1234ty Securing Ubuntu/Ubuntu Hardening Guide Ive built this up over a while as part of some personal documentation

for work use and figured it may be of use to other people. I have no idea where half this came from, but if you recognize some tips of yours contact me at admin at matthewlye dot com and ill add some credits to this, I'm sure most of the tips are widely documented. A more regularly updated version can be found here: http://www.matthewlye.com/index.php/ubuntu-sec For more general tips and ideas check the Ubuntu Security by that genius bodhi.zazen at http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=765421 First things first if you just want something quick and fast here are the big three:

Reconfiguring shared memory Load your favorite text editor, open the file "/etc/fstab" and add the following line of code: ทำำ แล้วอยู่ในเอกสำรของ Ubuntu www.ubuntuclub.com ในเว็บ

เอกสำรภำษำไทย · tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults,ro 0 0 Disabling SSH root login Load your favorite text editor, open the file "/etc/ssh/sshd_config" and add change the following line of code: ทำำแล้วเชูนกัน เป็ นเอกสำรภำษำไทย · PermitRootLogin yes to PermitRootLogin no Limiting access to the "su" program (this is done by default in Ubuntu) *****MAKE SURE YOU ARE PART OF THE ADMIN GROUP**** Open the terminal by clicking "Applications" selecting

"Accessories" and choosing "Terminal." From there enter the commands: ทำำแล้วเชูนกันเอกสำรภำษำไทย sudo chown root:admin /bin/su sudo chmod 04750 /bin/su System/Server Hardening Checklist Here is the larger recommended list (although most are not necessary unless your looking at a server or lab environments). 1. Disk Partitions and Mounting 1. Separate /home, /tmp, /var/tmp from /root partitions (If only if the machine has frequent access from general user except administrator). 2. Change mount options in /etc/fstab to limit user access on appropriate filesystems. · Using noexec instead prevents execution of

binaries on a file system This is not good if you have programs to be executed Data partitions are good for this. Its used often for partitions serving Apache. · Using nosuid will prevent the setuid bit from having effect. SUID stands for Set User ID. This means that if the SUID bit is set for any application then your user ID would be set as that of the owner of application/file rather than the current user, while running that application. That means in case I have an application whose owner is ' root ' and it has its SUID bit set, then when I run this application as a normal user, that application would still run as root. Since the SUID bit tells Linux that the the User ID root is set for this application and whenever this application executes it must execute as if root was

executing it (since root owns this file). Disabling this for a drive prevents this operation. · The nodev option prevents use of device files on the filesystem. This option would be recommended for CDs and NTFS file systems generally speaking. But it can have options to lock down a system preventing breaching by simply creating hda1 or sda1 devices that are writable by all. 2. Physical Security Typically used in lab environments or where a server in not in a completely secured location. 1. Configure BIOS. · Disable booting from CDs/DVDs, floppies, and external devices. · Set BIOS password to protect the settings.

2. Set a password for the GRUB bootloader. · Generate a password hash using the command / /usr/sbin/grub-md5-crypt. Add the hash to the first line of /boot/grub/menu.lst as follows: password --md5 passwordhash · Remove rescue-mode boot section from /boot/grub/menu.lst 3. Keep Software Up to Date Upgrade through the Ubuntu Repository Network to apply upgrade automatically. Security updates should be applied as soon as possible. Create the file apt.cron, make it executable, place it in /etc/cron.daily or /etc/cron.weekly, and ensure that it reads as follows: #!/bin/sh /usr/bin/apt-get update This can have a side effect of breaking some

dependencies. 4. Detecting listening network ports & Closing open ports and services Detecting listening network ports For a list of network ports that are open you can use the following commands: # netstat -tulp or lsof -i -n | egrep 'COMMAND| LISTEN|UDP' or just a port scanner (nmap) 9 ด่วูำมี Service อะไรบ้ำง Closing open ports and services To get a list of running services you can execute the following command: apt-get install sysv-rc-conf sysv-rc-conf --list | grep on ทำำเพื่อด่วูำเรำเปิ ดกำร ทำำงำน พอร์ตอะไรบ้ำง To disable a running service you can execute the command:

sysv-rc-conf service name off ทำำเพื่อด่วูำเรำปิ ดกำร

ทำำงำน and then you should stop this service from running by executing: /etc/init.d/service stop. 5. Disable SUID and SGID Binaries To find SUID and SGID files on the system, use the following command: # find / \( -perm -4000 -o -perm -2000 \) –print SUID or SGID bits safely disabled (using chmod -s filename) unless required for other program. 6. Configure and Use TCP Wrapper Configure the TCP Wrapper library to protect network daemons that support its use by adding appropriate rules to /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny.

NOTE: tcp wrappers only works for services that inetd starts. Sendmail, apache, and named do not use inetd, and so they are not protected via tcp wrappers. 7. Configure and Use AppArmor AppArmor is installed and loaded by default in Hardy. Some packages will install their own enforcing profiles. Active profiles for LAM Server: · usr.sbin.mysqld · usr.sbin.apache2 All activity will be logged by auditd and saved to /var/log/audit/audit.log Some excellent advice on this is available in the stickies threads here.

8. Rdate or NTP (To keep your server date up to

date) Create the file /etc/cron.d/rdate with the following line: 15 * * * * root /usr/sbin/rdate -s content for NTP Create the file /etc/cron.d/ntp with the following line: 15 * * * * root /usr/sbin/ntpdate server 9. Configure or Disable SSH - Disable it when not required. - If SSH is required, ensure the SSH configuration includes the following lines: · PermitRootLogin no · Protocol 2 - If possible, limit SSH access to a subset of users. Create a group called sshusers and only add the users that need remote access. Then, add the

following line to /etc/ssh/sshd_config: · AllowGroups sshusers Edit /etc/group find sshusers and add allowed users. 10. Disable IPv6 - Disable it when not required. Edit the following line from /etc/modprobe.d/aliases: · Find the line: alias net-pf-10 ipv6 · Edit this to: alias net-pf-10 off ipv6 · Save the file and reboot 11. Disable Compile · Add compiler group: /usr/sbin/groupadd compiler · Move to correct directory: cd /usr/bin · Make most common compilers part of the compiler group

chgrp compiler *cc* chgrp compiler *++* chgrp compiler ld chgrp compiler as · Set access on mysqlaccess chgrp root mysqlaccess · Set permissions chmod 750 *cc* chmod 750 *++* chmod 750 ld chmod 750 as chmod 755 mysqlaccess · To add users to the group, modify /etc/group and change compiler:123: to compiler:123:username1,username2 ('123' will be

different on your installation) 12. Root Notification Edit .bashrc under /root to get notified by email when someone logs in as root and add the following: echo 'ALERT - Root Shell Access (Server Name) on:' `date` `who` | mail -s "Alert: Root Access from `who | cut -d"(" -f2 | cut -d")" -f1`" admin@myhost.com 13. Securing History chattr +a .bash_history (append) chattr +I .bash_history Get your users know that their history is being locked and they will have to agree before they use your services. 14. Using Welcome Message Edit /etc/motd and put the following banner to be

displayed: Report : Hardening Ubuntu 9.10 Server – MSIT03 WARNING !!! This computer system including all related equipment, network devices (specifically including Internet access), are provided only for authorized use. Unauthorized use may subject you to criminal prosecution. By accessing this system, you have agreed to the term and condition of use and your actions will be monitored and recorded. □ 15. Chmod dangerous files chmod 700 /bin/ping chmod 700 /usr/bin/who chmod 700 /usr/bin/w chmod 700 /usr/bin/locate chmod 700 /usr/bin/whereis chmod 700 /sbin/ifconfig chmod 700 /bin/nano

chmod 700 /usr/bin/vi chmod 700 /usr/bin/which chmod 700 /usr/bin/gcc chmod 700 /usr/bin/make chmod 700 /usr/bin/apt-get chmod 700 /usr/bin/aptitude 16. Specify TTY Devices Root is allowed vi /etc/securetty Leave only two connections: tty1 tty2 17. Choose a secure password This is generally a good tip, this fix however applies to people using pam to authenticate to LDAP or AD. vi /etc/pam.d/common-password change the detail from this: password requisite pam_unix.so nullok obscure md5

to password requisite pam_unix.so nullok obscure md5 min=8 Change min=8 with your company password policy length. 18. Checking for Rootkits Install it from Ubuntu Repository: # apt-get install chkrootkit You can run it with the following command: ./chkrootkit Now we are going to add it to contrab to schedule daily automatic scans in the system: vi /etc/cron.daily/chkrootkit.sh and type #!/bin/bash # Enter the directory where the rootkit is installed cd /root/chkrootkit/ # Enter your email address where you want to receive the report ./chkrootkit | mail -s "Daily chkrootkit from Server

Name" admin@myhost.com Now change the file permissions so we can run it: chmod 755 /etc/cron.daily/chkrootkit.sh To give it a try you can run the chkrootkit.sh file manually from /etc/cron.daily :etc/cron.daily# apt chkrootkit.sh directory and you should receive a report to the email account you provided. 19. Hardening your Kernel (sysctl.conf) Instead of doing this manually use a pre hardened kernel like selinux. 20. Disable unnecessary PHP variables Edit /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini and /etc/php5/cli/php.ini ทำำได้เพียงไฟล์เดียว

Turn off these variables:

allow_call_time_pass_reference = Off magic_quotes_gpc = Off register_long_arrays = Off register_argc_argv = Off allow_url_fopen = Off expose_php = Off disable_functions = symlink,shell_exec,proc_close, proc_open,dl,passthru, escapeshellarg,escapeshellcmd,openlog, apache_child_terminate, apache_get_modules,apache_get_version, apache_getenv,apache_note,apache_setenv,virtual, phpinfo 21. Apache 2 Hardening - Edit /etc/apache2/apache2.conf - Turn off these variables: TraceEnable off - (Disable apache root access)

[directory\] Order deny,allow Deny from all [/directory] - Enable Module ( /etc/apache2/mods-enable/ ): alias, auth_basic, authn_file, authz_default, authz_groupfile, authz_host, authz_user, autoindex, dir, env, mime, mod-security2, negotiation, php5, rewrite, setenvif, ssl, unique_id - Edit /etc/php.ini Find disable functions and edit as below: disable_functions = exec, passthru, shell_exec, system, proc_open, popen, curl_exec, curl_multi_exec, parse_ini_file, show_source Hardened Kernel Variables ( /etc/sysctl.conf )

เพิ่มทั้งหมดเลยเพิ่มควำมปลอดภัย # Controls the System Request debugging functionality of the kernel kernel.sysrq = 0 # Controls whether core dumps will append the PID to the core filename. # Useful for debugging multi-threaded applications. kernel.core_uses_pid = 1 #Prevent SYN attack net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1 net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 2048 net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2 # Disables IP source routing net.ipv4.conf.lo.accept_source_route = 0 net.ipv4.conf.eth0.accept_source_route = 0 net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0

# Enable IP spoofing protection, turn on source route verification net.ipv4.conf.eth0.rp_filter = 1 # Disable ICMP Redirect Acceptance net.ipv4.conf.lo.accept_redirects = 0 net.ipv4.conf.eth0.accept_redirects = 0 net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects = 0 # Enable Log Spoofed Packets, Source Routed Packets, Redirect Packets net.ipv4.conf.lo.log_martians = 1 net.ipv4.conf.eth0.log_martians = 1 # Disables IP source routing net.ipv4.conf.lo.accept_source_route = 0 net.ipv4.conf.eth0.accept_source_route = 0 net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0

# Enable IP spoofing protection, turn on source route verification net.ipv4.conf.eth0.rp_filter = 1 # Disable ICMP Redirect Acceptance net.ipv4.conf.lo.accept_redirects = 0 net.ipv4.conf.eth0.accept_redirects = 0 net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects = 0 # Modify system limits for Ensim WEBppliance fs.file-max = 65000 # Decrease the time default value for tcp_fin_timeout connection net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 15 # Decrease the time default value for tcp_keepalive_time connection net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 1800

# Turn off the tcp_window_scaling net.ipv4.tcp_window_scaling = 0 # Turn off the tcp_sack ( Need to turn on for traffic to internet) #net.ipv4.tcp_sack = 0 # Turn off the tcp_timestamps net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0 # Enable TCP SYN Cookie Protection net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1 # Set maximum amount of memory allocated to shm to 256MB kernel.shmmax = 268435456 # Increase the maximum total TCP buffer-space allocatable net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 57344 57344 65536

# Increase the maximum TCP write-buffer-space allocatable net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 32768 65536 524288 # Increase the maximum TCP read-buffer space allocatable net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 98304 196608 1572864 # Increase the maximum and default receive socket buffer size net.core.rmem_max = 524280 net.core.rmem_default = 524280 # Increase the maximum and default send socket buffer size net.core.wmem_max = 524280 net.core.wmem_default = 524280 # Increase the tcp-time-wait buckets pool size

net.ipv4.tcp_max_tw_buckets = 1440000 # Allowed local port range net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 16384 65536 # Increase the maximum memory used to reassemble IP fragments net.ipv4.ipfrag_high_thresh = 512000 net.ipv4.ipfrag_low_thresh = 446464 # Increase the maximum amount of option memory buffers net.core.optmem_max = 57344

ติดตั้ง Nessus 4.2.0 for Ubuntu 910 32bit จำกเว็บไซต์ http://www.nessus.org/download/nessus_download.php

ไฟล์มีขนำด Nessus-4.2.0-ubuntu910_386.deb (7066 KB) จำกนั้นเข้ำ Terminal ถ้ำมี Nessus ตัวเกูำให้ลบออกไปโดยใช้คำำสั่ง # killall nessusd เพื่อเรียกเข้ำไปในโฟลเดอร์ Downloads แล้วติดตั้งด้วยคำำ สั่ง
#root@ubuntu:~/Downloads# dpkg –i Nessus-4.2.0-ubuntu910_i386.deb

แก้ไขไฟล์ gedit /opt/nessus/etc/nessus/nessusd.conf # max_host = 20 ใน ลินกซ์ ถ้ำในวินโดวส์ 19 พอ ุ # max_checks=3 เป็ นคูำที่นิยม สั่งให้ทำำงำนด้วย /etc/init.d/nessusd start สั่งให้หยุด killall nessusd กูอนจะทำำกำร Update Plugins เปิ ดอีเมล์ hotmail.com ที่ลงทะเบียนกับทำง nessus

จะได้รับโค้ดในกำร Activate # /opt/nessus/bin/nessus-fetch --register DDA8-98EB10D9-0832-2D8D

จำกนั้นทำำกำร Update Plugins ได้บูอยๆ ที่น่ี # /opt/nessus/sbin/nessus-update-plugins

สั่งให้ Auto Plugins Update # /opt/nessus/bin/nessus-fetch --check เปิ ด Port 8834 สำำหรับ Connect แบบ SSL(https) # ufw allow 8834 เปิ ด Port 1241 สำำหรับ Nessus Scanner # ufw allow 1241

ปิ ดกำรทำำงำน iPV6

http://www.webupd8.org/2009/11/how-to-disable-ipv6in-ubuntu-910.html # sudo gedit /etc/default/grub # And Search GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX #modify it so it look like this GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX=”ipv6.disable=1” #let’s update the GRUB : sudo update-grub2 # if you don’t use GRUB 2 : sudo update-grub #

final , restart your system ติดตั้ง GUFW (Firewall ของ Ubuntu แบบ GUI mode) # apt-get update # apt-get –y install gufw เลือก Enable your firewall มันจะเซตคูำ allow ให้เหมือนกับ ufw ธรรมดำจูะ ติดตั้ง phpmyadmin

# apt-get install phpmyadmin restart service ของ apache2 # /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

SSL with Web Server # apt-get update # apt-get install openssl # mkdir /ssl-key Cd /ssl-key ข้อม่ลจำก http://www.oknation.net/blog/itlabour/2009/04/04/entry-1 Server www.rangsun.test:443

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