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You are on page 1of 143

Integrated

Finite Element Analysis

and

Design of Structures

COMPUTERS &

STRUCTURES

INC.

Berkeley, California, USA

Version 6.1

October 1997

COPYRIGHT

The computer program SAP2000 and all associated documentation are

proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership

rest with Computers and Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of the program

or reproduction of the documentation in any form, without prior written

authorization from Computers and Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited.

Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained

from:

1995 University Avenue

Berkeley, California 94704 USA

Tel: (510) 845-2177

Fax: (510) 845-4096

E-mail: info@csiberkeley.com

Web: www.csiberkeley.com

The CSI Logo is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc.

SAP2000 is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc.

DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE

INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF

SAP2000. THE PROGRAM HAS BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED

AND USED. IN USING THE PROGRAM, HOWEVER, THE USER

ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF

THE PROGRAM.

THIS PROGRAM IS A VERY PRACTICAL TOOL FOR THE DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES. HOWEVER,

THE USER MUST THOROUGHLY READ THE MANUAL AND

CLEARLY RECOGNIZE THE ASPECTS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN THAT THE PROGRAM ALGORITHMS DO NOT

ADDRESS.

THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE PROGRAM AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER I

Introduction

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Recommended Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

CHAPTER II

Quick Tutorial

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Description of the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Starting the Tutorial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Opening the Model Database File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Analyzing the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Selecting the Design Code. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Starting Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Changing Member Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

23

Design and Check Stations . . . . . . . .

Identifying Beams and Columns . . . . .

Design of Beams. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Design of Columns . . . . . . . . . . . .

P- Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Element Unsupported Lengths . . . . . .

Special Considerations for Seismic Loads

Choice of Input Units . . . . . . . . . . .

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CHAPTER IV Design for ACI 318-95

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Strength Reduction Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Column Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . . . . .

Check Column Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Determine Factored Moments and Forces. . .

Determine Moment Magnification Factors . .

Determine Capacity Ratio . . . . . . . . . . .

Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . .

Determine Section Forces . . . . . . . . . . .

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . .

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . .

Beam Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . .

Determine Factored Moments . . . . . . . . .

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement .

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement. . . . . . . . .

Determine Shear Force and Moment . . . . .

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . .

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . .

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Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Strength Reduction Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Column Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . . . . .

Check Column Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Determine Factored Moments and Forces. . .

Determine Moment Magnification Factors . .

Determine Capacity Ratio . . . . . . . . . . .

Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . .

Determine Section Forces . . . . . . . . . . .

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . .

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . .

Beam Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . .

Determine Factored Moments . . . . . . . . .

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement .

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement. . . . . . . . .

Determine Shear Force and Moment . . . . .

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity . . . . .

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement . .

ii

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Table of Contents

CHAPTER VI Design for BS 8110-85

83

Design Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Column Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Check Column Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

Determine Factored Moments and Forces. . . . . . . . . . . 89

Determine Additional Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

Determine Capacity Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

Beam Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

Determine Factored Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . 95

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

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Design Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Column Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . . . .

Check Column Capacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Determine Factored Moments and Forces . .

Determine Code Total Moments . . . . . .

Determine Capacity Ratio . . . . . . . . . .

Design Column Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . .

Beam Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . . . . . .

Determine Factored Moments . . . . . . . .

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement

Design Beam Shear Reinforcement . . . . . . . .

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Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Graphical Display of Design Output

Tabular Display of Design Output . .

Member Specific Information . . . .

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References

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Index

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iii

7

Chapter I

Introduction

Overview

SAP2000 features powerful and completely integrated modules for design of both

steel and reinforced concrete structures (CSI 1997a, 1997b). The program provides

the user with options to create, modify, analyze and design structural models, all

from within the same user interface.

The program provides an interactive environment in which the user can study the

stress conditions, make appropriate changes, such as member size revisions, and

update the design without re-analyzing the structure. A single mouse click on an

element brings up detailed design information. Members can be grouped together

for design purposes. The output in both graphical and tabulated formats can be

readily displayed and printed.

The program is structured to support a wide variety of design codes for the automated design and check of concrete frame members. The program currently supports the following design codes: U.S. (ACI 1995), Canadian (CSA 1984), British

(BSI 1985), and European (CEN 1992).

The design is based upon a set of user-specified loading combinations. However,

the program provides a set of default load combinations for each design code supported in SAP2000. If the default load combinations are acceptable, no definition of

additional load combinations are required.

Overview

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In the design of the columns, the program calculates the required longitudinal and

shear reinforcement. However the user may specify the longitudinal steel, in which

case a column capacity ratio is reported. The column capacity ratio gives an indication of the stress condition with respect to the capacity of the column.

Every beam member is designed for flexure and shear at a user defined number of

stations along the beam span.

The presentation of the output is clear and concise. The information is in a form that

allows the engineer to take appropriate remedial measures in the event of member

overstress. Backup design information produced by the program is also provided

for convenient verification of the results.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used to define the model geometry and to specify design parameters.

Organization

This manual is organized in the following way:

Chapter II provides a quick tutorial aiming at giving the first time users hands-on

experience. Several of the basic features of the SAP2000 concrete design modules

are explored in this tutorial.

Chapter III outlines various aspects of the concrete design procedures of the

SAP2000 program. This chapter describes the common terminology of concrete

design as implemented in SAP2000.

Each of four subsequent chapters gives a detailed description of a specific code of

practice as interpreted by and implemented in SAP2000. Each chapter describes the

design loading combination, column and beam design procedures, and other special consideration required by the code.

Chapter IV gives a detailed description of the ACI code (ACI 1995) as implemented in SAP2000.

Chapter V gives a detailed description of the Canadian code (CSA 1984) as implemented in SAP2000.

Chapter VI gives a detailed description of the British code (BSI 1985) as implemented in SAP2000.

Chapter VII gives a detailed description of the Eurocode (CEN 1992) as implemented in SAP2000.

Organization

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Chapter I Introduction

Chapter VIII outlines various aspects of the tabular and graphical output from

SAP2000 related to concrete design.

Recommended Reading

It is recommended that first time users follow through the steps of the Quick Tutorial in Chapter II and read Chapter III Design Algorithms and one of four subsequent chapters corresponding to the code of interest to the user. Finally the user

should read Design Output in Chapter VIII for understanding and interpreting

SAP2000 output related to concrete design.

Recommended Reading

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C h a p t e r II

Quick Tutorial

Overview

Several of the basic features of the SAP2000 concrete design modules are explored

in this tutorial. This introduction is aimed at giving the first time user hands-on experience for designing concrete frames with SAP2000. The program allows you to

select from several U.S. and international codes to design and review concrete

structures. A comprehensive on-line Help is included in the program for your quick

reference. It is assumed that you have a working knowledge of concrete design procedures and are reasonably familiar with the current codes of practice and their underlying design concepts.

We will access the SAP2000 commands from both the Toolbar and from the

menus. The Toolbar, however, provides quick access to most commonly used features available from the menus.

In the assignment sequence, there are two important points you must remember.

First, you have to define an entity before you can assign an attribute to it, and second, you have to select member(s) before you can assign new attributes or modify

old ones.

Overview

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The structure is a two-story, two-by-two bay office building located in Seismic

Zone No. 4 (high seismic area). It is designed as a special moment resisting concrete frame using the ACI 318-95 code.

15'

30'

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20K

30'

Roof

Floor

26

15

10K 10K

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25

33

29

31

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20

22

13

5

8

18

12

23

12'

30

10

20K

24

Baseline

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27

10'

15'

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1

Z

Global

Reference

Point

Figure II-1

Ductile Moment Resisting Concrete Frame (Tutorial Example)

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Geometry

The two-story structure has a partial floor diaphragm and a full roof diaphragm. See

Figure II-1. The story height of the top and bottom floor is taken as10 0 and12 0

respectively. The initial member sizes and reinforcement are given in Table II-1.

ID

Structural Component

Description

2 cover to center of steel

2 cover to center of steel

2 cover to center of steel

2 cover to center of steel

Table II-1

Structural Property Data (Tutorial Example)

Material Properties

The properties of the materials used in the model are given in Table II-2. It is assumed that the materials used for the beams and columns are the same. However,

the shear reinforcement is different from the longitudinal reinforcement.

Material Property

Magnitude

fc

4.0 ksi

Ec

3600 ksi

fy

60 ksi

fys

40 ksi

Table II-2

Material Specifications (Tutorial Example)

For analysis in SAP2000, the value of E is modified to account for cracking. A

multiplier of 0.4 (as recommended in ACI 318-89) is used for columns assumed to

have about 2% steel, and a multiplier of 0.5 (as recommended in ACI 318-89) is

c

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used for the beams. These multiplication factors are slightly different in ACI 31895. See Section R10.11.1 of ACI 318-95.

Load Cases

Four load cases are considered in the analysis. The dead and live loads are defined

as load cases DL and LL respectively. The lateral seismic loads, in turn, are designated as QX and QY respectively.

The dead and live loads are simplified as line loads on the beams. The equivalent

static seismic forces are applied as lateral loads at the centroids of the diaphragms:

Load case 1 : DL C 1.0 kip/ft on all beams which are connected with the diaphragm

along the X-direction (Self-weight included)

Load case 2 : LL C 0.5 kip/ft on all beams which are connected with the diaphragm

along the X-direction

Load case 3 : QX C Static equivalent earthquake force in the X-direction

Load case 4 : QY C Static equivalent earthquake force in the Y-direction

Analysis

Two diaphragm constraints are applied for the two diaphragms at the two floors.

These constraints prevent in-plane relative displacements of the nodes at each floor.

The lateral earthquake loads are assumed to be applied at the centroid of the diaphragm. A P- analysis is carried out with a load level of 0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL)/

as recommended in the chapter Design for ACI 318-95 on page 40, where is

taken as 0.75.

Design

The design is performed in accordance with ACI 318-95. Kip-in units are used. The

input database file for this model is EXCONC.SDB. This is supplied as part of the

SAP2000 package.

A step-by-step procedure for the design of the model is outlined below. It is recommended that you actually perform these steps while reading this chapter. We assume that you have successfully started the program. You can do this by running

SAP2000 from the Start Menu.

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In this tutorial, whenever possible, we will use the Toolbars to access various options quickly. Most of the features available on the Toolbars can also be accessed

from the Menu Bar. Use the on-line Help or refer to the SAP2000 Getting Started

manual for a detailed description of the SAP2000 screen.

The input database file for the model (EXCONC.SDB) is in the EXAMPLES subdirectory under the main directory where the program has been installed. In this example, the analysis model is already created. This tutorial gives the highlights of the

design phase. You are assumed to be familiar with creating and editing structural

models using SAP2000.

1. Click on the Open button from the File menu. This will display the Open

Model File dialog box.

2. In this dialog box:

Select the EXCONC.SDB file.

Click on the Open button.

The screen will now show two vertically-tiled windows. The left window displays a

plan view of the model at level + 264 in. Section labels are not displayed in this

view. A three-dimensional view of the model is shown in the right window.

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Note: when working with multiple windows, clicking anywhere in a particular window will activate that window.

Before we proceed further, we will make a copy of the data file by saving the model

under a new name, say, TUTOR1.SDB. We will use the copy during the tutorial and

leave the original file unaltered.

3. From the File menu, choose Save As.... This will display the Save Model File

As dialog box.

4. In this dialog box:

Enter new filename, Tutor1.SDB.

Note: Even if you do not type in the extension .SDB, the program automatically appends this extension to the filename.

Click on the Save button.

The new name is displayed in the Main Title Bar.

We will now analyze the model. Before analyzing the model we need to set the P-

force and other parameters for P- analysis. To do this:

1. Select the Set Options... button in the Analyze menu. This will immediately

bring up the Analysis Options dialog box. In this dialog box:

Check the Include P-Delta check box.

Click on the Set P-Delta Parameters button. This will bring up the PDelta Parameters dialog box. In this dialog box:

Set maximum iterations to 5.

Change the DL scale factor to 1.4 and click Modify.

Click on the Load Case drop down arrow.

Select LL.

Change the LL scale factor to 1.7 and click Add.

Click OK to close the P-Delta Parameters dialog box

Click OK to close Analysis Options dialog box.

2. Click on the Run Analysis button on the main toolbar.

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A top window is opened in which various phases of analysis are progressively reported. When the analysis is complete the screen will display the following:

3. Use the scroll bar on the top window to review the analysis messages and to

check for any error or warning messages. In our case there should be none.

4. Click on the OK button in the top window to close it. This will display a deformed shape for the first load case (DL) in the active window (right window in

this example) as follow:s

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Selection of a design code is activated from Preferences... in the Options menu.

The default design code is ACI 318-95 for reinforced concrete design. Since the default code is used in this tutorial, we can by-pass this step. To confirm, however,

you can follow this:

1. Click on the Preferences... button from the Options menu. This will launch the

Options dialog box.

2. Click on the Concrete tab.

3. You can see the currently selected concrete design code, strength reduction factors, interaction diagram parameters, and other parameters as shown in the next

page. You do not need to change anything.

4. Click on the Cancel button to close the dialog box.

Starting Design

With the analysis phase and selection of the design code completed, we will now

design the structure using the requirements of ACI 318-95.

1. From the Design menu, choose Start Design/Check of Structure. The program now designs each of the concrete frame members. (If we had selected

some frame members, then only the selected frames would be designed). In a

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few moments the longitudinal reinforcement requirements are displayed in the

active window. For beams the compression and the tensile reinforcement are

displayed separately. For columns the total overall reinforcement area is displayed. In the display, the reinforcement areas are reported for the governing

design combination, by default.

2. Right click on a column member, for example element 2 (see Figure II-1). This

will open the Concrete Design Information dialog box showing longitudinal

and shear reinforcement requirements at various stations along the element

length for the various load combinations (see screen below). The dialog box

also can show information regarding the Details of calculation for design, the

element overwrite assignments for ReDesign for the selected member, and column Interaction properties. However, if the member is a beam, rather than a

column, the Interaction properties are not relevant and are not available from

the Concrete Design Information dialog box.

Starting Design

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Select a design check station in the Concrete Design Information dialog

box.

Click on the Details button. This will open the Concrete Design Information ACI 318-95 screen showing the design parameters including the reinforcement areas and the factored member forces for the selected load combination at that particular station. See screen below.

14

Starting Design

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Close the Concrete Design Information ACI 318-95 window.

Click on the Interaction button. This will open the dialog box showing the

column interaction diagram and the current state of the design forces in the

diagram for the selected load combination at that particular station. The interaction diagram can be rotated about any axis to view the diagram from

different directions. See screen below.

Click on the Done button to close the Interaction information dialog box.

Click on the ReDesign button. This will open the Element Overwrite Assignments information dialog box showing the input design factors including the K factors, C factors, etc. These factors can be edited for redesigning. See screen on the next page. There is also an alternative way of editing

the properties of a set of members which will be demonstrated in the next

section Changing Member Properties.

m

Click on the OK button to close the Element Overwrite Assignments dialog box.

Click on the OK button to close the Concrete Design Information dialog

box.

Note: The number of stations (number of segments + 1) used in the design is set by

the user through Frame and Output Segment buttons from the Assign menu prior

to the analysis phase. The default number of segments is 4 for beams and 2 for

columns.

Starting Design

23

15

Till now we have analyzed and designed the concrete frame and reviewed some of

the design information. SAP2000 allows you to interactively change the design

code, member properties, remove or add new load combinations, etc. and re-run the

analysis and design phases. As a demonstration in this tutorial, we will edit/change

a member property for a set of frame members in the next section.

With the analysis and preliminary design successfully completed, we will now

modify the section properties of all the columns of the bottom story before performing re-analysis. Initially, in the analysis, the section type of each column member of

the bottom story was taken to be 2. Referring to the screen that follows, we will

change the section type of every column at the bottom story to be 1. Note that there

are already four previously defined section types in the model which were named

numerically as 1, 2, 3, and 4. In order to make these changes, we will change the

view in the right window to make all the columns visible for selection. Notice that

this window is currently showing the longitudinal reinforcing from the previous design.

1. Click on the Show Undeformed Shape button from the floating toolbar.

2. Click on the 2D View (xz) button from the main toolbar for an elevation view.

3. Click on the Perspective Toggle button from the main toolbar. This will display a 3D view. All columns except the middle two will be visible. These two

16

24

columns will be overlapping each other. To look at them better, we need to rotate the model about a vertical axis.

4. Click on the Set 3D View ... button on the View menu. Increase the plan View

Direction Angle from 270 to 300 on the Set 3D View popup window and then

click on the OK button.

Now, with all the columns visible, we can select and modify their design section information. Remember, SAP2000 maintains two sets of information for sections.

One is for analysis and the other is for design. Changing section type here will affect the design section only. To update the analysis section, you need to explicitly

request an update of the analysis information from the current design state using the

menu item Update Analysis Sections in the Design menu.

5. To see the current setting of Design Sections do the following:

Click on the Display Design Info ... menu item from the Design menu. Select the Design Input option button.

Select Design Sections from the drop-down list.

Click OK.

This will display the design sections on the screen as shown below. Now we can select and modify the sections for the columns at the first story.

25

17

6. To select all the columns at the bottom story do the following:

Click the Set Intersecting Line Select Mode button on the Floating Toolbar.

Move the pointer to the left and middle of the leftmost corner column at the

bottom story.

Click and hold down the left mouse button.

While holding, move the pointer horizontally to the right of the members

intersecting all the columns at the bottom story. A rubber-band line will

show the intersecting line.

Release the left mouse button to select all members that intersect the

rubber-band line.

Note: To select all the columns in the bottom story, we have to do this operation only once. Any member can also be selected just by clicking the

member itself.

The selection of all the bottom story columns is now complete. The selected members appear as dashed lines.

7. From the Design menu, choose ReDefine Element Design Data.... This will

display the Element Overwrite Assignments dialog box to edit the sections

and the design factors. The design factors are code dependent. To change the

sections from this dialog box:

18

26

Click the Change button on the Element Section area. This will display

Select Sections dialog box. In this dialog box:

Select 1 by clicking once.

Click on the OK button to accept the change.

Click on the OK button on Element Overwrite Assignment dialog box.

This will recompute the longitudinal reinforcement based on the new section properties and the previous analysis results.

8. To see the recomputed longitudinal reinforcement, do the following:

Click on the Display Design Info ... menu item from the Design menu. Select the Design Output option button.

Select Longitudinal Reinforcing from the drop-down list.

Click OK. This will display the longitudinal reinforcement as recomputed

based on the new section properties and the previous analysis results.

Click on the 3D View (3-d) button from the main toolbar to display the results in an orientation used earlier.

Notice that as a result of changing the section, the reinforcement areas in those particular columns are changed. To see the difference, compare this display with the

one on page 13.

27

19

It is important to realize that changes made to member section properties in the design phase are not automatically reflected in the analysis results. These changes are

only local to the post-processing phase unless a re-run of the analysis, with updated

elements, is requested by the user. In other words, overwriting the section properties only affects the stress values and not the factored element forces obtained in the

analysis preceding such changes. The redistribution of member forces due to

change of stiffness (revision of section properties) is effected in a re-run of analysis.

In the Design menu click on Update Analysis Sections. This will prompt a

dialog box asking Updating Analysis Section will unlock model! OK to update?. Click OK.

From the Analyze menu, choose Run. This will immediately start the analysis

procedure. A top window is opened in which various phases of analysis are progressively displayed. The results will obviously differ from those produced in

the initial analysis because of the change of section properties we made in the

design stage. Click OK to close the top window.

Click on the Start Design/Check of Structures from the Design menu. This

will redesign the structure and display the new required longitudinal reinforcement.

You can see the difference after re-running the design based on the latest analysis

results.

20

28

Concluding Remarks

We have come to the end of this tutorial on the SAP2000 concrete design options.

The intent has been to highlight and demonstrate a few of the basic features in order

to open up the path for you to explore and use the more advanced options. For more

information on various topics consult the on-line Help provided with the program.

Concluding Remarks

29

21

30

C h a p t e r III

Design Algorithms

This chapter outlines various aspects of the concrete design and design-check procedures that are used by the SAP2000 program. The concrete design and check may

be performed in SAP2000 according to one of the following design codes:

The 1995 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete, ACI 318-95 (ACI 1995).

The 1984 Canadian Standards Association Design of Concrete Structures for

Buildings, CAN3-A23.3-M.84 (CSA 1984).

The 1985 British Standards Institution Structural Use of Concrete, BS 8110,

(BSI 1985).

The 1992 European Committee for Standardization, Design of Concrete Structures, EUROCODE 2 (CEN 1992).

Details of the algorithms associated with each of these codes as implemented in

SAP2000 are described in the subsequent chapters. However, this chapter provides

a background which is common to all the design codes.

In writing this manual it has been assumed that the user has an engineering background in the general area of structural reinforced concrete design and familiarity

with at least one of the above mentioned design codes.

23

31

For referring to pertinent sections of the corresponding code, a unique prefix is assigned for each code. For example, all references to the ACI 318-95 code are preceded by the word ACI. Similarly,

References to the Canadian code (CSA 1984) carry the prefix of CAN

References to the British code (BSI 1985) carry the prefix of BS

References to the Eurocode (CEN 1992) carry the prefix of EC2

The design load combinations are used for determining the various combinations of

the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed/checked. The load combination factors to be used vary with the selected design code. The load combination factors are applied to the forces and moments obtained from the associated load

cases and are then summed to obtain the factored design forces and moments for the

load combination.

For multi-valued load combinations involving response spectrum, time history,

moving loads and multi-valued combinations (of type enveloping, square-root of

the sum of the squares or absolute) where any correspondence between interacting

quantities is lost, the program automatically produces multiple sub combinations

using maxima/minima permutations of interacting quantities. Separate combinations with negative factors for response spectrum cases are not required because the

program automatically takes the minima to be the negative of the maxima for response spectrum cases and the above described permutations generate the required

sub combinations.

When a design combination involves only a single multi-valued case of time history or moving load, further options are available. The program has an option to request that time history combinations produce sub combinations for each time step

of the time history. Also an option is available to request that moving load combinations produce sub combinations using maxima and minima of each design quantity

but with corresponding values of interacting quantities.

For normal loading conditions involving static dead load, live load, wind load, and

earthquake load, and/or dynamic response spectrum earthquake load the program

has built-in default loading combinations for each design code. These are based on

the code recommendations and are documented for each code in the corresponding

chapters.

For other loading conditions involving moving load, time history, pattern live

loads, separate consideration of roof live load, snow load, etc., the user must define

24

32

design loading combinations either in lieu of or in addition to the default design

loading combinations.

The default load combinations assume all static load cases declared as dead load to

be additive. Similarly, all cases declared as live load are assumed additive. However, each static load case declared as wind or earthquake, or response spectrum

cases, is assumed to be non additive with each other and produces multiple lateral

load combinations. Also wind and static earthquake cases produce separate loading

combinations with the sense (positive or negative) reversed. If these conditions are

not correct, the user must provide the appropriate design combinations.

The default load combinations are included in design if the user requests them to be

included or if no other user defined combination is available for concrete design. If

any default combination is included in design, then all default combinations will

automatically be updated by the program any time the design code is changed or if

static or response spectrum load cases are modified.

Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case

on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the

factored loading.

The user is cautioned that if moving load or time history results are not requested to

be recovered in the analysis for some or all the frame members, then the effects of

these loads will be assumed to be zero in any combination that includes them.

For each load combination, each element is designed or checked at a number of locations along the length of the element. The locations are based on equally spaced

segments along the clear length of the element. The number of segments in an element is requested by the user before the analysis is made. The user can refine the design along the length of an element by requesting more segments.

Since SAP2000 is a general purpose analysis and design program, all beams and

columns are represented as frame elements. But design of beams and columns requires separate treatment. Therefore, identifying each frame element as either a

beam or a column is necessary. This identification for a concrete element is done by

specifying the frame section assigned to the element to be of type beam or column.

33

25

Design of Beams

In the design of concrete beams, in general, SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments, shears,

load combination factors, and other criteria which are described in detail in the code

specific chapters. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user-defined

number of stations along the beam span.

All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Effects due

to any axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion that may exist in the beams

must be investigated independently by the user.

In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment at a particular section

of a particular beam, the steps involve the determination of the maximum factored

moments and the determination of the reinforcing steel. The beam section is designed for the maximum positive M and maximum negative M factored moment

envelopes obtained from all of the load combinations. Negative beam moments

produce top steel. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In such cases the beam may be

designed as a rectangular- or a T-beam. For the design of flexural reinforcement,

the beam is first designed as a singly reinforced beam. If the beam section is not

adequate, then the required compression reinforcement is calculated.

+

In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular set of

loading combinations at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the steps

involve the determination of the factored shear force, the determination of the shear

force that can be resisted by concrete, and the determination of the reinforcement

steel required to carry the balance.

Special considerations for seismic design are incorporated in SAP2000 for ACI

318-95 and 1984 Canadian codes.

Design of Columns

In the design of the columns, the program calculates the required longitudinal steel,

or if the longitudinal steel is specified, the column stress condition is reported in

terms of a column capacity ratio, which is a factor that gives an indication of the

stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps:

26

Design of Beams

34

Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different

concrete section types of the model. A typical interaction surface is shown in

Figure III-1.

Check the capacity of each column for the factored axial force and bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each end of the column. This

step is also used to calculate the required reinforcement (if none was specified)

that will produce a capacity ratio of 1.0.

Design the column shear reinforcement.

Axial compression

+P0

Pmax

Curve #NRCV

Pbx

Curve #1

Pby

Curve #2

M by

M bx

1

My

Mx

-P0

Axial tension

Figure III-1

A Typical Column Interaction Surface

Design of Columns

35

27

The generation of the interaction surface is based on the assumed strain and stress

distributions and some other simplifying assumptions. These stress and strain distributions and the assumptions vary from code to code. A typical assumed strain

distribution is described in Figure III-2.

Varying Linear

Strain Plane

c

Reinforcement

Bars

+

DIRECTION 1

Neutral Axis

Direction

Varying Linear

Strain Plane

c

DIRECTION

Reinforcement

Bars

Neutral Axis

Direction

c

+

Varying Linear

Strain Plane

DIRECTION

Neutral Axis

Reinforcement Direction

Bars

Figure III-2

Idealized Strain Distribution for Generation of Interaction Surfaces

Here maximum compression strain is limited to . For most of the design codes,

this assumed distribution remains valid. However, the value of varies from code

to code. For example, = 0003

for ACI and Canadian codes, and = 00035

for

.

.

c

28

Design of Columns

36

British and European codes. The details of the generation of interaction surfaces

differ from code to code. These are described in the chapters specific to the code.

The capacity check is based on whether the design load points lie inside the interaction volume in a force space, as shown in Figure III-3. If the point lies inside the

volume, the column capacity is adequate, and vice versa.

The shear reinforcement design procedure for columns is very similar to that for

beams, except that the effect of the axial force on the concrete shear capacity needs

to be considered.

Axial Compression

Lines Defining

Failure Surface

C

L

P

o

Mx

My

MY

MX

Axial Tension

Figure III-3

Geometric Representation of Column Capacity Ratio

Design of Columns

37

29

P- Effects

The SAP2000 design algorithms require that the analysis results include the P- effects. The P- effects are considered differently for braced or nonsway and

unbraced or sway columns or frames. For the braced columns, the effect of P-

is limited to individual member stability. For unbraced frames, lateral drift effects should be considered in addition to individual member stability effect.

For the individual member stability effects, the moments are magnified with moment magnification factors as in the ACI and Canadian codes or with additional

moments as in the British and Eurocode codes.

For lateral drift effects of unbraced or sway frames, SAP2000 assumes that the amplification is already included in the results because P- effects are considered.

The moments and forces obtained from P- analysis are further amplified for individual column stability effect if required by the governing code as in the ACI and

Canadian codes.

The users of SAP2000 should be aware that the default analysis option in SAP2000

is turned OFF for P- effect. The user can turn the P- analysis ON and set the

maximum number of iterations for the analysis. The default number of iteration for

P- analysis is 1. For further reference, the user is referred to SAP2000 Reference

Manual (CSI 1997b).

The user is also cautioned that SAP2000 currently considers P- effects due to axial

loads in frame members only. Forces in other types of elements do not contribute to

this effect. If significant forces are present in other type of elements, for example,

huge axial loads in shear walls modeled as shell elements, then the additional forces

computed for P- will not be accurate.

To account for column slenderness effects the column unsupported lengths are required. The two unsupported lengths are l and l . These are the lengths between

support points of the element in the corresponding directions. The length l corresponds to instability about the 3-3 axis (major axis), and l corresponds to instability about the 2-2 axis (minor axis).

33

22

33

22

Normally, the unsupported element length is equal to the length of the element, i.e.,

the distance between END-I and END-J of the element. See Figure III-4. The program, however, allows users to assign several elements to be treated as a single

member for design. This can be done differently for major and minor bending.

30

P- Effects

38

Therefore, extraneous joints as shown in Figure III-5 that affect the unsupported

length of an element are automatically taken into consideration.

In determining the values for l and l of the elements, the program recognizes

various aspects of the structure that have an effect on these lengths, such as member

connectivity, diaphragm constraints and support points. The program automatically locates the element support points and evaluates the corresponding unsupported element length.

22

33

greater than the corresponding element length. If a beam frames into only one direction of the column, the beam is assumed to give lateral support only in that direction.

The user has options to specify the unsupported lengths of the elements on an

element-by-element basis.

2

is

Ax

nt 1

e

m

Ele

J

D

EN

l33

D

EN

l22

Figure III-4

Axes of Bending and Unsupported Length

39

31

The ACI code (ACI 1995) imposes a special ductility requirement for frames in

seismic regions by specifying frames either as Ordinary, Intermediate, or Special

moment resisting frames. The Special moment resisting frame can provide the required ductility and energy dissipation in the nonlinear range of cyclic deformation.

The Canadian code (CSA 1984) also requires that the concrete frame must be designed as either an Ordinary, Nominal, or Ductile moment resisting frame.

Unlike the ACI (ACI 1995) and the Canadian code (CSA 1984), the current implementation of the British code (BSI 1985) and the Eurocode (CEN 1992) in

SAP2000 does not account for any special requirements for seismic design.

Figure III-5

Unsupported Lengths and Interior Nodes

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the codes are

based on a specific system of units. All equations and descriptions presented in the

subsequent chapters correspond to that specific system of units unless otherwise

noted. For example, the ACI code is published in inch-pound-second units. By default, all equations and descriptions presented in the chapter Design for ACI 31895 correspond to inch-pound-second units. However, any system of units can be

used to define and design the structure in SAP2000.

32

40

C h a p t e r IV

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure

that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the ACI 318-95 Design Code (ACI

1995). Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table IV-1.

The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.

SAP2000 provides options to design or check Ordinary, Intermediate (moderate

seismic risk areas), and Special (high seismic risk areas) moment resisting frames

as required for seismic design provisions. The details of the design criteria used for

the different framing systems are described in the following sections.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code is

based on Inch-Pound-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions

presented in this chapter correspond to Inch-Pound-Second units unless otherwise

noted.

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load

cases for which the structure needs to be checked. For the ACI 318-95 code, if a

41

33

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

a

a

b

b

b

C

cv

g

s

s

s ( required )

st

v

w

m

c

c

d

d

d

E

E

f

f

f

h

I

b

c

s

ys

se

k

L

Gross area of concrete, sq-in

Area of tension reinforcement, sq-in

Area of compression reinforcement, sq-in

Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-in

Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, sq-in

Area of shear reinforcement, sq-in

Depth of compression block, in

Depth of compression block at balanced condition, in

Width of member, in

Effective width of flange (T-Beam section), in

Width of web (T-Beam section), in

Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to calculate moment magnification factor

Depth to neutral axis, in

Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, in

Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, in

Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, in

Thickness of slab (T-Beam section), in

Modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi

Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 29,000,000 psi

Specified compressive strength of concrete, psi

Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, psi

Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, psi

Dimension of column, in

Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement, in4

Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of

member cross section, in4

Effective length factor

Clear unsupported length, in

Table IV-1

List of Symbols Used in the ACI code

34

42

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

P

P

P

P

P

r

V

V

V +

V

V

2

c

ns

s

ux

uy

b

c

max

0

u

D

u

s

ns

c

s

Larger factored end moment in a column, lb-in

Factored moment to be used in design, lb-in

Nonsway component of factored end moment, lb-in

Sway component of factored end moment, lb-in

Factored moment at section, lb-in

Factored moment at section about X-axis, lb-in

Factored moment at section about Y-axis, lb-in

Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions, lb

Critical buckling strength of column, lb

Maximum axial load strength allowed, lb

Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity, lb

Factored axial load at section, lb

Radius of gyration of column section, in

Shear resisted by concrete, lb

Shear force caused by earthquake loads, lb

Shear force from span loading, lb

Factored shear force at a section, lb

Shear force computed from probable moment capacity, lb

Reinforcing steel overstrength factor

Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete

Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load

Moment magnification factor for sway moments

Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments

Strain in concrete

Strain in reinforcing steel

Strength reduction factor

Table IV-1

List of Symbols Used in the ACI code (continued)

43

35

structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only, the stress check

may need only one load combination, namely 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL (ACI 9.2.1). However, in addition to the dead and live loads, if the structure is subjected to wind

(WL) and earthquake (EL) loads, and considering that wind and earthquake forces

are reversible, then the following load combinations have to be considered (ACI

9.2).

1.4 DL

1.4 DL + 1.7 LL

(ACI 9.2.1)

0.9 DL 1.3 WL

0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL 1.7 WL)

(ACI 9.2.2)

0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL 1.7 * 1.1 EL)

(ACI 9.2.3)

These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the ACI

318-95 code is used.

Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load

condition on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load

to the factored loading.

The strength reduction factors, , are applied on the nominal strength to obtain the

design strength provided by a member. The factors for flexure, axial force, shear,

and torsion are as follows:

36

(ACI 9.3.2.1)

(ACI 9.3.2.2)

(ACI 9.3.2.2)

and flexure (spirally reinforced column),

(ACI 9.3.2.2)

and flexure (tied column), and

(ACI 9.3.2.2)

(ACI 9.3.2.3)

44

Column Design

The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user, the program

checks the column capacity. However, if the area of reinforcing is not provided by

the user, the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column.

The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves

the following steps:

Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different

concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction surface is

shown in Figure III-1. When the steel is undefined, the program generates the

interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement C 1 to 8 percent

for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ACI 10.9.1) and 1 to 6

percent for Special moment resisting frames (ACI 21.4.3.1).

Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading

combination at each station of the column. The target capacity ratio is taken as

one when calculating the required reinforcing area.

Design the column shear reinforcement.

The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

the above-mentioned steps.

The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface.

In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. A typical interaction diagram is

shown in Figure III-1.

The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in

three dimensions on the section of the column. See Figure III-2. The linear strain

diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, , at the extremity of the section

to 0.003 (ACI 10.2.3).

c

strength design (ACI 10.3), and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular,

square, or circular column section.

Column Design

45

37

The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity, E , and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, f (ACI 10.2.4).

The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual

location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the column, such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder. See Figure IV-1.

s

0.85 f'c

c = 0.003

d'

c

1

Cs

s1

a=

1c

2

Cs

s2

s3

Ts3

s4

Ts4

Figure IV-1

Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section

value of 085

. f (ACI 10.2.7.1). See Figure IV-1. The interaction algorithm provides

correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in

the compression zone.

c

The effects of the strength reduction factor, , are included in the generation of the

interaction surfaces. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to P , where

max

(ACI 10.3.5.1)

(ACI 10.3.5.2)

max

max

st

st

st

st

= 0.75 for spirally reinforced columns.

38

Column Design

46

The value of used in the interaction diagram varies from

min

axial load. For low values of axial load, is increased linearly from

to 0.9 as

the axial load decreases from the smaller of 0.1 f A or P to zero, where P is the

axial force at the balanced condition. In cases involving axial tension, is always

0.9 (ACI 9.3.2.2).

min

The column capacity is checked for each loading combination at each check station

of each column. In checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular station, the following steps are involved:

Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and

the specified load combination factors to give P , M ,and M .

u

ux

uy

Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments. Determine

whether the point, defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set,

lies within the interaction volume.

The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the

identification of the individual column as either sway or non-sway.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the

above-mentioned steps.

The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the

corresponding load factors to all the load cases, giving P , M ,and M . The factored moments are further increased for non-sway columns, if required, to obtain

minimum eccentricities of (0.6 + 0.03h) inches, where h is the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (ACI 10.12.3.2).

u

ux

uy

The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall stability effect), and for non-sway (individual column stability effect), . Also the

moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are in general different.

s

ns

Column Design

47

39

The program assumes that a P- analysis has been performed in SAP2000 and,

therefore, moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken

as unity (ACI 10.10.2). For the P- analysis the load should correspond to a load

combination of 0.75 (1.4 dead load + 1.7 live load) / , where is the understrength

factor for stability which is taken as 0.75 (ACI 10.12.3). See also White and Hajjar

(1991).

The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway

( M ) and the non-sway (M ) components. The non-sway components which are

identified as ns subscripts are predominantly caused by gravity load. The sway

components are identified by the s subscripts. The sway moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads, and are related to the cause of side sway.

s

ns

about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as

M =M

ns

+ M .

s

(ACI 10.13.3)

The factor is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side sway.

The moment magnification factors for sway moments, , is taken as 1 because the

component moments M and M are obtained from a second order elastic (P-)

analysis (ACI R10.13).

s

ns

The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability effect

(ACI 10.13.5) by the nonsway moment magnification factor, , as follows:

ns

M = M , where

c

ns

(ACI 10.12.3)

c

2

The non-sway moment magnification factor, , associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by (ACI 10.12.3)

ns

ns

P

10.75 P

1.0 , where

P =

c

EI

,

( kL)

2

this value, and

40

Column Design

48

EI is associated with a particular column direction given by the larger of:

EI =

EI =

=

d

0.2E I + E I

c

1+

0.4 E I

c

1+

se

, and

maximum factored axial total load

C = 0.6 + 0.4

m

M

0.4 .

M

a

(ACI 10.12.3.1)

M and M are the moments at the ends of the column, and M is numerically

larger than M . M M is positive for single curvature bending and negative

for double curvature bending. The above expression of C is valid if there is no

transverse load applied between the supports. If transverse load is present on

the span, or the length is overwritten, or for any other case, C =1. C can be

overwritten by the user on an element by element basis.

a

The magnification factor, , must be a positive number and greater than one.

Therefore P must be less than 0.75P . If P is found to be greater than or equal to

0.75P , a failure condition is declared.

ns

The above calculations use the unsupported length of the column. The two unsupported lengths are l and l corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element, respectively. See Figure III-4. These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions.

22

33

If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member, the user

can explicitly specify values of and .

s

ns

As a measure of the stress condition of the column, a capacity ratio is calculated.

The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column.

Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the moment

magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain P , M ,and M .

The point (P , M M ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in

Figure III-3. If the point lies within the interaction volume, the column capacity is

u

ux ,

ux

uy

uy

Column Design

49

41

adequate; however, if the point lies outside the interaction volume, the column is

overstressed.

This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location

of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface.

OL

See Figure III-3. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio

.

OC

If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is

stressed to capacity.

If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate.

If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed.

The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling

P , M ,and M set and associated load combination number.

u

ux

uy

If the reinforcing area is not defined, SAP2000 computes the reinforcement that

will give an interaction ratio of unity.

The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and

minor directions of the column. In designing the shear reinforcing for a particular

column for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction, the following steps are involved:

Determine the factored forces acting on the section, P andV . Note that P is

needed for the calculation of V .

u

c

For special moment resisting frames (ductile frames), the shear design of the columns is based upon the probable moment capacities of the members. Effects of the

axial forces on the column moment capacities are included in the formulation.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the

above-mentioned steps.

42

Column Design

50

In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame, the forces for a particular load combination, namely,

the column axial force, P , and the column shear force,V , in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the SAP2000 analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.

u

In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (seismic design) the

following are checked in addition to the requirement for the ordinary moment

resisting frames. In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames, the

design shear force in a column, V , in a particular direction is also calculated

from the probable moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column.

u

For each load combination, the factored axial load, P , is calculated. Then, the

positive and negative moment capacities, M + and M , of the column in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force P is calculated using the

uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction. The design shear

force, V , is then given by (ACI 21.4.5.1)

u

V =V + V

u

(ACI 21.4.5.1)

D+ L

where, V is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite

directions. Therefore, V is the maximum of V 1 and V 2 , where

p

V1=

M +M

L

M +M

, where

L

P2

M +, M

I

, and

the column using a steel yield stress value of f

and no factors,

y

M +, M

J

the column using a steel yield stress value of f

and no factors, and

y

Column Design

51

43

For Special moment resisting frames is taken as 1.25 (ACI R21.3.4.1). V +

is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads.

For most of the columns, it is zero.

D

For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the design shear force is taken to

be the minimum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and factored

shear force. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the

same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for special moment

resisting frames, except that is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25. The factored

shear forces are based on the specified load factors except the earthquake load

factors are doubled (ACI 21.8.3).

Given the design force set P andV , the shear force carried by the concrete,V , is

calculated as follows:

u

u

P

V = 2 f 1 +

2000 A

A ,

(ACI 11.3.1.2)

cv

where,

f 100 psi, and

(ACI 11.1.2)

V 3.5 f

c

The term

P

1 +

500 A

A .

(ACI 11.3.2.2)

cv

P

must have psi units. A is the effective shear area which is shown

A

u

cv

If the column is subjected to axial tension, P is negative,

u

P

V = 2 f 1 +

500 A

cv

(ACI 11.3.2.3)

For Special moment resisting concrete frame design, V is set to zero if the

factored axial compressive force, P , including the earthquake effect is small

( P < f A / 20) and if the shear force contribution from earthquake, V , is

c

44

Column Design

52

more than half of the total factored maximum shear force over the length of the

member V (V 0.5 V ) (ACI 21.4.5.2).

u

d'

DIRECTION

OF SHEAR

FORCE

Acv

RECTANGULAR

d'

DIRECTION

OF SHEAR

FORCE

A cv

d'

DIRECTION

OF SHEAR

FORCE

Acv

CIRCULAR

Figure IV-2

Shear Stress Area, A

cv

Given V and V , the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or tie

within a spacing, s, is given by

u

Column Design

53

45

A =

v

(V / V ) s

,

f d

u

(ACI 11.5.6.2)

ys

(V / V ) 8 f A

u

(ACI 11.5.6.8)

cv

reduction factor, is 0.85 (ACI 9.3.2.3). The maximum of all the calculated A values obtained from each load combination are reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load

combination label.

v

The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based

purely upon shear strength consideration. Any minimum stirrup requirements to

satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

Beam Design

In the design of concrete beams, SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas

of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments, shears, load combination factors, and other criteria described below. The reinforcement requirements

are calculated at a user defined number of check/design stations along the beam

span.

All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Effects due

to any axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion that may exist in the beams

must be investigated independently by the user.

The beam design procedure involves the following steps:

Design beam flexural reinforcement

Design beam shear reinforcement

The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations along

the beam span. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment for a

particular beam for a particular section, the following steps are involved:

Determine the maximum factored moments

Determine the reinforcing steel

46

Beam Design

54

In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special, Intermediate, or Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame beams, the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors.

The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive M and maximum

negative M factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.

+

Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In

such cases the beam may be designed as a Rectangular- or a T-beam.

In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added when

the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the grade of concrete.

The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown

in Figure IV-3 (ACI 10.2). Furthermore it is assumed that the compression carried

by concrete is less than 0.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (ACI 10.3.3). When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this

designed balanced condition, the area of compression reinforcement is calculated

on the assumption that the additional moment will be carried by compression and

additional tension reinforcement.

The design procedure used by SAP2000, for both rectangular and flanged sections

(L- and T-beams) is summarized below. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial

force does not exceed 0.1f A (ACI 10.3.3), hence all the beams are designed for

major direction flexure and shear only.

c

In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M , (i.e. designing top or

bottom steel) the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure IV-3),

where,

u

a= d

d

2

2 M

0.85 f b

Beam Design

55

47

where, the value of is 0.90 (ACI 9.3.2.1) in the above and the following equations. Also and c are calculated as follows:

1

f - 4000

= 0.85 - 0.05

,

1000

. 085

. ,

065

87000

87000 + f

c =

b

(ACI 10.2.7.3)

d.

y

= 0.003

0.85f'c

Cs

A's

d'

a=

1c

As

Ts

(ii) STRAIN

DIAGRAM

(i) BEAM

SECTION

Tc

(iii) STRESS

DIAGRAM

Figure IV-3

Design of Rectangular Beam Section

If a 0.75 c , the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by

1

A =

s

M

.

a

f d

2

u

negative.

u

calculated as follows:

1

48

Beam Design

56

The depth of compression block is given by

a = 0.75 c .

b

(ACI 10.3.3)

C = 0.85 f ba , and

c

(ACI 10.2.7.1)

M

=C d .

2

b

uc

M

us

=M M

u

uc

A =

s

M

, where

f ( d d )

us

f = 0.003 E

s

c d

.

c

(ACI 10.2.4)

A =

s1

uc

a

f ( d )

2

, and

A =

s2

M

.

f ( d d )

us

Therefore, the total tensile reinforcement, A = A + A , and total compression reinforcement is A . A is to be placed at bottom and A is to be

placed at top if M is positive, and vice versa if M is negative.

s

s1

s2

In designing for a factored negative moment, M , (i.e. designing top steel), the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above, i.e., no T-Beam data is to be

used. See Figure IV-4. If M > 0, the depth of the compression block is given by

u

Beam Design

57

49

a= d

2M

.

0.85 f b

d

2

a = 0.75 c .

b

defined for the rectangular section design. However, in this case the width of

the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis. Whether

compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > a .

s

If a > d , calculation for A is done in two parts. The first part is for balancing

the compressive force from the flange, C , and the second part is for balancing

the compressive force from the web, C , as shown in Figure IV-4. C is given

by

s

C = 0.85 f ( b b )d .

c

bf

= 0.003

ds

d'

fs'

As'

0.85f'c

0.85f'c

Cs

Cf

c

d

Cw

As

Ts

Tw

bw

(i) BEAM

SECTION

(ii) STRAIN

DIAGRAM

Figure IV-4

Design of a T-Beam Section

50

Beam Design

58

(iii) STRESS

DIAGRAM

Tf

Therefore, A =

s1

u

given by

M

= C d .

2

s

uf

Again, the value for is 0.90. Therefore, the balance of the moment, M to be

carried by the web is given by

u

uw

= M -M

u

uf

The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b and d, for which the design

depth of the compression block is recalculated as

w

a = d d

2

2M

.

0.85 f b

uw

1

s2

M

, and

a

f d

2

uw

A =A +A .

s

s1

s2

If a > a , compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.3) and is calculated as follows:

1

C = 0.85 f ba .

c

(ACI 10.2.7.1)

M

= C d , and

2

b

uc

M

us

=M

uw

uc

Beam Design

59

51

M

, where

f ( d d )

A =

us

f = 0.003 E

s

c d

.

c

(ACI 10.2.4)

M

A =

s2

uc

f (d

y

a

)

2

, and

A =

s3

M

.

f ( d d )

us

The total tensile reinforcement, A = A + A + A , and total compression reinforcement is A . A is to be placed at bottom and A is to be

placed at top.

s

s1

s2

s3

The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Ordinary

moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following limits:

3 f

200

b d and

b d or

A max

f

f

A

s

4

A

3

(ACI 10.5.1)

(ACI 10.5.3)

s ( required ).

For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam design

satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table IV-2 for comprehensive listing) :

The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both at the top

and bottom. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than

(ACI 21.3.2.1).

A

s ( min)

52

Beam Design

60

3 f

200

b d and

b d or

max

f

f

s(min)

s(min)

4

A

3

s ( required )

(ACI 10.5.1)

(ACI 10.5.3)

A 0.025 b d .

s

(ACI 21.3.2.1)

At any end (support) of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity (i.e. associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the beam negative

moment capacity (i.e. associated with the top steel) at that end (ACI 21.3.2.2).

Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any

of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations

(ACI 21.3.2.2).

For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam design would satisfy the following conditions:

At any support of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity would not be

less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (ACI 21.8.4.1).

Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any

of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations

(ACI 21.8.4.1.).

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user defined

number of stations along the beam span. In designing the shear reinforcement for a

particular beam for a particular loading combination at a particular station due to

the beam major shear, the following steps are involved:

Determine the factored shear force, V .

u

c

Beam Design

61

53

Type of

Check/

Design

Ordinary Moment

Resisting Frames

(non-Seismic)

Intermediate Moment

Resisting Frames

(Seismic)

Special Moment

Resisting Frames

(Seismic)

Column

Check

(interaction)

NLDH Combinations

NLDH Combinations

NLDH Combinations

Column

Design

(Interaction)

NLDH Combinations

1% < < 8%

NLDH Combinations

1% < < 8%

NLDH Combinations

= 1.0

1% < < 6%

(earthquake loads doubled)

Column Capacity

= 1.0 and = 1.0

Column shear capacity

= 1.0 and = 1.25

NLDH Combinations

NLDH Combinations

0.025

3 fc

200

,

fy

fy

Column

Shears

NLD Combinations

Beam

Design

Flexure

NLDH Combinations

1

M uEND

3

1

max M u+ , M u

5

1

max M u+ , M u

5

+

M uEND

Beam Min.

Moment

Override

Check

M uSPAN

Beam Design

Shear

+

M uSPAN

No Requirement

{

{

(earthquake loads doubled)

Beam Capacity Shear (VP )

with = 1.0 and = 1.0

plus VD + L

NLDH Combinations

Table IV-2

Design Criteria Table

54

}END

}END

Beam Design

62

1

M uEND

2

1

max M u+ , M u

4

1

max M u- , M u4

+

M uEND

+

M uSPAN

M uSPAN

{

{

}END

}END

NLDH Combinations

Beam Capacity Shear (VP )

with = 1.25 and = 1.0

plus VD + L

Vc = 0

For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ductile frames), the shear

design of the beams is based upon the probable and nominal moment capacities of

the members, respectively.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the

above-mentioned steps.

In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame, the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated

shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors.

In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design),

however, the shear force,V , is calculated from the probable moment capacities

of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces. The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacity is the

same as that described for a column in section Column Design on page 43.

See also Table IV-2 for details.

u

u

V =V + V

u

(ACI 21.4.5.1)

D+ L

where, V is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions. Therefore, V is the maximum of V 1 and V 2 , where

p

V1=

M +M

L

M +M

, where

L

P2

M

I

, and

in tension, using a steel yield stress value

of f and no factors,

y

M+

J

steel in tension, using a steel yield stress

value of f and no factors,

y

Beam Design

63

55

M+

steel in tension, using a steel yield stress

value of f and no factors,

y

M J

in tension, using a steel yield stress value

of f and no factors, and

y

is the contribution of shear force from the load in-span distribution of gravity

loads.

D

For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the design shear force in beams

is taken to be the maximum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and

factored shear force. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity

is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting frames, except that is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25. The

factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI 21.8.3). The computation of the design

shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting frame, is also the

same as that for columns, which is described earlier on page 44. See also Table

IV-2 for details.

The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by

V =2 f b d.

c

(ACI 11.3.1.1)

For Special moment resisting frame concrete design,V is set to zero if both the factored axial compressive force including the earthquake effect P is less than

f A / 20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake V is more than half of

the total maximum shear force over the length of the member V (i.e. V 0.5 V )

(ACI 21.3.4.2).

c

Given V and V , the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is calculated

as

u

56

Beam Design

64

A =

v

(V / V ) s

.

f d

u

(ACI 11.5.6.2)

ys

(V

/ - V

8 f bd ,

(ACI 11.5.6.8)

where, , the strength reduction factor, is 0.85 (ACI 9.3.2.3). The maximum of all

the calculated A values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along

with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number.

v

The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are based

purely upon shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to

satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently

of the program by the user.

Beam Design

65

57

66

Chapter V

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure

that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the Canadian code, CAN3-A23.3M84 (CSA 1984). Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table V-1.

The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.

SAP2000 provides options to design or check Ordinary, Nominal (moderate seismic risk areas), and Ductile (high seismic risk areas) moment resisting frames as required for seismic design. The details of the design criteria used for the different

framing systems are described in the following sections.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code is

based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second

units unless otherwise noted.

59

67

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

a

a

b

b

b

C

cv

g

s

s

s ( required )

st

v

w

m

c

c

d

d

d

E

E

f

f

f

h

I

b

c

s

ys

se

k

L

Gross area of concrete, sq-mm

Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm

Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm

Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm

Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, sq-mm

Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm

Depth of compression block, mm

Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm

Width of member, mm

Effective width of flange (T-Beam section), mm

Width of web (T-Beam section), mm

Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to

calculate moment magnification factor

Depth to neutral axis, mm

Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm

Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm

Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, mm

Thickness of slab (T-Beam section), mm

Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa

Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa

Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa

Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa

Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa

Dimension of column, mm

Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis,

neglecting reinforcement, mm4

Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of

member cross section, mm4

Effective length factor

Clear unsupported length, mm

Table V-1

List of Symbols Used in the Canadian code

60

68

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

P

P

P

P

P

V

V +

V

V

V

2

c

ns

s

ux

uy

b

c

max

0

u

c

D

p

u

s

b

s

c

s

c

s

m

Larger factored end moment in a column, N-mm

Factored moment to be used in design, N-mm

Nonsway component of factored end moment, N-mm

Sway component of factored end moment, N-mm

Factored moment at section, N-mm

Factored moment at section about X-axis, N-mm

Factored moment at section about Y-axis, N-mm

Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions, N

Critical buckling strength of column, N

Maximum axial load strength allowed, N

Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity, N

Factored axial load at section, N

Shear resisted by concrete, N

Shear force from span loading, N

Shear force computed from probable moment capacity, N

Factored shear force at a section, N

Shear force at a section resisted by steel, N

Reinforcing steel overstrength factor

Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete

Absolute value of the ratio of the maximum factored axial

dead load moment to the maximum factored total load moment

Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments

Moment magnification factor for sway moments

Strain in concrete

Strain in reinforcing steel

Strength reduction factor for concrete

Strength reduction factor for steel

Strength reduction factor for member

Shear strength factor

Table V-1

List of Symbols Used in the Canadian code (continued)

61

69

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load

cases for which the structure needs to be checked. For this code, if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL), live load (LL), wind (WL), and earthquake (EL) loads,

and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible, then the following

load combinations may have to be considered for design of concrete frames (CAN

9.2):

1.25 DL

1.25 DL + 1.50 LL

(CAN 9.2)

1.25 DL 1.50 WL

0.85 DL 1.50 WL

1.25 DL + 0.7 (1.50 LL 1.50 WL)

(CAN 9.2)

1.25 DL 1.50 EL

0.85 DL 1.50 EL

1.25 DL + 0.7 (1.50 LL 1.50 EL)

(CAN 9.2)

These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the Canadian Code is used.

In generating the above default loading combinations, the importance factor is

taken as 1. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live

load is separately treated, other types of loads are present, or pattern live loads are

to be considered.

Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case

on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the

factored loading.

The strength reduction factor, , is material dependent and is defined as

= 0.60 for concrete and

(CAN 9.3.2 )

(CAN 9.3.3)

In some special cases, a member resistance factor, , is used as an additional reduction factor in addition to and (CAN 9.3.1).

m

62

70

Column Design

The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user, the program

checks the column capacity. However, if the area of reinforcing is not provided by

the user, the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column.

The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves

the following steps:

Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different

concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction surface is

shown in Figure III-1. When the steel is undefined, the program generates the

interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement 1 to 8 percent

for ordinary moment resisting frames (CAN 10.9.1 and CAN 10.9.2) and 1 to 6

percent for ductile moment resisting frames (CAN 21.4.3.1).

Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading

combination at each station of the column. The target capacity ratio is taken as

one when calculating the required reinforcing area.

Design the column shear reinforcement.

The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

the above-mentioned steps.

The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface.

In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. A typical interaction diagram is

shown in Figure III-1.

The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in

three dimensions on the section of the column. See Figure III-2. The linear strain

diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, , at the extremity of the section,

to 0.003 (CAN 10.2.3).

c

strength design (CAN 10.3), and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular,

square, or circular column section.

Column Design

71

63

The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity, E , and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, f (CAN

10.2.4). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at

the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any

further simplifications in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over

the cross section of the column (such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder). See

Figure V-1.

s

0.85 f'c

c = 0.003

d'

1

Cs

s1

C

c

s2

s3

1c

3

Ts

s4

(i) CONCRETE

SECTION

a=

2

Cs

4

Ts

(iii) STRESS

DIAGRAM

(ii) STRAIN

DIAGRAM

Figure V-1

Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section

value of 0.85 f (CAN 10.2.7). The interaction algorithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone.

c

The effects of the strength reduction factor, , are included in the generation of the

interaction surfaces. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to P , where

the maximum factored axial load resistance is given by

max

= 0.85 [0.85

max

max

64

st

st

c

st

Column Design

72

st

The column capacity is checked for each loading combination at each check stations of each column. In checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular location, the following steps are involved:

Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and

the specified load combination factors to give P , M ,and M .

u

ux

uy

Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored loads obtained in the

first step. Determine whether the point, defined by the resulting axial load and

biaxial moment set, lies within the interaction volume.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the

above-mentioned steps.

The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the

corresponding load factors to all the load conditions, giving P , M ,and M . The

factored moments are further increased, if required, to obtain minimum eccentricities of (15 + 0.03 h ) mm, where h is the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (CAN 10.11.6.4). The computed moments are further amplified by using Moment Magnification Factors to allow for Lateral Drift Effect and Member Stability Effect.

u

ux

uy

The moment magnification factors are applied in two different stages. First the moments are separated into their sway and non-sway components. The non-sway

components are amplified for lateral drift effect. Although this amplification may

be avoided for braced frames according to the code, SAP2000 treats all frames

uniformly to amplify non-sway components of moments. These amplified moments are further amplified for individual member stability effect.

Lateral Drift Effect

For all frames, the moment magnification factor for lateral drift effect is applied

only to the sway moment in SAP2000.

M =M

ns

+ M

s

(ACI 10.11.5.2)

Column Design

73

65

The moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions can be different. The moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway, and ,

can be taken as 1.0 if a P- analysis is carried out (CAN 10.11.7). The program assumes that the SAP2000 analysis models P- effects, therefore, sx and sy are

sx

sy

taken as 1.0.

It is suggested that the P- analysis be done at the factored load level (White and

Hajjar 1991). The necessary factors for a P- analysis for the CAN3-A23.2-M84

code should be (1.25 DL + 0.7*1.50 LL)/ , where is the strength reduction

factor for stability and is equal to 0.65.

m

The user is reminded of the special analysis requirements, especially those related

to the value of EI used in analysis (CAN 10.11.2.2). If the program assumptions are

not satisfactory for a particular member, the user can explicitly specify values of

and .

sx

sy

All compression members are designed using the factored axial load, P , from the

analysis and a magnified factored moment, M . The magnified moment is computed as,

u

M = M ,

c

(CAN 10.11.6)

where M is the column maximum end moment obtained from elastic analysis after considering minimum eccentricity and lateral drift effect, and M is the maximum moment occurring either at the end or at an interior point within the span of

the column. The moment magnification factor, , for moments not causing

sidesway associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by

2

=

b

(CAN 10.11.6.1)

= 0.65 ,

P =

c

1.0 , where

EI

,

( kL)

2

EI is associated with a particular column direction given by the larger of:

66

Column Design

74

EI =

=

d

0.2 E I

c

+E I

s

1+

se

or

c

,

Maximum factored total load moment

C = 0.6 + 0.4

m

M

0.4 ,

M

a

(CAN 10.0)

(CAN 10.11.6.3)

M and M are the moments at the ends of the column, and M is numerically larger than M . M M is positive for single curvature bending and

negative for double curvature bending. The above expression of C is

valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports. If transverse load is present on the span, or the length is overwritten, or for any

other case, C =1. C can be overwritten by the user on an element by element basis.

a

The magnification factor, , must be a positive number and greater than one.

Therefore P must be less than P . If P is found to be greater than or equal to

P , a failure condition is declared.

b

The above calculations use the unsupported length of the column. The two unsupported lengths are l and l corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element, respectively. See Figure III-4. These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions.

22

33

As a measure of the stress condition of the column, a capacity ratio is calculated.

The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column.

Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the moment

magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain P , M ,and M .

The point (P , M , M ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in

Figure III-3. If the point lies within the interaction volume, the column capacity is

adequate; however, if the point lies outside the interaction volume, the column is

overstressed.

u

ux

ux

uy

uy

This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location

of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined by three-

Column Design

75

67

dimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface.

OL

See Figure III-3. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio

.

OC

If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is

stressed to capacity.

If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate.

If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed.

The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling

P , M ,and M set and associated load combination number.

u

ux

uy

If the reinforcing area is not defined, SAP2000 computes the reinforcement that

will give an interaction ratio of unity.

The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and

minor directions of the column. In designing the shear reinforcing for a particular

column for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction, the following steps are involved:

Determine the factored forces acting on the section, P andV . Note that P is

needed for the calculation of V .

u

c

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the

above-mentioned steps.

In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame, the forces for a particular load combination, namely,

the column axial force, P , and the column shear force, V , in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the SAP2000 analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.

u

68

Column Design

76

In the shear design of Ductile moment resisting frames (seismic design) the

following are checked in addition to the requirement for the ordinary moment

resisting frames. In the design of Ductile moment resisting concrete frames, the

design shear force, V , in a particular direction is also calculated from the probable moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force

acting on the column.

u

For each load combination, the factored axial load, P , is calculated. Then, the

positive and negative moment capacities, M + and M , of the column in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force P is calculated using the

uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction. The design shear

force, V , is then given by

u

V +V

p

(CAN 21.7.2.1)

D+ L

where, V is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite

directions. Therefore, V is the maximum of V 1 and V 2 , where

p

V1=

M +M

L

M +M

, where

L

P2

M +, M

I

, and

the column using a steel yield stress value of f

and no factors,

y

M +, M

J

the column using a steel yield stress value of f

and no factors, and

y

the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads.

For most of the columns, it is zero.

D

For Nominal moment resisting frames (seismic), the design shear force is

taken to be the maximum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and

factored shear force. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity

is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Ductile mo-

Column Design

77

69

ment resisting frames, except that is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (CAN

21.1). The factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors.

Given the design force set P andV , the shear force carried by the concrete,V , is

calculated as follows:

u

u

f b d

V = 0.2

c

(CAN 11.3.4.1)

where is taken as 1 for normal weight concrete. For other types of sections

b d is replaced by A , the effective shear area which is shown in Figure V-2.

w

cv

u

P

f 1+

0.6 f A

V = 0.2

c

b d.

(CAN 11.3.4.2)

u

P

f 1 + 3

A f

V = 0.2

c

b d .

(CAN 11.3.4.3)

For Ductile moment resisting frames, the shear strength at any beam or column

section is taken as zero if axial force is tensile or compression is very small.

This is given as

V = 0 if P 0.10 f A .

c

Given V and V , the required shear reinforcement for a spacing s is given by

u

A =

v

(V V )s

.

f d

u

(CAN 11.3.6.1)

ys

s

V 0.8

s

70

f b d.

c

(CAN 11.3.6.6)

Column Design

78

The maximum of all the calculated A values obtained from each load combination

are reported for the major and minor directions of the column along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination label.

v

d'

DIRECTION

OF SHEAR

FORCE

Acv

RECTANGULAR

d'

DIRECTION

OF SHEAR

FORCE

A cv

d'

DIRECTION

OF SHEAR

FORCE

Acv

CIRCULAR

Figure V-2

Shear Stress Area, A

cv

The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based

purely upon shear strength consideration. Any minimum stirrup requirements to

satisfy spacing and/or volumetric requirements must be investigated independently

of the program by the user.

Column Design

79

71

Beam Design

In the design of concrete beams, SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas

of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments, and shears, load combination factors and other criteria described below. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check stations along the beam

span.

All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Effects due

to any axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion that may exist in the beams

must be investigated independently by the user.

The beam design procedure involves the following steps:

Design beam flexural reinforcement

Design beam shear reinforcement

The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at a user defined number of

design stations along the beam span. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the

major moment of a particular beam for a particular section, the following steps are

involved:

Determine the maximum factored moments

Determine the reinforcing steel

In the design of flexural reinforcement of ductile, nominal, or ordinary moment resisting concrete frame beams, the factored moments for each load combination at a

particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for

different load cases with the corresponding load factors.

The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive M and maximum

negative M factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.

+

Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In

such cases the beam may be designed as a Rectangular- or T-beam.

72

Beam Design

80

In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added when

the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the grade of concrete.

The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown

in Figure V-3 (CAN 10.2). Furthermore it is assumed that the compression carried

by concrete is less than that which can be carried at the balanced condition (CAN

10.3.2). When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced

condition, the area of compression reinforcement is calculated on the assumption

that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension

reinforcement.

The design procedure used by SAP2000, for both rectangular and flanged sections

(L- and T-beams) is summarized below. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial

force does not exceed 0.15 f A (CAN 10.3.3), hence all the beams are designed

for major direction flexure and shear only.

c

In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M , (i.e. designing top or

bottom steel) the depth of the compression block is given by a, where,

u

a= d

2 M

0.85 f b

c

where the value of is 0.60 (CAN 9.3.2) in the above and following equations.

See Figure V-3. Also and c are calculated as follows:

c

0.08( f - 30)

, 0.65 0.85 , and

10

= 0.85 -

c =

b

600

600 + f

d.

(CAN 10.2.7)

(CAN 10.3.3)

1

A =

s

M

.

a

f d

2

u

Beam Design

81

73

This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive, or at the top if M is

negative.

u

1

a = c .

b

(CAN 10.3.2)

C = 0.85 f ba , and

c

(CAN 10.2.7)

M

=C d .

2

b

uc

M

us

=M M

u

uc

= 0.003

0.85f'c

Cs

A's

d'

a=

As

(i) BEAM

SECTION

Ts

(ii) STRAIN

DIAGRAM

Figure V-3

Design of a Rectangular Beam Section

74

Beam Design

82

Tc

(iii) STRESS

DIAGRAM

1c

So the required compression steel is given by

M

, where

f ( d d )

A =

us

f = 0.003 E

s

c d

.

c

(ACI 10.2.4)

The required tensile steel for the balancing the compression in concrete is

M

A =

uc

a

f ( d )

2

s1

, and

M

.

f ( d d )

A =

us

s2

Therefore, the total tensile reinforcement, A = A + A , and total compression reinforcement is A . A is to be placed at bottom and A is to be

placed at top if M is positive, and vice versa.

s

s1

s2

In designing for a factored negative moment, M , (i.e. designing top steel), the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above, i.e., no T-Beam data is to be

used. If M > 0, the depth of the compression block is given by (see Figure V-4).

u

a= d

d

2

2M

.

0.85 f b

u

a = c .

b

done for the rectangular section design. However, in this case the width of the

compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis. Whether

compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > a .

s

If a > d , calculation for A is done in two parts. The first part is for balancing

the compressive force from the flange, C , and the second part is for balancing

the compressive force from the web, C . As shown in Figure V-4,

s

Beam Design

83

75

C = 0.85 f ( b b )d .

c

Therefore, A =

C

f

s1

u

given by

M

= C d .

2

s

uf

u

uw

= M -M .

u

uf

The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d, for which the depth of

the compression block is recalculated as

a = d

1

d

2

2M

.

0.85 f b

uw

bf

= 0.003

ds

d'

fs'

As'

0.85f'c

0.85f'c

Cs

Cf

c

d

Cw

As

Ts

Tw

bw

(i) BEAM

SECTION

(ii) STRAIN

DIAGRAM

Figure V-4

Design of a T-Beam Section

76

Beam Design

84

(iii) STRESS

DIAGRAM

Tf

If a a , the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by

1

s2

M

, and

a

f d

uw

A = A +A .

s

s1

s2

If a > a , compression reinforcement is required (CAN 10.3.2) and is calculated as follows:

1

C = 0.85 f ba , and

c

(CAN 10.2.7)

M

= C d .

2

b

uc

M

us

= M

uw

uc

A =

s

M

, where

f ( d d )

us

f = 0.003 E

s

c d

.

c

(CAN 10.2.4)

A =

s2

uc

a

f ( d )

2

, and

A =

s3

M

.

f ( d d )

us

Beam Design

85

77

Total tensile reinforcement, A = A + A + A , and total compression reinforcement is A . A is to be placed at bottom and A is to be

placed at top.

s

s1

s2

s3

The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an ordinary

moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two limits

A

s

1.4

b d , or

f

(CAN 10.5.1)

4

A

3

(CAN 10.5.2)

A

s

s ( required )

For Ductile moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam design

should satisfy the following additional conditions (see also Table V-2 for comprehensive listing):

The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both at the top

and bottom. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than

.

A

s ( min)

s(min)

1.4

b d

f

(CAN 21.3.2.1)

A 0.025 b d .

s

(CAN 21.3.2.1)

At any end (support) of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity (i.e. associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the beam negative

moment capacity (i.e. associated with the top steel) at that end (CAN 21.3.2.2).

Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any

of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations

(CAN 21.3.2.2).

For Nominal moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam design

would satisfy the following conditions:

78

Beam Design

86

At any support of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity would not be

less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (CAN 21.9.2.1).

Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any

of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations

(CAN 21.9.2.1).

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at user defined

number of stations along the beam span. In designing the shear reinforcement for a

particular beam for a particular loading combination at a particular station due to

the beam major shear, the following steps are involved:

Determine the factored shear force, V .

u

c

For Ductile and Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear design of the

beams is based on the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members, respectively.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the

above-mentioned steps.

In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame, the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated

shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors.

In the design of Ductile moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design),

however, the shear force,V , is calculated from the probable moment capacities

of each end of the beam, and the gravity shear forces. The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacity is the

same as that described for a column in section Column Design on page 69.

See also Table V-2 for more details.

u

u

V =V + V

u

(CAN 21.7.2.1)

D+ L

Beam Design

87

79

where, V is the shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions. Therefore, V is the maximum of V 1 and V 2 , where

p

V1=

M +M

L

M +M

, where

L

P2

M

I

, and

in tension, using a steel yield stress value

of f and no factors,

y

M+

J

steel in tension, using a steel yield stress

value of f and no factors,

y

M+

I

steel in tension, using a steel yield stress

value of f and no factors,

y

M J

in tension, using a steel yield stress value

of f and no factors, and

y

The overstrength factor is always taken as 1.25 for Ductile moment resisting

frames (CAN 21.1). V + is the contribution of shear force from the load inspan distribution of gravity loads.

D

In the design of Nominal moment resisting frames (seismic), the design shear

force in beams is taken to be the maximum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and factored shear force. The procedure for calculating nominal

moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment

capacity for Ductile moment resisting frames, except that is taken equal to 1

rather than 1.25 (CAN 21.1). The factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors. The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting frame, is also the same as that for columns,

which is described earlier in section Column Design on page 70. The value of

V + is based on the span load. See also Table V-2 for details.

D

80

Beam Design

88

Type of

Check/

Design

Ordinary Moment

Resisting Frames

(non-Seismic)

Frames

(Seismic)

Ductile Moment

Resisting Frames

(Seismic)

Column

Check

(interaction)

NLDH Combinations

NLDH Combinations

NLDH Combinations

Column

Design

(Interaction)

NLDH Combinations

1% < < 8%

NLDH Combinations

1% < < 8%

NLDH Combinations

= 1.0

1% < < 6%

Column

Shears

NLD Combinations

Beam

Design

Flexure

NLDH Combinations

Column Capacity Shear (V p )

= 1.0 and = 1.0

+

M uEND

Beam Min.

Moment

Override

Check

No Requirement

M uSPAN

Beam Design

Shear

+

M uSPAN

NLDH Combinations

{

{

NLDH Combinations

0.025

14

.

fy

NLDH Combinations

1

M uEND

3

1

max M u+ , M u

5

1

max M u+ , M u

5

Column Capacity Shear (V p )

}END

}END

NLDH Combinations

Beam Capacity Shear (V p )

with = 1.0 and = 1.0

plus VD + L

1

M uEND

2

1

max M u+ , M u

4

1

max M u+ , M u

4

+

M uEND

+

M uSPAN

M uSPAN

{

{

}END

}END

NLDH Combinations

Beam Capacity Shear (V p )

with = 1.25 and = 1.0

plus VD+L

Vc = 0

Table V-2

Comparison of Ordinary, Ductile, and Nominal Moment Resisting Frame Design

Beam Design

89

81

The allowable shear capacity for ordinary and nominal moment resisting frames is

given by

V = 0.2 f b d

c

(CAN 11.3.4.1)

c

Given V and V , the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is calculated

as

u

A =

v

(V V ) s

.

f d

u

(CAN 11.3.6.1)

ys

s

V < 0.8 f b d .

s

(CAN 11.3.6.6)

The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are based

purely upon shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to

satisfy spacing and volumetric requirements must be investigated independently of

the program by the user.

82

Beam Design

90

C h a p t e r VI

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure

that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the British limit state design code BS

8110 (BSI 1985). Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table VI-1.

The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code is

based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second

units unless otherwise noted.

The design loading combinations define the various factored combinations of the

load cases for which the structure is to be checked. The design loading combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety, (BS 2.4.1.3). If a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live

load (LL) only, the design will need only one loading combination, namely 1.4 DL

+ 1.6 LL. However, in addition to the dead load and live load, if the structure is subjected to wind (WL) and/or earthquake (EL) loads, and considering that those loads

f

91

83

A

A

A

A

A

a

b

b

cv

s

s

sc

sv

b

b

C

d

d

E

E

e

c

s

min

cu

f

f

f

h

h

s

y

yv

Area of tension reinforcement, mm2

Area of compression reinforcement, mm2

Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, mm2

Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm2

Depth of compression block, mm

Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm

Shorter section dimension, mm

Shorter effective depth of biaxially bent column, mm

Width or effective width of flange, mm

Average web width of a flanged beam, mm

Compression force, N

Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm

Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm

Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa

Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa

Minimum or nominal eccentricity, mm

Characteristic cube strength at 28 days, MPa

Compressive stress in a beam compression steel, MPa

Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa

Characteristic strength of link reinforcement, MPa (< 460 MPa)

Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm

Flange thickness, mm

M

Maximum

for a singly reinforced concrete section taken as 0.156

bd f

by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10%

Shear strength enhancement factor

u

cu

l

l

e

0

cu

25]

1/ 3

Clear height between end restraints, mm

Table VI-1

List of Symbols Used in the BS code

84

92

M

M ,M

M

M

M ,M

N

s

T

V

v

v

v

v ,v

x

x

z

add

i

c

c

x

bal

m

c

s

Smaller and larger end moments in a slender column, N-mm

Maximum additional moment column, N-mm

Initial moment at the point of maximum additional moment, N-mm

Applied moments about the major and minor axes of a column, N-mm

Ultimate axial load, N

Spacing of links, mm

Tension force, N

Shear force at ultimate design load, N

Shear stress, MPa

Design ultimate shear stress resistance of a concrete beam, MPa

Design concrete shear stress corrected for axial forces, MPa

Design ultimate shear stress of a concrete section, MPa

Neutral axis depth, mm

Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm

Lever arm, mm

Effective length factor

Moment redistribution factor in a member

Partial safety factor for load

Partial safety factor for material strength

Concrete strain

Strain in tension steel

Strain in compression steel

Table VI-1

List of Symbols Used in the BS code (continued)

93

85

are subject to reversals, the following load combinations for ultimate limit state

might have to be considered (BS 2.4.3):

1.4 DL

1.4 DL + 1.6 LL

(BS 2.4.3)

1.0 DL 1.4 WL

1.4 DL 1.4 WL

1.2 DL + 1.2 LL 1.2 WL

(BS 2.4.3)

1.0 DL 1.4 EL

1.4 DL 1.4 EL

1.2 DL + 1.2 LL 1.2 EL

These are the default load combinations. In addition to the above load combinations, the code requires that all buildings should be capable of resisting a notional

design ultimate horizontal load applied at each floor or roof level. The notional load

should be equal to 0.015 times the dead load (BS 3.1.4.2). It is recommended that

the user define additional load cases for considering the notional load in SAP2000.

Live load reduction factors, as allowed by some design codes, can be applied to the

member forces of the live load case on a member-by-member basis to reduce the

contribution of the live load to the factored loading.

Design Strength

The design strength for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial factor of safety, . The values of used in

the program are listed below (BS 2.4.4.1).

m

86

Reinforcement

1.15

axial load

1.50

shear reinforcement

1.25

Design Strength

94

Column Design

The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user, the program

checks the column capacity. However, if the area of reinforcing is not provided by

the user, the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column.

The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves

the following steps:

Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different

concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction surface is

shown in Figure III-1. When the steel is undefined, the program generates the

interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement from 1 to 8 percent (BS 3.12.6.2).

Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading

combination at each station of the column. The target capacity ratio is taken as

one when calculating the required reinforcing area.

Design the column shear reinforcement.

The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

the above-mentioned steps.

The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface.

In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations (BS 3.8.4.1). A typical interaction

diagram is shown in Figure III-1.

The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in

three dimensions on the section of the column (BS 3.4.4.1). See Figure III-2. The

linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, , at the extremity of the

section, to 0.0035 (BS 3.4.4.1).

c

The formulation is based consistently upon the basic principles of ultimate strength

design and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular, square, or circular column

section (BS 3.8.4).

Column Design

95

87

The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity, E and is limited to the design strength the steel, f 1.15

(0.87 f ). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any simplifications

in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the

column (such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder). See Figure VI-1.

s

0.67 fcu/m

c = 0.0035

d'

1

Cs

s1

s2

s3

s4

(i) CONCRETE

SECTION

(ii) STRAIN

DIAGRAM

a = 0.9 x

2

Cs

3

Ts

4

Ts

(iii) STRESS

DIAGRAM

Figure VI-1

Idealized Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section

value of 0.67 f = 0.45 f (BS 3.4.4.1). See Figure VI-1. The interaction algorithm provides corrections to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the

reinforcement in the compression zone.

cu

cu

The column capacity is checked for each loading combination at each output station

of each column. In checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular location, the following steps are involved:

88

Column Design

96

Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and

the specified load combination factors to give N ,V ,V , M ,and M .

x

Determine the additional moments due to slender column effect. Compute moments due to minimum eccentricity.

Determine total design moments by adding the corresponding additional moments to the factored moments obtained from the analysis. Determine whether

the point, defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set, lies within

the interaction volume.

The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

the above-mentioned steps.

Each load combination is defined with a set of load factors corresponding to the

load cases. The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to the load cases, giving N ,V ,V , M and

M .

x

The determination of additional moments depends on whether the frame is

braced or unbraced against side-sway (BS 3.8.1.5). For unbraced columns

additional moment is automatically considered in the P- analysis. But for

braced columns, further calculation is required for stability of individual column

members.

Braced Column

The additional moment in a braced column in a particular plane is the product of the

axial load and the lateral deflection of the column in that plane (BS 3.8.3),

M

add

=Na ,

(BS 3.8.3.1)

where, a is the deflection at the ultimate limit state which is obtained from

u

a = Kh

u

and

(BS 3.8.3.1)

1 l

=

.

2000 b

e

(BS 3.8.3.1)

Column Design

97

89

l is the effective length in the plane under consideration. It is obtained from

e

l =l ,

e

(BS 3.8.1.6.1)

where is the effective length factor, and l the unsupported length corresponding to instability in the major or minor direction of the element, l or l in

Figure III-4. In calculating the value of the effective length, the factor is conservatively taken as 1. However, SAP2000 allows the user to override this default value.

0

h is also the dimension of the column in the plane of bending considered, and

K is the correction factor to the deflection to take care of the influence of the

axial force and K is conservatively taken as 1.

SAP2000 then calculates the total design moments by combining the factored moments obtained from analysis and the additional moments. If M and M

( M > M ) are the initial end moments in a column member in a particular plane,

then the maximum design moment for the column is taken as the greatest of the following:

1

(BS 3.8.3.2)

M +M

add

M +M

add

Ne

(BS 3.8.3.2)

/2

(BS 3.8.3.2)

(BS 3.8.3.2)

min

where,

M is the initial moment in a column due to design ultimate loads at the point of

maximum additional moment and is given by

i

M = 0.4 M + 0.6 M

i

0.4 M .

2

(BS 3.8.3.2)

M and M are the smaller and the larger end moments respectively. Both moments are assumed to be positive if the column is in single curvature. If the column is in double curvature, M is assumed to be negative.

1

is the minimum eccentricity which is taken as 0.05 times the overall die

mension of the column in the plane of bending considered but not more than 20

mm (BS 3.8.2.4).

min

90

min

h

20 mm

20

(BS 3.8.2.4)

Column Design

98

Unbraced Column

In the case of the unbraced column, it is assumed that the SAP2000 analysis includes P- effects so that the analysis results include the effects of the additional

moments. Therefore, no additional computation is required. That means, moment

magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity. However,

it is recommended that for P- analysis a factor be used to obtain a P equivalent to

1.2 DL + 1.2 LL (White and Hajjar 1991).

Also, the minimum eccentricity requirement are satisfied so the design moment

should at least be

M

Ne

min

(BS 3.8.3.2)

In biaxial bending the algorithm ensures that the eccentricity exceeds the minimum

about both the axes simultaneously.

min

As a measure of the stress condition of the column, a capacity ratio is calculated.

The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column.

Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the design

forces N , M and M are obtained according to the previous subsections. The

point (N , M M ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure

III-3. If the point lies within the interaction volume, the column capacity is adequate; however, if the point lies outside the interaction volume, the column is overstressed.

x,

x,

This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location

of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface.

OL

See Figure III-3. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio

.

OC

If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is

stressed to capacity.

If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate.

Column Design

99

91

If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed.

The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling

N , M ,and M set and associated load combination number.

x

If the reinforcing area is not defined, SAP2000 computes the reinforcement that

will give an interaction ratio of unity.

The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and

minor directions of the column. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular column for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular

direction, the following steps are involved (BS 3.8.4.6):

Calculate the design shear stress from

v=

V

, A = bd , where

A

(BS 3.4.5.2)

cv

cv

v 0.8 f

cu

, and

(BS 3.4.5.12)

v 5 N/mm2 .

(BS 3.4.5.12)

cu

If axial load is tensile then the shear resistance of concrete is totally neglected,

i.e., the design shear stress is assumed to be resisted by the links whose area per

unit length is given by

A

s

sv

vb

0.87 f

.

yv

If axial load is compressive and M N < 0.75h, where h is the dimension of the

column in the direction of shear, provide minimum links given by (BS 3.8.4.6)

A

s

sv

v

where f

92

0.4 b

,

0.87 f

(BS 3.4.5.3)

yv

yv

Column Design

100

If axial load is compressive and M N 0.75 h, calculate the design concrete

shear stress from (BS 3.8.4.6)

N Vd

, with

A M

v = v + 0.75

c

(BS 3.4.5.12)

v =

,

bd d

(BS 3.4.5.4)

where,

k is the enhancement factor for support compression and taken conservatively as 1,

(BS 3.4.5.8)

1

f 3

k =

,

25

cu

(BS 3.4.5.4)

= 1.25 ,

0.15

100 A

3,

bd

s

(BS 3.4.5.4)

400

1,

d

(BS 3.4.5.4)

Vd

1,

M

(BS 3.4.5.12)

cu

40 N/mm2, and

(BS 3.4.5.4)

s

c

A

s

sv

0.4 b

,

0.87 f

(BS 3.4.5.3)

yv

c

A

s

sv

where f

( v - v ) b

,

0.87 f

c

(BS 3.4.5.3)

yv

yv

Column Design

101

93

Beam Design

In the design of concrete beams, SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas

of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments, and shears, load combination factors, and other criteria described below. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user defined number of check stations along the beam

span.

All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Effects due

to any axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion that may exist in the beams

must be investigated independently by the user.

The beam design procedure involves the following steps:

Design beam flexural reinforcement

Design beam shear reinforcement

The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at a user defined number of

check stations along the beam span. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the

major moment for a particular beam at a particular section, the following steps are

involved:

Determine the maximum factored moments

Determine the reinforcing steel

In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete frame beams, the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load

factors.

The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations at that section.

Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In

such cases, the beam may be designed as a rectangular section, or T-Beam effects

may be included.

94

Beam Design

102

In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added when

the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the grade of concrete.

The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown

in Figure VI-2 (BS 3.4.4.1). Furthermore it is assumed that moment redistribution

in the member does not exceed 10% (i.e. 0.9) (BS 3.4.4.4). The code also

places a limitation on the neutral axis depth, x d 0.5, to safeguard against nonductile failures (BS 3.4.4.4). In addition, the area of compression reinforcement is

calculated on the assumption that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum

permitted value.

b

The design procedure used by SAP2000, for both rectangular and flanged sections

(L- and T-beams) is summarized below. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial

force does not exceed 0.1 f A (BS 3.4..4.1), hence all the beams are designed for

major direction flexure and shear only.

cu

, is

For rectangular beams, the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam, M

obtained first for a section. The reinforcing steel area is determined based on

whether M is greater than, less than, or equal to M

. See Figure VI-2.

single

single

M

= K f bd , where

2

single

(BS 3.4.4.4)

cu

K = 0.156 .

If M M

A =

s

single

s

M

, where

(0.87 f ) z

(BS 3.4.4.4)

K

z = d 0.5 + 0.25 0.95d , and

0.9

K=

M

.

f bd

2

cu

Beam Design

103

95

This is the top steel if the section is under negative moment and the bottom

steel if the section is under positive moment.

0.67fcu/m

= 0.0035

Cs

fs'

A's

d'

a=0.9x

As

Tc

Ts

s

(ii) STRAIN

DIAGRAM

(i) BEAM

SECTION

(iii) STRESS

DIAGRAM

Figure VI-2

Design of Rectangular Beam Section

If M > M

A =

s

single

s

M M

single

f ( d - d )

where d is the depth of the compression steel from the concrete compression

face, and

f = 0.87 f

s

2d

f = 700 1

d

s

96

if

if

d

1

>

d

2

Beam Design

104

1

2

1 - 800 ,

1 - 800 .

This is the bottom steel if the section is under negative moment. From equilibrium, the area of tension reinforcement is calculated as

A =

s

single

(0.87 f ) z

+ A , where

(BS 3.4.4.4)

z = 0.775d .

Design as a T-Beam

(i) Flanged beam under negative moment

The contribution of the flange to the strength of the beam is ignored. The design

procedure is therefore identical to the one used for rectangular beams except that in

the corresponding equations b is replaced by b . See Figure VI-3.

w

With the flange in compression, the program analyzes the section by considering

alternative locations of the neutral axis. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. Based on this assumption, the program calculates the exact

depth of the neutral axis. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width b . If the stress block

extends beyond the flange width, then the contribution of the web to the flexural

strength of the beam is taken into account. See Figure VI-3.

f

Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange, the normalized moment is computed

as

K=

M

.

f b d

2

cu

K

z = d 0.5 + 0.25 0.95d ,

0.9

x=

1

( d - z ) , and

0.45

Beam Design

105

97

a = 0.9 x .

If a h , the subsequent calculations for A are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular section design. However, in this case the

width of the compression flange, b , is taken as the width of the beam, b, for

analysis. Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether

K > K .

s

If a > h , calculation for A is done in two parts. The first part is for balancing

the compressive force from the flange, C , and the second part is for balancing

the compressive force from the web, C , as shown in Figure VI-3.

s

M = 0.45 f ( b - b ) h ( d - 0.5 h ) ,

cu

M = M - M , and

w

bf

= 0.0035

hf

d'

fs'

As'

0.67 fcu/m

0.67 fcu/m

Cs

Cf

x

d

Cw

As

Ts

Tw

bw

(i) BEAM

SECTION

(ii) STRAIN

DIAGRAM

Figure VI-3

Design of a T-Beam Section

98

Beam Design

106

(iii) STRESS

DIAGRAM

Tf

the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by

M

K =

w

f b d

cu

The area of steel is calculated as the sum of two parts, one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.

w

A =

s

0.87 f ( d - 0.5 h )

y

M

, where

0.87 f z

w

K

z = d 0.5 + 0.25 0.95d .

0.9

w

M

= 0.156 f b d .

2

uw

cu

M M . The compression reinforcement is computed as

w

uw

A =

s

M -M

,

f ( d - d )

w

uw

where, d is the depth of the compression steel from the concrete compression

face, and

f = 0.87 f ,

s

if

2d

f = 700 1 , if

d

s

1

2

1

800 , and

1 - 800 .

d

1

>

d

2

A =

s

1

0.87 f

[0.45 f

cu

( b - b ) h + 0.156 f b d

w

cu

) (0.777 d )] + A

Beam Design

107

99

The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and

minor directions of the column. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular loading combination due to shear forces in a particular direction, the following steps are involved (BS 3.4.5):

Calculate the design shear stress as

v=

V

, A = bd , where

A

(BS 3.4.5.2)

cv

cv

v 0.8 f

, and

cu

(BS 3.4.5.2)

v 5 N/mm2 .

(BS 3.4.5.2)

1

v =

,

bd d

(BS 3.4.5.4)

where,

k is the enhancement factor for support compression, and is conservatively taken as 1,

(BS 3.4.5.8)

1

f 3

k =

1 , and

25

cu

(BS 3.4.5.4)

= 1.25 .

m

0.15

100 A

3,

bd

s

(BS 3.4.5.4)

400

1 , and

d

f

cu

(BS 3.4.5.4)

s

100

Beam Design

108

(BS 3.4.5.4)

If v v + 0.4, provide minimum links defined by

c

A

s

sv

0.4 b

,

0.87 f

(BS 3.4.5.3)

yv

c

A

s

sv

where f

(v - v ) b

,

0.87 f

c

(BS 3.4.5.3)

yv

yv

Beam Design

109

101

110

C h a p t e r VII

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure

that is used by SAP2000 when the user selects the 1992 Eurocode 2 (CEN 1992).

Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table VII-1.

The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. However, the program

provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the

design of most building type structures.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code is

based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second

units unless otherwise noted.

The design loading combinations define the various factored combinations of the

load cases for which the structure is to be checked. The design loading combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety. If a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only,

the design will need only one loading combination, namely 1.35 DL + 1.5 LL.

111

103

A

A

A

A

A

A

a

b

b

b

d

d

E

E

e

e

Area of section for shear resistance, mm2

Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member, mm2

Area of tension reinforcement, mm2

Area of compression reinforcement, mm2

Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm2

Depth of compression block, mm

Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm

Width or effective width of flange, mm

Average web width of a flanged beam, mm

Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm

Effective depth of compression reinforcement, mm

Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa

Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa

Eccentricity of axial load in a column, mm

Minimum or nominal eccentricity, mm

tot

cd

c

cv

g

s

s

sw

c

s

min

f

, MPa

ck

c

ck

yd

f

Design yield strength of reinforcing steel =

, MPa

yk

f

f

f

f

f

h

h

l

yk

y

ywd

ywk

Compressive stress in a beam compression steel, MPa

Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa

Design strength of shear reinforcement, MPa

Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa

Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm

Flange thickness, mm

Effective height of a column, mm

Table VII-1

List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2

104

112

l

M

M ,M

M ,M

M

M

col

Rd

Sd

Design moment at a section, N-mm

Smaller and larger end moments in a slender column, N-mm

Applied moments about the major and minor axes of a column, N-mm

Design moment of resistance of a section N-mm

Moment at a section obtained from analysis, N-mm

M

Normalized design moment,

bd f

2

cd

N

s

V

V

V

V ,V

V

Rd 1

Rd 2

Sd

x

wd

c

s

s

m

s

cp

lim

Spacing of links, mm

Design shear resistance from concrete alone, N

Design limiting shear resistane of a cross-section, N

Shear force at ultimate design load, N

Shear force at ultimate design load in two directions, N

Shear force from reinforcement, N

Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading

Effective length factor,

Enhancement factor of shear resistance for concentrated load

Partial safety factor for load

Partial safety factor for concrete strength

Partial safety factor for material strength

Partial safety factor for steel strength

Redistribution factor

Concrete strain

Strain in tension steel

Strain in compression steel

Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing,

Out of plumbness factor

Tension reinforcement ratio, A bd

Effective average compressive stress in concrete column, MPa

Normalized tensile steel ratio, A f

f bd

Normalized compression steel ratio, A f

f bd

Normalized limiting tensile steel ratio

s

yd

cd

yd

cd

Table VII-1

List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2 (continued)

Design Load Combinations

113

105

However, in addition to the dead load and live load, if the structure is subjected to

wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) forces, and considering that wind and earthquake

forces are subject to reversals, the following load combinations might have to be

considered (EC2 2.3.3):

1.35 DL

1.35 DL + 1.50 LL

(EC2 2.3.3)

1.35 DL 1.50 WL

1.00 DL 1.50 WL

1.35 DL + 1.35 LL 1.35 WL

(EC2 2.3.3)

1.00 DL 1.00 EL

1.00 DL + 1.5*0.3 LL 1.0 EL

(EC2 2.3.3)

These are the default load combinations. These default loading combinations are

produced for persistent and transient design situations (EC2 2.2.1.2) by combining

load due to dead, live, wind, and earthquake loads according to the simplified formula (EC2 2.3.3.1) for ultimate limit states.

In addition to the above load combinations, the code requires that all buildings

should be capable of resisting a notional design ultimate horizontal load applied at

each floor or roof level (EC2 2.5.1.3). It is recommended that the user define additional load cases for considering the notional load in SAP2000.

Live load reduction factors, as allowed by some design codes, can be applied to the

member forces of the live load condition on a member-by-member basis to reduce

the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.

Design Strength

The design strength for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial factor of safety, . The values of used in

the program are listed below. These values are recommended by the code to give an

acceptable level of safety for normal structures under regular design situations

(EC2 2.3.3.2). For accidental and earthquake situations, the recommended values

are less than the tabulated value. The user should consider those separately.

m

Considering the partial safety factors for the materials, the design strengths of concrete and steel are given below:

106

Design Strength

114

yd

yk

, and

f

, where,

= Design cylinder concrete strength =

= Partial safety factor for steel = 1.15, and

= Partial safety factor for concrete = 1.5.

= Design yield strength of reinforcing steel =

yk

cd

ck

c

ck

s

c

Column Design

The user may define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. If the area of reinforcing is provided by the user, the program

checks the column capacity. However, if the area of reinforcing is not provided by

the user, the program calculates the amount of reinforcing required for the column.

The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves

the following steps:

Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different

concrete sections types of the model (EC2 4.3.1.2). A typical biaxial interaction

surface is shown in Figure III-1. When the steel is undefined, the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement from 1

to 8 percent (EC2 5.4.1.2.1).

Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading

combination at each station of the column. The target capacity ratio is taken as

one when calculating the required reinforcing area.

Design the column shear reinforcing.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with the

above-mentioned steps.

The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface.

In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations as shown in Figure III-1. The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. See Figure III-2.

Column Design

115

107

The formulation is based consistently upon the basic principles of ultimate strength

design and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular, square, or circular column

section. The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, , at the ex3

tremity of the section to 0.0035 and at a depth of d from the most compressed face

7

to 0.0020 (EC2 4.3.1.2). See Figure VII-1.

c

The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity, E , and is limited to the design yield strength the steel, f (EC2

4.2.3.3.3). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any simplifications

in the manner in which the area of steel is distributed over the cross section of the

column (such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder).

s

yd

fcd = fck/c

c = 0.0035

d'

1

Cs

s1

3h/7

a=0.8x

2

Cs

s2

s3

s4

(i) CONCRETE

SECTION

(ii) STRAIN

DIAGRAM

3

Ts

4

Ts

(iii) STRESS

DIAGRAM

Figure VII-1

Idealized Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section

value of f , where f is the design value of concrete cylinder compressive

strength and is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression. is

generally assumed to be 0.80 (EC2 4.2.1.3). See Figure VII-1. The interaction algorithm provides corrections to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the

reinforcement in the compression zone.

cd

108

cd

Column Design

116

The column capacity is checked for each loading combination of each column. In

checking a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular location, the following steps are involved:

Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and

the specified load combination factors to give N, V , V , M , and M .

x

Determine the code total moments due to slender column effect. Compute moments due to minimum eccentricity.

Check the column capacity ratio or compute the reinforcement for the column

for resisting the factored moments, the code total moments, and the moments

from minimum eccentricity.

The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

the above-mentioned steps.

Each load combination is defined with a set of load factors corresponding to the

load cases. The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to the load cases, giving N, V , V , M , and

M .

x

The determination of code total moments depends on whether the frame is braced

or unbraced against side-sway.

Braced Column

Eurocode specifies that for braced columns the total moment should be computed

from a set of eccentricities, such that

e

tot

= e + e + e , where

a

e = 0.4

0

e =

a

(EC2 4.3.5.6.2)

M

M

+ 0.6

N

N

1

0.4

l

,

2

0

M

, where

N

2

M M , (EC2 4.3.5.6.2)

1

(EC2 4.3.5.4)

is taken as 1/100, however the user can override this value (EC2 2.5.1.3),

Column Design

117

109

l is the effective length of a column in a given plane and is obtained from

0

l = l

0

col

(EC2 4.3.5.3.5)

where is the effective length factor depending on the end conditions and

resistance against side-sway, is conservatively taken as 1 for braced

frames, and l is the unsupported length corresponding to instability in

the major or minor direction of the element, l and l in Figure III-4.

col

k k l f

e =

yd

45

. E d

(EC2 4.3.5.6.3)

0

for 15,

20

1

1

= l

r ,

G

G

k =

2

N

N

ud

ud

N

N

sd

1 , k is taken as 1.0.

2

bal

M

Rd

Rd

> N

Sd

min

, where

(EC2 4.3.5.5.3)

= The axial force obtained from analysis, and

Sd

is the minimum eccentricity which is taken as 0.05 times the overall die

mension of the column in the plane of bending and is given by

min

min

= h 20 .

(EC2 4.3.5.5.3)

Finally the design moments are computed from the maximum of the three,

M

Rd

= max( N e

Rd

tot ,

N e

Rd

min ,

factored

).

(EC2 4.3.5.6)

In biaxial bending, the program calculates the design moments at any station about

two axes.

110

Column Design

118

Unbraced Column

In the case of the unbraced column, it is assumed that the SAP2000 analysis includes P- effects so that the analysis results include the effects of the additional

moments. Therefore, any additional computation is not required. That means, the

moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity.

However, it is recommended that a factor be used to obtain a P equivalent to 1.35

DL + 1.35 LL for P- analysis (White and Hajjar 1991).

In addition, the minimum eccentricity requirement needs to be satisfied so that the

design moment should at least be

M

Rd

Ne

min

(EC2 4.3.5.5.3)

In biaxial bending the algorithm ensures that the eccentricity exceeds the minimum

about both the axes simultaneously.

min

As a measure of the stress condition of the column, a capacity ratio is calculated.

The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column.

Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the design

forces N , M and M are obtained according to the previous subsections. The

point (N , M M ) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure

III-3. If the point lies within the interaction volume, the column capacity is adequate; however, if the point lies outside the interaction volume, the column is overstressed.

x,

x,

This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location

of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface.

OL

See Figure III-3. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio

.

OC

If OL = OC (or CR=1) the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is

stressed to capacity.

If OL < OC (or CR<1) the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate.

Column Design

119

111

If OL > OC (or CR>1) the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed.

The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling

N , M ,and M set and associated load combination number.

x

will give an interaction ratio of unity.

The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and

minor directions of the column. The assumptions in designing the shear reinforcement are as follows:

The column sections are assumed to be prismatic. The effect of any variation of

width in the column section on the concrete shear capacity is neglected.

The effect on the concrete shear capacity of any concentrated or distributed

load in the span of the column between two beams is ignored. Also, the effect of

the direct support on the columns provided by the beams is ignored.

All shear reinforcement is provided through shear reinforcement which are perpendicular to the longitudinal reinforcement.

The effect of any torsion is neglected for the design of shear reinforcement.

In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular column for a particular loading

combination due to shear forces in a particular direction, the following steps of the

standard method are involved (EC2 4.3.2.1):

Obtain the design value of the applied shear forceV

sis results.

V

Sd

=V

or V

Sd

Calculate the design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement.

V

Rd 1

= [

Rd

k (1.2 + 40 ) + 0.15

1

cp

](b d ) ,

w

where

(EC2 4.3.2.3)

= enhancement factor for shear resistance for members with concentrated loads located near the face of the support. is taken as 1.

112

Column Design

120

Rd

ctk 0. 05

ctm

= 0.7 f

= 0.3 f

ctm

0.25 f

ctk 0.05

ck

A

0.02 ,

b d

s1

s1

cp

N

A

Sd

Sd

c

Calculate the maximum design shear force that can be carried without crushing

of the notional concrete compressive struts, V .

Rd 2

Rd 2

1 f

(0.9 b d ) , where

2

ck

(EC2 4.3.2.3)

f

0.5 .

200

ck

cp , eff

(EC2 4.3.2.3)

ck

, V

Rd 2

V

Rd 2 , red

cp , eff

Sd

= 1.67 V

Sd

f

A

1

f

cp , eff

Rd 2

yd

s2

cd

Rd 2

, where

(EC2 4.3.2.2)

Column Design

121

113

f

yd

yd

400 MPa,

conservatively taken as zero for a conservative design, and

s2

s2

c

If V V

adequate to carry the shear force.

Sd

Rd 2. red

If V < V

, either the minimum shear reinforcement or the design shear

reinforcement is required.

Sd

Rd 2. red

If V V

force. Only minimum shear reinforcement is required.

Sd

Rd 1

If V > V , the concrete alone is not enough to carry the shear force. Designed shear reinforcement is required. The required shear resistance from

reinforcement, V is given by

Sd

Rd 1

wd

wd

=V

Sd

Rd 1

(EC2 4.3.2.4.3)

The required shear reinforcement per unit length of the column is given by

A

s

sw

v

where, f

V

0.9 d f

ywd

wd

(EC2 4.3.2.4.3)

ywd

Beam Design

In the design of concrete beams, SAP2000 calculates and reports the required areas

of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments, shears, load combination factors, and other criteria described below. The reinforcement requirements

are calculated at a user defined number of check stations along the beam span.

All the beams are only designed for major direction flexure and shear. Effects due

to any axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion that may exist in the beams

must be investigated independently by the user.

The beam design procedure involves the following steps:

Design beam flexural reinforcement

Design beam shear reinforcement

114

Beam Design

122

The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at the design stations along the

beam span. In designing the flexural reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular section, for the beam major moment, the following steps are involved:

Determine the maximum factored moments

Determine the reinforcing steel

In the design of flexural reinforcement, the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive M and maximum negative M

factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.

+

Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In

such cases, the beam may be designed as a rectangular section, or T-Beam effects

may be included.

In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added when

the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the grade of concrete.

The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown

in Figure VII-2 (EC2 4.3.1.2). Furthermore, it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code specified limiting value. The code also

places a limitation on the neutral axis depth, to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 2.5.3.4.2). When the applied moment exceeds M , the area of compression reinforcement is calculated on the assumption that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.

u

The design procedure used by SAP2000, for both rectangular and flanged sections

(L- and T-beams) is summarized below. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial

force does not exceed 0.08 f A (EC2 4.3.1.2), hence all the beams are designed

for major direction flexure and shear only.

ck

Beam Design

123

115

Design as a Rectangular Beam

For rectangular beams, the normalized moment, m, and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforce beam, m , are obtained first. The reinforcing steel area

is determined based on whether m is greater than, less than, or equal to m .

lim

lim

m=

M

bd f

, where

cd

assumed to be 0.80 for assumed rectangular stress block, (EC2 4.2.1.3). See

also page 108 for . The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be

rectangular, with a stress value of f , where f is the design concrete

f

strength and is equal to

. See Figure VII-2.

cd

cd

ck

c

fs'

A's

a=0.8x

As

(ii) STRAIN

DIAGRAM

Figure VII-2

Design of a Rectangular Beam

116

Cs

d'

(i) BEAM

SECTION

fck/c

= 0.0035

Beam Design

124

Ts

Tc

(iii) STRESS

DIAGRAM

Calculate the normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced

beam, m .

lim

x

=

d

lim

lim

x

1 0.4 d

lim

x

where the limiting value of the ratio, , of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate

d

limit state after redistribution to the effective depth, is expressed as a function

of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution, ,

as follows:

x

d

x

d

0.44

, if

1.25

ck

35 ,

(EC2 2.5.3.4.1)

0.56

, if

1.25

ck

> 35 ,

(EC2 2.5.3.4.1)

lim

lim

is assumed to be 1.

If m m , a singly reinforced beam will suffice. Calculate the normalized

steel ratio,

lim

= 1 1 2m .

Calculate the area of tension reinforcement, A , from

s

f bd

A =

.

f

cd

yd

This is the top steel if the section is under negative moment and the bottom

steel if the section is under positive moment.

If m > m , the beam will not suffice as a singly reinforced beam. Both top and

bottom steel are required.

lim

lim

lim

x

= 0.807 ,

d

lim

mm

, and

1 d / d

lim

Beam Design

125

117

=

+ .

lim

follows:

s

f bd

A =

, and

f

cd

yd

f bd

A =

.

f

cd

yd

Design as a T-Beam

(i) Flanged beam under negative moment

The contribution of the flange to the strength of the beam is ignored if the flange is

in the tension side. See Figure VII-3. The design procedure is therefore identical to

the one used for rectangular beams. However, the width of the web, , b is taken as

the width of the beam.

w

With the flange in compression, the program analyzes the section by considering

alternative locations of the neutral axis. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange. Based on this assumption, the program calculates the depth

of the neutral axis. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness

the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width b . If the stress block extends

beyond the flange, additional calculation is required. See Figure VII-3.

f

m=

M

b d f

, where

cd

assumed to be 0.80 for assumed rectangular stress block, (EC2 4.2.1.3). See

also page 108 for . The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be

rectangular, with a stress value of f .

cd

x

Calculate the limiting value of the ratio, , of the neutral axis depth at the

d

ultimate limit state after redistribution to the effective depth,which is expressed

lim

118

Beam Design

126

as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution, , as follows:

x

d

x

d

0.44

, if

1.25

ck

35 ,

(EC2 2.5.3.4.1)

0.56

, if

1.25

ck

> 35 ,

(EC2 2.5.3.4.1)

lim

lim

is assumed to be 1.

bf

= 0.0035

hf

d'

fs'

As'

fck/c

fck/c

Cs

Cf

a = 0.8x

x

d

Cw

As

Ts

Tw

Tf

bw

(i) BEAM

SECTION

(ii) STRAIN

DIAGRAM

(iii) STRESS

DIAGRAM

Figure VII-3

Design of a T-Beam Section

= 1 1 2m .

Calculate the ratio,

x

, as follows:

d

.

=

d 0.807

Beam Design

127

119

x h

, the neutral axis lies within the flange. Calculate the area of

If

d d

tension reinforcement, A , as follows:

f

f b d

A =

.

f

cd

yd

x h

, the neutral axis lies below the flange.

If >

d d

f

s2

A =

( b b ) h f

w

s2

cd

yd

M = A f

2

s2

d

.

2

yd

moment, M = M M , as follows:

r

m =

, and

b d f

lim

x

=

d

cd

x

1 0.4 d

lim

lim

If m m ,

1

lim

= 1 1 2m , and

1

f b d

A =

.

f

cd

s1

yd

If m > m

1

120

lim

m m

,

1 d / d

1

lim

Beam Design

128

lim

x

= 0.807 ,

d

lim

1 =

lim

+ ,

f b d

A =

, and

f

cd

yd

f b d

A =

.

f

cd

s1

yd

A = A +A

s

s1

s2

The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination at various check

stations along the beam span. The assumptions in designing the shear reinforcements are as follows:

The beam sections are assumed to be prismatic. The effect of any variation of

width in the beam section on the concrete shear capacity is neglected.

The effect on the concrete shear capacity of any concentrated or distributed

load in the span of the beam between two columns is ignored. Also, the effect of

the direct support on the beams provided by the columns is ignored.

All shear reinforcements are assumed to be perpendicular to the longitudinal

reinforcement.

The effect of any torsion is neglected for the design of shear reinforcement.

In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular column for a particular loading

combination due to shear forces in a particular direction, the following steps of the

standard method are involved.

Obtain the design value of the applied shear force V

analysis results.

V

Sd

=V

Sd

Beam Design

129

121

Calculate the design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement.

V

= [

Rd 1

Rd

k (1.2 + 40 ) + 0.15

1

cp

](b d )

w

(EC2 4.3.2.3)

Calculate the maximum design shear force that can be carried without crushing

.

of the notional concrete compressive struts, V

Rd 2

Rd 2

1 f

(0.9 b d )

2

ck

(EC2 4.3.2.4.3)

If the effective average stress in concrete

f

,V

is reduced as follows:

is more than 0.4

cp , eff

ck

Rd 2

= 1.67 V

Rd 2 , red

1

f

cp , eff

Rd 2

cd

Rd 2

(EC2 4.3.2.2)

If V V

not adequate to carry the shear force.

Sd

Rd 2. red

If V < V

, either the minimum shear reinforcement or the design shear

reinforcement is required.

Sd

Rd 2. red

Only minimum shear reinforcement is required.

Sd

Rd 1

If V > V , the concrete alone is not enough to carry the shear force. Designed shear reinforcement is required. The required shear resistance from

reinforcement, V , is given by

Sd

Rd 1

wd

wd

=V

Sd

Rd 1

(EC2 4.3.2.4.3)

The required shear reinforcement per unit length of the beam is given by

A

s

sw

122

V

0.9 d f

wd

(EC2 4.3.2.4.3)

ywd

Beam Design

130

C h a p t e r VIII

Design Output

Overview

SAP2000 creates design output in three major different formats graphical display, tabular output, and member specific detailed design information.

The graphical display of design output includes input and output design

information. Input design information includes design section label, K-factors, live

load reduction factor, and other design parameters. The output design information

includes longitudinal reinforcing, shear reinforcing, and column capacity ratio. All

graphical output can be printed.

The tabular output can be saved in a file or printed. The tabular output includes

most of the information which can be displayed. This is generated for added convenience to the designer.

The member specific detailed design information shows the details of the calculation from the designers point of view. It shows the design forces, design section dimensions, reinforcement, and some intermediate results for all the load combinations at all the design sections of a specific frame member. For a column member, it

can also show the position of the current state of design forces on the column interaction diagram.

Overview

131

123

In the following sections, some of the typical graphical display, tabular output, and

member specific detailed design information are described. Some of the design information is specific to the chosen concrete design codes which are available in the

program and are only described where required. The ACI 318-95 design code is described in the later part of this chapter. For all other codes, the design outputs are

similar.

The graphical output can be produced either as color screen display or in grayscaled printed form. Moreover, the active screen display can be sent directly to the

printer. The graphical display of design output includes input and output design information.

Input design information, for the ACI 318-95 code, includes

Design section labels,

K-factors for major and minor direction of buckling,

Unbraced Length Ratios,

C -factors,

m

-factors, and

s

-factors.

b

Longitudinal Reinforcing,

Shear Reinforcing, and

Column Capacity Ratios.

The graphical displays can be accessed from the Design menu. For example, the

longitudinal reinforcement can be displayed by selecting Display Design Info...

from the Design menu. This will pop up a dialog box called Display Design

Results. Then the user should switch ON the Design Output option button (default) and select Longitudinal Reinforcing in the drop-down box. Then clicking

the OK button will show the longitudinal reinforcing in the active window.

The graphics can be displayed in either 3D or 2D mode. The SAP2000 standard

view transformations are available for all concrete design output displays. For

switching between 3D or 2D view of graphical displays, there are several buttons

124

132

on the main toolbar. Alternatively, the view can be set by choosing Set 3D View...

from the View menu.

The graphical display in an active window can be printed in gray scaled black and

white from the SAP2000 program. To send the graphical output directly to the

printer, click on the Print Graphics button in the File menu. A screen capture of

the active window can also be made by following the standard procedure provided

by the Windows operating system.

The tabular design output can be sent directly either to a printer or to a file. The

printed form of tabular output is the same as that produced for the file output with

the exception that for the printed output font size is adjusted.

The tabular design output includes input and output design information which depends on the design code of choice. For the ACI 318-95 code, the tabular output includes the following. All tables have formal headings and are self-explanatory, so

further description of these tables is not given.

Input design information includes the following:

Concrete Column Property Data

Material label,

Column dimensions,

Reinforcement pattern,

Concrete cover, and

Bar area.

Concrete Beam Property Data

Material label,

Beam dimensions,

Top and bottom concrete cover, and

Top and bottom reinforcement areas.

Load Combination Multipliers

Combination name,

Load types, and

Load factors.

Tabular Display of Design Output

133

125

Concrete Design Element Information (code dependent)

Design Section ID,

K-factors for major and minor direction of buckling,

Unbraced Length Ratios,

C -factors,

m

Concrete Moment Magnification Factors (code dependent)

Section ID,

Element Type,

Framing Type,

-factors, and

s

-factors.

b

Column Design Information

Section ID,

Station location,

Total longitudinal reinforcement and the governing load combination,

Major shear reinforcement and the governing load combination, and

Minor shear reinforcement and the governing load combination.

Beam Design Information

Section ID,

Station location,

Top longitudinal reinforcement and the governing load combination,

Bottom reinforcement and the governing load combination, and

Major shear reinforcement and the governing load combination.

The tabular output can be accessed by selecting Print Design Tables... from the

File menu. This will pop up a dialog box. Then the user can specify the design

quantities for which the results are to be tabulated. By default, the output will be

sent to the printer. If the user wants the output stream to be redirected to a file,

he/she can check the Print to File box. This will provide a default filename. The

default filename can be edited. Alternatively, a file list can be obtained by clicking

126

134

the File Name button to chose a file from. Then clicking the OK button will direct

the tabular output to the requested stream C the file or the printer.

The member specific design information shows the details of the calculation from

the designers point of view. It provides an access to the geometry and material

data, other input data, design forces, design section dimensions, reinforcement details, and some of the intermediate results for a member. The design detail information can be displayed for a specific load combination and for a specific station of a

frame member. For a column member, it can also show the position of the current

state of design forces on the column interaction diagram.

The detailed design information can be accessed by right clicking on the desired

frame member. This will pop up a dialog box called Concrete Design Information

which includes the following tabulated information for the specific member. If the

selected member is a column, the dialog box includes

Load combination ID,

Station location,

Longitudinal reinforcement area,

Major shear reinforcement area, and

Minor shear reinforcement area.

If the selected member is a beam, the dialog box includes

Load combination ID,

Station location,

Top reinforcement area,

Bottom reinforcement area, and

Shear reinforcement area.

Additional information can be accessed for column members by clicking on the ReDesign, Details, and Interaction buttons in the dialog box. For beams additional

information can be accessed by clicking on the ReDesign and Details buttons in the

dialog box.

Additional information that is available by clicking on the ReDesign button is as

follows:

135

127

Design Factors (code dependent)

Effective length factors, K, for major and minor direction of buckling,

Unbraced Length Ratios,

C -factors,

m

-factors, and

s

-factors.

b

Element Section ID

Element Framing Type

Additional information that is available by clicking on the Details button is given

below. The details of this information depends on whether the selected member is a

beam or a column. If the member is a column, the information includes:

Frame, Section, Station, and Load Combination IDs,

Section geometric information and graphical representation,

Material properties of steel and concrete,

Design axial force and biaxial moments,

Minimum design moments,

Moment factors,

Design shear forces, and

Shear capacities of concrete and steel.

If the member is a beam, the information includes:

Frame, Section, Station, and Load Combination IDs,

Section geometric information and graphical representation,

Material properties of steel and concrete,

Design moments and shear forces,

Minimum design moments,

Top and bottom reinforcing areas,

Shear capacities of concrete and steel, and

Shear reinforcing area.

128

136

Clicking on the Interaction button displays the interaction diagram in a three dimensional space for the column section. The design axial force and the biaxial moments are plotted on the interaction diagram to show the state of stress in the column. The interaction diagram can be viewed in any orientation and the view can be

manipulated from the interaction dialog box. The interaction diagram can be

printed for hard-copy output.

137

129

138

References

ACI, 1995

Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-95) and Commentary (ACI 318R-95), American Concrete Institute, Detroit, Michigan,

1995.

BSI, 1985

BS 8110 : Part 1, Structural Use of Concrete, Part 1, Code of Practice for Design and Construction, British Standards Institution, London, UK, 1985.

CEN, 1992

ENV 1992-1-1, Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures, Part 1, General

Rules and Rules for Buildings, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 1992.

CEN, 1994

ENV 1991-1, Eurocode 1: Basis of Design and Action on Structures Part 1,

Basis of Design, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium,

1994.

CSA, 1984

CAN3-A23.3-M84, Design of Concrete Structures for Buildings, A National

Standard of Canada, Canadian Standards Association, Rexdale, Ontario, Canada, 1984.

131

139

CSI, 1997a

SAP2000 Getting Started, Computers and Structures, Inc., Berkeley, California, 1997.

CSI, 1997b

SAP2000 Analysis Reference, Vols. I and II, Computers and Structures, Inc.,

Berkeley, California, 1997.

ICBO, 1997

Uniform Building Code, International Conference of Building Officials, Whittier, California, 1997.

PCA, 1996

Notes on ACI 318-95, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete,

with Design Applications, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois,

1996.

D. W. White and J. F. Hajjar, 1991

Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice, Engineering Journal, American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Vol.

28, No. 4, 1991.

132

140

Index

Additional moment

British, 89

British, 88, 91

Canadian, 65, 67

Eurocode, 109, 111

Balanced condition

ACI, 48, 51

Canadian, 73, 75

ACI, 37

British, 87

Canadian, 63

Eurocode, 107

ACI, 46

British, 94

Canadian, 72

Eurocode, 114

ACI, 42

British, 92

Canadian, 68

Eurocode, 112

ACI, 53

British, 100

Canadian, 79

Eurocode, 121

Compression reinforcement

ACI, 48, 51

British, 96, 99

Canadian, 74 - 75

Eurocode, 117, 120

Braced frames

ACI, 40

British, 89

Canadian, 65

Eurocode, 109

ACI, 44, 56

British, 92, 100

Canadian, 70, 82

Eurocode, 112, 122

Check station, 25

Code total moment

Eurocode, 109

Demonstration

accessing detailed information, 14

ACI, 39, 41

133

141

column interaction, 15

design, 12

editing member properties, 16

redesign, 15

28

ACI, 37

British, 87

Canadian, 63

Eurocode, 107

ACI, 33

British, 83

Canadian, 62

Eurocode, 103

Identification of beams, 25

Identification of columns, 25

Design of T-beams

ACI, 49

British, 97

Canadian, 75

Eurocode, 118

Interaction diagram, 27

ACI, 37

British, 87

Canadian, 63

demonstration, 15

Eurocode, 107

demonstration, 14

Interactive environment, 1

Ductile detailing

ACI, 53

Canadian, 78

See also P-Delta analysis

Live load reduction factor, 25, 36, 62, 86,

106

ductile, 42, 69, 78 - 79

intermediate, 33, 53, 56

nominal, 59, 78, 80

ordinary, 33

shear force in special frames, 43

shear in intermediate frames, 44, 56

special, 33, 52, 55

ACI, 37

British, 87

Canadian, 63

Eurocode, 107

Member specific output, 127

ACI, 37

British, 87

Canadian, 63

Eurocode, 107

ACI, 39, 47

British, 89, 94

Canadian, 65, 72

Eurocode, 109, 115

Minimum eccentricity

ACI, 39

British, 90

Canadian, 65

Eurocode, 110 - 111

Flexural reinforcement

ACI, 46 - 47

British, 94 - 95

Canadian, 72 - 73

Eurocode, 115

134

142

Index

Minimum tensile reinforcement

ACI, 52

Canadian, 78

Canadian, 70, 82

Eurocode, 114, 122

Special considerations for seismic loads,

26, 32

ACI, 33, 43, 52, 55

Canadian, 59, 69, 79

Moment magnification

ACI, 39

British (additional moment), 89

Canadian, 65

Eurocode (total moment), 109

ACI, 36

British, 86

Canadian, 62

Eurocode, 106

Nonsway frames

ACI, 40

British, 89

Canadian, 65

Eurocode, 109

ACI, 23, 33

British, 23, 83

Canadian, 23, 59

Eurocode, 23, 103

Output, 1

details, 128

graphical, 123 - 124

interaction diagram, 129

member specific, 123, 127

tabular, 123, 125

Sway frames

ACI, 40

British, 89

Canadian, 65

Eurocode, 109

Overstrength factor, 80

P-Delta analysis, 30

ACI, 40

British, 91

Canadian, 66

Eurocode, 111

Probable moment capacity, 42, 69

T-Beam design

ACI, 49

British, 97

Canadian, 75

Eurocode, 118

ACI, 47

British, 95

Canadian, 73

Eurocode, 116

Unbraced frames, 89

ACI, 40

British, 91

Canadian, 65

Eurocode, 109, 111

Redesign, 127

demonstration, 15

Units, 2, 32

ACI, 33

British, 83

Canadian, 59

Eurocode, 103

Shear reinforcement

ACI, 45, 56

British, 92, 101

Unsupported length, 41

135

143

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