_disc.html>. This photograph depicts an all-colored
theater from the 1930's. This source was one of many pictures we utilized to express and
show the reality of public segregation in the lives of American people after the signing of
the Emancipation Proclamation during the early Civil Rights Movement.
Secondary Sources
Aldred, Lisa, and Coretta Scott King. Thurgood Marshall: Supreme Court Justice. Philladelphia:
Chelsea House, 1990. Print. This source was a book that we used to find information on
Marshall's early life, and more specifically, his early work such as the difficulties he
faced as a young African American lawyer. The knowledge of the influences that
Marshall had during his early life helped us to understand how he became such great
leader.
"Alpha History." Nu1912. Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.nu1912.org/alpha-phi-alpha-history.html>. This secondary source informed
us about the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, a group Marshall was a part of at Lincoln
University. This group was one of Marshall's influences to begin a law career, so
therefore was an influential part of proving his leadership.
"Biographies of the Robes." PBS: Public Broadcasting Station. Educational Broadcasting, Dec.
2006. Web. 13 Jan. 2015.

LaChance, McGinnis, Nguyen 10


<http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/robes_marshall.html>. This source
provided us with the ways Marshall revolutionized the U.S. Supreme Court. As the first
African American judge, he brought the ideas of fairly representing social minorities and
was a dedicated civil libertarian.
"A Brief History." Alpha Phi Alpha. Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.alpha-phi-alpha.com/index.php>. Marshall was a member of the Alpha Phi
Alpha Fraternity at Howard University. This was important for him to surround himself
with others who were working for a similiar cause.
Brown Foundation for Educational Equity, Excellence, and Research. Brown v. Board Journey to
Freedom and Equality. Topeka: Brown Foundation, n.d. Print. We received this pamphlet
along with other documents and information from The Brown Foundation. This
document summarizes the timeline of integral moments in the Civil Rights Movement.
Charles H. Houston Biography. Charles Hamiliton Houston Institute for Race and Justice.
Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race & Justice, 2013. Web. 26 Nov. 2014.
<http://www.charleshamiltonhouston.org/charles-hamilton-houston/>. This website
contained information about Charles Houston's life. He was an influential mentor and
teacher.
Christophe, Kevin, and Dan A. Biddle. "Profile and Timeline of Thurgood Marshall." African
American Heritage Sourcebook: A Tribute to Thurgood Marshall. Sacramento: Progress
Consulting, 2002. 2:1-2:8. PDF file. This source included several of Marshall's early
cases that he argued. We used this information to document his early cases.
Civil Rights Cases of 1883. PBS. Educational Broadcasting, 2002. Web. 4 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_uncivil.html>. This picture is a
secondary source because it is a digital picture of a quote. We used this picture on the
Timeline page to help better understand the time period that was the Civil Rights
Movement.

LaChance, McGinnis, Nguyen 11


"Civil Rights Chronology." The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights. The
Leadership Conference Education Fund, 2014. Web. 28 Nov. 2014.
<http://www.civilrights.org/resources/civilrights101/chronology.html>. This website
showed the order of several events that occurred in that time period. We used this
information for the timeline.
"Civil Rights Movement." Encyclopedia.com. HighBeam Research, 2005. Web. 4 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Civil_Rights_Movement.aspx>. We used this
source to help support our claim that the people of the Civil Rights Movement were in
need of a new leader after the assassination of President Lincoln.
"Civil Rights Movement." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 13 Jan. 2015.
<http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-rights-movement>.
Civil Rights Timeline. N.d. Visionary Project. Web. 6 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.visionaryproject.org/education/>. This image reflects the civil rights
timeline. We thought it made an interesting button to introduce our timeline.
Friedman, Michael Jay. "Enlisting the Courts in the Civil Rights Fight." IIP Digital. U.S.
Department of State, 1 May 2008. Web. 27 Nov. 2014.
<http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/publication/2008/05/20080501212358eaifas0.
4675823.html#axzz3KC7p3CgI>.
"History." LDF. NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, 2014. Web. 30 Nov. 2014.
<http://www.naacpldf.org/history>. The LDF is a civil rights organization founded by
Marshall. This website gave us information about the work they handle.
Howard University. N.d. howard.edu. Web. 26 Nov. 2014.
<http://www.howard.edu/newsroom/AboutUs.htm>. This photograph is a picture of
Howard University which was founded in 1867. This is where Marshall attended for his
law education.
Interview with Jack Greenberg. Erin Miller, 22 Feb. 2010. Web. 8 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.scotusblog.com/2010/02/podcast-with-jack-greenberg/>. This audio clip

LaChance, McGinnis, Nguyen 12


from Jack Greenberg relates to the legacy of the case Brown v. Board. It shows the
positive affects of Marshall's work.
"Martin Luther King, Jr." History. A&E Television Networks, 2014. Web. 5 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/martin-luther-king-jr>. Martin Luther King
Jr. was an influential Civil Rights Activist after Marshall. This website gave us
information about his work.
McWhorter, Diane. A Dream of Freedom: The Civil Rights Movement from 1954 to 1958. New
York: Scholastic, 2004. Print. This book gave us information about many Civil Rights
activists and events in Marshall's time, as well as quotes written by Diane McWhorter. A
Dream of Freedom presented information regarding the entire time period Marshall lived
in.
"Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956)." Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Global Freedom
Struggle. The King Center, n.d. Web. 1 Jan. 2015. <http://mlkkpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_montgomery_bus_boycott
_1955_1956/>. This website gave us information about the Montgomery Bus Boycott, an
important event in the Civil Rights Movement after Marshall. We used a quote from this
website giving the basic information about the boycott.
"NAACP Logo." NAACP Tri-State. NAACP Tri-State Conference, n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2014.
<http://naacptristateinu.org>. This picture depicts the logo for the Legal Defense Fund,
the organization founded by Marshall. We used this when describing Marshall's main
work with the NAACP.
"NAACP: W.E.B. Du Bois." NAACP. National Association for the Advancement of Colored
People, 2014. Web. 7 Dec. 2014. <http://www.naacp.org/pages/naacp-history-w.e.b.dubois>. W.E.B Du Bois was one of the founders of the NAACP, the organization
Marshall eventually led. We used this website to present information about some of Du
Bois' accomplishments.

LaChance, McGinnis, Nguyen 13


"The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow." PBS. Educational Broadcasting, n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events.html>. We used this source to find
information about the early Civil Rights movement, and the effect of segregation after the
abolishment of slavery. This source was extremely useful in our section about how
Marshall changed the Civil Rights Movement for the better, as well as impacted the fight
for integration.
"Separate Is Not Equal: Brown v. Board of Education." The National Museum of American
History. Smithsonian Institution, n.d. Web. 8 Dec. 2014.
<http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/5-decision/segregation-argument.html>.
This webpage gave us information on the segregationists arguement on Marshall's main
case, Brown v. Board. They believed that all facilities should be separate but equal.
Somervill, Barbara A. Brown v. Board of Education: The Battle for Equal Education.
Chanhassen: Child's World, 2005. Print. Segregation was the main issue that Marshall
strived to eliminate throughout his life. This book gave us information about the
discrimination against African Americans.
"Supreme Court Justices: Thurgood Marshall." Laws.com. Laws.com, 2013. Web. 5 Dec. 2014.
<http://supreme-court.laws.com/thurgood-marshall>. This website gave us information
about Marshall's work as a Supreme Court Justice. We used this website for our page on
one of Marshall's main accomplishments; the fact that he was the first African American
U.S. Supreme Court Justice.
"Thurgood Marshall Appointed to Supreme Court." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d.
Web. 13 Jan. 2015. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/thurgood-marshallappointed-to-supreme-court>. We utilized this source when conveying the leadership that
Marshall had as a part of the Supreme Court. He challenged discrimination on any terms
and stressed the importance of doing so to others during his service.

LaChance, McGinnis, Nguyen 14


"Thurgood Marshall Biography." Bio.com. Ed. Laura Grimm, Leanne French, and Eudie Pak.
A&E Television Networks, 2014. Web. 9 Oct. 2014.
<http://www.biography.com/people/thurgood-marshall-9400241#synopsis>. Marshall had
a very interesting early life, from his family life to his education, that affected his career
as an adult. We used this website to get basic information about Marshall and mostly his
early life.
"Thurgood Marshall Confirmed as Supreme Court Justice." History.com. A&E Television
Networks, n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2015. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/thurgoodmarshall-confirmed-as-supreme-court-justice>. This webpage gave further clarification
on Marshall's work as an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. He was a leader
and strong advocate of non-discrimination, especially of minorities, and he left this
impression on the institution of the Court.
Thurgood Marshall - NAACP Legal Defense Fund. Bio.com. A&E Television Networks, 2014.
Web. 4 Dec. 2014. <http://www.biography.com/people/thurgood-marshall9400241/videos/thurgood-marshall-naacp-legal-defense-fund-1468483876>. This video
was used to find information about Marshall's work with the Legal Defense Fund. The
LDF, as it is called, is an organization founded by Marshall with the goal of giving equal
rights to students of all races.
Thurgood Marshall - The Brown vs. Board of Education Case. Bio.com. A&E Television
Networks, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2014. <http://www.biography.com/people/thurgoodmarshall-9400241/videos/thurgood-marshall-the-brown-vs-board-of-education-case1467971633#personal-life>. This source was extremely useful in determining the
leadership role that Marshall played during his case, Brown v. Board of Education. A
section of this video included an interview excerpt of Jack Greenberg, who worked with

LaChance, McGinnis, Nguyen 15


Marshall and was able to describe how he rallied a group of professionals with different
skills to formulate the argument for Brown.
U.S. Postage Stamp of Thurgood Marshall. United States History. u-s-history.com, n.d. Web. 28
Nov. 2014. <http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1668.html>. This is a picture of a
postage stamp of Marshall. We used this to show how people honor him today and that
his legacy still lives on.
"Walter White Biography." Bio.com. Ed. Laura Grimm, Leanne French, and Eudie Pak. A&E
Television Networks, 2014. Web. 1 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.biography.com/people/walter-white-9529708#naacp-leader>. This website
gave us the basic information of the executive secretary of the NAACP, Walter White. He
was a leader for the NAACP that inspired Marshall to join the same organization years
later.