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3D porosity prediction from seismic inversion and neural networks

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/cageo

Emilson Pereira Leite n, Alexandre Campane Vidal

~ Pandia

Calo

geras, 51 CEP, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil

Department of Geology and Natural Resources, Institute of Geosciences, State University of Campinas, Joao

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 10 March 2010

Received in revised form

19 August 2010

Accepted 31 August 2010

Available online 20 November 2010

In this work, we address the problem of transforming seismic reection data into an intrinsic rock

property model. Specically, we present an application of a methodology that allows interpreters to

obtain effective porosity 3D maps from post-stack 3D seismic amplitude data, using measured density

and sonic well log data as constraints. In this methodology, a 3D acoustic impedance model is calculated

from seismic reection amplitudes by applying an L1-norm sparse-spike inversion algorithm in the time

domain, followed by a recursive inversion performed in the frequency domain. A 3D low-frequency

impedance model is estimated by kriging interpolation of impedance values calculated from well log data.

This low-frequency model is added to the inversion result which otherwise provides only a relative

numerical scale. To convert acoustic impedance into a single reservoir property, a feed-forward Neural

Network (NN) is trained, validated and tested using gamma-ray and acoustic impedance values observed

at the well log positions as input and effective porosity values as target. The trained NN is then applied for

the whole reservoir volume in order to obtain a 3D effective porosity model. While the particular

conclusions drawn from the results obtained in this work cannot be generalized, such results suggest that

this workow can be applied successfully as an aid in reservoir characterization, especially when there is a

strong non-linear relationship between effective porosity and acoustic impedance.

& 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Reservoir characterization

Seismic inversion

Feed-forward neural network

Matlab

1. Introduction

During the last decades, several methods for mapping acoustic

impedance from post-stack seismic amplitude data were developed and tested with the aim of providing additional information

for detailed reservoir characterization. Nowadays, most of the

research efforts in this eld are focused in the inversion and

interpretation of variations of seismic reection amplitude with

change in distance between source and receiver (amplitude vs.

offset) from pre-stack data. However, post-stack data obtained

from recorded P-waves are still widely used because of their ready

availability and low time-consuming processing. Because wells in a

reservoir eld are often spaced at hundreds or even thousands of

meters, the ultimate goal of a seismic inversion procedure in the

context of reservoir characterization is to provide models not only

of acoustic impedance but also of other relevant physical properties, such as effective porosity and water saturation, for the interwell regions. Such quantitative interpretations may sometimes

require the use of other seismic attributes additionally to the

traditional seismic reection amplitudes (Rijks and Jauffred, 1991;

Lefeuvre et al., 1995; Russell, 2004; Sancevero et al., 2005;

Soubotcheva, 2006).

E-mail addresses: emilson@ige.unicamp.br, emilson@iag.usp.br (E.P. Leite).

0098-3004/$ - see front matter & 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2010.08.001

classied as a deterministic inversion method (Russell, 1988).

Although many recent papers have demonstrated some advantages

of geostatistical methods over deterministic methods (Francis,

2005; Robinson, 2001), the latter can still provide geologically

plausible acoustic impedance models at a much lower computational cost. The rst deterministic inversion methods for acoustic

impedance mapping were developed in the late 70 s and became to

known generally as recursive inversion (Lavergne and Willm, 1977;

Lindseth, 1979). The basic premise of those and of all methods that

were subsequently developed in the 1980s is the local validity of

the 1-D convolutional model. During the 1980s, sparse-spike

inversion methods were developed consisting of some techniques

that make use of an additional premise that the reections occur as

sparsely distributed spikes within a layered Earth (Oldenburg et al.,

1983; Russell, 1988). In this case the reectivity function is

mathematically represented as the product of the reection

coefcients and a Dirac delta function shifted by the two-way

travel time to each layer. Two well known methods that fall in this

category are the L1-norm sparse-spike inversion (Sacchi and

Ulrych, 1996), which is applied in the methodology described in

this work, and the maximum likelihood inversion (Hampson and

Russell, 1985).

Prediction of reservoir properties from acoustic impedance can

also be thought as a kind of inversion and traditionally have been

addressed through the application of multivariate statistics and,

more recently, Neural Network (NN) methods. The main advantages of NN methods over most traditional statistical methods can

be summarized as follows: (i) the ability to extract nonlinear

relationships between the input data and the target values; (ii) less

sensitivity to the presence of noise in the data; and (iii) there is no

need to known the underlying statistical distribution of the input

data. NN methods have been successfully applied in a wide variety

of applications in reservoir characterization such as porosity and

permeability prediction from seismic and well-log data or seismic

facies/attributes classication (Leiphart and Hart, 2001; Hampson

et al., 2001; Walls et al., 2002; Pramanik et al., 2004; Calderon,

2007). In general, these papers compare performances of NN

models with traditional regression methods, demonstrating that

the former can provide higher correlation coefcient between

actual and predicted reservoir property values and minimize the

problem of sparse well coverage.

2. Methodology

2.1. Seismic inversion

The basic premises behind all seismic inversion methods in the

context of this work are as follows: (i) the Earth can be represented

locally by a stack of plane and parallel layers with constant physical

properties; (ii) the seismic trace s(t) can be represented by the

convolution of the reectivity coefcient series r(t) with a bandlimited wavelet w(t) and the addition of a random noise n(t):

st rtwt nt:

the acoustic impedance (AI) of superposed layers through the

expression

rj

IAj 1 IAj

,

IAj 1 IAj

superposed layers, and IA rv where r e v are the density and

P-wave velocity, respectively. Under these conditions and assuming that multiple reections were eliminated from the seismic data,

the AI value of each layer can be calculated from the knowledge of

the AI value of the layer above, through a recursive equation

1 rj

IAj 1 IAj

,

3

1rj

which in turn can be generalized to provide the AI value of an

arbitrary M layer by

M

Y

1 rj

IAM IA1

:

4

1rj

j2

The natural logarithm is applied to both sides of Eq. (4) in order

to obtain a linear approximation:

"

#

M

X

r3 r5

5

lnIAM lnIA1

2 ri i i ,

3

5

i2

from which we can discard the high-order terms leading to the

expression

AIM AI1 exp2

M

X

rj :

1175

et al., 1983; Berteussen and Ursin, 1983).

In practice, the AI values at the positions of each seismic sample

can be extracted from a 3D model covering the entire seismic

volume, calculated through ordinary kriging of the kwon AI values

at the well log positions. For a properly usage of the recursive

inversion, the seismic traces should be deconvolved into reectivity series as suggested by Eq. (6). To accomplish this, we apply a

constrained sparse-spike optimization procedure that minimizes

the objective function

Jr a

M

X

j1

jrj j

1 1

2

: sWr:

2 s

term in Eq. (7) is provided in order to allow minimization of the L1norm of the reectivities, where a controls the sparsity of the

solution. With the second term, the algorithm also minimizes

the difference between the synthetic seismic traces (Wr) and the

observed traces (s). W is a wavelet coefcient matrix and s is the

standard deviation of the seismic data noise. Other optimization

algorithms can also be used to minimize Eq. (7), such as Iterative

1996) or soft-tresholding algorithms (Loubes and De Geer, 2002).

It is important to point out that this constrained sparse-spike

inversion will provide an impedance model that does not display

the actual reection series but displays only the largest reectors

(Oldenburg et al., 1983). In other words, this means that small

wavelength features in the log impedance curve will not be

recovered by the inversion and, therefore, the interpreter has to

be cautious while analyzing the inversion results.

After estimating r from the seismic amplitudes, then it is

inverted into AI according to the following sequential steps

(Ferguson and Margrave, 1996):

(1) compute the linear trend of a spatial correspondent AI vector

and subtract it, obtaining a residual AIres vector;

(2) compute the Fourier spectra of AIres;

(3) apply Eq. (6) to the reectivity series, obtaining a relative AIrel

vector;

(4) compute the Fourier spectra of AIrel;

(5) determine a scalar a to match the mean power of AIrel and AIres;

(6) multiply the spectra of AIrel by a;

(7) low-pass lter AIres and add to the result of step (6);

(8) inverse Fourier transform the result of step (7); and

(9) add the low-frequency trend from step (1) to the result of

step (8).

It is of course possible to include an extra constraint on

impedances directly in Eq. (7). However, by the approach described

in this paper it is possible to keep control of the frequency contents

involved and the frequency cut-offs to properly add the trend in

acoustic impedance.

Due to the sparse distribution of wells, the low-frequency trend

of step (1) was extracted from spatial correspondent AI traces

estimated by kriging. A low cut-off for coupling the low frequency

trend and a high cut-off were dened by nding where the energy

content of the original seismic traces approaches to zero in the

amplitude spectrum. This characterizes the band-limited nature of

the seismic data.

j2

transformation of reectivity into impedance. AI1 is the known

acoustic impedance in the top layer and AIM is that of the Mth layer.

rj is the reection coefcient of the jth layer. This approximation is

The procedure outlined here can be applied to reservoirs that do

not show a linear relationship between AI and the reservoir property

that needs to be mapped. For the particular example shown in this

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relationship between effective porosity (Phie) and other well logs

such as density (RHOB), gamma-ray (GR), and the sonic log (DT). The

employed NN is a three-layer feed-forward system where the

information propagates only in one direction, from the rst to the

third layer. The rst layer contains the input values extracted from

the well logs. The second (hidden) layer consists of an activation

function associated with a set of neurons. These neurons are

represented by weights that are iteratively updated during the

training stage using a gradient descent algorithm. The third layer

outputs the results that are compared with the actual target values at

the end of each training iteration (or epoch) so as to check the meansquared error (MSE) between them.

A hyperbolic tangent sigmoid function (Demuth et al., 2008) is

employed as a transfer function in both the second and the third

layer. For most practical situations there is no deterministic way to

choose the best number of neurons to be used in the second layer

and a trial and error approach has to be applied. Leite and Souza

301 61 375. In-lines and cross-lines are spaced at about 13 and 27 m, respectively. Time interval is equal to 4 ms.

method that was also applied in this work.

As an input for designing a NN model, a sample set obtained from

the well logs is split into training, validation and test subsets. The

training process is carried out until at least one of the following

conditions is met: (i) a minimization of a MSE goal is achieved; (ii)

occurrence of three consecutive non-improvements in the MSE for

the validation subset (early-stopping); or (iii) a maximum number of

iterations are completed. The test subset is used only to estimate the

prediction power of the NN by performing a blind test and it is not

used for building the NN model. The overall workow of the

methodology is shown in Fig. 2.

We carried out a depth-to-time conversion to make the vertical

scale of the well log AI data match the vertical scale of the seismic

data so as to allow an adequate correlation. This conversion was

done using the sonic log and the initial two-way travel time (TWT)

for the rst log sample that provided the highest correlation

coefcient (R) between the synthetic and observed trace. This is

commonly known as a seismic-well tie. The synthetic traces were

calculated using the convolutional model given by Eq. (1). This

requires knowledge of the wavelet representing the seismic pulse.

Thus we performed a deterministic wavelet extraction by writing

Eq. (1) as a linear system and solving for w(t) (Broadhead, 2008).

There are two crucial factors in this procedure that may lead

to poor wavelet estimationincorrect depth-to-time conversion

and incorrect size of the wavelet. In this work, we control the

errors in the former by changing the initial TWT and checking the

value of R. In our tests, by comparing synthetic with observed

traces, we veried that the size of the wavelet should be less than or

equal to 1/5 times the length of the reection coefcient series, so

as to provide the best ts. A common wavelet length was then

determined to be 60 ms for the particular case of this work.

Seismic-well ties were conducted by adjusting ve traces around

each well and retaining the local mean wavelet. Then, a global

mean wavelet was calculated and used for inversion of the traces

away from the wells.

in Fig. 3, where the acoustic impedance log, the estimated

reectivity, the synthetic traces and the observed traces are

1177

the wavelet, the synthetic traces and the observed traces. The

spectral content is similar for the other four wells in the area and

Fig. 3. Example of seismic-well tie for Well 2: (a) impedance log converted to two-way time and resampled to interval of 4 ms; (b) reectivity obtained after deterministic

wavelet extraction; (c) synthetic traces computed through convolution of reectivity with wavelet and (d) observed traces.

Fig. 4. Normalized amplitude spectrum of (a) reectivity, (b) wavelet, (c) synthetic traces and (d) observed traces near Well 2.

1178

low and high cut-offs were dened, after some tests, as 5 and 60 Hz,

respectively.

The reservoir top and base were estimated from well log

markers allowing the denition of minimum and maximum time

values, thus establishing the vertical boundaries of the seismic 3D

grid shown in the subsequent gures. The lateral boundaries were

dened so as to embrace wells that were previously found to have

some oil or gas content in the eld. Fig. 5 shows the AI lowfrequency model obtained by kriging the AI well logs at the wells

depicted in Fig. 1.

standard error of the noise in the seismic data (s in Eq. (7)). A

reasonable assumption is that it corresponds to some percentage of

the peak amplitude of the traces. We used a value of 5% in this work.

Fig. 7. Correlation coefcient between observed seismic traces and synthetic traces

obtained from inverted models around Well 2.

Fig. 6. AI log prole (red curves) vs. inverted AI proles (blue curves) for Well 2 as a varies from 0.02 to 0.035. (For interpretation of the references to color in this gure legend,

the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

tests by varying a from 0.01 to 1.0 in steps of 0.005 and comparing

the inversion results with the log prole, as well as checking the

value of R between synthetic and observed traces around the wells.

Four results for Well 2 considering a particular range of a, where the

transition of the behavior of the inversion solution is quite noticeable, are presented in Figs. 6 and 7. For a 0.035 the solution is very

g/cm3. (For interpretation of the references to color in this gure legend, the reader is

referred to the web version of this article.)

1179

smooth, it lacks too much vertical detail and it gives a low R. A value

of a 0.025 was considered to be adequate because the inverted

curve follows the main trends that appear in the log prole while

R is sufciently large. When a is smaller than 0.025, overtting

seems to occur. The behavior of the inverted curve does not change

signicantly outside of the range 0.02 r a r0.035.

The 3D AI inverted model is shown in Fig. 8. A synthetic seismic

model calculated from this inverted model is highly correlated with

the observed seismic data (average R is equal to 0.92). While the

range of AI values is about the same, the inverted model is enriched

in details and can be used for posterior prediction of the reservoir

properties.

In this work we have found that a feed-forward NN can

successfully predict Phie from the joint use of GR and AI logs.

A sample set consisting of 32 log values was extracted from the well

logs for training (60%), validation (20%) and test (20%) of the NN.

The small amount of log values is due to the depth-to-time

conversion, which unavoidably reduces the vertical resolution of

the original well log data. The training must be performed in the

time scale instead of the depth scale to allow posterior prediction in

the entire seismic volume using the inverted AI model as input,

which in turn can only be obtained in the time scale.

In spite of this, the NN models were able to map the test samples

into Phie within an acceptable level of accuracy (R0.84). This was

checked by an iterative cross-validation scheme where the samples

that compose the three subsets were randomly interchanged and a

new NN model was obtained at each iteration. The graphs in Fig. 9

show the results for the NN model that provided the highest overall

Fig. 9. NN training, validation and test. R is correlation coefcient between outputs and actual target Phie values. All values were normalized into range [ 1,1].

1180

the seismic data in comparison to the well log data. As a further

step, it would be necessary to test the reservoir performance when

the effective porosity model is used for uid-ow modeling. The

implementation of the inversion algorithm is straightforward and

Matlabs source codes are available from the authors upon request.

Acknowledgement

The authors gratefully acknowledge Petrobras Petroleo Brasileiro SA for the nancial support of this research and for the

development of the project in reservoir characterization.

References

Fig. 10. Phie model obtained by ordinary kriging of Phie well logs. Color bar is in

percentage. (For interpretation of the references to color in this gure legend, the

reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

Fig. 11. Phie model obtained from a designed NN. Color bar is in percentage.

Compared to ordinary kriging, this model shows higher spatial heterogeneity, thus

unraveling reservoir details. (For interpretation of the references to color in this

gure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

3D grid calculated by ordinary kriging the Phie values at the well

logs. Having the NN trained model and 3D numerical models of GR

(kriging) and AI (inversion), we were able to estimate a rened 3D

Phie numerical model in the complete seismic volume (Fig. 11).

4. Conclusions

We have presented a two-fold methodology to predict effective

porosity from 3D seismic amplitude data. Seismic amplitude is

rstly converted into acoustic impedance through a constrained

sparse-spike inversion and then this inverted model, together with

a gamma-ray interpolated model, is used to design a Neural

Network capable of predicting effective porosity. For this reservoir

case, the overall correlation coefcient between the Neural Network outputs and the known effective porosity values was equal to

0.84, which is considered high for this kind of application. This also

means that the mist between inverted acoustic impedance and

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