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SAP2000

Integrated
Finite Element Analysis
and
Design of Structures

CONCRETE DESIGN MANUAL

COMPUTERS &
STRUCTURES
INC.

Computers and Structures, Inc.


Berkeley, California, USA

Version 6.1
October 1997

COPYRIGHT
The computer program SAP2000 and all associated documentation are
proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership
rest with Computers and Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of the program
or reproduction of the documentation in any form, without prior written
authorization from Computers and Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited.
Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained
from:

Computers and Structures, Inc.


1995 University Avenue
Berkeley, California 94704 USA
Tel: (510) 845-2177
Fax: (510) 845-4096
E-mail: info@csiberkeley.com
Web: www.csiberkeley.com

Copyright Computers and Structures, Inc., 19781997.


The CSI Logo is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc.
SAP2000 is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc.

DISCLAIMER
CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE
INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF
SAP2000. THE PROGRAM HAS BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED
AND USED. IN USING THE PROGRAM, HOWEVER, THE USER
ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF
THE PROGRAM.
THIS PROGRAM IS A VERY PRACTICAL TOOL FOR THE DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES. HOWEVER,
THE USER MUST THOROUGHLY READ THE MANUAL AND
CLEARLY RECOGNIZE THE ASPECTS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN THAT THE PROGRAM ALGORITHMS DO NOT
ADDRESS.
THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE PROGRAM AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS.

Table of Contents
CHAPTER I

Introduction

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Recommended Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

CHAPTER II

Quick Tutorial

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Description of the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Starting the Tutorial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Opening the Model Database File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Analyzing the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Selecting the Design Code. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Starting Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Changing Member Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

CHAPTER III Design Algorithms

23

Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . .


Design and Check Stations . . . . . . . .
Identifying Beams and Columns . . . . .
Design of Beams. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design of Columns . . . . . . . . . . . .
P- Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Element Unsupported Lengths . . . . . .
Special Considerations for Seismic Loads
Choice of Input Units . . . . . . . . . . .

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5

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


CHAPTER IV Design for ACI 318-95

33

Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Strength Reduction Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Column Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . . . . .
Check Column Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determine Factored Moments and Forces. . .
Determine Moment Magnification Factors . .
Determine Capacity Ratio . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . .
Determine Section Forces . . . . . . . . . . .
Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . .
Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . .
Beam Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . .
Determine Factored Moments . . . . . . . . .
Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement .
Design Beam Shear Reinforcement. . . . . . . . .
Determine Shear Force and Moment . . . . .
Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . .
Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . .

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CHAPTER V Design for CAN3-A23.3-M84


Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Strength Reduction Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Column Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . . . . .
Check Column Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determine Factored Moments and Forces. . .
Determine Moment Magnification Factors . .
Determine Capacity Ratio . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . .
Determine Section Forces . . . . . . . . . . .
Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . .
Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . .
Beam Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . .
Determine Factored Moments . . . . . . . . .
Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement .
Design Beam Shear Reinforcement. . . . . . . . .
Determine Shear Force and Moment . . . . .
Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . .
Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . .

ii
6

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62
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79
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82
82

Table of Contents
CHAPTER VI Design for BS 8110-85

83

Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83


Design Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Column Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Check Column Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Determine Factored Moments and Forces. . . . . . . . . . . 89
Determine Additional Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Determine Capacity Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Beam Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Determine Factored Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . 95
Design Beam Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

CHAPTER VII Design for Eurocode 2

103

Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Design Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Column Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . . . .
Check Column Capacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determine Factored Moments and Forces . .
Determine Code Total Moments . . . . . .
Determine Capacity Ratio . . . . . . . . . .
Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . .
Beam Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . .
Determine Factored Moments . . . . . . . .
Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement
Design Beam Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . .

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CHAPTER VIII Design Output

103
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121

123

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graphical Display of Design Output
Tabular Display of Design Output . .
Member Specific Information . . . .

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References

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Index

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iii
7

Chapter I

Introduction
Overview
SAP2000 features powerful and completely integrated modules for design of both
steel and reinforced concrete structures (CSI 1997a, 1997b). The program provides
the user with options to create, modify, analyze and design structural models, all
from within the same user interface.
The program provides an interactive environment in which the user can study the
stress conditions, make appropriate changes, such as member size revisions, and
update the design without re-analyzing the structure. A single mouse click on an
element brings up detailed design information. Members can be grouped together
for design purposes. The output in both graphical and tabulated formats can be
readily displayed and printed.
The program is structured to support a wide variety of design codes for the automated design and check of concrete frame members. The program currently supports the following design codes: U.S. (ACI 1995), Canadian (CSA 1984), British
(BSI 1985), and European (CEN 1992).
The design is based upon a set of user-specified loading combinations. However,
the program provides a set of default load combinations for each design code supported in SAP2000. If the default load combinations are acceptable, no definition of
additional load combinations are required.
Overview
9

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


In the design of the columns, the program calculates the required longitudinal and
shear reinforcement. However the user may specify the longitudinal steel, in which
case a column capacity ratio is reported. The column capacity ratio gives an indication of the stress condition with respect to the capacity of the column.
Every beam member is designed for flexure and shear at a user defined number of
stations along the beam span.
The presentation of the output is clear and concise. The information is in a form that
allows the engineer to take appropriate remedial measures in the event of member
overstress. Backup design information produced by the program is also provided
for convenient verification of the results.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used to define the model geometry and to specify design parameters.

Organization
This manual is organized in the following way:
Chapter II provides a quick tutorial aiming at giving the first time users hands-on
experience. Several of the basic features of the SAP2000 concrete design modules
are explored in this tutorial.
Chapter III outlines various aspects of the concrete design procedures of the
SAP2000 program. This chapter describes the common terminology of concrete
design as implemented in SAP2000.
Each of four subsequent chapters gives a detailed description of a specific code of
practice as interpreted by and implemented in SAP2000. Each chapter describes the
design loading combination, column and beam design procedures, and other special consideration required by the code.
Chapter IV gives a detailed description of the ACI code (ACI 1995) as implemented in SAP2000.
Chapter V gives a detailed description of the Canadian code (CSA 1984) as implemented in SAP2000.
Chapter VI gives a detailed description of the British code (BSI 1985) as implemented in SAP2000.
Chapter VII gives a detailed description of the Eurocode (CEN 1992) as implemented in SAP2000.

Organization
10

Chapter I Introduction
Chapter VIII outlines various aspects of the tabular and graphical output from
SAP2000 related to concrete design.

Recommended Reading
It is recommended that first time users follow through the steps of the Quick Tutorial in Chapter II and read Chapter III Design Algorithms and one of four subsequent chapters corresponding to the code of interest to the user. Finally the user
should read Design Output in Chapter VIII for understanding and interpreting
SAP2000 output related to concrete design.

Recommended Reading
11

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C h a p t e r II

Quick Tutorial
Overview
Several of the basic features of the SAP2000 concrete design modules are explored
in this tutorial. This introduction is aimed at giving the first time user hands-on experience for designing concrete frames with SAP2000. The program allows you to
select from several U.S. and international codes to design and review concrete
structures. A comprehensive on-line Help is included in the program for your quick
reference. It is assumed that you have a working knowledge of concrete design procedures and are reasonably familiar with the current codes of practice and their underlying design concepts.
We will access the SAP2000 commands from both the Toolbar and from the
menus. The Toolbar, however, provides quick access to most commonly used features available from the menus.
In the assignment sequence, there are two important points you must remember.
First, you have to define an entity before you can assign an attribute to it, and second, you have to select member(s) before you can assign new attributes or modify
old ones.

Overview
13

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

Description of the Model


The structure is a two-story, two-by-two bay office building located in Seismic
Zone No. 4 (high seismic area). It is designed as a special moment resisting concrete frame using the ACI 318-95 code.

15'
30'

32
28

20K

30'
Roof

Floor

26
15
10K 10K
19
25
33
29

31
14

20
22
13
5

8
18

12

23

12'

30
10

20K
24

Baseline

16

27

10'

15'

17

21

11
7

1
Z
Global
Reference
Point

Figure II-1
Ductile Moment Resisting Concrete Frame (Tutorial Example)

Description of the Model


14

Chapter II Quick Tutorial


Geometry
The two-story structure has a partial floor diaphragm and a full roof diaphragm. See
Figure II-1. The story height of the top and bottom floor is taken as10 0 and12 0
respectively. The initial member sizes and reinforcement are given in Table II-1.
ID

Structural Component

Description

Typical columns at the top story

12 12, Rebar not specified,


2 cover to center of steel

Typical columns at the bottom story

18 18, Rebar not specified,


2 cover to center of steel

All other beams

12 24 , Rebar not specified,


2 cover to center of steel

The longest span beam (Beam 33)

12 36, Rebar not specified,


2 cover to center of steel

Table II-1
Structural Property Data (Tutorial Example)
Material Properties
The properties of the materials used in the model are given in Table II-2. It is assumed that the materials used for the beams and columns are the same. However,
the shear reinforcement is different from the longitudinal reinforcement.
Material Property

Magnitude

fc

4.0 ksi

Ec

3600 ksi

fy

60 ksi

fys

40 ksi

Table II-2
Material Specifications (Tutorial Example)
For analysis in SAP2000, the value of E is modified to account for cracking. A
multiplier of 0.4 (as recommended in ACI 318-89) is used for columns assumed to
have about 2% steel, and a multiplier of 0.5 (as recommended in ACI 318-89) is
c

Description of the Model


15

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


used for the beams. These multiplication factors are slightly different in ACI 31895. See Section R10.11.1 of ACI 318-95.
Load Cases
Four load cases are considered in the analysis. The dead and live loads are defined
as load cases DL and LL respectively. The lateral seismic loads, in turn, are designated as QX and QY respectively.
The dead and live loads are simplified as line loads on the beams. The equivalent
static seismic forces are applied as lateral loads at the centroids of the diaphragms:
Load case 1 : DL C 1.0 kip/ft on all beams which are connected with the diaphragm
along the X-direction (Self-weight included)
Load case 2 : LL C 0.5 kip/ft on all beams which are connected with the diaphragm
along the X-direction
Load case 3 : QX C Static equivalent earthquake force in the X-direction
Load case 4 : QY C Static equivalent earthquake force in the Y-direction
Analysis
Two diaphragm constraints are applied for the two diaphragms at the two floors.
These constraints prevent in-plane relative displacements of the nodes at each floor.
The lateral earthquake loads are assumed to be applied at the centroid of the diaphragm. A P- analysis is carried out with a load level of 0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL)/
as recommended in the chapter Design for ACI 318-95 on page 40, where is
taken as 0.75.
Design
The design is performed in accordance with ACI 318-95. Kip-in units are used. The
input database file for this model is EXCONC.SDB. This is supplied as part of the
SAP2000 package.

Starting the Tutorial


A step-by-step procedure for the design of the model is outlined below. It is recommended that you actually perform these steps while reading this chapter. We assume that you have successfully started the program. You can do this by running
SAP2000 from the Start Menu.

Starting the Tutorial


16

Chapter II Quick Tutorial


In this tutorial, whenever possible, we will use the Toolbars to access various options quickly. Most of the features available on the Toolbars can also be accessed
from the Menu Bar. Use the on-line Help or refer to the SAP2000 Getting Started
manual for a detailed description of the SAP2000 screen.
The input database file for the model (EXCONC.SDB) is in the EXAMPLES subdirectory under the main directory where the program has been installed. In this example, the analysis model is already created. This tutorial gives the highlights of the
design phase. You are assumed to be familiar with creating and editing structural
models using SAP2000.

Opening the Model Database File


1. Click on the Open button from the File menu. This will display the Open
Model File dialog box.
2. In this dialog box:
Select the EXCONC.SDB file.
Click on the Open button.
The screen will now show two vertically-tiled windows. The left window displays a
plan view of the model at level + 264 in. Section labels are not displayed in this
view. A three-dimensional view of the model is shown in the right window.

Opening the Model Database File


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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


Note: when working with multiple windows, clicking anywhere in a particular window will activate that window.
Before we proceed further, we will make a copy of the data file by saving the model
under a new name, say, TUTOR1.SDB. We will use the copy during the tutorial and
leave the original file unaltered.
3. From the File menu, choose Save As.... This will display the Save Model File
As dialog box.
4. In this dialog box:
Enter new filename, Tutor1.SDB.
Note: Even if you do not type in the extension .SDB, the program automatically appends this extension to the filename.
Click on the Save button.
The new name is displayed in the Main Title Bar.

Analyzing the Model


We will now analyze the model. Before analyzing the model we need to set the P-
force and other parameters for P- analysis. To do this:
1. Select the Set Options... button in the Analyze menu. This will immediately
bring up the Analysis Options dialog box. In this dialog box:
Check the Include P-Delta check box.
Click on the Set P-Delta Parameters button. This will bring up the PDelta Parameters dialog box. In this dialog box:
Set maximum iterations to 5.
Change the DL scale factor to 1.4 and click Modify.
Click on the Load Case drop down arrow.
Select LL.
Change the LL scale factor to 1.7 and click Add.
Click OK to close the P-Delta Parameters dialog box
Click OK to close Analysis Options dialog box.
2. Click on the Run Analysis button on the main toolbar.

10

Analyzing the Model


18

Chapter II Quick Tutorial


A top window is opened in which various phases of analysis are progressively reported. When the analysis is complete the screen will display the following:

3. Use the scroll bar on the top window to review the analysis messages and to
check for any error or warning messages. In our case there should be none.
4. Click on the OK button in the top window to close it. This will display a deformed shape for the first load case (DL) in the active window (right window in
this example) as follow:s

Analyzing the Model


19

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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

Selecting the Design Code


Selection of a design code is activated from Preferences... in the Options menu.
The default design code is ACI 318-95 for reinforced concrete design. Since the default code is used in this tutorial, we can by-pass this step. To confirm, however,
you can follow this:
1. Click on the Preferences... button from the Options menu. This will launch the
Options dialog box.
2. Click on the Concrete tab.
3. You can see the currently selected concrete design code, strength reduction factors, interaction diagram parameters, and other parameters as shown in the next
page. You do not need to change anything.
4. Click on the Cancel button to close the dialog box.

Starting Design
With the analysis phase and selection of the design code completed, we will now
design the structure using the requirements of ACI 318-95.
1. From the Design menu, choose Start Design/Check of Structure. The program now designs each of the concrete frame members. (If we had selected
some frame members, then only the selected frames would be designed). In a

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Selecting the Design Code


20

Chapter II Quick Tutorial


few moments the longitudinal reinforcement requirements are displayed in the
active window. For beams the compression and the tensile reinforcement are
displayed separately. For columns the total overall reinforcement area is displayed. In the display, the reinforcement areas are reported for the governing
design combination, by default.

2. Right click on a column member, for example element 2 (see Figure II-1). This
will open the Concrete Design Information dialog box showing longitudinal
and shear reinforcement requirements at various stations along the element
length for the various load combinations (see screen below). The dialog box
also can show information regarding the Details of calculation for design, the
element overwrite assignments for ReDesign for the selected member, and column Interaction properties. However, if the member is a beam, rather than a
column, the Interaction properties are not relevant and are not available from
the Concrete Design Information dialog box.

Starting Design
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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

3. In this dialog box:


Select a design check station in the Concrete Design Information dialog
box.
Click on the Details button. This will open the Concrete Design Information ACI 318-95 screen showing the design parameters including the reinforcement areas and the factored member forces for the selected load combination at that particular station. See screen below.

14

Starting Design
22

Chapter II Quick Tutorial


Close the Concrete Design Information ACI 318-95 window.
Click on the Interaction button. This will open the dialog box showing the
column interaction diagram and the current state of the design forces in the
diagram for the selected load combination at that particular station. The interaction diagram can be rotated about any axis to view the diagram from
different directions. See screen below.

Click on the Done button to close the Interaction information dialog box.
Click on the ReDesign button. This will open the Element Overwrite Assignments information dialog box showing the input design factors including the K factors, C factors, etc. These factors can be edited for redesigning. See screen on the next page. There is also an alternative way of editing
the properties of a set of members which will be demonstrated in the next
section Changing Member Properties.
m

Click on the OK button to close the Element Overwrite Assignments dialog box.
Click on the OK button to close the Concrete Design Information dialog
box.
Note: The number of stations (number of segments + 1) used in the design is set by
the user through Frame and Output Segment buttons from the Assign menu prior
to the analysis phase. The default number of segments is 4 for beams and 2 for
columns.

Starting Design
23

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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


Till now we have analyzed and designed the concrete frame and reviewed some of
the design information. SAP2000 allows you to interactively change the design
code, member properties, remove or add new load combinations, etc. and re-run the
analysis and design phases. As a demonstration in this tutorial, we will edit/change
a member property for a set of frame members in the next section.

Changing Member Properties


With the analysis and preliminary design successfully completed, we will now
modify the section properties of all the columns of the bottom story before performing re-analysis. Initially, in the analysis, the section type of each column member of
the bottom story was taken to be 2. Referring to the screen that follows, we will
change the section type of every column at the bottom story to be 1. Note that there
are already four previously defined section types in the model which were named
numerically as 1, 2, 3, and 4. In order to make these changes, we will change the
view in the right window to make all the columns visible for selection. Notice that
this window is currently showing the longitudinal reinforcing from the previous design.
1. Click on the Show Undeformed Shape button from the floating toolbar.
2. Click on the 2D View (xz) button from the main toolbar for an elevation view.
3. Click on the Perspective Toggle button from the main toolbar. This will display a 3D view. All columns except the middle two will be visible. These two

16

Changing Member Properties


24

Chapter II Quick Tutorial


columns will be overlapping each other. To look at them better, we need to rotate the model about a vertical axis.
4. Click on the Set 3D View ... button on the View menu. Increase the plan View
Direction Angle from 270 to 300 on the Set 3D View popup window and then
click on the OK button.
Now, with all the columns visible, we can select and modify their design section information. Remember, SAP2000 maintains two sets of information for sections.
One is for analysis and the other is for design. Changing section type here will affect the design section only. To update the analysis section, you need to explicitly
request an update of the analysis information from the current design state using the
menu item Update Analysis Sections in the Design menu.
5. To see the current setting of Design Sections do the following:
Click on the Display Design Info ... menu item from the Design menu. Select the Design Input option button.
Select Design Sections from the drop-down list.
Click OK.
This will display the design sections on the screen as shown below. Now we can select and modify the sections for the columns at the first story.

Changing Member Properties


25

17

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


6. To select all the columns at the bottom story do the following:
Click the Set Intersecting Line Select Mode button on the Floating Toolbar.
Move the pointer to the left and middle of the leftmost corner column at the
bottom story.
Click and hold down the left mouse button.
While holding, move the pointer horizontally to the right of the members
intersecting all the columns at the bottom story. A rubber-band line will
show the intersecting line.
Release the left mouse button to select all members that intersect the
rubber-band line.
Note: To select all the columns in the bottom story, we have to do this operation only once. Any member can also be selected just by clicking the
member itself.
The selection of all the bottom story columns is now complete. The selected members appear as dashed lines.

7. From the Design menu, choose ReDefine Element Design Data.... This will
display the Element Overwrite Assignments dialog box to edit the sections
and the design factors. The design factors are code dependent. To change the
sections from this dialog box:

18

Changing Member Properties


26

Chapter II Quick Tutorial


Click the Change button on the Element Section area. This will display
Select Sections dialog box. In this dialog box:
Select 1 by clicking once.
Click on the OK button to accept the change.
Click on the OK button on Element Overwrite Assignment dialog box.
This will recompute the longitudinal reinforcement based on the new section properties and the previous analysis results.
8. To see the recomputed longitudinal reinforcement, do the following:
Click on the Display Design Info ... menu item from the Design menu. Select the Design Output option button.
Select Longitudinal Reinforcing from the drop-down list.
Click OK. This will display the longitudinal reinforcement as recomputed
based on the new section properties and the previous analysis results.
Click on the 3D View (3-d) button from the main toolbar to display the results in an orientation used earlier.

Notice that as a result of changing the section, the reinforcement areas in those particular columns are changed. To see the difference, compare this display with the
one on page 13.

Changing Member Properties


27

19

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


It is important to realize that changes made to member section properties in the design phase are not automatically reflected in the analysis results. These changes are
only local to the post-processing phase unless a re-run of the analysis, with updated
elements, is requested by the user. In other words, overwriting the section properties only affects the stress values and not the factored element forces obtained in the
analysis preceding such changes. The redistribution of member forces due to
change of stiffness (revision of section properties) is effected in a re-run of analysis.

In the Design menu click on Update Analysis Sections. This will prompt a
dialog box asking Updating Analysis Section will unlock model! OK to update?. Click OK.

From the Analyze menu, choose Run. This will immediately start the analysis
procedure. A top window is opened in which various phases of analysis are progressively displayed. The results will obviously differ from those produced in
the initial analysis because of the change of section properties we made in the
design stage. Click OK to close the top window.
Click on the Start Design/Check of Structures from the Design menu. This
will redesign the structure and display the new required longitudinal reinforcement.
You can see the difference after re-running the design based on the latest analysis
results.

20

Changing Member Properties


28

Chapter II Quick Tutorial

Concluding Remarks
We have come to the end of this tutorial on the SAP2000 concrete design options.
The intent has been to highlight and demonstrate a few of the basic features in order
to open up the path for you to explore and use the more advanced options. For more
information on various topics consult the on-line Help provided with the program.

Concluding Remarks
29

21

30

C h a p t e r III

Design Algorithms
This chapter outlines various aspects of the concrete design and design-check procedures that are used by the SAP2000 program. The concrete design and check may
be performed in SAP2000 according to one of the following design codes:
The 1995 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete, ACI 318-95 (ACI 1995).
The 1984 Canadian Standards Association Design of Concrete Structures for
Buildings, CAN3-A23.3-M.84 (CSA 1984).
The 1985 British Standards Institution Structural Use of Concrete, BS 8110,
(BSI 1985).
The 1992 European Committee for Standardization, Design of Concrete Structures, EUROCODE 2 (CEN 1992).
Details of the algorithms associated with each of these codes as implemented in
SAP2000 are described in the subsequent chapters. However, this chapter provides
a background which is common to all the design codes.
In writing this manual it has been assumed that the user has an engineering background in the general area of structural reinforced concrete design and familiarity
with at least one of the above mentioned design codes.

23
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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


For referring to pertinent sections of the corresponding code, a unique prefix is assigned for each code. For example, all references to the ACI 318-95 code are preceded by the word ACI. Similarly,
References to the Canadian code (CSA 1984) carry the prefix of CAN
References to the British code (BSI 1985) carry the prefix of BS
References to the Eurocode (CEN 1992) carry the prefix of EC2

Design Load Combinations


The design load combinations are used for determining the various combinations of
the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed/checked. The load combination factors to be used vary with the selected design code. The load combination factors are applied to the forces and moments obtained from the associated load
cases and are then summed to obtain the factored design forces and moments for the
load combination.
For multi-valued load combinations involving response spectrum, time history,
moving loads and multi-valued combinations (of type enveloping, square-root of
the sum of the squares or absolute) where any correspondence between interacting
quantities is lost, the program automatically produces multiple sub combinations
using maxima/minima permutations of interacting quantities. Separate combinations with negative factors for response spectrum cases are not required because the
program automatically takes the minima to be the negative of the maxima for response spectrum cases and the above described permutations generate the required
sub combinations.
When a design combination involves only a single multi-valued case of time history or moving load, further options are available. The program has an option to request that time history combinations produce sub combinations for each time step
of the time history. Also an option is available to request that moving load combinations produce sub combinations using maxima and minima of each design quantity
but with corresponding values of interacting quantities.
For normal loading conditions involving static dead load, live load, wind load, and
earthquake load, and/or dynamic response spectrum earthquake load the program
has built-in default loading combinations for each design code. These are based on
the code recommendations and are documented for each code in the corresponding
chapters.
For other loading conditions involving moving load, time history, pattern live
loads, separate consideration of roof live load, snow load, etc., the user must define

24

Design Load Combinations


32

Chapter III Design Algorithms


design loading combinations either in lieu of or in addition to the default design
loading combinations.
The default load combinations assume all static load cases declared as dead load to
be additive. Similarly, all cases declared as live load are assumed additive. However, each static load case declared as wind or earthquake, or response spectrum
cases, is assumed to be non additive with each other and produces multiple lateral
load combinations. Also wind and static earthquake cases produce separate loading
combinations with the sense (positive or negative) reversed. If these conditions are
not correct, the user must provide the appropriate design combinations.
The default load combinations are included in design if the user requests them to be
included or if no other user defined combination is available for concrete design. If
any default combination is included in design, then all default combinations will
automatically be updated by the program any time the design code is changed or if
static or response spectrum load cases are modified.
Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case
on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the
factored loading.
The user is cautioned that if moving load or time history results are not requested to
be recovered in the analysis for some or all the frame members, then the effects of
these loads will be assumed to be zero in any combination that includes them.

Design and Check Stations


For each load combination, each element is designed or checked at a number of locations along the length of the element. The locations are based on equally spaced
segments along the clear length of the element. The number of segments in an element is requested by the user before the analysis is made. The user can refine the design along the length of an element by requesting more segments.

Identifying Beams and Columns


Since SAP2000 is a general purpose analysis and design program, all beams and
columns are represented as frame elements. But design of beams and columns requires separate treatment. Therefore, identifying each frame element as either a
beam or a column is necessary. This identification for a concrete element is done by
specifying the frame section assigned to the element to be of type beam or column.

Design and Check Stations


33

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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

Design of Beams
In the design of concrete beams, in general, SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments, shears,
load combination factors, and other criteria which are described in detail in the code
specific chapters. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user-defined
number of stations along the beam span.
All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Effects due
to any axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion that may exist in the beams
must be investigated independently by the user.
In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment at a particular section
of a particular beam, the steps involve the determination of the maximum factored
moments and the determination of the reinforcing steel. The beam section is designed for the maximum positive M and maximum negative M factored moment
envelopes obtained from all of the load combinations. Negative beam moments
produce top steel. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In such cases the beam may be
designed as a rectangular- or a T-beam. For the design of flexural reinforcement,
the beam is first designed as a singly reinforced beam. If the beam section is not
adequate, then the required compression reinforcement is calculated.
+

In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular set of
loading combinations at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the steps
involve the determination of the factored shear force, the determination of the shear
force that can be resisted by concrete, and the determination of the reinforcement
steel required to carry the balance.
Special considerations for seismic design are incorporated in SAP2000 for ACI
318-95 and 1984 Canadian codes.

Design of Columns
In the design of the columns, the program calculates the required longitudinal steel,
or if the longitudinal steel is specified, the column stress condition is reported in
terms of a column capacity ratio, which is a factor that gives an indication of the
stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps:

26

Design of Beams
34

Chapter III Design Algorithms


Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different
concrete section types of the model. A typical interaction surface is shown in
Figure III-1.
Check the capacity of each column for the factored axial force and bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each end of the column. This
step is also used to calculate the required reinforcement (if none was specified)
that will produce a capacity ratio of 1.0.
Design the column shear reinforcement.
Axial compression
+P0

Pmax

Curve #NRCV

Pbx

Curve #1

Pby

Curve #2

M by

M bx
1

My

Mx

-P0

Axial tension

Figure III-1
A Typical Column Interaction Surface

Design of Columns
35

27

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


The generation of the interaction surface is based on the assumed strain and stress
distributions and some other simplifying assumptions. These stress and strain distributions and the assumptions vary from code to code. A typical assumed strain
distribution is described in Figure III-2.
Varying Linear
Strain Plane

c
Reinforcement
Bars

+
DIRECTION 1

Neutral Axis
Direction

Varying Linear
Strain Plane

c
DIRECTION

Reinforcement
Bars
Neutral Axis
Direction

c
+

Varying Linear
Strain Plane

DIRECTION

Neutral Axis
Reinforcement Direction
Bars

Figure III-2
Idealized Strain Distribution for Generation of Interaction Surfaces

Here maximum compression strain is limited to . For most of the design codes,
this assumed distribution remains valid. However, the value of varies from code
to code. For example, = 0003
for ACI and Canadian codes, and = 00035
for
.
.
c

28

Design of Columns
36

Chapter III Design Algorithms


British and European codes. The details of the generation of interaction surfaces
differ from code to code. These are described in the chapters specific to the code.
The capacity check is based on whether the design load points lie inside the interaction volume in a force space, as shown in Figure III-3. If the point lies inside the
volume, the column capacity is adequate, and vice versa.
The shear reinforcement design procedure for columns is very similar to that for
beams, except that the effect of the axial force on the concrete shear capacity needs
to be considered.
Axial Compression

Lines Defining
Failure Surface

C
L
P

o
Mx

My

MY

MX

Axial Tension

Figure III-3
Geometric Representation of Column Capacity Ratio

Design of Columns
37

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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

P- Effects
The SAP2000 design algorithms require that the analysis results include the P- effects. The P- effects are considered differently for braced or nonsway and
unbraced or sway columns or frames. For the braced columns, the effect of P-
is limited to individual member stability. For unbraced frames, lateral drift effects should be considered in addition to individual member stability effect.
For the individual member stability effects, the moments are magnified with moment magnification factors as in the ACI and Canadian codes or with additional
moments as in the British and Eurocode codes.
For lateral drift effects of unbraced or sway frames, SAP2000 assumes that the amplification is already included in the results because P- effects are considered.
The moments and forces obtained from P- analysis are further amplified for individual column stability effect if required by the governing code as in the ACI and
Canadian codes.
The users of SAP2000 should be aware that the default analysis option in SAP2000
is turned OFF for P- effect. The user can turn the P- analysis ON and set the
maximum number of iterations for the analysis. The default number of iteration for
P- analysis is 1. For further reference, the user is referred to SAP2000 Reference
Manual (CSI 1997b).
The user is also cautioned that SAP2000 currently considers P- effects due to axial
loads in frame members only. Forces in other types of elements do not contribute to
this effect. If significant forces are present in other type of elements, for example,
huge axial loads in shear walls modeled as shell elements, then the additional forces
computed for P- will not be accurate.

Element Unsupported Lengths


To account for column slenderness effects the column unsupported lengths are required. The two unsupported lengths are l and l . These are the lengths between
support points of the element in the corresponding directions. The length l corresponds to instability about the 3-3 axis (major axis), and l corresponds to instability about the 2-2 axis (minor axis).
33

22

33

22

Normally, the unsupported element length is equal to the length of the element, i.e.,
the distance between END-I and END-J of the element. See Figure III-4. The program, however, allows users to assign several elements to be treated as a single
member for design. This can be done differently for major and minor bending.

30

P- Effects
38

Chapter III Design Algorithms


Therefore, extraneous joints as shown in Figure III-5 that affect the unsupported
length of an element are automatically taken into consideration.
In determining the values for l and l of the elements, the program recognizes
various aspects of the structure that have an effect on these lengths, such as member
connectivity, diaphragm constraints and support points. The program automatically locates the element support points and evaluates the corresponding unsupported element length.
22

33

Therefore, the unsupported length of a column may actually be evaluated as being


greater than the corresponding element length. If a beam frames into only one direction of the column, the beam is assumed to give lateral support only in that direction.
The user has options to specify the unsupported lengths of the elements on an
element-by-element basis.
2

is
Ax
nt 1
e
m
Ele
J
D
EN

l33

D
EN

l22

Figure III-4
Axes of Bending and Unsupported Length

Element Unsupported Lengths


39

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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

Special Considerations for Seismic Loads


The ACI code (ACI 1995) imposes a special ductility requirement for frames in
seismic regions by specifying frames either as Ordinary, Intermediate, or Special
moment resisting frames. The Special moment resisting frame can provide the required ductility and energy dissipation in the nonlinear range of cyclic deformation.
The Canadian code (CSA 1984) also requires that the concrete frame must be designed as either an Ordinary, Nominal, or Ductile moment resisting frame.
Unlike the ACI (ACI 1995) and the Canadian code (CSA 1984), the current implementation of the British code (BSI 1985) and the Eurocode (CEN 1992) in
SAP2000 does not account for any special requirements for seismic design.

Figure III-5
Unsupported Lengths and Interior Nodes

Choice of Input Units


English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the codes are
based on a specific system of units. All equations and descriptions presented in the
subsequent chapters correspond to that specific system of units unless otherwise
noted. For example, the ACI code is published in inch-pound-second units. By default, all equations and descriptions presented in the chapter Design for ACI 31895 correspond to inch-pound-second units. However, any system of units can be
used to define and design the structure in SAP2000.

32

Special Considerations for Seismic Loads


40

C h a p t e r IV

Design for ACI 318-95


This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure
that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the ACI 318-95 Design Code (ACI
1995). Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table IV-1.
The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.
SAP2000 provides options to design or check Ordinary, Intermediate (moderate
seismic risk areas), and Special (high seismic risk areas) moment resisting frames
as required for seismic design provisions. The details of the design criteria used for
the different framing systems are described in the following sections.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code is
based on Inch-Pound-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions
presented in this chapter correspond to Inch-Pound-Second units unless otherwise
noted.

Design Load Combinations


The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load
cases for which the structure needs to be checked. For the ACI 318-95 code, if a

Design Load Combinations


41

33

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
a
a
b
b
b
C

cv
g
s
s
s ( required )
st
v

w
m

c
c
d
d
d
E
E
f
f
f
h
I
b

c
s

ys

se

k
L

Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, sq-in


Gross area of concrete, sq-in
Area of tension reinforcement, sq-in
Area of compression reinforcement, sq-in
Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-in
Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, sq-in
Area of shear reinforcement, sq-in
Depth of compression block, in
Depth of compression block at balanced condition, in
Width of member, in
Effective width of flange (T-Beam section), in
Width of web (T-Beam section), in
Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to calculate moment magnification factor
Depth to neutral axis, in
Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, in
Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, in
Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, in
Thickness of slab (T-Beam section), in
Modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 29,000,000 psi
Specified compressive strength of concrete, psi
Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, psi
Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, psi
Dimension of column, in
Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement, in4
Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of
member cross section, in4
Effective length factor
Clear unsupported length, in
Table IV-1
List of Symbols Used in the ACI code

34

Design Load Combinations


42

Chapter IV Design for ACI 318-95

M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
P
P
P
P
P
r
V
V
V +
V
V

2
c

ns
s

ux
uy

b
c

max
0
u

D
u

s
ns
c
s

Smaller factored end moment in a column, lb-in


Larger factored end moment in a column, lb-in
Factored moment to be used in design, lb-in
Nonsway component of factored end moment, lb-in
Sway component of factored end moment, lb-in
Factored moment at section, lb-in
Factored moment at section about X-axis, lb-in
Factored moment at section about Y-axis, lb-in
Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions, lb
Critical buckling strength of column, lb
Maximum axial load strength allowed, lb
Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity, lb
Factored axial load at section, lb
Radius of gyration of column section, in
Shear resisted by concrete, lb
Shear force caused by earthquake loads, lb
Shear force from span loading, lb
Factored shear force at a section, lb
Shear force computed from probable moment capacity, lb
Reinforcing steel overstrength factor
Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete
Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load
Moment magnification factor for sway moments
Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments
Strain in concrete
Strain in reinforcing steel
Strength reduction factor

Table IV-1
List of Symbols Used in the ACI code (continued)

Design Load Combinations


43

35

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only, the stress check
may need only one load combination, namely 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL (ACI 9.2.1). However, in addition to the dead and live loads, if the structure is subjected to wind
(WL) and earthquake (EL) loads, and considering that wind and earthquake forces
are reversible, then the following load combinations have to be considered (ACI
9.2).
1.4 DL
1.4 DL + 1.7 LL

(ACI 9.2.1)

0.9 DL 1.3 WL
0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL 1.7 WL)

(ACI 9.2.2)

0.9 DL 1.3 * 1.1 EL


0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL 1.7 * 1.1 EL)

(ACI 9.2.3)

These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the ACI
318-95 code is used.
Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load
condition on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load
to the factored loading.

Strength Reduction Factors


The strength reduction factors, , are applied on the nominal strength to obtain the
design strength provided by a member. The factors for flexure, axial force, shear,
and torsion are as follows:

36

= 0.90 for flexure,

(ACI 9.3.2.1)

= 0.90 for axial tension,

(ACI 9.3.2.2)

= 0.90 for axial tension and flexure,

(ACI 9.3.2.2)

= 0.75 for axial compression, and axial compression


and flexure (spirally reinforced column),

(ACI 9.3.2.2)

= 0.70 for axial compression, and axial compression


and flexure (tied column), and

(ACI 9.3.2.2)

= 0.85 for shear and torsion.

(ACI 9.3.2.3)

Strength Reduction Factors


44

Chapter IV Design for ACI 318-95

Column Design
The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user, the program
checks the column capacity. However, if the area of reinforcing is not provided by
the user, the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column.
The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves
the following steps:
Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different
concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction surface is
shown in Figure III-1. When the steel is undefined, the program generates the
interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement C 1 to 8 percent
for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ACI 10.9.1) and 1 to 6
percent for Special moment resisting frames (ACI 21.4.3.1).
Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading
combination at each station of the column. The target capacity ratio is taken as
one when calculating the required reinforcing area.
Design the column shear reinforcement.
The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
the above-mentioned steps.

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces


The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface.
In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. A typical interaction diagram is
shown in Figure III-1.
The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in
three dimensions on the section of the column. See Figure III-2. The linear strain
diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, , at the extremity of the section
to 0.003 (ACI 10.2.3).
c

The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate


strength design (ACI 10.3), and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular,
square, or circular column section.

Column Design
45

37

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity, E , and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, f (ACI 10.2.4).
The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual
location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column, such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder. See Figure IV-1.
s

0.85 f'c
c = 0.003

d'
c

(i) Concrete Section

1
Cs

s1

a=

1c

2
Cs

s2

s3

Ts3

s4

Ts4

(ii) Strain Diagram

(iii) Stress Diagram

Figure IV-1
Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section

The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a stress


value of 085
. f (ACI 10.2.7.1). See Figure IV-1. The interaction algorithm provides
correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in
the compression zone.
c

The effects of the strength reduction factor, , are included in the generation of the
interaction surfaces. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to P , where
max

P = 0.85 [0.85 f ( A - A ) + f A ] spiral column,

(ACI 10.3.5.1)

P = 0.80 [ 0.85 f ( A - A ) + f A ] tied column,

(ACI 10.3.5.2)

max

max

st

st

st

st

= 0.70 for tied columns, and


= 0.75 for spirally reinforced columns.

38

Column Design
46

Chapter IV Design for ACI 318-95


The value of used in the interaction diagram varies from

min

to 0.9 based on the

axial load. For low values of axial load, is increased linearly from
to 0.9 as

the axial load decreases from the smaller of 0.1 f A or P to zero, where P is the
axial force at the balanced condition. In cases involving axial tension, is always
0.9 (ACI 9.3.2.2).
min

Check Column Capacity


The column capacity is checked for each loading combination at each check station
of each column. In checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular station, the following steps are involved:
Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and
the specified load combination factors to give P , M ,and M .
u

ux

uy

Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments.


Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments. Determine
whether the point, defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set,
lies within the interaction volume.
The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the
identification of the individual column as either sway or non-sway.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the
above-mentioned steps.

Determine Factored Moments and Forces


The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the
corresponding load factors to all the load cases, giving P , M ,and M . The factored moments are further increased for non-sway columns, if required, to obtain
minimum eccentricities of (0.6 + 0.03h) inches, where h is the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (ACI 10.12.3.2).
u

ux

uy

Determine Moment Magnification Factors


The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall stability effect), and for non-sway (individual column stability effect), . Also the
moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are in general different.
s

ns

Column Design
47

39

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


The program assumes that a P- analysis has been performed in SAP2000 and,
therefore, moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken
as unity (ACI 10.10.2). For the P- analysis the load should correspond to a load
combination of 0.75 (1.4 dead load + 1.7 live load) / , where is the understrength
factor for stability which is taken as 0.75 (ACI 10.12.3). See also White and Hajjar
(1991).
The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway
( M ) and the non-sway (M ) components. The non-sway components which are
identified as ns subscripts are predominantly caused by gravity load. The sway
components are identified by the s subscripts. The sway moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads, and are related to the cause of side sway.
s

ns

For individual columns or column-members in a floor, the magnified moments


about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as
M =M

ns

+ M .
s

(ACI 10.13.3)

The factor is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side sway.
The moment magnification factors for sway moments, , is taken as 1 because the
component moments M and M are obtained from a second order elastic (P-)
analysis (ACI R10.13).
s

ns

The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability effect
(ACI 10.13.5) by the nonsway moment magnification factor, , as follows:
ns

M = M , where
c

ns

(ACI 10.12.3)

M is the factored moment to be used in design, and


c

M is the larger factored and amplified end moment.


2

The non-sway moment magnification factor, , associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by (ACI 10.12.3)
ns

ns

P
10.75 P

1.0 , where

P =
c

EI
,
( kL)
2

k is conservatively taken as 1, however SAP2000 allows the user to override


this value, and

40

Column Design
48

Chapter IV Design for ACI 318-95


EI is associated with a particular column direction given by the larger of:
EI =
EI =
=
d

0.2E I + E I
c

1+
0.4 E I
c

1+

se

maximum factored axial dead load


, and
maximum factored axial total load

C = 0.6 + 0.4
m

M
0.4 .
M
a

(ACI 10.12.3.1)

M and M are the moments at the ends of the column, and M is numerically
larger than M . M M is positive for single curvature bending and negative
for double curvature bending. The above expression of C is valid if there is no
transverse load applied between the supports. If transverse load is present on
the span, or the length is overwritten, or for any other case, C =1. C can be
overwritten by the user on an element by element basis.
a

The magnification factor, , must be a positive number and greater than one.
Therefore P must be less than 0.75P . If P is found to be greater than or equal to
0.75P , a failure condition is declared.
ns

The above calculations use the unsupported length of the column. The two unsupported lengths are l and l corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element, respectively. See Figure III-4. These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions.
22

33

If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member, the user
can explicitly specify values of and .
s

ns

Determine Capacity Ratio


As a measure of the stress condition of the column, a capacity ratio is calculated.
The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column.
Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the moment
magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain P , M ,and M .
The point (P , M M ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in
Figure III-3. If the point lies within the interaction volume, the column capacity is
u

ux ,

ux

uy

uy

Column Design
49

41

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


adequate; however, if the point lies outside the interaction volume, the column is
overstressed.
This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location
of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface.
OL
See Figure III-3. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio
.
OC
If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is
stressed to capacity.
If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate.
If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed.
The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling
P , M ,and M set and associated load combination number.
u

ux

uy

If the reinforcing area is not defined, SAP2000 computes the reinforcement that
will give an interaction ratio of unity.

Design Column Shear Reinforcement


The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and
minor directions of the column. In designing the shear reinforcing for a particular
column for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction, the following steps are involved:
Determine the factored forces acting on the section, P andV . Note that P is
needed for the calculation of V .
u

Determine the shear force, V , that can be resisted by concrete alone.


c

Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.


For special moment resisting frames (ductile frames), the shear design of the columns is based upon the probable moment capacities of the members. Effects of the
axial forces on the column moment capacities are included in the formulation.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the
above-mentioned steps.

42

Column Design
50

Chapter IV Design for ACI 318-95

Determine Section Forces


In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame, the forces for a particular load combination, namely,
the column axial force, P , and the column shear force,V , in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the SAP2000 analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.
u

In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (seismic design) the
following are checked in addition to the requirement for the ordinary moment
resisting frames. In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames, the
design shear force in a column, V , in a particular direction is also calculated
from the probable moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column.
u

For each load combination, the factored axial load, P , is calculated. Then, the
positive and negative moment capacities, M + and M , of the column in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force P is calculated using the
uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction. The design shear
force, V , is then given by (ACI 21.4.5.1)
u

V =V + V
u

(ACI 21.4.5.1)

D+ L

where, V is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite
directions. Therefore, V is the maximum of V 1 and V 2 , where
p

V1=

M +M
L

M +M
, where
L

P2

M +, M
I

, and

Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of


the column using a steel yield stress value of f
and no factors,
y

M +, M
J

Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of


the column using a steel yield stress value of f
and no factors, and
y

Clear span of column.

Column Design
51

43

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


For Special moment resisting frames is taken as 1.25 (ACI R21.3.4.1). V +
is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads.
For most of the columns, it is zero.
D

For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the design shear force is taken to
be the minimum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and factored
shear force. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the
same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for special moment
resisting frames, except that is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25. The factored
shear forces are based on the specified load factors except the earthquake load
factors are doubled (ACI 21.8.3).

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity


Given the design force set P andV , the shear force carried by the concrete,V , is
calculated as follows:
u

If the column is subjected to axial compression, i.e. P is positive,


u

P
V = 2 f 1 +
2000 A

A ,

(ACI 11.3.1.2)

cv

where,
f 100 psi, and

(ACI 11.1.2)

V 3.5 f
c

The term

P
1 +
500 A

A .

(ACI 11.3.2.2)

cv

P
must have psi units. A is the effective shear area which is shown
A
u

cv

shaded in Figure IV-2.


If the column is subjected to axial tension, P is negative,
u

P
V = 2 f 1 +
500 A

cv

(ACI 11.3.2.3)

For Special moment resisting concrete frame design, V is set to zero if the
factored axial compressive force, P , including the earthquake effect is small
( P < f A / 20) and if the shear force contribution from earthquake, V , is
c

44

Column Design
52

Chapter IV Design for ACI 318-95


more than half of the total factored maximum shear force over the length of the
member V (V 0.5 V ) (ACI 21.4.5.2).
u

d'

DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE

Acv

RECTANGULAR
d'

DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE

A cv

SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR


d'

DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE

Acv

CIRCULAR

Figure IV-2
Shear Stress Area, A

cv

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement


Given V and V , the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or tie
within a spacing, s, is given by
u

Column Design
53

45

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


A =
v

(V / V ) s
,
f d
u

(ACI 11.5.6.2)

ys

(V / V ) 8 f A
u

(ACI 11.5.6.8)

cv

Otherwise redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here , the strength


reduction factor, is 0.85 (ACI 9.3.2.3). The maximum of all the calculated A values obtained from each load combination are reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load
combination label.
v

The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based
purely upon shear strength consideration. Any minimum stirrup requirements to
satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas
of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments, shears, load combination factors, and other criteria described below. The reinforcement requirements
are calculated at a user defined number of check/design stations along the beam
span.
All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Effects due
to any axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion that may exist in the beams
must be investigated independently by the user.
The beam design procedure involves the following steps:
Design beam flexural reinforcement
Design beam shear reinforcement

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement


The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations along
the beam span. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment for a
particular beam for a particular section, the following steps are involved:
Determine the maximum factored moments
Determine the reinforcing steel

46

Beam Design
54

Chapter IV Design for ACI 318-95

Determine Factored Moments


In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special, Intermediate, or Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame beams, the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors.
The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive M and maximum
negative M factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.
+

Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In
such cases the beam may be designed as a Rectangular- or a T-beam.

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement


In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added when
the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the grade of concrete.
The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown
in Figure IV-3 (ACI 10.2). Furthermore it is assumed that the compression carried
by concrete is less than 0.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (ACI 10.3.3). When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this
designed balanced condition, the area of compression reinforcement is calculated
on the assumption that the additional moment will be carried by compression and
additional tension reinforcement.
The design procedure used by SAP2000, for both rectangular and flanged sections
(L- and T-beams) is summarized below. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial
force does not exceed 0.1f A (ACI 10.3.3), hence all the beams are designed for
major direction flexure and shear only.
c

Design for Rectangular Beam


In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M , (i.e. designing top or
bottom steel) the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure IV-3),
where,
u

a= d

d
2

2 M

0.85 f b

Beam Design
55

47

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


where, the value of is 0.90 (ACI 9.3.2.1) in the above and the following equations. Also and c are calculated as follows:
1

f - 4000
= 0.85 - 0.05
,
1000

. 085
. ,
065

87000
87000 + f

c =
b

(ACI 10.2.7.3)

d.
y

= 0.003

0.85f'c

Cs

A's

d'

a=

1c

As

Ts

(ii) STRAIN
DIAGRAM

(i) BEAM
SECTION

Tc

(iii) STRESS
DIAGRAM

Figure IV-3
Design of Rectangular Beam Section
If a 0.75 c , the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by
1

A =
s

M
.
a

f d

2
u

This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive, or at the top if M is


negative.
u

If a > 0.75 c , compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.3) and is


calculated as follows:
1

48

Beam Design
56

Chapter IV Design for ACI 318-95


The depth of compression block is given by
a = 0.75 c .
b

(ACI 10.3.3)

The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by


C = 0.85 f ba , and
c

(ACI 10.2.7.1)

the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is


M

=C d .

2
b

uc

Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is


M

us

=M M
u

uc

So the required compression steel is given by


A =
s

M
, where
f ( d d )
us

f = 0.003 E
s

c d
.
c

(ACI 10.2.4)

The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is


A =
s1

uc

a
f ( d )
2

, and

the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by


A =
s2

M
.
f ( d d )
us

Therefore, the total tensile reinforcement, A = A + A , and total compression reinforcement is A . A is to be placed at bottom and A is to be
placed at top if M is positive, and vice versa if M is negative.
s

s1

s2

Design for T-Beam


In designing for a factored negative moment, M , (i.e. designing top steel), the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above, i.e., no T-Beam data is to be
used. See Figure IV-4. If M > 0, the depth of the compression block is given by
u

Beam Design
57

49

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


a= d

2M
.
0.85 f b

d
2

The depth of compression block under design balanced condition is given by


a = 0.75 c .
b

If a d , the subsequent calculations for A are exactly the same as previously


defined for the rectangular section design. However, in this case the width of
the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis. Whether
compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > a .
s

If a > d , calculation for A is done in two parts. The first part is for balancing
the compressive force from the flange, C , and the second part is for balancing
the compressive force from the web, C , as shown in Figure IV-4. C is given
by
s

C = 0.85 f ( b b )d .
c

bf

= 0.003

ds

d'

fs'

As'

0.85f'c

0.85f'c

Cs

Cf

c
d
Cw

As

Ts

Tw

bw
(i) BEAM
SECTION

(ii) STRAIN
DIAGRAM

Figure IV-4
Design of a T-Beam Section

50

Beam Design
58

(iii) STRESS
DIAGRAM

Tf

Chapter IV Design for ACI 318-95

Therefore, A =

s1

and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is


u

given by
M

= C d .

2
s

uf

Again, the value for is 0.90. Therefore, the balance of the moment, M to be
carried by the web is given by
u

uw

= M -M
u

uf

The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b and d, for which the design
depth of the compression block is recalculated as
w

a = d d
2

2M
.
0.85 f b
uw

If a a , the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by


1

s2

M
, and
a

f d

2
uw

A =A +A .
s

s1

s2

This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam.


If a > a , compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.3) and is calculated as follows:
1

The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by


C = 0.85 f ba .
c

(ACI 10.2.7.1)

Therefore the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel is


M

= C d , and

2
b

uc

the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is


M

us

=M

uw

uc

Therefore, the compression steel is computed as


Beam Design
59

51

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


M
, where
f ( d d )

A =

us

f = 0.003 E
s

c d
.
c

(ACI 10.2.4)

The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is


M

A =
s2

uc

f (d
y

a
)
2

, and

the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is


A =
s3

M
.
f ( d d )
us

The total tensile reinforcement, A = A + A + A , and total compression reinforcement is A . A is to be placed at bottom and A is to be
placed at top.
s

s1

s2

s3

Minimum Tensile Reinforcement


The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Ordinary
moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following limits:
3 f

200
b d and
b d or
A max
f
f

A
s

4
A
3

(ACI 10.5.1)

(ACI 10.5.3)

s ( required ).

Special Consideration for Seismic Design


For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam design
satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table IV-2 for comprehensive listing) :
The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both at the top
and bottom. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than
(ACI 21.3.2.1).
A
s ( min)

52

Beam Design
60

Chapter IV Design for ACI 318-95

3 f

200
b d and
b d or
max
f
f

s(min)

s(min)

4
A
3

s ( required )

(ACI 10.5.1)

(ACI 10.5.3)

The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by


A 0.025 b d .
s

(ACI 21.3.2.1)

At any end (support) of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity (i.e. associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the beam negative
moment capacity (i.e. associated with the top steel) at that end (ACI 21.3.2.2).
Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any
of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations
(ACI 21.3.2.2).
For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam design would satisfy the following conditions:
At any support of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity would not be
less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (ACI 21.8.4.1).
Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any
of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations
(ACI 21.8.4.1.).

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement


The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user defined
number of stations along the beam span. In designing the shear reinforcement for a
particular beam for a particular loading combination at a particular station due to
the beam major shear, the following steps are involved:
Determine the factored shear force, V .
u

Determine the shear force, V , that can be resisted by the concrete.


c

Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.

Beam Design
61

53

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

Type of
Check/
Design

Ordinary Moment
Resisting Frames
(non-Seismic)

Intermediate Moment
Resisting Frames
(Seismic)

Special Moment
Resisting Frames
(Seismic)

Column
Check
(interaction)

NLDH Combinations

NLDH Combinations

NLDH Combinations

Column
Design
(Interaction)

NLDH Combinations
1% < < 8%

NLDH Combinations
1% < < 8%

NLDH Combinations
= 1.0
1% < < 6%

Modified NLDH Combinations


(earthquake loads doubled)
Column Capacity
= 1.0 and = 1.0

NLDH Combinations and


Column shear capacity
= 1.0 and = 1.25

NLDH Combinations

NLDH Combinations
0.025
3 fc
200
,

fy
fy

Column
Shears

NLD Combinations

Beam
Design
Flexure

NLDH Combinations

1
M uEND
3
1
max M u+ , M u
5
1
max M u+ , M u
5

+
M uEND

Beam Min.
Moment
Override
Check

M uSPAN

Beam Design
Shear

+
M uSPAN

No Requirement

{
{

Modified NLDH Combinations


(earthquake loads doubled)
Beam Capacity Shear (VP )
with = 1.0 and = 1.0
plus VD + L

NLDH Combinations

Number of specified loading

Table IV-2
Design Criteria Table

54

}END
}END

Beam Design
62

1
M uEND
2
1
max M u+ , M u
4
1
max M u- , M u4

+
M uEND

+
M uSPAN
M uSPAN

{
{

}END
}END

NLDH Combinations
Beam Capacity Shear (VP )
with = 1.25 and = 1.0
plus VD + L
Vc = 0

Chapter IV Design for ACI 318-95


For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ductile frames), the shear
design of the beams is based upon the probable and nominal moment capacities of
the members, respectively.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the
above-mentioned steps.

Determine Shear Force and Moment


In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame, the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated
shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors.
In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design),
however, the shear force,V , is calculated from the probable moment capacities
of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces. The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacity is the
same as that described for a column in section Column Design on page 43.
See also Table IV-2 for details.
u

The design shear force V is then given by (ACI 21.4.5.1)


u

V =V + V
u

(ACI 21.4.5.1)

D+ L

where, V is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions. Therefore, V is the maximum of V 1 and V 2 , where
p

V1=

M +M
L

M +M
, where
L

P2

M
I

, and

Moment capacity at end I, with top steel


in tension, using a steel yield stress value
of f and no factors,
y

M+
J

Moment capacity at end J, with bottom


steel in tension, using a steel yield stress
value of f and no factors,
y

Beam Design
63

55

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


M+

Moment capacity at end I, with bottom


steel in tension, using a steel yield stress
value of f and no factors,
y

M J

= Moment capacity at end J, with top steel


in tension, using a steel yield stress value
of f and no factors, and
y

Clear span of beam.

For Special moment resisting frames is taken as 1.25 (ACI R21.3.4.1). V +


is the contribution of shear force from the load in-span distribution of gravity
loads.
D

For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the design shear force in beams
is taken to be the maximum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and
factored shear force. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity
is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting frames, except that is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25. The
factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI 21.8.3). The computation of the design
shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting frame, is also the
same as that for columns, which is described earlier on page 44. See also Table
IV-2 for details.

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity


The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by
V =2 f b d.
c

(ACI 11.3.1.1)

For Special moment resisting frame concrete design,V is set to zero if both the factored axial compressive force including the earthquake effect P is less than
f A / 20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake V is more than half of
the total maximum shear force over the length of the member V (i.e. V 0.5 V )
(ACI 21.3.4.2).
c

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement


Given V and V , the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is calculated
as
u

56

Beam Design
64

Chapter IV Design for ACI 318-95


A =
v

(V / V ) s
.
f d
u

(ACI 11.5.6.2)

ys

The shear force resisted by steel is limited by

(V

/ - V

8 f bd ,

(ACI 11.5.6.8)

where, , the strength reduction factor, is 0.85 (ACI 9.3.2.3). The maximum of all
the calculated A values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along
with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number.
v

The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are based
purely upon shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to
satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently
of the program by the user.

Beam Design
65

57

66

Chapter V

Design for CAN3-A23.3-M84


This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure
that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the Canadian code, CAN3-A23.3M84 (CSA 1984). Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table V-1.
The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.
SAP2000 provides options to design or check Ordinary, Nominal (moderate seismic risk areas), and Ductile (high seismic risk areas) moment resisting frames as required for seismic design. The details of the design criteria used for the different
framing systems are described in the following sections.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code is
based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second
units unless otherwise noted.

59
67

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
a
a
b
b
b
C

cv
g
s
s
s ( required )
st
v

w
m

c
c
d
d
d
E
E
f
f
f
h
I
b

c
s

ys

se

k
L

Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, sq-mm


Gross area of concrete, sq-mm
Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm
Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm
Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm
Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, sq-mm
Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm
Depth of compression block, mm
Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm
Width of member, mm
Effective width of flange (T-Beam section), mm
Width of web (T-Beam section), mm
Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to
calculate moment magnification factor
Depth to neutral axis, mm
Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm
Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm
Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, mm
Thickness of slab (T-Beam section), mm
Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa
Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa
Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa
Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa
Dimension of column, mm
Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis,
neglecting reinforcement, mm4
Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of
member cross section, mm4
Effective length factor
Clear unsupported length, mm
Table V-1
List of Symbols Used in the Canadian code

60
68

Chapter V Design for CAN3-A23.3-M84

M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
P
P
P
P
P
V
V +
V
V
V

2
c

ns
s

ux
uy

b
c

max
0
u
c

D
p

u
s

b
s
c
s
c
s
m

Smaller factored end moment in a column, N-mm


Larger factored end moment in a column, N-mm
Factored moment to be used in design, N-mm
Nonsway component of factored end moment, N-mm
Sway component of factored end moment, N-mm
Factored moment at section, N-mm
Factored moment at section about X-axis, N-mm
Factored moment at section about Y-axis, N-mm
Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions, N
Critical buckling strength of column, N
Maximum axial load strength allowed, N
Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity, N
Factored axial load at section, N
Shear resisted by concrete, N
Shear force from span loading, N
Shear force computed from probable moment capacity, N
Factored shear force at a section, N
Shear force at a section resisted by steel, N
Reinforcing steel overstrength factor
Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete
Absolute value of the ratio of the maximum factored axial
dead load moment to the maximum factored total load moment
Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments
Moment magnification factor for sway moments
Strain in concrete
Strain in reinforcing steel
Strength reduction factor for concrete
Strength reduction factor for steel
Strength reduction factor for member
Shear strength factor

Table V-1
List of Symbols Used in the Canadian code (continued)

61
69

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

Design Load Combinations


The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load
cases for which the structure needs to be checked. For this code, if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL), live load (LL), wind (WL), and earthquake (EL) loads,
and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible, then the following
load combinations may have to be considered for design of concrete frames (CAN
9.2):
1.25 DL
1.25 DL + 1.50 LL

(CAN 9.2)

1.25 DL 1.50 WL
0.85 DL 1.50 WL
1.25 DL + 0.7 (1.50 LL 1.50 WL)

(CAN 9.2)

1.25 DL 1.50 EL
0.85 DL 1.50 EL
1.25 DL + 0.7 (1.50 LL 1.50 EL)

(CAN 9.2)

These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the Canadian Code is used.
In generating the above default loading combinations, the importance factor is
taken as 1. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live
load is separately treated, other types of loads are present, or pattern live loads are
to be considered.
Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case
on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the
factored loading.

Strength Reduction Factors


The strength reduction factor, , is material dependent and is defined as
= 0.60 for concrete and

(CAN 9.3.2 )

= 0.85 for steel.

(CAN 9.3.3)

In some special cases, a member resistance factor, , is used as an additional reduction factor in addition to and (CAN 9.3.1).
m

62

Design Load Combinations


70

Chapter V Design for CAN3-A23.3-M84

Column Design
The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user, the program
checks the column capacity. However, if the area of reinforcing is not provided by
the user, the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column.
The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves
the following steps:
Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different
concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction surface is
shown in Figure III-1. When the steel is undefined, the program generates the
interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement 1 to 8 percent
for ordinary moment resisting frames (CAN 10.9.1 and CAN 10.9.2) and 1 to 6
percent for ductile moment resisting frames (CAN 21.4.3.1).
Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading
combination at each station of the column. The target capacity ratio is taken as
one when calculating the required reinforcing area.
Design the column shear reinforcement.
The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
the above-mentioned steps.

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces


The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface.
In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. A typical interaction diagram is
shown in Figure III-1.
The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in
three dimensions on the section of the column. See Figure III-2. The linear strain
diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, , at the extremity of the section,
to 0.003 (CAN 10.2.3).
c

The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate


strength design (CAN 10.3), and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular,
square, or circular column section.

Column Design
71

63

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity, E , and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, f (CAN
10.2.4). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at
the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any
further simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over
the cross section of the column (such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder). See
Figure V-1.
s

0.85 f'c
c = 0.003

d'

1
Cs

s1

C
c

s2

s3

1c

3
Ts

s4

(i) CONCRETE
SECTION

a=

2
Cs

4
Ts

(iii) STRESS
DIAGRAM

(ii) STRAIN
DIAGRAM

Figure V-1
Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section

The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a stress


value of 0.85 f (CAN 10.2.7). The interaction algorithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone.
c

The effects of the strength reduction factor, , are included in the generation of the
interaction surfaces. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to P , where
the maximum factored axial load resistance is given by
max

= 0.80 [0.85 f ( A - A ) + f A ] (tied column),(CAN 10.3.5.3)

= 0.85 [0.85

max

max

64

st

st

f ( A - A ) + f A ] (spiral column).(CAN 10.3.5.2)


c

st

Column Design
72

st

Chapter V Design for CAN3-A23.3-M84

Check Column Capacity


The column capacity is checked for each loading combination at each check stations of each column. In checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular location, the following steps are involved:
Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and
the specified load combination factors to give P , M ,and M .
u

ux

uy

Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments.


Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored loads obtained in the
first step. Determine whether the point, defined by the resulting axial load and
biaxial moment set, lies within the interaction volume.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the
above-mentioned steps.

Determine Factored Moments and Forces


The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the
corresponding load factors to all the load conditions, giving P , M ,and M . The
factored moments are further increased, if required, to obtain minimum eccentricities of (15 + 0.03 h ) mm, where h is the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (CAN 10.11.6.4). The computed moments are further amplified by using Moment Magnification Factors to allow for Lateral Drift Effect and Member Stability Effect.
u

ux

uy

Determine Moment Magnification Factors


The moment magnification factors are applied in two different stages. First the moments are separated into their sway and non-sway components. The non-sway
components are amplified for lateral drift effect. Although this amplification may
be avoided for braced frames according to the code, SAP2000 treats all frames
uniformly to amplify non-sway components of moments. These amplified moments are further amplified for individual member stability effect.
Lateral Drift Effect
For all frames, the moment magnification factor for lateral drift effect is applied
only to the sway moment in SAP2000.
M =M

ns

+ M
s

(ACI 10.11.5.2)

Column Design
73

65

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


The moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions can be different. The moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway, and ,
can be taken as 1.0 if a P- analysis is carried out (CAN 10.11.7). The program assumes that the SAP2000 analysis models P- effects, therefore, sx and sy are
sx

sy

taken as 1.0.
It is suggested that the P- analysis be done at the factored load level (White and
Hajjar 1991). The necessary factors for a P- analysis for the CAN3-A23.2-M84
code should be (1.25 DL + 0.7*1.50 LL)/ , where is the strength reduction
factor for stability and is equal to 0.65.
m

The user is reminded of the special analysis requirements, especially those related
to the value of EI used in analysis (CAN 10.11.2.2). If the program assumptions are
not satisfactory for a particular member, the user can explicitly specify values of
and .
sx

sy

Member Stability Effects


All compression members are designed using the factored axial load, P , from the
analysis and a magnified factored moment, M . The magnified moment is computed as,
u

M = M ,
c

(CAN 10.11.6)

where M is the column maximum end moment obtained from elastic analysis after considering minimum eccentricity and lateral drift effect, and M is the maximum moment occurring either at the end or at an interior point within the span of
the column. The moment magnification factor, , for moments not causing
sidesway associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by
2

=
b

(CAN 10.11.6.1)

= 0.65 ,

P =
c

1.0 , where

EI
,
( kL)
2

k is conservatively taken as 1, however the user can override the value,


EI is associated with a particular column direction given by the larger of:

66

Column Design
74

Chapter V Design for CAN3-A23.3-M84


EI =
=
d

0.2 E I
c

+E I
s

1+

se

or

EI = 0.25 E I , and (CAN 10.11.6.2)


c

Maximum factored dead load moment


,
Maximum factored total load moment

C = 0.6 + 0.4
m

M
0.4 ,
M
a

(CAN 10.0)

(CAN 10.11.6.3)

M and M are the moments at the ends of the column, and M is numerically larger than M . M M is positive for single curvature bending and
negative for double curvature bending. The above expression of C is
valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports. If transverse load is present on the span, or the length is overwritten, or for any
other case, C =1. C can be overwritten by the user on an element by element basis.
a

The magnification factor, , must be a positive number and greater than one.
Therefore P must be less than P . If P is found to be greater than or equal to
P , a failure condition is declared.
b

The above calculations use the unsupported length of the column. The two unsupported lengths are l and l corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element, respectively. See Figure III-4. These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions.
22

33

Determine Capacity Ratio


As a measure of the stress condition of the column, a capacity ratio is calculated.
The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column.
Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the moment
magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain P , M ,and M .
The point (P , M , M ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in
Figure III-3. If the point lies within the interaction volume, the column capacity is
adequate; however, if the point lies outside the interaction volume, the column is
overstressed.
u

ux

ux

uy

uy

This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location
of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined by three-

Column Design
75

67

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


dimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface.
OL
See Figure III-3. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio
.
OC
If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is
stressed to capacity.
If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate.
If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed.
The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling
P , M ,and M set and associated load combination number.
u

ux

uy

If the reinforcing area is not defined, SAP2000 computes the reinforcement that
will give an interaction ratio of unity.

Design Column Shear Reinforcement


The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and
minor directions of the column. In designing the shear reinforcing for a particular
column for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction, the following steps are involved:
Determine the factored forces acting on the section, P andV . Note that P is
needed for the calculation of V .
u

Determine the shear force, V , that can be resisted by concrete alone.


c

Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.


The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the
above-mentioned steps.

Determine Section Forces


In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame, the forces for a particular load combination, namely,
the column axial force, P , and the column shear force, V , in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the SAP2000 analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.
u

68

Column Design
76

Chapter V Design for CAN3-A23.3-M84


In the shear design of Ductile moment resisting frames (seismic design) the
following are checked in addition to the requirement for the ordinary moment
resisting frames. In the design of Ductile moment resisting concrete frames, the
design shear force, V , in a particular direction is also calculated from the probable moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force
acting on the column.
u

For each load combination, the factored axial load, P , is calculated. Then, the
positive and negative moment capacities, M + and M , of the column in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force P is calculated using the
uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction. The design shear
force, V , is then given by
u

V +V
p

(CAN 21.7.2.1)

D+ L

where, V is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite
directions. Therefore, V is the maximum of V 1 and V 2 , where
p

V1=

M +M
L

M +M
, where
L

P2

M +, M
I

, and

Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of


the column using a steel yield stress value of f
and no factors,
y

M +, M
J

Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of


the column using a steel yield stress value of f
and no factors, and
y

Clear span of column.

For Ductile moment resisting frames is taken as 1.25 (CAN 21.1). V + is


the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads.
For most of the columns, it is zero.
D

For Nominal moment resisting frames (seismic), the design shear force is
taken to be the maximum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and
factored shear force. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity
is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Ductile mo-

Column Design
77

69

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


ment resisting frames, except that is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (CAN
21.1). The factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors.

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity


Given the design force set P andV , the shear force carried by the concrete,V , is
calculated as follows:
u

If the column is subjected to flexure and shear only, i.e. P is zero,


u

f b d

V = 0.2
c

(CAN 11.3.4.1)

where is taken as 1 for normal weight concrete. For other types of sections
b d is replaced by A , the effective shear area which is shown in Figure V-2.
w

cv

If the column is subjected to axial tension, i.e. P is negative,


u

P
f 1+

0.6 f A

V = 0.2
c

b d.

(CAN 11.3.4.2)

If the column is subjected to axial compression, i.e. P is positive,


u

P
f 1 + 3
A f

V = 0.2
c

b d .

(CAN 11.3.4.3)

For Ductile moment resisting frames, the shear strength at any beam or column
section is taken as zero if axial force is tensile or compression is very small.
This is given as
V = 0 if P 0.10 f A .
c

(CAN 21.7.3.1 and CAN 21.3.1)

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement


Given V and V , the required shear reinforcement for a spacing s is given by
u

A =
v

(V V )s
.
f d
u

(CAN 11.3.6.1)

ys

The shear resistance due to the reinforcement, V , is limited by


s

V 0.8
s

70

f b d.
c

(CAN 11.3.6.6)

Column Design
78

Chapter V Design for CAN3-A23.3-M84


The maximum of all the calculated A values obtained from each load combination
are reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination label.
v

d'
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE

Acv

RECTANGULAR
d'

DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE

A cv

SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR


d'

DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE

Acv

CIRCULAR

Figure V-2
Shear Stress Area, A

cv

The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based
purely upon shear strength consideration. Any minimum stirrup requirements to
satisfy spacing and/or volumetric requirements must be investigated independently
of the program by the user.

Column Design
79

71

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas
of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments, and shears, load combination factors and other criteria described below. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check stations along the beam
span.
All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Effects due
to any axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion that may exist in the beams
must be investigated independently by the user.
The beam design procedure involves the following steps:
Design beam flexural reinforcement
Design beam shear reinforcement

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement


The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at a user defined number of
design stations along the beam span. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the
major moment of a particular beam for a particular section, the following steps are
involved:
Determine the maximum factored moments
Determine the reinforcing steel

Determine Factored Moments


In the design of flexural reinforcement of ductile, nominal, or ordinary moment resisting concrete frame beams, the factored moments for each load combination at a
particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for
different load cases with the corresponding load factors.
The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive M and maximum
negative M factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.
+

Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In
such cases the beam may be designed as a Rectangular- or T-beam.

72

Beam Design
80

Chapter V Design for CAN3-A23.3-M84

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement


In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added when
the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the grade of concrete.
The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown
in Figure V-3 (CAN 10.2). Furthermore it is assumed that the compression carried
by concrete is less than that which can be carried at the balanced condition (CAN
10.3.2). When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced
condition, the area of compression reinforcement is calculated on the assumption
that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension
reinforcement.
The design procedure used by SAP2000, for both rectangular and flanged sections
(L- and T-beams) is summarized below. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial
force does not exceed 0.15 f A (CAN 10.3.3), hence all the beams are designed
for major direction flexure and shear only.
c

Design for Flexure of a Rectangular Beam


In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M , (i.e. designing top or
bottom steel) the depth of the compression block is given by a, where,
u

a= d

2 M

0.85 f b
c

where the value of is 0.60 (CAN 9.3.2) in the above and following equations.
See Figure V-3. Also and c are calculated as follows:
c

0.08( f - 30)
, 0.65 0.85 , and
10

= 0.85 -

c =
b

600
600 + f

d.

(CAN 10.2.7)
(CAN 10.3.3)

If a c , the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by


1

A =
s

M
.
a

f d

2
u

Beam Design
81

73

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive, or at the top if M is
negative.
u

If a > c , compression reinforcement is required (CAN 10.3.2) and is calculated as follows:


1

The balanced depth of compression block is given by


a = c .
b

(CAN 10.3.2)

The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by


C = 0.85 f ba , and
c

(CAN 10.2.7)

the moment resisted by concrete and bottom steel is


M

=C d .

2
b

uc

The moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is


M

us

=M M
u

uc

= 0.003

0.85f'c

Cs

A's

d'

a=

As
(i) BEAM
SECTION

Ts

(ii) STRAIN
DIAGRAM

Figure V-3
Design of a Rectangular Beam Section

74

Beam Design
82

Tc

(iii) STRESS
DIAGRAM

1c

Chapter V Design for CAN3-A23.3-M84


So the required compression steel is given by
M
, where
f ( d d )

A =

us

f = 0.003 E
s

c d
.
c

(ACI 10.2.4)

The required tensile steel for the balancing the compression in concrete is
M

A =

uc

a
f ( d )
2

s1

, and

the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is


M
.
f ( d d )

A =

us

s2

Therefore, the total tensile reinforcement, A = A + A , and total compression reinforcement is A . A is to be placed at bottom and A is to be
placed at top if M is positive, and vice versa.
s

s1

s2

Design for Flexure of a T-Beam


In designing for a factored negative moment, M , (i.e. designing top steel), the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above, i.e., no T-Beam data is to be
used. If M > 0, the depth of the compression block is given by (see Figure V-4).
u

a= d

d
2

2M
.
0.85 f b
u

The depth of compression block under balanced condition is given by


a = c .
b

If a d , the subsequent calculations for A are exactly the same as previously


done for the rectangular section design. However, in this case the width of the
compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis. Whether
compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > a .
s

If a > d , calculation for A is done in two parts. The first part is for balancing
the compressive force from the flange, C , and the second part is for balancing
the compressive force from the web, C . As shown in Figure V-4,
s

Beam Design
83

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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


C = 0.85 f ( b b )d .
c

Therefore, A =

C
f

s1

and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is


u

given by
M

= C d .

2
s

uf

Therefore, the balance of the moment, M to be carried by the web is given by


u

uw

= M -M .
u

uf

The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d, for which the depth of
the compression block is recalculated as
a = d
1

d
2

2M
.
0.85 f b
uw

bf

= 0.003

ds

d'

fs'

As'

0.85f'c

0.85f'c

Cs

Cf

c
d
Cw

As

Ts

Tw

bw
(i) BEAM
SECTION

(ii) STRAIN
DIAGRAM

Figure V-4
Design of a T-Beam Section

76

Beam Design
84

(iii) STRESS
DIAGRAM

Tf

Chapter V Design for CAN3-A23.3-M84


If a a , the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by
1

s2

M
, and
a

f d

uw

A = A +A .
s

s1

s2

This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T-beam.


If a > a , compression reinforcement is required (CAN 10.3.2) and is calculated as follows:
1

The compressive force in concrete web alone is given by


C = 0.85 f ba , and
c

(CAN 10.2.7)

the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel is


M

= C d .

2
b

uc

The moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is


M

us

= M

uw

uc

Therefore, the compression steel is computed as


A =
s

M
, where
f ( d d )
us

f = 0.003 E
s

c d
.
c

(CAN 10.2.4)

The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is


A =
s2

uc

a
f ( d )
2

, and

the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is


A =
s3

M
.
f ( d d )
us

Beam Design
85

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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


Total tensile reinforcement, A = A + A + A , and total compression reinforcement is A . A is to be placed at bottom and A is to be
placed at top.
s

s1

s2

s3

Minimum Tensile Reinforcement


The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an ordinary
moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two limits
A
s

1.4
b d , or
f

(CAN 10.5.1)

4
A
3

(CAN 10.5.2)

A
s

s ( required )

Special Consideration for Seismic Design


For Ductile moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam design
should satisfy the following additional conditions (see also Table V-2 for comprehensive listing):
The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both at the top
and bottom. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than
.
A
s ( min)

s(min)

1.4
b d
f

(CAN 21.3.2.1)

The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by


A 0.025 b d .
s

(CAN 21.3.2.1)

At any end (support) of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity (i.e. associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the beam negative
moment capacity (i.e. associated with the top steel) at that end (CAN 21.3.2.2).
Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any
of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations
(CAN 21.3.2.2).
For Nominal moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam design
would satisfy the following conditions:

78

Beam Design
86

Chapter V Design for CAN3-A23.3-M84


At any support of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity would not be
less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (CAN 21.9.2.1).
Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any
of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations
(CAN 21.9.2.1).

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement


The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at user defined
number of stations along the beam span. In designing the shear reinforcement for a
particular beam for a particular loading combination at a particular station due to
the beam major shear, the following steps are involved:
Determine the factored shear force, V .
u

Determine the shear force, V , that can be resisted by the concrete.


c

Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.


For Ductile and Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear design of the
beams is based on the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members, respectively.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the
above-mentioned steps.

Determine Shear Force and Moment


In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame, the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated
shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors.
In the design of Ductile moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design),
however, the shear force,V , is calculated from the probable moment capacities
of each end of the beam, and the gravity shear forces. The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacity is the
same as that described for a column in section Column Design on page 69.
See also Table V-2 for more details.
u

The design shear force V is then given by


u

V =V + V
u

(CAN 21.7.2.1)

D+ L

Beam Design
87

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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


where, V is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions. Therefore, V is the maximum of V 1 and V 2 , where
p

V1=

M +M
L

M +M
, where
L

P2

M
I

, and

Moment capacity at end I, with top steel


in tension, using a steel yield stress value
of f and no factors,
y

M+
J

Moment capacity at end J, with bottom


steel in tension, using a steel yield stress
value of f and no factors,
y

M+
I

Moment capacity at end I, with bottom


steel in tension, using a steel yield stress
value of f and no factors,
y

M J

= Moment capacity at end J, with top steel


in tension, using a steel yield stress value
of f and no factors, and
y

Clear span of beam.

The overstrength factor is always taken as 1.25 for Ductile moment resisting
frames (CAN 21.1). V + is the contribution of shear force from the load inspan distribution of gravity loads.
D

In the design of Nominal moment resisting frames (seismic), the design shear
force in beams is taken to be the maximum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and factored shear force. The procedure for calculating nominal
moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment
capacity for Ductile moment resisting frames, except that is taken equal to 1
rather than 1.25 (CAN 21.1). The factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors. The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting frame, is also the same as that for columns,
which is described earlier in section Column Design on page 70. The value of
V + is based on the span load. See also Table V-2 for details.
D

80

Beam Design
88

Chapter V Design for CAN3-A23.3-M84

Type of
Check/
Design

Ordinary Moment
Resisting Frames
(non-Seismic)

Nominal Moment Resisting


Frames
(Seismic)

Ductile Moment
Resisting Frames
(Seismic)

Column
Check
(interaction)

NLDH Combinations

NLDH Combinations

NLDH Combinations

Column
Design
(Interaction)

NLDH Combinations
1% < < 8%

NLDH Combinations
1% < < 8%

NLDH Combinations
= 1.0
1% < < 6%

Column
Shears

NLD Combinations

Beam
Design
Flexure

NLDH Combinations

Modified NLDH Combinations


Column Capacity Shear (V p )
= 1.0 and = 1.0

+
M uEND

Beam Min.
Moment
Override
Check

No Requirement

M uSPAN

Beam Design
Shear

+
M uSPAN

NLDH Combinations

{
{

= 1.0 and = 1.25


NLDH Combinations
0.025
14
.

fy

NLDH Combinations

1
M uEND
3
1
max M u+ , M u
5
1
max M u+ , M u
5

NLDH Combinations and


Column Capacity Shear (V p )

}END
}END

NLDH Combinations
Beam Capacity Shear (V p )
with = 1.0 and = 1.0
plus VD + L

1
M uEND
2
1
max M u+ , M u
4
1
max M u+ , M u
4

+
M uEND

+
M uSPAN

M uSPAN

{
{

}END
}END

NLDH Combinations
Beam Capacity Shear (V p )
with = 1.25 and = 1.0
plus VD+L
Vc = 0

Number of specified loading

Table V-2
Comparison of Ordinary, Ductile, and Nominal Moment Resisting Frame Design

Beam Design
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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity


The allowable shear capacity for ordinary and nominal moment resisting frames is
given by
V = 0.2 f b d
c

(CAN 11.3.4.1)

V is taken as zero for ductile moment resisting beams (CAN 21.7.3.1).


c

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement


Given V and V , the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is calculated
as
u

A =
v

(V V ) s
.
f d
u

(CAN 11.3.6.1)

ys

The shear force to be resisted by steel, V , is limited by


s

V < 0.8 f b d .
s

(CAN 11.3.6.6)

The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are based
purely upon shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to
satisfy spacing and volumetric requirements must be investigated independently of
the program by the user.

82

Beam Design
90

C h a p t e r VI

Design for BS 8110-85


This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure
that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the British limit state design code BS
8110 (BSI 1985). Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table VI-1.
The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code is
based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second
units unless otherwise noted.

Design Load Combinations


The design loading combinations define the various factored combinations of the
load cases for which the structure is to be checked. The design loading combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety, (BS 2.4.1.3). If a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live
load (LL) only, the design will need only one loading combination, namely 1.4 DL
+ 1.6 LL. However, in addition to the dead load and live load, if the structure is subjected to wind (WL) and/or earthquake (EL) loads, and considering that those loads
f

Design Load Combinations


91

83

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

A
A
A
A
A
a
b
b

cv
s
s
sc
sv

b
b
C
d
d
E
E
e

c
s

min

cu

f
f
f
h
h

s
y
yv

Area of section for shear resistance, mm2


Area of tension reinforcement, mm2
Area of compression reinforcement, mm2
Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, mm2
Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm2
Depth of compression block, mm
Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm
Shorter section dimension, mm
Shorter effective depth of biaxially bent column, mm
Width or effective width of flange, mm
Average web width of a flanged beam, mm
Compression force, N
Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm
Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm
Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa
Minimum or nominal eccentricity, mm
Characteristic cube strength at 28 days, MPa
Compressive stress in a beam compression steel, MPa
Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa
Characteristic strength of link reinforcement, MPa (< 460 MPa)
Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm
Flange thickness, mm
M
Maximum
for a singly reinforced concrete section taken as 0.156
bd f
by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10%
Shear strength enhancement factor
u

cu

l
l

e
0

Concrete shear strength factor, [ f

cu

25]

1/ 3

Effective height of a column, mm


Clear height between end restraints, mm
Table VI-1
List of Symbols Used in the BS code

84

Design Load Combinations


92

Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85

M
M ,M
M
M
M ,M
N
s
T
V
v
v
v
v ,v
x
x
z

add
i

c
c
x

bal

m
c
s

Design moment at a section, MPa


Smaller and larger end moments in a slender column, N-mm
Maximum additional moment column, N-mm
Initial moment at the point of maximum additional moment, N-mm
Applied moments about the major and minor axes of a column, N-mm
Ultimate axial load, N
Spacing of links, mm
Tension force, N
Shear force at ultimate design load, N
Shear stress, MPa
Design ultimate shear stress resistance of a concrete beam, MPa
Design concrete shear stress corrected for axial forces, MPa
Design ultimate shear stress of a concrete section, MPa
Neutral axis depth, mm
Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm
Lever arm, mm
Effective length factor
Moment redistribution factor in a member
Partial safety factor for load
Partial safety factor for material strength
Concrete strain
Strain in tension steel
Strain in compression steel

Table VI-1
List of Symbols Used in the BS code (continued)

Design Load Combinations


93

85

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


are subject to reversals, the following load combinations for ultimate limit state
might have to be considered (BS 2.4.3):
1.4 DL
1.4 DL + 1.6 LL

(BS 2.4.3)

1.0 DL 1.4 WL
1.4 DL 1.4 WL
1.2 DL + 1.2 LL 1.2 WL

(BS 2.4.3)

1.0 DL 1.4 EL
1.4 DL 1.4 EL
1.2 DL + 1.2 LL 1.2 EL
These are the default load combinations. In addition to the above load combinations, the code requires that all buildings should be capable of resisting a notional
design ultimate horizontal load applied at each floor or roof level. The notional load
should be equal to 0.015 times the dead load (BS 3.1.4.2). It is recommended that
the user define additional load cases for considering the notional load in SAP2000.
Live load reduction factors, as allowed by some design codes, can be applied to the
member forces of the live load case on a member-by-member basis to reduce the
contribution of the live load to the factored loading.

Design Strength
The design strength for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial factor of safety, . The values of used in
the program are listed below (BS 2.4.4.1).
m

Values of m for the ultimate limit state

86

Reinforcement

1.15

Concrete in flexure and


axial load

1.50

Shear strength without


shear reinforcement

1.25

Design Strength
94

Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85

Column Design
The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user, the program
checks the column capacity. However, if the area of reinforcing is not provided by
the user, the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column.
The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves
the following steps:
Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different
concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction surface is
shown in Figure III-1. When the steel is undefined, the program generates the
interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement from 1 to 8 percent (BS 3.12.6.2).
Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading
combination at each station of the column. The target capacity ratio is taken as
one when calculating the required reinforcing area.
Design the column shear reinforcement.
The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
the above-mentioned steps.

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces


The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface.
In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations (BS 3.8.4.1). A typical interaction
diagram is shown in Figure III-1.
The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in
three dimensions on the section of the column (BS 3.4.4.1). See Figure III-2. The
linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, , at the extremity of the
section, to 0.0035 (BS 3.4.4.1).
c

The formulation is based consistently upon the basic principles of ultimate strength
design and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular, square, or circular column
section (BS 3.8.4).

Column Design
95

87

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity, E and is limited to the design strength the steel, f 1.15
(0.87 f ). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any simplifications
in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the
column (such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder). See Figure VI-1.
s

0.67 fcu/m
c = 0.0035

d'

1
Cs

s1

s2

s3
s4

(i) CONCRETE
SECTION

(ii) STRAIN
DIAGRAM

a = 0.9 x

2
Cs

3
Ts
4
Ts

(iii) STRESS
DIAGRAM

Figure VI-1
Idealized Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section

The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a stress


value of 0.67 f = 0.45 f (BS 3.4.4.1). See Figure VI-1. The interaction algorithm provides corrections to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the
reinforcement in the compression zone.
cu

cu

Check Column Capacity


The column capacity is checked for each loading combination at each output station
of each column. In checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular location, the following steps are involved:

88

Column Design
96

Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85


Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and
the specified load combination factors to give N ,V ,V , M ,and M .
x

Determine the additional moments due to slender column effect. Compute moments due to minimum eccentricity.
Determine total design moments by adding the corresponding additional moments to the factored moments obtained from the analysis. Determine whether
the point, defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set, lies within
the interaction volume.
The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
the above-mentioned steps.

Determine Factored Moments and Forces


Each load combination is defined with a set of load factors corresponding to the
load cases. The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to the load cases, giving N ,V ,V , M and
M .
x

Determine Additional Moments


The determination of additional moments depends on whether the frame is
braced or unbraced against side-sway (BS 3.8.1.5). For unbraced columns
additional moment is automatically considered in the P- analysis. But for
braced columns, further calculation is required for stability of individual column
members.
Braced Column
The additional moment in a braced column in a particular plane is the product of the
axial load and the lateral deflection of the column in that plane (BS 3.8.3),
M

add

=Na ,

(BS 3.8.3.1)

where, a is the deflection at the ultimate limit state which is obtained from
u

a = Kh
u

and

(BS 3.8.3.1)

1 l
=
.
2000 b
e

(BS 3.8.3.1)

In the above equations,

Column Design
97

89

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


l is the effective length in the plane under consideration. It is obtained from
e

l =l ,
e

(BS 3.8.1.6.1)

where is the effective length factor, and l the unsupported length corresponding to instability in the major or minor direction of the element, l or l in
Figure III-4. In calculating the value of the effective length, the factor is conservatively taken as 1. However, SAP2000 allows the user to override this default value.
0

b is the dimension of the column in the plane of bending considered,


h is also the dimension of the column in the plane of bending considered, and
K is the correction factor to the deflection to take care of the influence of the
axial force and K is conservatively taken as 1.
SAP2000 then calculates the total design moments by combining the factored moments obtained from analysis and the additional moments. If M and M
( M > M ) are the initial end moments in a column member in a particular plane,
then the maximum design moment for the column is taken as the greatest of the following:
1

(BS 3.8.3.2)

M +M

add

M +M

add

Ne

(BS 3.8.3.2)
/2

(BS 3.8.3.2)
(BS 3.8.3.2)

min

where,
M is the initial moment in a column due to design ultimate loads at the point of
maximum additional moment and is given by
i

M = 0.4 M + 0.6 M
i

0.4 M .
2

(BS 3.8.3.2)

M and M are the smaller and the larger end moments respectively. Both moments are assumed to be positive if the column is in single curvature. If the column is in double curvature, M is assumed to be negative.
1

is the minimum eccentricity which is taken as 0.05 times the overall die
mension of the column in the plane of bending considered but not more than 20
mm (BS 3.8.2.4).
min

90

min

h
20 mm
20

(BS 3.8.2.4)

Column Design
98

Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85


Unbraced Column
In the case of the unbraced column, it is assumed that the SAP2000 analysis includes P- effects so that the analysis results include the effects of the additional
moments. Therefore, no additional computation is required. That means, moment
magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity. However,
it is recommended that for P- analysis a factor be used to obtain a P equivalent to
1.2 DL + 1.2 LL (White and Hajjar 1991).
Also, the minimum eccentricity requirement are satisfied so the design moment
should at least be
M

Ne

min

(BS 3.8.3.2)

where, e is the minimum eccentricity which is described in the previous section.


In biaxial bending the algorithm ensures that the eccentricity exceeds the minimum
about both the axes simultaneously.
min

Determine Capacity Ratio


As a measure of the stress condition of the column, a capacity ratio is calculated.
The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column.
Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the design
forces N , M and M are obtained according to the previous subsections. The
point (N , M M ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure
III-3. If the point lies within the interaction volume, the column capacity is adequate; however, if the point lies outside the interaction volume, the column is overstressed.
x,

x,

This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location
of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface.
OL
See Figure III-3. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio
.
OC
If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is
stressed to capacity.
If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate.

Column Design
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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed.
The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling
N , M ,and M set and associated load combination number.
x

If the reinforcing area is not defined, SAP2000 computes the reinforcement that
will give an interaction ratio of unity.

Design Column Shear Reinforcement


The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and
minor directions of the column. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular column for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular
direction, the following steps are involved (BS 3.8.4.6):
Calculate the design shear stress from
v=

V
, A = bd , where
A

(BS 3.4.5.2)

cv

cv

v 0.8 f

cu

, and

(BS 3.4.5.12)

v 5 N/mm2 .

(BS 3.4.5.12)

If v exceeds either 0.8 f

cu

or 5 N/mm2, the section area should be increased.

If axial load is tensile then the shear resistance of concrete is totally neglected,
i.e., the design shear stress is assumed to be resisted by the links whose area per
unit length is given by
A
s

sv

vb
0.87 f

.
yv

If axial load is compressive and M N < 0.75h, where h is the dimension of the
column in the direction of shear, provide minimum links given by (BS 3.8.4.6)
A
s

sv
v

where f

92

0.4 b
,
0.87 f

(BS 3.4.5.3)

yv

yv

can not be greater than 460 MPa (BS 3.4.5.1).

Column Design
100

Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85


If axial load is compressive and M N 0.75 h, calculate the design concrete
shear stress from (BS 3.8.4.6)
N Vd
, with
A M

v = v + 0.75
c

(BS 3.4.5.12)

0.79 k k 100 A 3 400 4


v =
,


bd d

(BS 3.4.5.4)

where,
k is the enhancement factor for support compression and taken conservatively as 1,
(BS 3.4.5.8)
1

f 3
k =
,
25
cu

(BS 3.4.5.4)

= 1.25 ,

0.15

100 A
3,
bd
s

(BS 3.4.5.4)

400
1,
d

(BS 3.4.5.4)

Vd
1,
M

(BS 3.4.5.12)

cu

40 N/mm2, and

(BS 3.4.5.4)

A is the area of tensile steel layer.


s

If v v +0.4 , provide minimum links defined by


c

A
s

sv

0.4 b
,
0.87 f

(BS 3.4.5.3)

yv

else if v > v +0.4 , provide links given by


c

A
s

sv

where f

( v - v ) b
,
0.87 f
c

(BS 3.4.5.3)

yv

yv

can not be greater than 460 MPa (BS 3.4.5.1).

Column Design
101

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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas
of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments, and shears, load combination factors, and other criteria described below. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check stations along the beam
span.
All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Effects due
to any axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion that may exist in the beams
must be investigated independently by the user.
The beam design procedure involves the following steps:
Design beam flexural reinforcement
Design beam shear reinforcement

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement


The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at a user defined number of
check stations along the beam span. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the
major moment for a particular beam at a particular section, the following steps are
involved:
Determine the maximum factored moments
Determine the reinforcing steel

Determine Factored Moments


In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete frame beams, the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load
factors.
The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations at that section.
Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In
such cases, the beam may be designed as a rectangular section, or T-Beam effects
may be included.

94

Beam Design
102

Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement


In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added when
the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the grade of concrete.
The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown
in Figure VI-2 (BS 3.4.4.1). Furthermore it is assumed that moment redistribution
in the member does not exceed 10% (i.e. 0.9) (BS 3.4.4.4). The code also
places a limitation on the neutral axis depth, x d 0.5, to safeguard against nonductile failures (BS 3.4.4.4). In addition, the area of compression reinforcement is
calculated on the assumption that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum
permitted value.
b

The design procedure used by SAP2000, for both rectangular and flanged sections
(L- and T-beams) is summarized below. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial
force does not exceed 0.1 f A (BS 3.4..4.1), hence all the beams are designed for
major direction flexure and shear only.
cu

Design of a Rectangular beam


, is
For rectangular beams, the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam, M
obtained first for a section. The reinforcing steel area is determined based on
whether M is greater than, less than, or equal to M
. See Figure VI-2.
single

single

Calculate the ultimate moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.


M

= K f bd , where
2

single

(BS 3.4.4.4)

cu

K = 0.156 .
If M M
A =
s

single

the area of tension reinforcement, A , is obtained from


s

M
, where
(0.87 f ) z

(BS 3.4.4.4)

K
z = d 0.5 + 0.25 0.95d , and
0.9

K=

M
.
f bd
2

cu

Beam Design
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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


This is the top steel if the section is under negative moment and the bottom
steel if the section is under positive moment.
0.67fcu/m

= 0.0035

Cs

fs'

A's

d'

a=0.9x

As

Tc

Ts

s
(ii) STRAIN
DIAGRAM

(i) BEAM
SECTION

(iii) STRESS
DIAGRAM

Figure VI-2
Design of Rectangular Beam Section

If M > M
A =
s

single

, the area of compression reinforcement, A , is given by


s

M M

single

f ( d - d )

where d is the depth of the compression steel from the concrete compression
face, and
f = 0.87 f
s

2d
f = 700 1
d
s

96

if

if

d
1
>
d
2

Beam Design
104

1
2

1 - 800 ,

1 - 800 .

Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85


This is the bottom steel if the section is under negative moment. From equilibrium, the area of tension reinforcement is calculated as
A =
s

single

(0.87 f ) z

+ A , where

(BS 3.4.4.4)

z = 0.775d .
Design as a T-Beam
(i) Flanged beam under negative moment
The contribution of the flange to the strength of the beam is ignored. The design
procedure is therefore identical to the one used for rectangular beams except that in
the corresponding equations b is replaced by b . See Figure VI-3.
w

(ii) Flanged beam under positive moment


With the flange in compression, the program analyzes the section by considering
alternative locations of the neutral axis. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. Based on this assumption, the program calculates the exact
depth of the neutral axis. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width b . If the stress block
extends beyond the flange width, then the contribution of the web to the flexural
strength of the beam is taken into account. See Figure VI-3.
f

Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange, the normalized moment is computed
as
K=

M
.
f b d
2

cu

Then the moment arm is computed as

K
z = d 0.5 + 0.25 0.95d ,
0.9

the depth of neutral axis is computed as


x=

1
( d - z ) , and
0.45

the depth of compression block is given by

Beam Design
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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


a = 0.9 x .
If a h , the subsequent calculations for A are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular section design. However, in this case the
width of the compression flange, b , is taken as the width of the beam, b, for
analysis. Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether
K > K .
s

If a > h , calculation for A is done in two parts. The first part is for balancing
the compressive force from the flange, C , and the second part is for balancing
the compressive force from the web, C , as shown in Figure VI-3.
s

In this case, the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by


M = 0.45 f ( b - b ) h ( d - 0.5 h ) ,
cu

the balance of moment taken by the web is computed as


M = M - M , and
w

bf

= 0.0035

hf

d'

fs'

As'

0.67 fcu/m

0.67 fcu/m

Cs

Cf

x
d
Cw

As

Ts

Tw

bw
(i) BEAM
SECTION

(ii) STRAIN
DIAGRAM

Figure VI-3
Design of a T-Beam Section

98

Beam Design
106

(iii) STRESS
DIAGRAM

Tf

Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85


the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by
M

K =
w

f b d
cu

If K 0.156, the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.


The area of steel is calculated as the sum of two parts, one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.
w

A =
s

0.87 f ( d - 0.5 h )
y

M
, where
0.87 f z
w

K
z = d 0.5 + 0.25 0.95d .
0.9

If K > 0.156, compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows:


w

The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by


M

= 0.156 f b d .
2

uw

cu

The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude


M M . The compression reinforcement is computed as
w

uw

A =
s

M -M
,
f ( d - d )
w

uw

where, d is the depth of the compression steel from the concrete compression
face, and
f = 0.87 f ,
s

if

2d
f = 700 1 , if

d
s

1
2

1
800 , and

1 - 800 .

d
1
>
d
2

The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium


A =
s

1
0.87 f

[0.45 f

cu

( b - b ) h + 0.156 f b d
w

cu

) (0.777 d )] + A

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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement


The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and
minor directions of the column. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction, the following steps are involved (BS 3.4.5):
Calculate the design shear stress as
v=

V
, A = bd , where
A

(BS 3.4.5.2)

cv

cv

v 0.8 f

, and

cu

(BS 3.4.5.2)

v 5 N/mm2 .

(BS 3.4.5.2)

Calculate the design concrete shear stress from


1

0.79 k k 100 A 3 400 4


v =
,


bd d

(BS 3.4.5.4)

where,
k is the enhancement factor for support compression, and is conservatively taken as 1,
(BS 3.4.5.8)
1

f 3
k =
1 , and
25
cu

(BS 3.4.5.4)

= 1.25 .
m

However, the following limitations also apply:


0.15

100 A
3,
bd
s

(BS 3.4.5.4)

400
1 , and
d
f

cu

(BS 3.4.5.4)

40 N/mm2 (for calculation purpose only).

A is the area of tensile steel.


s

100

Beam Design
108

(BS 3.4.5.4)

Chapter VI Design for BS 8110-85


If v v + 0.4, provide minimum links defined by
c

A
s

sv

0.4 b
,
0.87 f

(BS 3.4.5.3)

yv

else if v > v + 0.4, provide links given by


c

A
s

sv

where f

(v - v ) b
,
0.87 f
c

(BS 3.4.5.3)

yv

yv

can not be greater than 460 MPa (BS 3.4.5.1)

Beam Design
109

101

110

C h a p t e r VII

Design for Eurocode 2


This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure
that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the 1992 Eurocode 2 (CEN 1992).
Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table VII-1.
The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. However, the program
provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the
design of most building type structures.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code is
based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second
units unless otherwise noted.

Design Load Combinations


The design loading combinations define the various factored combinations of the
load cases for which the structure is to be checked. The design loading combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety. If a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only,
the design will need only one loading combination, namely 1.35 DL + 1.5 LL.

Design Load Combinations


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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual

A
A
A
A
A
A
a
b
b
b
d
d
E
E
e
e

Area of concrete, mm2


Area of section for shear resistance, mm2
Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member, mm2
Area of tension reinforcement, mm2
Area of compression reinforcement, mm2
Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm2
Depth of compression block, mm
Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm
Width or effective width of flange, mm
Average web width of a flanged beam, mm
Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm
Effective depth of compression reinforcement, mm
Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa
Eccentricity of axial load in a column, mm
Minimum or nominal eccentricity, mm

tot

Total eccentricity for a braced column, mm

cd

c
cv
g
s
s
sw

c
s

min

Design concrete strength =

f
, MPa

ck
c

ck

yd

Characteristic compressive cylinder strength of concrete at 28 days, MPa


f
Design yield strength of reinforcing steel =
, MPa

yk

f
f
f
f
f
h
h
l

yk

y
ywd
ywk

Characteristic yield strength of reinforcement, MPa


Compressive stress in a beam compression steel, MPa
Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa
Design strength of shear reinforcement, MPa
Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa
Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm
Flange thickness, mm
Effective height of a column, mm
Table VII-1
List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2

104

Design Load Combinations


112

Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2


l
M
M ,M
M ,M
M
M
col

Rd
Sd

Clear height between end restraints, mm


Design moment at a section, N-mm
Smaller and larger end moments in a slender column, N-mm
Applied moments about the major and minor axes of a column, N-mm
Design moment of resistance of a section N-mm
Moment at a section obtained from analysis, N-mm
M
Normalized design moment,
bd f
2

cd

N
s
V
V
V
V ,V
V

Rd 1

Rd 2
Sd
x

wd

c
s
s

m
s

cp

lim

Ultimate axial load, N


Spacing of links, mm
Design shear resistance from concrete alone, N
Design limiting shear resistane of a cross-section, N
Shear force at ultimate design load, N
Shear force at ultimate design load in two directions, N
Shear force from reinforcement, N
Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading
Effective length factor,
Enhancement factor of shear resistance for concentrated load
Partial safety factor for load
Partial safety factor for concrete strength
Partial safety factor for material strength
Partial safety factor for steel strength
Redistribution factor
Concrete strain
Strain in tension steel
Strain in compression steel
Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing,
Out of plumbness factor
Tension reinforcement ratio, A bd
Effective average compressive stress in concrete column, MPa
Normalized tensile steel ratio, A f
f bd
Normalized compression steel ratio, A f
f bd
Normalized limiting tensile steel ratio
s

yd

cd

yd

cd

Table VII-1
List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2 (continued)
Design Load Combinations
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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


However, in addition to the dead load and live load, if the structure is subjected to
wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) forces, and considering that wind and earthquake
forces are subject to reversals, the following load combinations might have to be
considered (EC2 2.3.3):
1.35 DL
1.35 DL + 1.50 LL

(EC2 2.3.3)

1.35 DL 1.50 WL
1.00 DL 1.50 WL
1.35 DL + 1.35 LL 1.35 WL

(EC2 2.3.3)

1.00 DL 1.00 EL
1.00 DL + 1.5*0.3 LL 1.0 EL

(EC2 2.3.3)

These are the default load combinations. These default loading combinations are
produced for persistent and transient design situations (EC2 2.2.1.2) by combining
load due to dead, live, wind, and earthquake loads according to the simplified formula (EC2 2.3.3.1) for ultimate limit states.
In addition to the above load combinations, the code requires that all buildings
should be capable of resisting a notional design ultimate horizontal load applied at
each floor or roof level (EC2 2.5.1.3). It is recommended that the user define additional load cases for considering the notional load in SAP2000.
Live load reduction factors, as allowed by some design codes, can be applied to the
member forces of the live load condition on a member-by-member basis to reduce
the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.

Design Strength
The design strength for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial factor of safety, . The values of used in
the program are listed below. These values are recommended by the code to give an
acceptable level of safety for normal structures under regular design situations
(EC2 2.3.3.2). For accidental and earthquake situations, the recommended values
are less than the tabulated value. The user should consider those separately.
m

Considering the partial safety factors for the materials, the design strengths of concrete and steel are given below:

106

Design Strength
114

Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2

yd

yk

, and

= Characteristic yield strength of reinforcement,


f
, where,
= Design cylinder concrete strength =

= Characteristic compressive cylinder strength of concrete at 28 days,


= Partial safety factor for steel = 1.15, and
= Partial safety factor for concrete = 1.5.
= Design yield strength of reinforcing steel =

yk

cd

ck
c

ck
s
c

Column Design
The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user, the program
checks the column capacity. However, if the area of reinforcing is not provided by
the user, the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column.
The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves
the following steps:
Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different
concrete sections types of the model (EC2 4.3.1.2). A typical biaxial interaction
surface is shown in Figure III-1. When the steel is undefined, the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement from 1
to 8 percent (EC2 5.4.1.2.1).
Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading
combination at each station of the column. The target capacity ratio is taken as
one when calculating the required reinforcing area.
Design the column shear reinforcing.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the
above-mentioned steps.

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces


The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface.
In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations as shown in Figure III-1. The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. See Figure III-2.
Column Design
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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


The formulation is based consistently upon the basic principles of ultimate strength
design and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular, square, or circular column
section. The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, , at the ex3
tremity of the section to 0.0035 and at a depth of d from the most compressed face
7
to 0.0020 (EC2 4.3.1.2). See Figure VII-1.
c

The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity, E , and is limited to the design yield strength the steel, f (EC2
4.2.3.3.3). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any simplifications
in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the
column (such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder).
s

yd

fcd = fck/c
c = 0.0035

d'

1
Cs

s1

3h/7

a=0.8x

2
Cs

s2

s3
s4

(i) CONCRETE
SECTION

(ii) STRAIN
DIAGRAM

3
Ts
4
Ts

(iii) STRESS
DIAGRAM

Figure VII-1
Idealized Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section

The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a stress


value of f , where f is the design value of concrete cylinder compressive
strength and is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression. is
generally assumed to be 0.80 (EC2 4.2.1.3). See Figure VII-1. The interaction algorithm provides corrections to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the
reinforcement in the compression zone.
cd

108

cd

Column Design
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Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2

Check Column Capacity


The column capacity is checked for each loading combination of each column. In
checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular location, the following steps are involved:
Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and
the specified load combination factors to give N, V , V , M , and M .
x

Determine the code total moments due to slender column effect. Compute moments due to minimum eccentricity.
Check the column capacity ratio or compute the reinforcement for the column
for resisting the factored moments, the code total moments, and the moments
from minimum eccentricity.
The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
the above-mentioned steps.

Determine Factored Moments and Forces


Each load combination is defined with a set of load factors corresponding to the
load cases. The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to the load cases, giving N, V , V , M , and
M .
x

Determine Code Total Moments


The determination of code total moments depends on whether the frame is braced
or unbraced against side-sway.
Braced Column
Eurocode specifies that for braced columns the total moment should be computed
from a set of eccentricities, such that
e

tot

= e + e + e , where
a

e = 0.4
0

e =
a

(EC2 4.3.5.6.2)

M
M
+ 0.6
N
N
1

0.4

l
,
2
0

M
, where
N
2

M M , (EC2 4.3.5.6.2)
1

(EC2 4.3.5.4)

is taken as 1/100, however the user can override this value (EC2 2.5.1.3),
Column Design
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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


l is the effective length of a column in a given plane and is obtained from
0

l = l
0

col

(EC2 4.3.5.3.5)

where is the effective length factor depending on the end conditions and
resistance against side-sway, is conservatively taken as 1 for braced
frames, and l is the unsupported length corresponding to instability in
the major or minor direction of the element, l and l in Figure III-4.
col

k k l f

e =

yd

45
. E d

(EC2 4.3.5.6.3)

0
for 15,

k = 0.75, for 15 < 35,


20

for > 35,


1
1

= l

r ,
G

r = the radius of gyration about the axis of bending, and


G

k =
2

N
N

ud

ud

N
N

sd

1 , k is taken as 1.0.
2

bal

However, the minimum eccentricity requirement is satisfied such that


M

Rd

Rd

> N

Sd

min

, where

(EC2 4.3.5.5.3)

= Design moment resistance of the section,


= The axial force obtained from analysis, and

Sd

is the minimum eccentricity which is taken as 0.05 times the overall die
mension of the column in the plane of bending and is given by
min

min

= h 20 .

(EC2 4.3.5.5.3)

Finally the design moments are computed from the maximum of the three,
M

Rd

= max( N e
Rd

tot ,

N e
Rd

min ,

factored

).

(EC2 4.3.5.6)

In biaxial bending, the program calculates the design moments at any station about
two axes.

110

Column Design
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Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2


Unbraced Column
In the case of the unbraced column, it is assumed that the SAP2000 analysis includes P- effects so that the analysis results include the effects of the additional
moments. Therefore, any additional computation is not required. That means, the
moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity.
However, it is recommended that a factor be used to obtain a P equivalent to 1.35
DL + 1.35 LL for P- analysis (White and Hajjar 1991).
In addition, the minimum eccentricity requirement needs to be satisfied so that the
design moment should at least be
M

Rd

Ne

min

(EC2 4.3.5.5.3)

where, e is the minimum eccentricity which is described in the previous section.


In biaxial bending the algorithm ensures that the eccentricity exceeds the minimum
about both the axes simultaneously.
min

Determine Capacity Ratio


As a measure of the stress condition of the column, a capacity ratio is calculated.
The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column.
Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the design
forces N , M and M are obtained according to the previous subsections. The
point (N , M M ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure
III-3. If the point lies within the interaction volume, the column capacity is adequate; however, if the point lies outside the interaction volume, the column is overstressed.
x,

x,

This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location
of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface.
OL
See Figure III-3. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio
.
OC
If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is
stressed to capacity.
If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate.

Column Design
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SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed.
The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling
N , M ,and M set and associated load combination number.
x

If the reinforcing area is not defined, SAP2000 computes the reinforcement that
will give an interaction ratio of unity.

Design Column Shear Reinforcement


The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and
minor directions of the column. The assumptions in designing the shear reinforcement are as follows:
The column sections are assumed to be prismatic. The effect of any variation of
width in the column section on the concrete shear capacity is neglected.
The effect on the concrete shear capacity of any concentrated or distributed
load in the span of the column between two beams is ignored. Also, the effect of
the direct support on the columns provided by the beams is ignored.
All shear reinforcement is provided through shear reinforcement which are perpendicular to the longitudinal reinforcement.
The effect of any torsion is neglected for the design of shear reinforcement.
In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular column for a particular loading
combination due to shear forces in a particular direction, the following steps of the
standard method are involved (EC2 4.3.2.1):
Obtain the design value of the applied shear forceV
sis results.
V

Sd

=V

or V

Sd

from the SAP2000 analy-

Calculate the design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement.
V

Rd 1

= [

Rd

k (1.2 + 40 ) + 0.15
1

cp

](b d ) ,
w

where

(EC2 4.3.2.3)

= enhancement factor for shear resistance for members with concentrated loads located near the face of the support. is taken as 1.

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Column Design
120

Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2

= basic design shear strength of concrete =

Rd

ctk 0. 05

ctm

= 0.7 f

= 0.3 f

ctm

0.25 f

ctk 0.05

ck

k = strength magnification factor for curtailment of longitudinal reinforcement and is considered to be 1,


A
0.02 ,
b d

= tension reinforcement ratio =

s1

A = area of tension reinforcement,


s1

cp

= average stress in concrete due to axial force =

N
A

Sd

is the design value of the applied axial force in section, and

Sd

A is the total area of concrete cross-section.


c

Calculate the maximum design shear force that can be carried without crushing
of the notional concrete compressive struts, V .
Rd 2

Rd 2

1 f

(0.9 b d ) , where
2

ck

(EC2 4.3.2.3)

is the effectiveness factor = 0.7

f
0.5 .
200
ck

If the effective average stress in concrete

cp , eff

(EC2 4.3.2.3)

is more than 0.4

ck

, V

Rd 2

should be reduced as follows:


V

Rd 2 , red

cp , eff

Sd

= 1.67 V

Sd

f
A


1
f

cp , eff

Rd 2

yd

s2

cd

Rd 2

, where

(EC2 4.3.2.2)

is the design axial force,

Column Design
121

113

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


f

yd

is the design yield stress of compression steel, f

yd

400 MPa,

A is the area of reinforcement in the compression zone, A is


conservatively taken as zero for a conservative design, and
s2

s2

A is the total area of concrete cross-section.


c

, the notional concrete-struts will be crushed. The section is not


If V V
adequate to carry the shear force.
Sd

Rd 2. red

If V < V
, either the minimum shear reinforcement or the design shear
reinforcement is required.
Sd

Rd 2. red

, the concrete shear capacity is adequate to carry the shear


If V V
force. Only minimum shear reinforcement is required.
Sd

Rd 1

If V > V , the concrete alone is not enough to carry the shear force. Designed shear reinforcement is required. The required shear resistance from
reinforcement, V is given by
Sd

Rd 1

wd

wd

=V

Sd

Rd 1

(EC2 4.3.2.4.3)

The required shear reinforcement per unit length of the column is given by
A
s

sw
v

where, f

V
0.9 d f

ywd

wd

(EC2 4.3.2.4.3)

ywd

is the design yield strength of the shear reinforcement.

Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas
of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments, shears, load combination factors, and other criteria described below. The reinforcement requirements
are calculated at a user defined number of check stations along the beam span.
All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Effects due
to any axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion that may exist in the beams
must be investigated independently by the user.
The beam design procedure involves the following steps:
Design beam flexural reinforcement
Design beam shear reinforcement

114

Beam Design
122

Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement


The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at the design stations along the
beam span. In designing the flexural reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular section, for the beam major moment, the following steps are involved:
Determine the maximum factored moments
Determine the reinforcing steel

Determine Factored Moments


In the design of flexural reinforcement, the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive M and maximum negative M
factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.
+

Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In
such cases, the beam may be designed as a rectangular section, or T-Beam effects
may be included.

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement


In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added when
the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the grade of concrete.
The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown
in Figure VII-2 (EC2 4.3.1.2). Furthermore, it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code specified limiting value. The code also
places a limitation on the neutral axis depth, to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 2.5.3.4.2). When the applied moment exceeds M , the area of compression reinforcement is calculated on the assumption that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.
u

The design procedure used by SAP2000, for both rectangular and flanged sections
(L- and T-beams) is summarized below. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial
force does not exceed 0.08 f A (EC2 4.3.1.2), hence all the beams are designed
for major direction flexure and shear only.
ck

Beam Design
123

115

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


Design as a Rectangular Beam
For rectangular beams, the normalized moment, m, and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforce beam, m , are obtained first. The reinforcing steel area
is determined based on whether m is greater than, less than, or equal to m .
lim

lim

Calculate the normalized design moment, m.


m=

M
bd f

, where

cd

is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression. is generally


assumed to be 0.80 for assumed rectangular stress block, (EC2 4.2.1.3). See
also page 108 for . The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be
rectangular, with a stress value of f , where f is the design concrete
f
strength and is equal to
. See Figure VII-2.

cd

cd

ck
c

fs'

A's

a=0.8x

As

(ii) STRAIN
DIAGRAM

Figure VII-2
Design of a Rectangular Beam

116

Cs

d'

(i) BEAM
SECTION

fck/c

= 0.0035

Beam Design
124

Ts

Tc

(iii) STRESS
DIAGRAM

Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2


Calculate the normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced
beam, m .
lim

x
=
d

lim

lim

x
1 0.4 d

lim

x
where the limiting value of the ratio, , of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate
d
limit state after redistribution to the effective depth, is expressed as a function
of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution, ,
as follows:
x

d
x

d

0.44
, if
1.25

ck

35 ,

(EC2 2.5.3.4.1)

0.56
, if
1.25

ck

> 35 ,

(EC2 2.5.3.4.1)

lim

lim

is assumed to be 1.
If m m , a singly reinforced beam will suffice. Calculate the normalized
steel ratio,
lim

= 1 1 2m .
Calculate the area of tension reinforcement, A , from
s

f bd
A =
.
f

cd

yd

This is the top steel if the section is under negative moment and the bottom
steel if the section is under positive moment.
If m > m , the beam will not suffice as a singly reinforced beam. Both top and
bottom steel are required.
lim

Calculate the normalized steel ratios , , and .


lim

lim

x
= 0.807 ,
d
lim

mm
, and
1 d / d
lim

Beam Design
125

117

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


=

+ .

lim

Calculate the area of compression and tension reinforcement, A and A , as


follows:
s

f bd
A =
, and

f
cd

yd

f bd
A =
.
f

cd

yd

Design as a T-Beam
(i) Flanged beam under negative moment
The contribution of the flange to the strength of the beam is ignored if the flange is
in the tension side. See Figure VII-3. The design procedure is therefore identical to
the one used for rectangular beams. However, the width of the web, , b is taken as
the width of the beam.
w

(ii) Flanged beam under positive moment


With the flange in compression, the program analyzes the section by considering
alternative locations of the neutral axis. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange. Based on this assumption, the program calculates the depth
of the neutral axis. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness
the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width b . If the stress block extends
beyond the flange, additional calculation is required. See Figure VII-3.
f

Calculate the normalized design moment, m.


m=

M
b d f

, where

cd

is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression. is generally


assumed to be 0.80 for assumed rectangular stress block, (EC2 4.2.1.3). See
also page 108 for . The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be
rectangular, with a stress value of f .
cd

x
Calculate the limiting value of the ratio, , of the neutral axis depth at the
d
ultimate limit state after redistribution to the effective depth,which is expressed
lim

118

Beam Design
126

Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2


as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution, , as follows:
x

d
x

d

0.44
, if
1.25

ck

35 ,

(EC2 2.5.3.4.1)

0.56
, if
1.25

ck

> 35 ,

(EC2 2.5.3.4.1)

lim

lim

is assumed to be 1.

bf

= 0.0035

hf

d'

fs'

As'

fck/c

fck/c

Cs

Cf

a = 0.8x

x
d
Cw

As

Ts

Tw

Tf

bw
(i) BEAM
SECTION

(ii) STRAIN
DIAGRAM

(iii) STRESS
DIAGRAM

Figure VII-3
Design of a T-Beam Section

Calculate the normalized steel ratio,


= 1 1 2m .
Calculate the ratio,

x
, as follows:
d

.
=
d 0.807

Beam Design
127

119

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


x h
, the neutral axis lies within the flange. Calculate the area of
If
d d
tension reinforcement, A , as follows:
f

f b d
A =
.
f

cd

yd

x h
, the neutral axis lies below the flange.
If >
d d
f

Calculate steel area required for equilibrating the flange compression, A .


s2

A =

( b b ) h f
w

s2

cd

yd

and the corresponding resistive moment is given by


M = A f
2

s2

d
.
2

yd

Calculate steel area required for rectangular section of width b to resist


moment, M = M M , as follows:
r

m =

, and

b d f

lim

x
=
d

cd

x
1 0.4 d

lim

lim

If m m ,
1

lim

= 1 1 2m , and
1

f b d
A =
.
f

cd

s1

yd

If m > m
1

120

lim

m m
,
1 d / d
1

lim

Beam Design
128

Chapter VII Design for Eurocode 2

lim

x
= 0.807 ,
d
lim

1 =

lim

+ ,

f b d
A =
, and
f

cd

yd

f b d
A =
.
f

cd

s1

yd

Calculate total steel area required for the tension side.


A = A +A
s

s1

s2

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement


The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination at various check
stations along the beam span. The assumptions in designing the shear reinforcements are as follows:
The beam sections are assumed to be prismatic. The effect of any variation of
width in the beam section on the concrete shear capacity is neglected.
The effect on the concrete shear capacity of any concentrated or distributed
load in the span of the beam between two columns is ignored. Also, the effect of
the direct support on the beams provided by the columns is ignored.
All shear reinforcements are assumed to be perpendicular to the longitudinal
reinforcement.
The effect of any torsion is neglected for the design of shear reinforcement.
In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular column for a particular loading
combination due to shear forces in a particular direction, the following steps of the
standard method are involved.
Obtain the design value of the applied shear force V
analysis results.
V

Sd

=V

Sd

from the SAP2000

Beam Design
129

121

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


Calculate the design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement.
V

= [

Rd 1

Rd

k (1.2 + 40 ) + 0.15
1

cp

](b d )
w

(EC2 4.3.2.3)

Calculate the maximum design shear force that can be carried without crushing
.
of the notional concrete compressive struts, V
Rd 2

Rd 2

1 f

(0.9 b d )
2

ck

(EC2 4.3.2.4.3)

, as defined earlier on page 113,


If the effective average stress in concrete
f
,V
is reduced as follows:
is more than 0.4

cp , eff

ck

Rd 2

= 1.67 V

Rd 2 , red


1
f

cp , eff

Rd 2

cd

Rd 2

(EC2 4.3.2.2)

, the notional concrete-struts will be crushed. The section is


If V V
not adequate to carry the shear force.
Sd

Rd 2. red

If V < V
, either the minimum shear reinforcement or the design shear
reinforcement is required.
Sd

Rd 2. red

If V V , the concrete shear capacity is enough to carry the shear force.


Only minimum shear reinforcement is required.
Sd

Rd 1

If V > V , the concrete alone is not enough to carry the shear force. Designed shear reinforcement is required. The required shear resistance from
reinforcement, V , is given by
Sd

Rd 1

wd

wd

=V

Sd

Rd 1

(EC2 4.3.2.4.3)

The required shear reinforcement per unit length of the beam is given by
A
s

sw

122

V
0.9 d f
wd

(EC2 4.3.2.4.3)

ywd

Beam Design
130

C h a p t e r VIII

Design Output
Overview
SAP2000 creates design output in three major different formats graphical display, tabular output, and member specific detailed design information.
The graphical display of design output includes input and output design
information. Input design information includes design section label, K-factors, live
load reduction factor, and other design parameters. The output design information
includes longitudinal reinforcing, shear reinforcing, and column capacity ratio. All
graphical output can be printed.
The tabular output can be saved in a file or printed. The tabular output includes
most of the information which can be displayed. This is generated for added convenience to the designer.
The member specific detailed design information shows the details of the calculation from the designers point of view. It shows the design forces, design section dimensions, reinforcement, and some intermediate results for all the load combinations at all the design sections of a specific frame member. For a column member, it
can also show the position of the current state of design forces on the column interaction diagram.

Overview
131

123

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


In the following sections, some of the typical graphical display, tabular output, and
member specific detailed design information are described. Some of the design information is specific to the chosen concrete design codes which are available in the
program and are only described where required. The ACI 318-95 design code is described in the later part of this chapter. For all other codes, the design outputs are
similar.

Graphical Display of Design Output


The graphical output can be produced either as color screen display or in grayscaled printed form. Moreover, the active screen display can be sent directly to the
printer. The graphical display of design output includes input and output design information.
Input design information, for the ACI 318-95 code, includes
Design section labels,
K-factors for major and minor direction of buckling,
Unbraced Length Ratios,
C -factors,
m

Live Load Reduction Factors,


-factors, and
s

-factors.
b

The output design information which can be displayed is


Longitudinal Reinforcing,
Shear Reinforcing, and
Column Capacity Ratios.
The graphical displays can be accessed from the Design menu. For example, the
longitudinal reinforcement can be displayed by selecting Display Design Info...
from the Design menu. This will pop up a dialog box called Display Design
Results. Then the user should switch ON the Design Output option button (default) and select Longitudinal Reinforcing in the drop-down box. Then clicking
the OK button will show the longitudinal reinforcing in the active window.
The graphics can be displayed in either 3D or 2D mode. The SAP2000 standard
view transformations are available for all concrete design output displays. For
switching between 3D or 2D view of graphical displays, there are several buttons

124

Graphical Display of Design Output


132

Chapter VIII Design Output


on the main toolbar. Alternatively, the view can be set by choosing Set 3D View...
from the View menu.
The graphical display in an active window can be printed in gray scaled black and
white from the SAP2000 program. To send the graphical output directly to the
printer, click on the Print Graphics button in the File menu. A screen capture of
the active window can also be made by following the standard procedure provided
by the Windows operating system.

Tabular Display of Design Output


The tabular design output can be sent directly either to a printer or to a file. The
printed form of tabular output is the same as that produced for the file output with
the exception that for the printed output font size is adjusted.
The tabular design output includes input and output design information which depends on the design code of choice. For the ACI 318-95 code, the tabular output includes the following. All tables have formal headings and are self-explanatory, so
further description of these tables is not given.
Input design information includes the following:
Concrete Column Property Data
Material label,
Column dimensions,
Reinforcement pattern,
Concrete cover, and
Bar area.
Concrete Beam Property Data
Material label,
Beam dimensions,
Top and bottom concrete cover, and
Top and bottom reinforcement areas.
Load Combination Multipliers
Combination name,
Load types, and
Load factors.
Tabular Display of Design Output
133

125

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


Concrete Design Element Information (code dependent)
Design Section ID,
K-factors for major and minor direction of buckling,
Unbraced Length Ratios,
C -factors,
m

Live Load Reduction Factors.


Concrete Moment Magnification Factors (code dependent)
Section ID,
Element Type,
Framing Type,
-factors, and
s

-factors.
b

The output design information includes the following:


Column Design Information
Section ID,
Station location,
Total longitudinal reinforcement and the governing load combination,
Major shear reinforcement and the governing load combination, and
Minor shear reinforcement and the governing load combination.
Beam Design Information
Section ID,
Station location,
Top longitudinal reinforcement and the governing load combination,
Bottom reinforcement and the governing load combination, and
Major shear reinforcement and the governing load combination.
The tabular output can be accessed by selecting Print Design Tables... from the
File menu. This will pop up a dialog box. Then the user can specify the design
quantities for which the results are to be tabulated. By default, the output will be
sent to the printer. If the user wants the output stream to be redirected to a file,
he/she can check the Print to File box. This will provide a default filename. The
default filename can be edited. Alternatively, a file list can be obtained by clicking

126

Tabular Display of Design Output


134

Chapter VIII Design Output


the File Name button to chose a file from. Then clicking the OK button will direct
the tabular output to the requested stream C the file or the printer.

Member Specific Information


The member specific design information shows the details of the calculation from
the designers point of view. It provides an access to the geometry and material
data, other input data, design forces, design section dimensions, reinforcement details, and some of the intermediate results for a member. The design detail information can be displayed for a specific load combination and for a specific station of a
frame member. For a column member, it can also show the position of the current
state of design forces on the column interaction diagram.
The detailed design information can be accessed by right clicking on the desired
frame member. This will pop up a dialog box called Concrete Design Information
which includes the following tabulated information for the specific member. If the
selected member is a column, the dialog box includes
Load combination ID,
Station location,
Longitudinal reinforcement area,
Major shear reinforcement area, and
Minor shear reinforcement area.
If the selected member is a beam, the dialog box includes
Load combination ID,
Station location,
Top reinforcement area,
Bottom reinforcement area, and
Shear reinforcement area.
Additional information can be accessed for column members by clicking on the ReDesign, Details, and Interaction buttons in the dialog box. For beams additional
information can be accessed by clicking on the ReDesign and Details buttons in the
dialog box.
Additional information that is available by clicking on the ReDesign button is as
follows:

Member Specific Information


135

127

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


Design Factors (code dependent)
Effective length factors, K, for major and minor direction of buckling,
Unbraced Length Ratios,
C -factors,
m

Live Load Reduction Factors,


-factors, and
s

-factors.
b

Element Section ID
Element Framing Type
Additional information that is available by clicking on the Details button is given
below. The details of this information depends on whether the selected member is a
beam or a column. If the member is a column, the information includes:
Frame, Section, Station, and Load Combination IDs,
Section geometric information and graphical representation,
Material properties of steel and concrete,
Design axial force and biaxial moments,
Minimum design moments,
Moment factors,
Design shear forces, and
Shear capacities of concrete and steel.
If the member is a beam, the information includes:
Frame, Section, Station, and Load Combination IDs,
Section geometric information and graphical representation,
Material properties of steel and concrete,
Design moments and shear forces,
Minimum design moments,
Top and bottom reinforcing areas,
Shear capacities of concrete and steel, and
Shear reinforcing area.

128

Member Specific Information


136

Chapter VIII Design Output


Clicking on the Interaction button displays the interaction diagram in a three dimensional space for the column section. The design axial force and the biaxial moments are plotted on the interaction diagram to show the state of stress in the column. The interaction diagram can be viewed in any orientation and the view can be
manipulated from the interaction dialog box. The interaction diagram can be
printed for hard-copy output.

Member Specific Information


137

129

138

References
ACI, 1995
Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-95) and Commentary (ACI 318R-95), American Concrete Institute, Detroit, Michigan,
1995.
BSI, 1985
BS 8110 : Part 1, Structural Use of Concrete, Part 1, Code of Practice for Design and Construction, British Standards Institution, London, UK, 1985.
CEN, 1992
ENV 1992-1-1, Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures, Part 1, General
Rules and Rules for Buildings, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 1992.
CEN, 1994
ENV 1991-1, Eurocode 1: Basis of Design and Action on Structures Part 1,
Basis of Design, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium,
1994.
CSA, 1984
CAN3-A23.3-M84, Design of Concrete Structures for Buildings, A National
Standard of Canada, Canadian Standards Association, Rexdale, Ontario, Canada, 1984.

131
139

SAP2000 Concrete Design Manual


CSI, 1997a
SAP2000 Getting Started, Computers and Structures, Inc., Berkeley, California, 1997.
CSI, 1997b
SAP2000 Analysis Reference, Vols. I and II, Computers and Structures, Inc.,
Berkeley, California, 1997.
ICBO, 1997
Uniform Building Code, International Conference of Building Officials, Whittier, California, 1997.
PCA, 1996
Notes on ACI 318-95, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete,
with Design Applications, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois,
1996.
D. W. White and J. F. Hajjar, 1991
Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice, Engineering Journal, American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Vol.
28, No. 4, 1991.

132
140

Index
Additional moment
British, 89

British, 88, 91
Canadian, 65, 67
Eurocode, 109, 111

Balanced condition
ACI, 48, 51
Canadian, 73, 75

Column flexural design, 26


ACI, 37
British, 87
Canadian, 63
Eurocode, 107

Beam flexural design, 2, 26


ACI, 46
British, 94
Canadian, 72
Eurocode, 114

Column shear design, 29


ACI, 42
British, 92
Canadian, 68
Eurocode, 112

Beam shear design, 26


ACI, 53
British, 100
Canadian, 79
Eurocode, 121

Compression reinforcement
ACI, 48, 51
British, 96, 99
Canadian, 74 - 75
Eurocode, 117, 120

Braced frames
ACI, 40
British, 89
Canadian, 65
Eurocode, 109

Concrete shear capacity


ACI, 44, 56
British, 92, 100
Canadian, 70, 82
Eurocode, 112, 122

Check station, 25
Code total moment
Eurocode, 109

Demonstration
accessing detailed information, 14

Column capacity ratio, 29


ACI, 39, 41

133
141

SAP2000 Concretel Design Manual


column interaction, 15
design, 12
editing member properties, 16
redesign, 15

Generation of biaxial interaction surfaces,


28
ACI, 37
British, 87
Canadian, 63
Eurocode, 107

Design load combinations, 1, 24


ACI, 33
British, 83
Canadian, 62
Eurocode, 103

Graphical output, 124


Identification of beams, 25
Identification of columns, 25

Design of T-beams
ACI, 49
British, 97
Canadian, 75
Eurocode, 118

Interaction diagram, 27
ACI, 37
British, 87
Canadian, 63
demonstration, 15
Eurocode, 107

Detailed output, 128


demonstration, 14

Interactive environment, 1

Ductile detailing
ACI, 53
Canadian, 78

Lateral drift effect, 30, 65


See also P-Delta analysis
Live load reduction factor, 25, 36, 62, 86,
106

Earthquake resisting frames


ductile, 42, 69, 78 - 79
intermediate, 33, 53, 56
nominal, 59, 78, 80
ordinary, 33
shear force in special frames, 43
shear in intermediate frames, 44, 56
special, 33, 52, 55

Maximum column reinforcement


ACI, 37
British, 87
Canadian, 63
Eurocode, 107
Member specific output, 127

Element unsupported length, 30

Minimum column reinforcement


ACI, 37
British, 87
Canadian, 63
Eurocode, 107

Factored moments and forces


ACI, 39, 47
British, 89, 94
Canadian, 65, 72
Eurocode, 109, 115

Minimum eccentricity
ACI, 39
British, 90
Canadian, 65
Eurocode, 110 - 111

Flexural reinforcement
ACI, 46 - 47
British, 94 - 95
Canadian, 72 - 73
Eurocode, 115

134
142

Index
Minimum tensile reinforcement
ACI, 52
Canadian, 78

Canadian, 70, 82
Eurocode, 114, 122
Special considerations for seismic loads,
26, 32
ACI, 33, 43, 52, 55
Canadian, 59, 69, 79

Moment magnification
ACI, 39
British (additional moment), 89
Canadian, 65
Eurocode (total moment), 109

Strength reduction factors


ACI, 36
British, 86
Canadian, 62
Eurocode, 106

Nominal moment capacity, 69


Nonsway frames
ACI, 40
British, 89
Canadian, 65
Eurocode, 109

Supported design codes, 1


ACI, 23, 33
British, 23, 83
Canadian, 23, 59
Eurocode, 23, 103

Output, 1
details, 128
graphical, 123 - 124
interaction diagram, 129
member specific, 123, 127
tabular, 123, 125

Sway frames
ACI, 40
British, 89
Canadian, 65
Eurocode, 109

Overstrength factor, 80

Tabular output, 125

P-Delta analysis, 30
ACI, 40
British, 91
Canadian, 66
Eurocode, 111
Probable moment capacity, 42, 69

T-Beam design
ACI, 49
British, 97
Canadian, 75
Eurocode, 118

Rectangular beam design


ACI, 47
British, 95
Canadian, 73
Eurocode, 116

Unbraced frames, 89
ACI, 40
British, 91
Canadian, 65
Eurocode, 109, 111

Redesign, 127
demonstration, 15

Units, 2, 32
ACI, 33
British, 83
Canadian, 59
Eurocode, 103

Shear reinforcement
ACI, 45, 56
British, 92, 101

Unsupported length, 41

135
143