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Section II

PAS 220
Auditor Training Programme

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MODULE
PAS 220 : 2008

PREREQUISITE PROGRAMMES
ON FOOD SAFETY
FOR FOOD MANUFACTURING

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Section II
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Module Objectives
By the end of this module , you will be able to :
a) Explain the purpose of PAS 220 and the benefits to an organization of using the
Specification.
b) Outline key definitions and terminology used in PAS 220.
c) Outline the key requirements of PAS 220.

Contents :
Session

Title

Introduction of PAS 220

PAS 220 - overview and clauses 4 to 18

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Section II
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SESSION 1
INTRODUCTION TO PAS 220
Objectives :
When you have completed this topic , you will be able to :
- Explain the background to PAS 220 .
- Under the reasons for the development of PAS 220 .
- Be aware of the compatibility between BS EN ISO 22000 and PAS 220.
- Understand the benefits of PAS 220.

Key Points :
- The background and development of PAS 220 .
- The benefits of implementing PAS 220 .
- ISO 22000 and PAS 220.

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SESSION 1
INTRODUCTION OF PAS 220
1 Introduction :
BSI (British Standards Institution) has published PAS 220 : 2008 Prerequisite programmes
of food safety for food manufacturing. This Publicly Available Specification (PAS) sets out
the requirements for the prerequisite programmes that are required by BS EN ISO 22000
and which assist in controlling food safety hazards; these include items such as the layout of
premises and workspace, personnel hygiene and product recall procedures.
PAS 220 is largely based upon the requirements of Codex Alimentarius , but has in
addition, been cross-referenced with existing industry practices. Sponsored by Danone,
Kraft, Nestle and Unilever through the Confederation of the Food and Drink Industries of
the European Union (CIAA), the development of PAS 220 was overseen by a Steering
Group with included representatives from the Food and Drink Federation (FDF), the French
National Association of Food Industries (representing CIAA), General Mills Europe
(representing the FDF Food Hygiene Committee), Lioyd's Register Quality Assurance,
McDonald's and ProCert.
PAS 220 is designed for use by any organization, regardless of size or complexity, involved
in the manufacturing stage of the food chain. It is intended that PAS 220 will be used in
conjunction with BS EN ISO 22000 Food Safety Management Systems. The requirements
are intended to assist any organization in the food chain which needs to establish
prerequisite programmes to assist in controlling food safety hazards. The intent is that PAS
220 is recommended to ISO as a formal international standard complimenting ISO 22000.

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The benefits of PAS 220:


The benefits of PAS 220 : 2008 arise from the fact that it is derived by the Food industry
driven and as such is developed and supported by key manufacturers and trade associations.
PAS 220 :
- Complements and aligns with ISO 22000.
- Harmonizes prerequisite programmes best practice in food manufacturing.
- Meets the PRP expectations and requirements of food manufacturing stakeholders,
including food retailers and foodservice providers.
- Fully integrates with other management system standards such as ISO 9001.
- Auditable - in conjunction with ISO 22000 - so organizations can demonstrate
independent compliance with industry best practice.
ISO 22000 and PAS 2200
The Global Food Safety Initiative raised concerns that ISO 22000 was not specific enough
on PRP required for food manufacturers. To address this issue, PAS 220 was developed.
The certification scheme is "owned" by The Foundation for Food Safety Certification,
(FSSC). FSSC 22000 is the ISO 22000 and PAS 220 certification scheme for food safety
systems of food manufacturers.
Food manufacturers using an ISO 22000 Food Safety Management System will be
recognized by GFSI if PAS 220 included in the scope.
This course is intended to provide audits with the appropriate knowledge to conduct audits
of organizations against PAS 220.
Appendix 1 contains a number of terms and definitions that are used in auditing food safety
management systems.

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Section II
PAS 220
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SESSION 2
PAS 220: OVERVIEW AND CLAUSES 4 TO 18

Objectives :
When you have completed this topic , you will be able to:
- Understand the intent of PAS 220 .
- Understand the structure of PAS 220.
- Be aware of the scope of PAS 220.
- Identify the terms and definitions used in the Standard.
- Understand the requirements for PRP's based on PAS 220.

Key Points :
- The purpose of BS EN 16001.
- The structure of BS EN 16001.
- BS EN 16001, clauses 3.1 to 3.3.

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SESSION 2
BS EN 16001 OVERVIEW
1 Introduction :
BS EN ISO 22000 sets out specific food safety requirements for organizations in the food
chain. One such requirement is that organizations establish, implement and maintain
prerequisite programmes (PRP) to assist in controlling food safety hazards (ISO 22000 :
2005, clause 7). This PAS is intended to support management systems designed to meet the
requirements specified in ISO 22000 and set out detailed requirements for those
programmes.
PAS 220 does not duplicates the requirements given in ISO 22000 and is intended to be
used in conjunction with ISO 22000 and not as a stand along specification.
2 The structure of PAS 220:
PAS 220 comprises 18 clauses and a number of sub-clauses, and a bibliography:
1 Scope
2 Normative references
3 Terms and definitions
4 Construction and layout of buildings
4.1 general requirements
4.2 Environment
4.3 Locations and establishments.
5 Layout of premises and workspace
5.1 General requirements
5.2 Internal design, layout sand traffic patterns

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5.3 Internal structures and fittings.


5.4 Location of equipment
5.5 Laboratory facilities
5.6 Temporary/mobile premises and vending machines
5.7 Storage of food, packaging materials, ingredients and non food chemicals.
6 Utilities - air , water , energy
6.1 General requirements
6.2 Water supply
6.3 Boiler chemicals
6.4 Air quality and ventilation
6.5 Compressed air and other gases
6.6 Lighting
7 Water disposal
7.1 General requirements
7.2 Containers of waste and inedible or hazardous substances
7.3 Waste management and removal
7.4 Drains and drainage
8 Equipment suitability, cleaning and maintenance
8.1 General Requirements
8.2 Hygienic design
8.3 Product contact surfaces
8.4 Temperature control and monitoring equipment
8.5 Cleaning plant, utensils and equipment

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8.6 Preventive and corrective maintenance


9 Management of purchased materials
9.1 General requirements
9.2 Selection and management of suppliers
9.3 Incoming material requirements (raw/ingredients/packaging)
10 Measures for prevention of cross contamination
10.1 General requirements
10.2 Microbiological cross contamination
10.3 Allergen management
10.4 Physical contamination
11 Cleaning and sanitizing
11.1 General requirements
11.2 Cleaning and sanitizing agents and tools
11.3 Cleaning and sanitizing programmes
11.4 Cleaning and place (CIP) Systems
11.5 Monitoring sanitization effectiveness
12 Pest control
12.1 General requirements
12.2 Pest control programmes
12.3 Preventing access
12.4 Harbourage and infestations
12.5 Monitoring and detection
12.6 Eradication

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13 Personnel hygiene and employee facilities


13.1 General requirements
13.2 Personnel hygiene facilities and toilets
13.3 Staff canteens and designated eating areas
13.4 Work wear and protective clothing
13.5 Health status
13.6 Illness and injuries
13.7 Personal cleanliness
13.8 Personal behavior
14 Rework
14.1 General requirements
14.2 Storage , identification and traceability
14.3 Rework usage
15 Product recall procedures
15.1 General requirements
15.2 Product recall requirements
16 Warehousing
16.1 General requirements
16.2 Warehousing requirements
16.3 Vehicles, conveyances and containers
17 Product information / consumer awareness
17.1 Product information
17.2 Labeling of pre-packaged foods

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18 Food defence , biovigilance and bioterrorism


18.1 General requirements
18.2 Access controls
Bibliography

3 Scope
PAS 220 specifies requirements for establishing, implementing and maintaining prerequisite
programmes (PRP) to / enable organization in the food chain to better control food safety
hazards.
The Specification is application to all organizations , whatever their size or complexity ,
which are involved in the manufacturing stage of the food chain and with to implement PRP
in such a way as to address the requirements of ISO 22000 : 2005 , clause 7.
PAS 220 is not designed nor intended to be applied to other areas of the food supply chain,
only manufactures.
The Specification recognizes that food manufacturing operations are divers and as such not
all of the requirements specified will apply to each establishment or process.
Exclusions
Where exclusions are made or alternative measures implemented, these need to be justified
by a hazard assessment. Any exclusions or alternative measures that are used should not
affect the ability of the organization to comply with the requirement set out in PAS 220.
Examples of such exclusions might include the additional aspects relating to:
- Rework
- Product recall procedures
- Warehousing
- Product information and consumer awareness

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- Food defence, biovigilance and bioterrorism


4 Terms and Definitions
Appendix 1 contains terms and definitions used in PAS 220 : 2008 and the auditing fo food
safety management systems.
5 Clauses 4 to 18
The main points and interpretations of Clauses 4.1 to 18.2 are set out below.
For ease of reference , the paragraph numbers follow the clause numbers of PAS 220 : 2008
and direct quotations from the Standard are presented in italics.
4 Construction and layout of buildings
Buildings shall be designed, constructed and maintained to a standard which is appropriate
to the nature of the processing operations to be carried out, the food safety risks associated
with those operations, and potential sources of contamination from the plant environs.
Buildings shall be of durable construction which presents no hazards to the products.
The Specification notes that roofs should be self-draining and should not leak.
4.2 Environment
Consideration shall be given to potential sources of contamination from the local
environment.
In particular , food production should not be carried out in areas where potentially harmful
substances may enter the product.
The effectiveness of measures taken to protect against potential contaminants shall be
periodically reviewed .
4.3 Locations of establishments
Here the Specification requires that :
- Site boundaries must be clearly identified.

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- Access to the site must be controlled.


- The site shall be maintained in good order. Vegetation shall be tended or removed.
Roads, yards and parking areas shall be adequately drained and maintained.
5 Layout of premises & workspace
Internal layouts shall be designed, constructed and maintained to facilitate good hygiene and
manufacturing practices. The movement patterns of materials, products and people and the
layout of equipment shall be designed to protect against potential contamination sources.
5.2 Internal design, layout and traffic patterns
The building must provide adequate space, with a logical flow of materials, products and
personnel, and physical separation of raw from processed areas.
Examples of physical separation may include walls, barriers or partitions or sufficient
distance to minimize risk.
5.3 Internal structures and fittings
Process area wall and floors shall be washable or cleanable, as appropriate for the process of
product risk. Materials must be resistant to the cleaning system applied.
Not only must wall floor junctions and corners be designed to facilitate cleaning but
junctions should be rounded in processing areas.
Floors must be designed to avoid standing water.
In wet process areas, floors must be sealed and drained. Drains must be trapped and sealed.
Ceilings and overhead fixtures must be designed to minimize the build up of dirt and
condensation.
External opening windows, roof vents or fan ducts must be insect screened.
Exterior doors must be closed or screened when not in use.

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5.4 Location of equipment


Equipment shall be designed and located to facilitate good hygiene practices and
monitoring.
Equipment shall be located to permit adequate operation, cleaning and maintenance.
5.5 Laboratory facilities
In-line and on-line test facilities must be controlled to minimize risk of product
contamination.
Microbiology laboratories must be designed, located and operated so as to prevent
contamination of people, plant and products. They must not open directly onto a production
area.
5.6 Temporary / mobile premises & vending machines
Temporary structures shall be designed, located and constructed to avoid pest harborage and
potential contamination of products.
Additional hazards associated with temporary strictures and vending machines shall be
assessed and controlled.
5.7 Storage of food, ingredient and non food chemicals
Facilities must be provided to enable storage of ingredients, packaging and products
protected from dust, condensation, drains, waste or other sources of contamination.
These storage areas shall be dry and well ventialed .
Appropriate control and monitoring of temperature and humidity must be applied where
necessary.
All materials and products shall be stored off the floor, and with sufficient space between
the material and the walls to allow inspection and pest control activities to be carried out.
The storage area must be designed to allow adequate maintenance and cleaning , prevent
contamination and minimize deterioration.

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A separate, secure storage area must be provided for cleaning materials , chemicals and
other hazardous substances.
Bulk or agricultural crop materials can be excluded from this requirement but justification
must be documented in the organization's food safety management system.
6 Utilities - Air , Water , Energy
The provision to , and distribution routes for utilities to and around processing and storage
areas shall be designed to minimize the risk of product contamination. Utilities quality shall
be monitored to minimize product contamination risk.
6.2 Water Supply
The Specification demands that there must be an adequate supply of potable water, with
appropriate facilities for storage, distribution and where needed, temperature control of the
water, Potable water must conform to WHO guidelines for drinking water.
Water used as a product ingredient [including as ice or steam], or in contact with products
or product surfaces must meet specified quality and microbiological requirements relevant
to the product.
Water for applications where there is a risk for indirect product contact [e.g. jacketed
vessels, heat exchangers] must meet specified quality and microbiological requirements
relevant to the application.
Non portable water shall have a separate supply system that is labeled, not connected to the
potable water system and is prevented from reflux into the potable system.
Where water supplies are chlorinated, checks shall assure that the residual chlorine level at
point of use remains within defined limits.
The specification recommends that water pipes must be capable of being disinfected.
6.3 Boiler chemicals
Boiler chemicals, if used, must be either:

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a) approved food additives which meet relevant additive specifications, or


b) additives which have been approved by the relevant regulatory authority as safe for
use in water intended for human consumption.
Boiler chemicals must be stored in a separate, secure area when not in immediate use.
6.4 Air quality and ventilation
Air used as an ingredient or for direct product contact must have requirements for filtration,
humidity [RH%] and microbiology specified. A control system must be in place and
effectively monitored. Where temperature and / or humidity are critical for product safety.
Ventilation [natural or mechanical] shall be provided to remove excess or unwanted steam,
dust and odours, and to allow timely drying after wet cleaning.
The Specification requires that room air must not provide a source of microbiological
contamination. In areas where products which support growth or survival are exposed, a risk
assessment must establish appropriate protocols for air quality monitoring and control.
Ventilation systems shall be designed and constructed such that air does not flow from
contaminated or raw areas to clean areas. Suitable air pressure differentials shall be
maintained. Systems shall be accessible for appropriate cleaning, filter changing and
maintenance.
There must be periodic examination of exterior air intake ports.
6.5 Compressed air and other gases
Compressed air , carbon dioxide , nitrogen and other gas systems used in manufacturing and
/ or filling shall be constructed and maintained so as to prevent contamination.
Gases intended for direct or incidental product contact [including air used for transporting,
blowing or drying materials, products or equipment] shall be from an approved source,
filtered to remove dust, oil and water.

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The Specification recommends the of oil free compressors is preferred However if oil is
used it must be food grade.
Requirements for filtration, humidity [RH%] and microbiology shall be specified. Filtration
of the air should be as close to the point of use as is practicable.
6.6 Lighting
Adequate lighting [natural or artificial] shall be provided to allow personnel to operate in a
hygienic manner.
The Specification notes that the intensity of the lighting should be appropriate to the nature
of the operation.
Light fixtures shall be protected sufficient to assure that materials, product or equipment are
not contaminated in the case of breakages.
7 Waste Disposal
Systems shall be in place to assure that waste materials are identified, collected, removed
and disposed of in a manner which prevents contamination of products areas.
7.2 Containers for waste and inedible or hazardous substances :
Containers for waste and inedible or hazardous substances must be :
a) clearly identified for their intended purpose.
b) located in a designated area.
c) constructed of suitable, impervious material which can be readily cleaned and
sanitized.
d) closed when not in immediate use.
e) locked where the waste may pose a risk to the product.
7.3 Waste management and removal
Suitable provision must be made for the segregation, storage and removal of waste.

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The Specification requires that waste must no be allowed to accumulate in food handling or
storage areas. Removal frequencies shall be managed to avoid accumulations, with
minimum daily removal.
Labeled materials or products which are designated as waste must be disfigured or
destroyed to ensure that trademarks cannot be re'used.
The removal and destruction must be carried out by approved secure disposal contractors
and records provided.
7.4 Drains and drainage
Drains shall be designed, constructed and located so that the risk of contamination of
materials or products is avoided. Drains shall not pass over processing lines.
Drainage direction must not flow from a contaminated area to a clean area.
8 Equipment suitability, cleaning and maintenance
Food contact equipment shall be designed and constructed to facilitate appropriate cleaning
, disinfection and maintenance. Contact surfaces shall not affect, or be affected by the
intended product or cleaning system.
8.2 Hygienic design
Here , the requirement is that equipment must meet established principles of hygienic
design, including :
a) smooth, accessible, cleanable surfaces, self draining in wet process areas;
b) use of materials compatible with intended products and cleaning or flushing agents;
c) framework not penetrated by holes or nuts and bolts
Piping and ductwork must be cleanable, drainable, and with no dead ends.
Equipment shall be designed to minimize contact between the operator's hands and the
products.

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8.3 Product contact surfaces


Product contact surfaces shall be constructed from materials designed for food use. They
shall be impermeable and rust or corrosion free.
8.4 Temperature control and monitoring equipment
Equipment used for thermal processes must have the capability to meet the specified
temperature gradient and holding conditions.
Equipment must provide for the monitoring the control of the temperature.
8.5 Cleaning plant, utensils and equipment
Wet and dry cleaning programs shall be documented to assure that all plant, utensils and
equipment are effectively cleaned at defined frequencies.
The programs must specify what is to be cleaned, responsibility, the method of cleaning
[e.g. CIP/COP], removal or disassembly requirements and methods for verifying the
effectiveness of cleaning.
8.6 Preventive and corrective maintenance
A preventive maintenance program shall be in place which includes all devices used to
monitor and / or control food safety for example: such devices as screens and filters,
magnets, metal detectors and x-ray detectors.
Corrective maintenance shall be carried out in such a way that production on adjoining lines
or equipment is not at risk of contamination.
Maintenance requests which impact product safety must be given priority.
Temporary fixes must not put product safety at risk.
Lubricants and heat transfer fluids used shall be food grade where there is potential for
direct or indirect contact with the product.
The procedure for releasing maintained equipment back to production must include
appropriate clean up, sanitizing where specified and pre-use inspection.

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Local area PRP requirements shall apply to maintenance areas and maintenance activities in
process areas. Maintenance personnel shall be trained in the product hazards associated with
their activities.
9 Management of purchased materials
Purchasing of materials which impact food safety must be controlled to assure that the
suppliers used have the capability to meet the specified requirements. The conformance of
incoming materials to specified requirements shall be verified.
9.2 Selection and management of suppliers
There must be a defined process for the selection , approval and monitoring of suppliers,
including:
a) assessment of the supplier's ability to meet quality and safety expectations,
requirements and specifications.
b) a description of how suppliers are assessed;
c) monitoring the performance of the supplier to assure continued approval status.
The Specification notes that suppliers may be assessed by:
a) audit of the supplying site prior to accepting materials for production;
b) appropriate third party certification.
The process used to select and monitor suppliers must be justified by risk assessment,
including the potential risk to the final product.
9.2 Incoming material requirements - raw/ingredients/packaging
Delivery vehicles shall be checked prior to & during unloading to verify that the quality and
safety of the material has been maintained during transit. For example, seals are intact, free
from infestation, temperature records exist and so on.
Materials must be inspected, tested or certified to verify conformance to specified
requirements prior to acceptance or use. The method of verification must be documented.

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The Specification notes that the frequency and scope should be based on the hazard
presented by the material and the risk assessment which has been carried out be the supplier.
Materials which do not conform to specifications shall be handled under a defined
procedure, which assure they are prevented from unintended use.
Access points to bulk material receiving lines must be identified, capped and locked.
Discharge into such systems must take place only after approval and verification of the
material to be received.
10 Measures for the prevention of cross contamination
Programs shall be in place to prevent, control and detect contamination. Measure to prevent
physical, allergenic and microbiological contamination shall be included.
10.2 Microbiological cross contamination
Areas where the potential for micro cross contamination exists [airborne or from traffic
patterns] shall be identified and an appropriate. A segregation or zoning plan must be
implemented.
A hazard assessment must be carried out to determine potential contamination sources,
susceptibility of the product, an appropriate control measures for these areas;
a) separation of raw from finished or ready to eat [RTE] products;
b) structural segregation - physical barriers / walls / separate buildings;
c) access controls with requirements to change into appropriate required workwear;
d) traffic patterns or equipment segregation - people, materials, equipment & tools
[including use of dedicated tools];
e) air pressure differentials.

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10.3 Allergen management


Allergens present in the product, either by design or by potential manufacturing cross
contact, shall be declared. The declaration shall be on the label for consumer products, and
on the label or accompanying documentation for products intended for further processing.
Products must be protected from unintended allergen cross contact by appropriate cleaning,
line change-over practices and product sequencing.
Rework containing allergen[s] shall be used only:
a) In products which contain the same allergen[s] by design.
b) through a process which is demonstrated to remove or destroy the allergenic material.
The Specification notes that food handling employees shall receive specific training in
allergen awareness and associated manufacturing practices.
10.4 Physical contamination
If glass and / or brittle material such as hard plastic components are used in equipment there
should be periodic inspections and appropriate procedures must be in place to cover
incidents of breakage.
There must be records kept of glass breakages
Appropriate measures, based on risk assessment , shall be in place to prevent control or
detect potential contamination, for example:
a) adequate covers over equipment or containers for exposed materials or products;
b) use of screens, magnets, sieves or filters where appropriate;
c) use of detection / rejection devices such as metal detectors or x-ray.
11 Cleaning and sanitizing
Cleaning and sanitizing programs shall be established to assure that the food processing
equipment and environment are maintained in an appropriately hygienic condition.
Programmes shall be monitored for continuing suitability and effectiveness.

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11.2 Cleaning and sanitizing agents and tools


Facilities and equipment shall be maintained in a condition which facilitates wet or dry
cleaning and / or sanitation.
Cleaning and sanitizing agents and chemicals shall be clearly identified, food grade, stored
separately and used only in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
Tools and equipment must be of hygienic design, maintained in good condition and not
present a potential source of extraneous matter.
11.3 Cleaning and sanitizing programmes
Cleaning programs shall be established and validated to assure that all parts of the
establishment and equipment are cleaned and / or sanitized to a defined schedule, including
the cleaning of cleaning equipment.
Cleaning programs shall specify as a minimum:
a) areas, items of equipment and utensils to be cleaned and / or sanitized;
b) responsibility for the tasks specified;
c) cleaning / sanitizing method and frequency;
d) monitoring and vereification arrangments;
e) post-clean inspections;
f) pre start-up inspections.
11.4 Clean in place [CIP] systems
CIP systems must have adequate separation from active product lines.
Parameters for CIP systems must be defined and monitored [including, type, concentration,
contact time and temperature of any chemicals used].

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11.5 Monitoring sanitation effectiveness


Cleaning and sanitation programs must be monitored, at specified frequencies, to assure
their continuing suitability and effectiveness.
12 Pest control
Hygiene, cleaning, incoming materials inspection and monitoring procedures shall be
implemented to avoid creating an environment conductive to pest activity.
12.2 Pest control systems
There must be a person nominated to manage pest control activities and / or deal with
appointed expert contractors.
Pest management programmes must be documented and address plans, methods, schedules,
control procedures and where necessary, training requirements.
Programmes must include a list of chemicals which are approved for use in specified areas
of the establishment.
12.3 Preventing access
Buildings must be maintained in good repair. Holes, drains and other potential pest access
points must be sealed.
External doors, windows or ventilation opening shall be designed to minimize the potential
for entry of pests.
12.4 Harbourage and infestations:
Storage practices should prevent the availability of food and water of pests.
Material found to be infested shall be handled in such a way as to prevent contamination of
other materials, products, or the establishment.
Potential pest harbourage (e.g.: burrows, undergrowth, stored items) shall be removed.
Outside storage areas and items stored outside must be protected from weather and pest
damage.

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12.5 Monitoring and detection


Pest monitoring programmes shall include the placing of detectors and traps in key locations
to identify pest activity. A map of detectors shall be maintained. Detectors and traps shall be
designed and located to prevent potential contamination of materials, products or facilities.
The Specification requires that detector and traps must be robustly constructed and tamper
resistant. Of course they must be appropriate for the target pest.
Detectors and traps shall be inspected at a frequency intended to identify new pest activity.
The results of inspections shall be analyzed to identify trends.
12.6 Eradication
Evidence of infestation must be dealt with promptly .
The use of pesticides must be restricted to trained operatives and controlled to avoid risk to
product safety hazards.
Records of pesticide use shall be maintained to show the type, quantity and concentration
used; where, when and how applied, and the target pest.
13 Personal hygiene and employee facilities
Requirements for personal hygiene and behaviours proportional to the hazard posed in the
process area or product shall be established and documented. All personnel, visitors and
contractors shall be required to comply with the document requirements.
13.2 Personnel hygiene facilities and toilets
The Specifications requires that personnel hygiene facilities are made available to ensure
that the degree of personal hygiene required by the organization is maintained. The facilities
must be located closed to the points where hygiene requires ments apply and shale be
clearly designated.

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The organization must:


a) provide adequate numbers, locations and means o hygienically washing, drying and,
where required, sanitizing hands (including wash basins, supply of hot and cold or
temperature controlled water, and soap and / or sanitizer);
b) have sinks designated for hand washing, separate from sinks for food use and
equipment cleaning stations;
c) provide an adequate number of toilets of appropriate hygienic design, each with hand
washing, drying and, where required, sanitizing facilities;
d) have employee hygienic facilities that do not open directly onto production, packing or
storage areas;
e) have adequate changing facilities for personnel;
f) have changing facilities sited to enable food handling personnel to move to the
production area in such a way that risk to the cleanliness of the work wear is
minimized.
13.3 Staff canteens and designated eating areas
Staff canteens and designated areas for food storage and consumption must be situated so
that the potential for cross contamination of production areas is minimized.
Staff canteens shall be managed to ensure hygienic storage of ingredients and preparation,
storage and serving of prepared foods. Storage conditions and storage, cooking and holding
temperatures, and time limitation, shall be specified.
The Specification requires that employee's own food must be stored and eaten in designated
areas only.
13.4 Work wear and protective clothing
Personnel who work in, or enter into areas where exposed products and / or materials are
handled must wear work clothing that is suitable, clean and in good condition.

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Clothing mandated for food protection or hygiene purposes shall not be used for any other
purpose.
Work wear must
- not have buttons;
- outside pockets above waist level;
- be laundered at appropriate intervals, to a defined standard suitable for the intended use
of the garments;
- provide adequate coverage to assure that hair, perspiration etc. cannot contaminate the
product.
Hair, beards and moustaches shall be protected [i.e. completely enclosed] by restraints
unless risk analysis indicates otherwise.
Any gloves that area used for product contact must be clean and in good condition. The
Specification notes that the use of Latex gloves should be avoided where possible.
Shoes for use in processing areas must be fully enclosed, and made from non absorbent
materials.
Personal protective equipment, where required, shall be designed to prevent product
contamination and maintained in hygienic condition.
13.5 Health status
Employees shall undergo a medical examination prior to employement in food contact
operations [including site catering], unless documented risk assessment indicates otherwise.
Additional medicals shall be carried out at intervals defined by the organization, subject to
legal restrictions in the country of operation.

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13.6 Illness & Injuries


Conditions which must be reported to management for possible exclusion from food
handling areas include:
- jaundice,
- diarrhea,
- vomiting,
- fever,
- sore throat with fever,
- visibly infected skin lesions [boils, cut or sores] and
- discharges from the ear, eye or nose.
People known tor suspected to be infected with, or carrying, a disease or illness
transmissible through food shall be prevented from handling food or food contact materials.
In food handling areas, personnel with wounds or burns must be required to cover them with
specified dressings. Any lost dressing shall be reported to supervision immediately.
13.7 Personal cleanliness
Personnel working in food production areas must wash and where appropriate sanitize
hands:
a) before starting any food handling activities;
b) immediately after using the toilet or blowing the nose;
c) immediately after handling any potentially contaminated material.
Personnel must refrain from sneezing or coughing over materials or products. Spitting is not
to be permitted and fingernails must be kept clean and properly trimmed.

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13.8 Personal behavior


There must be a documented policy which sets out the behaviours required of personnel in
processing, packing and storage areas. The policy must include, but is not limited to:
a) permissibility of smoking, eating, chewing in designated area only;
b) control measures to minimize hazards presented by permitted jewellery;
c) permissibility of personal items, such as smoking materials and medicines, in
designated areas only;
d) prohibition of the use of nail polish, false nails and false eyelashes;
e) prohibition of carrying writing implements behind the ears;
f) maintenance of personal lockers so that they are free from rubbish and soiled clothing;
g) prohibition of storage of product contact tools and equipment in personal lockers.
14 Rework
Rework shall be stored, handled and use din such a way that product safety, quality,
traceability and regulatory compliance are maintained.
14.2 Storage, identification and traceability
Rework that is stored must be protected from exposure to microbiological, chemical and
extraneous materials.
The segregation requirements for rework must be documented and implemented.
Rework shall be clearly identified and / or labeled to allow traceability. Traceability records
of rework shall be maintained.
The reason for rework and any classifications must be recorded.

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14.3 Rework usage


Where rework is incorporated into a product as an "in-process" step, the acceptable quantity,
type and conditions of rework use shall be specified. The process step and method of
addition, including any necessary preprocessing stages, shall be defined.
Control must be put in place to ensure the avoidance of contamination should rework
activities involve the removing a product from filled or wrapped packages.
15 Product recall procedures
Systems shall be in place to ensure that products failing to meet required food safety
standards can be identified, located and removed from all necessary points of the supply
chain.
15.2 Product recall requirements
The Specification requires that a list of key contacts in the event of a recall is maintained.
Where products are withdrawn due to immediate health hazards, the safety of other products
produced under the same conditions shall be evaluated for safety. The need for public
warnings shall be considered.
16 Warehousing
Materials and products shall be stored in clean, dry, well ventilated spaces protected from
dust, condensation, fumes, odours or other sources of contamination.
16.2 Warehousing requirements
The Specification requires that :
- effective control to temperature, humidity or other environmental conditions must be
provided where required;
- waste materials and chemicals must be stored separately;
- a separate area or other means of segregating materials identified as non-conforming
must be provided;

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- specified stock rotation systems [FIFO / FEFO] must be observed;


- gasoline or diesel powered fork lift trucks must not be used in food ingredient or
product storage areas.
16.3 Vehicles, conveyances and containers
Vehicles, conveyances and containers must be maintained in an appropriate state of repair,
cleanliness and condition consistent with requirements given in relevant specifications.
The organization must ensure that :
- vehicles, conveyance and containers provide adequate protection against damage or
contamination of the product.
- appropriate controls of temperature and humidity are applied and recorded.
- where the same vehicles, conveyances and containers are used for food and non food
products, cleaning must be carried out between loads;
- bulk containers are dedicated to food use only;
- where necessary, bulk containers are dedicated to a specified material.
17 Product information / consumer awareness
Information shall be presented to consumers in such a way as to enable them to understand
its importance and make informed choices.
17.2 labeling of pre-packaged foods
Procedures shall be in place to assure the application of correct labels to products.
18 Food defence , biovigilance and bioterrorism
Each establishment must assess the hazard to products posed by potential acts of sabotage,
vandalism or terrorism and put in place proportional protective measures.

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18.2 Access controls


Potentially sensitive areas within the establishment must be identified, mapped and subject
to appropriate access control.
The Specification notes that where feasible, access should be physically restricted by use of
locks, electronic card key or alternative systems.

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INDEX
Module Objectives.............................................................................................................................. 2
Contents : ............................................................................................................................................ 2
SESSION 1 INTRODUCTION TO PAS 220 ................................................................................. 3
Objectives : ......................................................................................................................................... 3
Key Points : ......................................................................................................................................... 3
1 Introduction :................................................................................................................................... 4
The benefits of PAS 220: ................................................................................................................... 5
PAS 220 : ............................................................................................................................................. 5
ISO 22000 and PAS 2200 ................................................................................................................... 5
SESSION 2 PAS 220: OVERVIEW AND CLAUSES 4 TO 18 .................................................... 6
Objectives : ......................................................................................................................................... 6
Key Points : ......................................................................................................................................... 6
1 Introduction :................................................................................................................................... 7
2 The structure of PAS 220: .............................................................................................................. 7
3 Scope............................................................................................................................................... 11
Exclusions ......................................................................................................................................... 11
4 Terms and Definitions .................................................................................................................. 12
5 Clauses 4 to 18 ............................................................................................................................... 12
4 Construction and layout of buildings .......................................................................................... 12
4.2 Environment ............................................................................................................................... 12
4.3 Locations of establishments....................................................................................................... 12
5 Layout of premises & workspace ................................................................................................ 13
5.2 Internal design, layout and traffic patterns ............................................................................. 13
5.3 Internal structures and fittings ................................................................................................. 13
5.4 Location of equipment ............................................................................................................... 14
5.5 Laboratory facilities ................................................................................................................... 14
5.6 Temporary / mobile premises & vending machines ............................................................... 14
5.7 Storage of food, ingredient and non food chemicals ............................................................... 14
6 Utilities - Air , Water , Energy ..................................................................................................... 15

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6.2 Water Supply .............................................................................................................................. 15


6.3 Boiler chemicals.......................................................................................................................... 15
6.4 Air quality and ventilation ........................................................................................................ 16
6.5 Compressed air and other gases ............................................................................................... 16
6.6 Lighting ....................................................................................................................................... 17
7 Waste Disposal............................................................................................................................... 17
7.2 Containers for waste and inedible or hazardous substances : ............................................... 17
7.3 Waste management and removal.............................................................................................. 17
7.4 Drains and drainage................................................................................................................... 18
8 Equipment suitability, cleaning and maintenance ..................................................................... 18
8.2 Hygienic design........................................................................................................................... 18
8.3 Product contact surfaces ........................................................................................................... 19
8.4 Temperature control and monitoring equipment ................................................................... 19
8.5 Cleaning plant, utensils and equipment ................................................................................... 19
8.6 Preventive and corrective maintenance ................................................................................... 19
9 Management of purchased materials .......................................................................................... 20
9.2 Selection and management of suppliers ................................................................................... 20
9.2 Incoming material requirements - raw/ingredients/packaging ............................................. 20
10 Measures for the prevention of cross contamination ............................................................... 21
10.2 Microbiological cross contamination ..................................................................................... 21
10.3 Allergen management .............................................................................................................. 22
10.4 Physical contamination ............................................................................................................ 22
11 Cleaning and sanitizing .............................................................................................................. 22
11.2 Cleaning and sanitizing agents and tools ............................................................................... 23
11.3 Cleaning and sanitizing programmes ..................................................................................... 23
11.4 Clean in place [CIP] systems ................................................................................................... 23
11.5 Monitoring sanitation effectiveness ........................................................................................ 24
12 Pest control .................................................................................................................................. 24
12.2 Pest control systems ................................................................................................................. 24
12.3 Preventing access...................................................................................................................... 24
12.4 Harbourage and infestations: ................................................................................................. 24

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12.5 Monitoring and detection ........................................................................................................ 25


12.6 Eradication ............................................................................................................................... 25
13 Personal hygiene and employee facilities .................................................................................. 25
13.2 Personnel hygiene facilities and toilets ................................................................................... 25
13.3 Staff canteens and designated eating areas............................................................................ 26
13.4 Work wear and protective clothing ........................................................................................ 26
13.5 Health status ............................................................................................................................. 27
13.6 Illness & Injuries ...................................................................................................................... 28
13.7 Personal cleanliness.................................................................................................................. 28
13.8 Personal behavior ..................................................................................................................... 29
14 Rework ......................................................................................................................................... 29
14.2 Storage, identification and traceability .................................................................................. 29
14.3 Rework usage............................................................................................................................ 30
15 Product recall procedures .......................................................................................................... 30
15.2 Product recall requirements ................................................................................................... 30
16 Warehousing ................................................................................................................................ 30
16.2 Warehousing requirements ..................................................................................................... 30
16.3 Vehicles, conveyances and containers .................................................................................... 31
17 Product information / consumer awareness ............................................................................. 31
17.2 labeling of pre-packaged foods ............................................................................................... 31
18 Food defence , biovigilance and bioterrorism .......................................................................... 31
18.2 Access controls.......................................................................................................................... 32
INDEX ............................................................................................................................................... 33

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