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Performance

Evaluation Report

Papua New Guinea:


Smallholder Support Services
Pilot Project

Independent

Evaluation

Performance Evaluation Report


October 2013

Papua New Guinea: Smallholder Support


Services Pilot Project

Reference Number: PPE:PNG 2013-10


Project Number: 31647
Loan Number: 1652-PNG
Independent Evaluation: PE-763

NOTES
(i) The fiscal year (FY) of the Government ends on 30 June. FY
before a calendar year denotes the year in which the fiscal year
ends, for example, FY2012 begins on 1 July 2011 and ends on
30 June 2012.
(ii) In this report, $ refers to US dollars.

Director General V. Thomas, Independent Evaluation Department (IED)


W.A. Kolkma, Independent Evaluation Division 1, IED
Director
Team leader
Team member

A.D. Brubaker, Evaluation Specialist, IED


C.J. Mongcopa, Associate Knowledge Management Administrator, IED

The guidelines formally adopted by the Independent Evaluation Department on


avoiding conflict of interest in its independent evaluations were observed in preparing
this report. To the knowledge of the management of the Independent Evaluation
Department, there were no conflicts of interest of the persons preparing, reviewing, or
approving this report.
In preparing any evaluation report, or by making any designation of or reference to a
particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Independent Evaluation
Department does not intend to make any judgment as to the legal or other status of
any territory or area.

Abbreviations
ADB
DAL
DOF
DPM
EIRR
GDP
HDI
IED
M&E
MIS
NADP
NGO
NZAID
OLPG
PCR
PCU
PNG
PPER
PPTA
PRAP
PSC
RRP
SSCF
SSPA
TA

Asian Development Bank


Department of Agriculture and Livestock
Department of Finance
Department of National Planning and Monitoring
economic internal rate of return
gross domestic product
Human Development Index
Independent Evaluation Department
monitoring and evaluation
management information system
National Agriculture Development Plan
nongovernment organization
New Zealand Agency for International Development
Organic Law on Provincial Governments
project completion report
project coordinating unit
Papua New Guinea
project performance evaluation report
project preparatory technical assistance
participatory rural appraisal planning
project steering committee
report and recommendation of the President
support services contract facility
Support Services Provider Association
technical assistance

Currency Equivalents
Currency Unit kina (K)

K1.00
$1.00

=
=

At Appraisal
15 September 1999
$0.340
K2.341

At Project Completion
13 May 2009
$0.3590
K2.7855

At Evaluation
20 December 2012
$0.481
K2.080

Contents
Acknowledgments
Basic Data
Executive Summary

vii
ix
xi

Chapter 1: Introduction
A. Evaluation Purpose and Process
B. Background
C. Program Objectives

1
1
2
4

Chapter 2: Design and Implementation


A. Formulation
B. Rationale
C. Financing, Cost, and Executing Arrangements
D. Procurement, Construction, and Scheduling
E. Loan Covenants
F. Outputs
G. Consultants

5
5
6
7
8
9
9
12

Chapter 3: Performance Assessment


A. Overall Assessment
B. Relevance
C. Effectiveness
D. Efficiency
E. Sustainability

13
13
14
16
19
20

Chapter 4: Other Assessments


A. ADB and Executing Agency Performance
B. Institutional Development
C. Impact

22
22
23
24

Chapter 5: Issues, Lessons, and Follow-Up Actions


A. Issues
B. Lessons
C. Follow-Up Actions

26
26
26
27

Appendixes
1 Evaluation Framework
2 Evaluation Mission Itinerary
3 List of Persons Met
4 Project Design and Monitoring Framework
5 Evaluation Economic Assessment 2007

29
35
36
38
40

Acknowledgments
A team of staff and consultants from the Independent Evaluation Department prepared
this study. The team consisted of Andrew Brubaker (team leader) and Caren Joy
Mongcopa. Dorothy Lucks and Ian Mopafi were the consultants. Valuable inputs and
comments at various stages were received from Suganya Hutaserani. The report
benefited from the overall guidance of Walter Kolkma, Director, Division 1.
For their time and opinions, the team would like to thank the officials and
representatives interviewed in Port Moresby from the Department of Treasury,
Department of National Planning and Monitoring, and Department of Agriculture and
Livestock, as well as other donors and stakeholders. For their time and support in the
field, the team expresses its appreciation to the provincial governments and in
particular the project staff of Morobe and Eastern Highlands. Finally, the team would
like to acknowledge the Asian Development Bank staff from the Papua New Guinea
Resident Mission and the Pacific Department for facilitating the field mission and
engaging constructively in reviewing and commenting on the report.

Basic Data
Loan 1652-PNG: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project
Program Preparatory/Institution Building
TA No.
2980

TA Name
Improving Provincial Agricultural
Support Services

Key Project Data ($ million)


Total project cost
ADB loan amount/utilization
ADB loan amount/cancellation

Key Dates
Fact-finding mission
Inception mission 1
Inception mission 2
Appraisal mission
Loan negotiations
Board approval
Loan agreement
Loan effectiveness
First disbursement
Project completion
Loan closing
Months (effectiveness to
completion)

Borrower
Executing Agency

Type
SS

Amount
($000)
150

Approval Date
22 December 1997

Per ADB Loan


Documents
11.49

Expected

3 August 1999
31 December 2004

Actual
8.90

Actual
22 May10 June 1998
820 April 1999
1929 October 1999
22 May11 September 1998
1719 October 1998
10 December 1998
5 May 1999
21 December 1999
25 January 2000
30 November 2007
30 April 2009
95

Papua New Guinea


Department of Agriculture and Livestock

Type of Mission
Fact-finding
Inception
Review
Midterm review
Project completion review
Independent evaluation mission

No. of Missions
1
2
9
1
1
1

No. of Person-Days
19
35
173
24
33

ADB = Asian Development Bank, No. = number, PNG = Papua New Guinea, SS = small-scale, TA = technical
assistance.

Executive Summary
The main objectives of this project performance evaluation report (PPER) for the
Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are to (i) assess
the performance and impact of the project; and (ii) generate a series of findings,
lessons, and recommendations. This PPER is of interest because of its implementation
as a pilot project to ascertain the extent of adaptation during implementation and the
sustainability and scaling up of lessons generated through Asian Development Bank
(ADB) investment. The Independent Evaluation Department fielded the evaluation
mission for this PPER from 26 November 2012 to 7 December 2012.
Agriculture in PNG is the main source of household livelihood and income for
70% of the population. PNG exports cocoa, coffee, coconut rubber, and oil palm, and
has an active domestic market for other agricultural products. Most of the export crops
are grown in smallholder plots but with increasing focus on outgrower 1 schemes and
cooperative farmer production and marketing. The pilot project was designed to test
the viability of increasing private sector approaches to technical assistance (TA) support
for smallholder agriculture in PNG.
The pilot project became effective on 21 December 1999 and closed on 30 April
2009. The project was implemented by the national Department of Agriculture and
Livestock (DAL) in Port Moresby and the provincial governments of Morobe and the
Eastern Highlands. After the ADB-supported implementation, the project activities
continued in Morobe and the Eastern Highlands. Project activities were expanded to
the Central and Simbu provinces through provincial funding, plus TA grant finance
from the New Zealand Agency for International Development.
The estimated project cost was $11.49 million, including a $7.6 million ADB
loan from ordinary capital resources. Of the approved loan amount, 71% was disbursed
and $2.19 million was cancelled. The actual project cost was lower than the appraisal
estimate because (i) low cost, locally sourced TA was more appropriate and effective
than externally sourced expertise; and (ii) the absorptive capacity of the provincial DAL
offices to identify and complete contracts was constrained.
The pilot project was primarily designed to generate a mechanism for service
contracting and an increase in access to support services. The pilot projects design was
consistent with the strategies of ADB, the government, and the national and provincial
DALs. It was responsive to the needs of smallholder farmers at the time of design. The
project supported the 1995 Organic Law on Provincial Governments that spearheads
decentralization to provincial and later to the district government offices.
The pilot nature of the project was appropriate and well managed early on.
However, more could have been done to take the opportunity to disseminate the
lessons and to replicate and expand the pilot project after the midterm review. Good
lessons emerged over time and have been adopted within the provincial DALs.
1

An outgrower scheme is defined as a contractual partnership between growers or landholders and a


company for the production of commercial products (e.g., coffee).

xii Papua New Guinea: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project


However, the focus on output targets rather than learning led to the evolution of
different modelsnot the one best practice model anticipated in the design that could
be upscaled nationwide.
The project reach was 11,835 smallholder households compared with a target
of 22,500 (52%). Of the contracts awarded, 80% were successfully completed. The
targeted 30% participation of women was achieved. The number of private sector
service providers was increased as lead farmers became service providers in their own
areas and often became consolidators and market links, generating secondary
economic benefits in their respective localities. The quality of services has increased,
both through the project-introduced participatory rural appraisal planning (PRAP)
methodology that has now been adopted by the provincial DALs and by subsequent
development programs supported by such organizations as the World Bank. The links
between the provincial DALs and the private sector service providers have improved;
and in both provinces, the service providers have established a peak association of
service providers that is assisting with sector development.
The trust accounts established through the project were, and still are, an
important mechanism for flexible private sectororiented service delivery. The demanddriven approach meant that the extension services provided were generally appropriate
to farmer needs. Adoption of product training was constrained by availability of credit
and of farm inputs. The financial management and post-harvest processing helped
farmers to become more commercially-oriented for their farm and non-farm enterprise
activities.
The economic internal rate of return for the pilot project approach was
estimated at about 14%, indicating efficiency in achieving project outcomes.
Nevertheless, the project was delayed for 3 years, project coordination costs were
substantially higher than appraisal estimates, $2.19 million of the loan was cancelled,
and the counterpart funds from the Morobe provincial government were not fully
provided.
The benefits generated through the project are likely to be sustained. The
evaluation mission found that, even 3 years after project closure, the Support Services
Contract Facility for each province is still active and the provincial governments
continue to allocate funds for service providers contracting through this mechanism.
The PRAP model has been adopted by the Coffee Industry Corporation, Simbu Province,
and by a major nongovernment organization operating in Morobe Province. Based on
the evaluation sample, over 50% of farmers supported through the pilot project are
continuing to apply the knowledge learned through the service provided, 3 years after
project completion.
Overall, the project is rated successful. It was assessed as being relevant,
effective, and efficient. It was also rated likely sustainable and led to moderate
institutional development and other impacts. The performance of ADB and the
borrower was rated satisfactory. The government planned to replicate the pilot project
approach through its National Agriculture Development Plan, 20062011 (NADP) but
the evaluation found that the resources allocated were diverted for other priorities.
Nevertheless, within the scope of the pilot project and with the adoption of pilot project
approaches in other projects, the project has been rated sustainable.
The report concludes that the pilot project was successful but that its full
potential was not achieved. For ADB, it provides useful lessons on how a pilot project

Executive Summary xiii


can generate important knowledge but shows that a customized monitoring and
evaluation system is critical. Replication and upscaling mechanisms require a specific
focus during implementation. ADB is no longer focused on the agriculture and natural
resources sector in PNG but the lessons can be incorporated through work with
partners in PNG and in other relevant ADB projects designed as pilot projects or
focused on extension.
Important lessons were also generated regarding private sector contracting by
the government in PNG; local planning in decentralization; and the value of combined
product, financial, and life skills packages. More could have been done to capture the
learning from the pilot activities and extend them nationwide in PNG. In this regard,
the government may wish to consider whether to take a strategic approach to private
sector involvement in agriculture through adopting the approach of the pilot project in
all provinces and districts, as proposed in the NADP, or whether the lessons learned will
remain within the pilot provinces.

CHAPTER 1

Introduction
A.

Evaluation Purpose and Process

1.
Background. The Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project became effective on
21 December 1999 and closed on 30 April 2009. The estimated project cost was $11.49
million (actual $8.9 million) including a $7.6 million Asian Development Bank (ADB)
loan from ordinary capital resources (actual $5.4 million). The Independent Evaluation
Department (IED) annually undertakes a number of project performance evaluation
reports (PPERs) to assess project performance and contribute to learning. This PPER
contributes to that requirement. In addition, as Papua New Guinea (PNG) will not be
included in a planned regional evaluation of ADB investments in the Pacific region
during 2013, this PPER provides evaluative evidence of ADBs support in PNG. Together,
the PPER and the regional evaluation will provide useful lessons in relation to the
evolution, results, and challenges of ADB operations in the Pacific.
2.
Objectives. The main objectives of the PPER are to (i) assess the performance
and impact of the project based on IEDs methodology for evaluating sovereign loans;
and (ii) generate a series of findings, lessons, and recommendations.
3.
Methodology. The evaluation adopted the 2006 IED PPER guidelines, 2 focusing
on three areas with seven evaluation criteria: (i) the performance of the project
measured in terms of relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability; (ii)
institutional development (improved governance practices, skills, and capacity.) and
impact; and (iii) the performance of partners, including ADB and the Government of
PNG. For each evaluation criterion, a detailed analysis was carried out and a rating on
the standard ADB four-point assessment rating scale 3 has been assigned. Appendix 1
contains the evaluation framework.
4.
Process. The evaluation was conducted in three stages: (i) the desk review
phase of existing documentation; (ii) the evaluation mission; and (iii) preparation of the
main evaluation report, which incorporated relevant comments from ADB and the
government. IED fielded the evaluation mission from 26 November 2012 to 7
December 2012. The purpose of the mission was to build on the desk review by
gathering complementary information collected through interviews with key
informants, for example, staff from the project and resident mission and visits to the
project sites for direct observation and to meet with beneficiaries.
5.
The mission worked and met with the Department of National Planning and
Monitoring (DPM), the Department of Finance (DOF), and the national Department of
Agriculture and Livestock (DAL) in Port Moresby; and visited provincial government
2

Independent Evaluation Department. 2006. Guidelines for Preparing Performance Evaluation Reports
(PPER) for Public Sector Operations. Manila: ADB.
Rating scale: Highly satisfactory = 3; Satisfactory = 2; Less than satisfactory = 1; Unsatisfactory = 0.

2 Papua New Guinea: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project


officials in the project-supported provinces of Morobe, Eastern Highlands, and the
expansion provinces of Central and Simbu. During the 2-week mission, the mission
team 4 held discussions with about 70 pilot project staff, beneficiaries, and privatesector service providers, as well as about 30 other stakeholders (e.g., coffee traders and
agro-processors) and ADB development partners. The evaluation mission itinerary is in
Appendix 2 and the list of persons met is in Appendix 3.

B.

Background

6.
Economic context. Traditionally, agriculture was the mainstay of the PNG
economy, both in terms of domestic production and exports of coffee, cocoa, rubber,
palm oil, and spices. Since 2001, gross domestic product (GDP) has grown by an
average of about 3.4% per annum, 5 with an upswing in the growth rate since 2004
(Figure 1). The main economic growth has been in the mineral and energy industry
sectors, but robust domestic growth has occurred in the last few years in response to
broader economic development.
Figure 1: Papua New Guinea Economic Growth Rate, by Yeara
10

GDP Growth Rate (%)

8
6
4
2
0
-2

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

-4
GDP = gross domestic product.
a
Central Intelligence Agency. 2012. The World Fact Book. Accessed via Index Mundi database
(http://www.indexmundi.com/).
Source: International Monetary Fund. 2012. PNG Profile. Washington, DC.

7.
Economic contribution of agriculture. Oil, gas, and mining provide an
important source of revenue for government operations. However, the agriculture and
natural resources sector continues to contribute about 30.3% to GDP through export
industries such as oil palm, coffee, and cocoa. 6 It also continues to provide food,
income, and employment for an estimated 85% of the population. The predominant
mode of farming is in smallholder farms, concentrated on about 25% of the total land
mass of 117,858 square kilometers, including seasonal cultivation. 7 Farming is
intensifying as a result of increasing population pressure on available land and
diversification into combined food and cash cropping systems. A robust internal fresh
food market exists although value chains are not well developed. For export commodity
4

5
6

The evaluation mission comprised Andrew Brubaker, evaluation team leader; Dorothy Lucks, international
consultant; and Ian Mopafi, national consultant.
International Monetary Fund. 2012. PNG Profile. Washington, DC.
Government of Papua New Guinea. 2010. Papua New Guinea Medium Term Development Plan 2011
2015. p. 86. Port Moresby.
Australia National University. 1995. Mapping Agricultural Systems of Papua New Guinea Project. Canberra.

Introduction 3
production, much of the production is still in small landholdings but an increasing
number of consolidators and agro-processors provide employment and associated
agro-industrial economic opportunities.
8.
Policy environment. PNG became an independent sovereign nation in 1975
and now operates as a constitutional parliamentary democracy. The Organic Law on
Provincial Governments (OLPG) was passed in 1976. The OLPG resulted in the
establishment of 18 provincial governments, the autonomous region of Bougainville,
and the National Capital District around Port Moresby. Each province has delegated
functions and financial powers, and responsibility for their respective districts (160
districts nationwide). In 1995, the OLPG was amended to give greater recognition to
districts as the focus for local development planning and service delivery.
9.
Regional development profile. PNGs Human Development Index (HDI) is
0.466, which gives the country a low ranking of 156 out of 187 countries with
comparable data. 8 The HDI of East Asia and the Pacific as a region increased from
0.428 in 1980 to 0.671 in 2012, placing PNG below the regional average. Despite the
strengthening economy, the HDI for PNG has remained at low levels (Figure 2).
Figure 2: Papua New Guinea Human Development Index, by Yeara
0.8
0.7

HDI Index Ranking

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Papua New Guinea
East Asia and the Pacific

Low human development


World

HDI = Human Development Index.


a
Central Intelligence Agency. 2012. The World Fact Book . Accessed via Index Mundi database
(http://www.indexmundi.com/).
Source: United Nations Development Programme. 2011. Human Development Index 2011. New York.

10.
Agricultural extension services. After the OLPG was passed, agricultural
services were largely decentralized through the provinces based on local development
priorities that are determined largely through political will rather than sectoral
development priorities. This process has resulted in limited government funding
allocation to agricultural extension services. Various agencies such as the Coffee
Industry Corporation, the Oil Palm Industry Corporation, and the National Agriculture
Research Institute provide a network of offices throughout the country but with limited
8

United Nations Development Programme. 2012. International Human Development Index. New York. The
HDI is a mean of life expectancy, education, and gross national income measures.

4 Papua New Guinea: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project


coverage. At the district level, extension staff report to district managers for their
activities and receive little direct support from agricultural officers at provincial
headquarters. 9 In consequence, agriculture sector production, processing, and
marketing operate at below optimum levels and farmers do not have access to services
that could assist in improving productivity, quality, and income.

C.

Program Objectives

11.
In December 1997, ADB approved small-scale project preparatory technical
assistance (TA) to prepare a proposal for the pilot project, covering the provinces of
Eastern Highlands and Morobe. 10 The pilot project was designed as a follow-up to the
Agricultural Research and Extension Project. 11 The pilot project design responded to the
findings of the Agricultural Research and Extension Project, which indicated that
agricultural research findings were not being adequately disseminated through
extension support networks. It also responded to the experience of ADB in supporting
governance reform through devolution and private sector development. Fact-finding
and loan appraisal missions for the pilot project were conducted in 1998. The resulting
pilot project design was approved on 10 December 1998.
12.
Project goal and objectives. The project goal was to improve agricultural
support services to smallholder farmers in the two most populous provinces of PNG:
Eastern Highlands and Morobe. The objective of the project was to increase the access
by smallholder households in two provinces to improved agricultural support services,
thereby increasing agricultural production, productivity, and the income of
smallholders; and helping to ensure the sustainability of their farming systems. The
expected outputs and outcomes were an increased number of smallholders with access
to support services; improved intensity, quality, and effectiveness of support services;
and improved linkages of service providers at different government levels. An associated
objective was to enhance the status of women in agriculture. The projects design and
monitoring framework is in Appendix 4.

10

11

Sitapai, E.C. 2012. A Critical Analysis of Agriculture Extension Services in Papua New Guinea: Past, Present
and Future. Paper presented at the Consultative Implementation and Monitoring Council National
Agriculture Conference. Lae, PNG. 2425 May.
ADB. 1997. Technical Assistance to Papua New Guinea for Improving Provincial Agricultural Support
Services. Manila (TA 2980, for $150,000, approved on 22 December 1996).
ADB. 1991. Report and Recommendation of the President to the Board of Directors: Proposed Loan and
Technical Assistance Grant to the Independent State of Papua New Guinea for the Agricultural Research
and Extension Project. Manila (Loan 1110-PNG[SF], for $22 million, approved on 29 October 1991).

CHAPTER 2

Design and
Implementation
A.

Formulation

13.
Building on experience and lessons learned. The objectives and modality
selected for this project built on substantial previous experience and ADBs knowledge
of the PNG agriculture sector and context. The formulation process identified lessons
from previous projects and addressed those lessons as shown in Table 1. The project
preparatory TA provided a solid basis for the detailed design. The approach recognized
the limitations of the governments agricultural extension services and the growing
activity in the private sector. This is in line with the ADB investment portfolio in PNG,
which has increasingly focused on support to private sector development in agriculture
and other sectors.
Table 1: Lessons Learned from Previous Projects and Smallholder Support Services
Pilot Project Formulation
Lessons from Previous Projects
1. Weak implementation capacity
2. ADB needs to take an adaptive
approach and provide problem
solving support throughout
implementation
3. Diverse needs of farmers for
extension support
4. Counterpart funds constrained

Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project


Formulation
Select capable and committed provinces
Incorporate capacity development for implementation
Design as pilot project, including responsive design
and adaptation throughout the project life

Demand-driven approach, adaptive management


process
Gain commitment to counterpart funds at design
stage
5. Difficult institutional arrangements Pilot nature of project to start small and build effective
resulting from transition in
processes
devolution
ADB = Asian Development Bank.
Sources: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project design documents 1999, and evaluation findings.

14.
Pilot nature. The respective national and provincial DAL offices were directly
involved in the design. Contact was made with prospective service providers. The two
pilot provinces were selected on the basis of potential for commercial agriculture
development and willingness of the provincial DAL to provide counterpart funds. The
choice of carrying out a pilot approach to test and refine the most effective processes
for contracting of service providers was a reasonable approach, but the design did not
provide sufficient guidance on the different processes required for an adaptive program
approach necessary for implementing a pilot project. Consequently, ADB supervision

6 Papua New Guinea: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project


tended to revert to output-based supervision rather than the envisaged problemsolving, flexible approach with a view to subsequent replication and upscaling of the
pilot project. As such, both the design and implementation of the pilot project limited
the potential benefits.
15.
Design changes (capacity constraints led to loan cancellation). The project
was designed as a pilot project. For this reason, the design did not incorporate firm
targets and a level of design change was expected. However, no major changes
occurred in the design. The three components remained throughout the project period
and the project scope remained within the two targeted provinces. Arguably, there was
justification for a change of scope at the midterm review when it was clear that the
absorptive capacity of the two provinces was lower than expected. An opportunity
existed to extend the pilot to other provinces to test if the approach was replicable. The
justification was that the mechanism was operating satisfactorily and there was
demand from other provinces to adopt the project concept. However, the decision was
to continue testing the mechanism within the two provinces. This led to the
cancellation of 29% of the approved loan amount.
16.
Establishing an unrealistic target for beneficiary reach. The project
framework did not include fixed targets. This can be partially explained by the pilot
nature of the project. However, the project coordinating unit (PCU) developed a selfgenerated target for the project to reach of 22,500 smallholders. The basis for the
target was not clearly documented but probably developed from the idea that the
project would be supporting larger and more commercially oriented agriculture. The
target selected was overly ambitious given the small size of contracts awarded and the
limited capacity for implementation. The target was never revised down to be more
realistic.

B.

Rationale

17.
ADB strategic context. At the time of project preparation, support to
agriculture was considered a major priority in the country strategy along with fisheries,
health, and urban water supply. 12 At the time the 1999 country strategy 13 was
prepared, 18 projects had been post evaluated. Of the 18 projects, six (two port, three
road, and one water supply) were rated generally successful; 11 were rated partly
successful; and one was unsuccessful. Projects in the ports, highways, and water supply
subsectors were more successful; projects in agriculture and development finance
suffered long delays and cost overruns and were generally less successful.
Consequently, the 1999 PNG country strategy placed greater emphasis on (i) a vibrant
private sector, (ii) more market-oriented rural production, (iii) better delivery of rural
services, (iv) stronger public sector management, (v) closer involvement of civil society
organizations, and (vi) more private sector investment.
18.
Pilot project design. The pilot project was designed to stimulate private sector
involvement in TA to improve agricultural production, processes, and marketing. It was
designed as a pilot projectflexible and demand-drivento identify a cost-effective
approach to service delivery. A key aim was to extend the accessibility of support
services more widely to PNG smallholders. Morobe provincial government had already
experimented with contracting support services in the agriculture sector. The trial had
been successful with one contractor, but the mechanism was not clearly developed for
12
13

ADB. 1994. Country Operational Strategy: Papua New Guinea. Manila.


ADB. 1999. Country Operational Strategy Study: Papua New Guinea. Manila.

Design and Implementation 7


replication within Morobe or in other provinces. The pilot project was formulated to
help expand and improve on this initiative in two provinces: Morobe and Eastern
Highlands. These two provinces were selected on the basis of their capacity for
implementation and the extent of economic activity and growth in the agriculture
sector. Both the national government and the respective provincial governments
accorded a high priority to the project and committed to contribute counterpart funds.
19.
Project components. The project design included three components: (i) a
support services contract facility (SSCF), (ii) capacity building, and (iii) project
coordination. The first component was designed as a flexible, performance-based, costeffective service delivery mechanism for contracting appropriate service providers. The
second was to build the capacity of the national and provincial DALs to identify farmer
service support needs; improve capability in procurement and contract management at
the national, provincial, district, and local government levels; and to strengthen the
delivery capacity of service providers. The third component for project coordination
included operating costs for the national and provincial DALs.

C.

Financing, Cost, and Executing Arrangements

20.
Project financing. The pilot project was financed through a $7.6 million loan
from ADB and joint local financing shared between the national government ($0.92
million) and the two participating provincial governments of Morobe ($2.08 million)
and Eastern Highlands ($0.88 million). The relatively small loan amount was approved
given the pilot approach and limited scope of the project and the recognition that
counterpart funding in PNG is constrained. The loan amount was increased by $1
million prior to approval to account for the interest and commitment charges. 14
21.
Project costs. The actual project cost of $8.9 million was 22.6% lower than the
appraisal estimate of $11.5 million. Of the $7.60 million approved ADB loan amount,
71% was disbursed and $2.19 million was cancelled. The first cancellation of $2.00
million occurred after the midterm review when it became clear that progress was slow
and the absorptive capacity was unlikely to accelerate rapidly in the remaining years of
the project. The balance of $0.19 million was cancelled at loan closure. Of the allocated
government counterpart funding of $3.89 million, 90% was released. However, the
contribution of the national government ($1.88 million) exceeded the expected amount
by 202%. Eastern Highlands Province disbursed close to target (99%) and Morobe
allocated only 36% of the targeted amount because of a change in investment
priorities after elections.
22.
Costs by component. The costs per component varied substantially from the
original design for the SSCF and project coordination (Figure 3). No changes occurred
in the components during implementation but the component activities were adjusted
in response to farmer demands and as a result of implementation delays. For the SSCF,
the demands were for smaller, practical contracts, delivered at the village level. This
resulted in a lower-than-expected expenditure rate for the SSCF. Pursuant to delays in
project establishment and in allocation of government counterpart funding and the
smaller contract costs, the project period was extended. This resulted in higher-thanexpected costs and an extended period for project coordination. Capacity building costs
were fully absorbed.

14

Minutes of ADB Staff Review Committee Meeting, 30 October 1998.

8 Papua New Guinea: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project


Figure 3: Appraisal Estimates to Actual Expenditure by Component
9,000
8,000
7,000

Kina ('000)

6,000
5,000
4,000

3,852

3,552

Appraisal
Estimate

Actual

3,000
2,000

499

1,000
0
Support Services
Contract Facility

Capacity Building

Project
Coordination

Source: ADB. 2009. Completion Report: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project in Papua New Guinea.
Manila.

23.
Executing arrangements. The executing agency was the national DAL, and the
implementing agencies were the provincial DALs in Morobe and Eastern Highlands
provinces. A project steering committee (PSC) within the national DAL provided
guidance, strategic and policy decisions, and overall monitoring of performance. The
PSC met quarterly as specified in the loan agreement. A PCU was established in the
national DAL to coordinate administrative and financial matters.

D.

Procurement, Construction, and Scheduling

24.
Procurement and renovations. Major project procurement was handled
through the PCU in the national DAL. However, all of the SSCF procurement and local
office construction was handled by the provincial DALs. Under the capacity building
component, funds were made available for improvements to district offices. In Eastern
Highlands, all eight district offices underwent renovations, mainly to improve security
for protecting computer equipment, while in Morobe improvements were made to a
provincial DAL training center. In Eastern Highlands, computers and other electronic
equipment were delivered to each district office. In Morobe, three districts and six
local-level government offices received computers. Procurement and installation of
computers at the district and local-level government offices, along with computer
literacy training, allowed DAL district officers to produce the required plans and
contracting documents for project activities.
25.
Delays caused by procurement process. The PCU procurement processes in
the national DAL took time to implement, resulting in implementation delays. The
provincial DAL procurement processes also took time to establish but once in operation
performed effectively. Procurement processes were constrained by counterpart funds
flow and the capacity of the national and provincial DAL officers to generate the terms
of reference for advertising TA opportunities and to process contracts once awarded.
The limited capacity also affected the ability of the executing and implementing
agencies to implement procurement activities following ADBs procedures. The
approved loan period was 5 years from August 1999 to December 2004. The approved
loan period was extended twice for an additional loan period of 4 years, with final loan

Design and Implementation 9


closing in April 2009. The main reasons for the extensions were the delays in
counterpart funding and inadequate absorptive capacity within the two provinces.

E.

Loan Covenants

26.
The loan covenants were complied with except for delays in (i) submission of
audited project accounts from the Auditor Generals Office, (ii) release of counterpart
funds from the provincial governments, and (iii) submission of quarterly progress
reports. The loan agreement stipulated insurance arrangements for project facilities but
the conditions were only partially complied with because insurance policies for
government facilities were not mandatory and costs were high. The project was rated
unsatisfactory in 2004 as a result of these delays; thereafter compliance improved and
became satisfactory.

F.

Outputs

27.
The pilot project was primarily designed to generate a mechanism for service
contracting and an increase in access to support services. At the project development
objective level, the evaluation mission found that, even 3 years after project closure, the
SSCF for each province is still active. The project design framework established output
indicators related to smallholder beneficiaries, training for government and service
provider capacity building, establishing the support services contracting facility, and
the PCU.
28.
No specific design framework targets. Appendix 4 shows that the expected
outputs were designed in line with the pilot nature of the project. The outputs were
not defined with specific targets but were designed to indicate positive progress in
overcoming identified challenges. Further, the lack of a comprehensive monitoring
system constrained the quantification of outputs. Nevertheless, there were clear,
positive outcomes in relation to the main output indicators.
29.
Target beneficiaries. The achievement for the number of direct SSCF
participants was 52% of the PCUs target of 22,500 beneficiaries. The increased
intensity of services is reflected through the 628 contracts supported by the project.
There were no specific targets for the number of contracts, but early annual targets
prior to midterm were all exceeded.
30.
Increased number of service providers. The pilot project has been
instrumental in increasing the number of private service providers and in strengthening
linkages between the service providers and the government. At the time of the
evaluation mission, the number of service providers on the provincial DAL databases
was about 300 in Morobe and 60 in Eastern Highlands. The links between the service
providers and the provincial DAL were stronger in Eastern Highlands where a close
working relationship had been forged and many of the service providers were direct
contacts of provincial DAL officers or had been identified through the pilot project
contracts as lead farmers and potential service providers. In Morobe, the provincial DAL
involvement and links were not as direct with the support of services providers but the
development of the Support Services Provider Association (SSPA) was active. There was
a good link between the SSPA and the provincial DAL through the provision of support
by the project staff in establishing and operating the SSPA.

10 Papua New Guinea: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project


31.
Project implementation. Throughout the project period, ADB supervision
missions generally rated the project successful. However, one supervision mission in
2004 rated the project unsatisfactory because of noncompliance with loan covenants in
relation to submission of the required audit reports. Activities were packaged into
consulting services for a range of major TA contracts; training for national and
provincial DAL and SSPA staff; and TA workshops. The implementation performance by
component activity expenditure varied across the project period, as shown in Figure 4.
The pattern of expenditure illustrates the response to demand shifting from formal
consultancy and training to the responsive, local support services through the SSCF.
Figure 4: Implementation Progress per Activity by Year
and Rating of Implementation Progress
450,000
400,000
350,000

Disbursement ($)

Consulting Services
Workshops
Training
SSCF

300,000
250,000
200,000
150,000
100,000
50,000
0
2000

2001

2002

HS

2003

2004

US

2005

2006

S
S
Supervision Rating

2007

2008

HS = highly successful, S = successful, SSCF = support services contract facility, US = unsuccessful.


Source: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project supervision reports 20002008; and ADB. 2009.
Completion Report: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project in Papua New Guinea. Manila.

32.
Consulting services. The focus on consultancies in the first few years, 2000
2002, of implementation reflected a sector-driven approach and investment in
preparing the provincial DALs for SSCF implementation through the participatory rural
appraisal planning (PRAP) tool. This tool was appreciated by farmers and provincial
authorities and identified as a suitable mechanism for identifying farmer support
requirements. As such, the DALs and SSCF were able to develop more appropriate and
demanded training programs. The evaluation mission found universal positive feedback
on the effectiveness of the tool although the process has now been streamlined. The
second peak in consulting services was due to two specific consultancies for monitoring
and evaluation (M&E), which were not successful, and a public sector consultancy that
yielded positive results in planning for sustainability.
33.
Training and workshops. Over the life of the project, 25 formal training
courses were conducted for improving the technical and managerial and administrative
skills of staff and service providers. Courses and workshops were attended by 603
individuals, comprising 349 DAL officers and 254 service providers, smallholders, and
members of civil society. Based on feedback from provincial DAL staff, the training
numbers meant that most staff had received several opportunities for skills
development and all service providers received training. Most of the courses related to
management capacity development, such as PRAP facilitation, computer training,

Design and Implementation 11


proposal writing, community planning, and extension project evaluations. The
remainder related to technical skills such as crop husbandry, bee keeping, and financial
management. For these technical skills, service providers accounted for 80% of
participants, provincial DAL officers 20%. In comparison cost per participant for
training was K1,424 compared with K130 for the SSCF contracts. This was due to the
delivery mechanism in central locations, requiring transportation, accommodation, and
allowance fees; and senior resource persons requiring higher fees than the SSCF
activities.
34.
Support service contract facility. The contract facilities were established in
both provinces. The trust account to support the contracting approach proved to be an
important mechanism for flexible service delivery. Both provinces are still actively using
the accounts both for project activities and as a mechanism to facilitate other activities.
The contracting process has also been adopted as an ongoing mechanism for service
provision within both provinces. The number of contracts serviced over the duration of
the project was 628. The increasing expenditure through the SSFC from 2002
demonstrates the successful establishment of the SSCF mechanism but thereafter the
average value of the contracts decreased. This was due to the demand from the
farmers for practical training in their own villages. In terms of access to services, the
number of contracts increased in the second half of the project (Figure 5).
Figure 5: Number of Support Services Provider Contracts
for the Service Support Contract Facility, by Year
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Number of contracts
Source: 2009 data from project management unit.

35.
Support services contracts awarded. Through the SSCF management units,
812 support services provider contracts averaging K5,055 were awarded. Of these, 628
or 77% were for direct smallholder support. The rest were for capacity building,
information and public awareness campaigns, and extension program planning and
evaluation. A total of 386 farmer groups participated in project activities. Of these, 33
or 8.6% were women-only groups. Contracts were awarded to improve skills in
growing 12 types of crops and six types of livestock husbandry (including fish), and
two additional modules were developed in response to demand to improve
bookkeeping and financial management skills, cooking skills, and downstream
processing. The latter skills development contributed to strengthening business
enterprise capability and improved life skills such as household budgeting and
household nutrition (Box 1). The success of these two modules was so apparent that
Simbu, the expansion province, has embedded the two modules as a package for any
technical training requested. Of the contracts awarded, 650 or 80% were successfully

12 Papua New Guinea: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project


completed in a timely manner. Uncompleted contracts were due to several support
services providers abandoning the contract after receiving an advance or not reaching
the proposed participants effectively. Support services providers whose contracts were
cancelled were dropped from the support services providers database.
Box 1: Training for New Production
Mr. Kaukesa in Mutsing Village, Makham District was a
subsistence farmer growing mainly beetle nut, coconut, and root
crops. Through the Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project, he
received training in cocoa husbandry and farm time management.
He invested K7,000 in establishing 0.25 hectares of cocoa. He had
not grown cocoa before the training and applied the learning of
time management to both his cocoa crop and for better
management of his time for other crops, too. He has now been
harvesting cocoa for 4 years and earns an annual net income of
K1,500 (2012 prices).
Source: Evaluation mission field visit, December 2012.

36.
Project management. The PCU was established, staffed, and equipped as
scheduled. Quarterly PSC meetings were conducted and project progress reports
regularly submitted to ADB. A computer-generated tracking procedure was helpful in
monitoring the SSCF contracts but the overall project management information system
(MIS) was delayed and incomplete. However, a process for evaluating the extension
program using trained provincial and district DAL officers and support services
providers was developed by an external consultant. This assisted in assessing the
efficiency and impact of the project investments. Overall, project management went
smoothly.

G.

Consultants

37.
The project involved the procurement of long- and short-term consultants. In
general, the consultants appointed for the project design TA and to assist in project
management performed satisfactorily. The performance of the support services
providers was also generally satisfactory. An exception was the implementation of the
contracts for M&E. The appointed consultant did not complete the work requirements;
furthermore, the design underestimated the level of TA required to design and
implement and an effective M&E system and MIS for a pilot project. Consequently, the
project did not have a functional M&E system that could assist the project managers in
effectively tracking progress. The project offices did attempt to install their own data
management systems and this assisted in the preparation of progress reports but was
not sufficient for trend analysis. Similarly, the project collected good data that could
have been analyzed to assist national and provincial DALs in planning for improved
support to smallholder development but this potential was not realized.

CHAPTER 3

Performance Assessment
A.

Overall Assessment

38.
The overall rating of the project is successful (Table 2). The table shows that the
post-evaluation mission lowered the project completion report rating for relevance.
While the project design was relevant, implementation followed the standard project
approach, focused on meeting targets, and was insufficiently adapted to the pilot
nature, which required some flexibility to adjust the project based on findings and
learning. Nevertheless, the objectives of the pilot project were well considered and
timely in relation to PNGs focus on increasing private sector development in the
agriculture sector and decentralization in governance. The project inputs resulted in
positive performance, although the project experienced a series of delays and cash flow
issues. The efficient performance was largely due to an economic internal rate of return
that exceeded the target despite the delays in counterpart activities and higher
coordination cost. ADB and borrower performance was considered satisfactory.
Sustainability, as assessed from the evidence of continued activity 3 years beyond
project closure, was likely. Contracting processes are still active and agricultural
activities supported through the pilot project have demonstrated a reasonable level of
ongoing activity and subsequent growth.
Table 2: Project Performance Ratings
Ratings
Relevance

Effectiveness
Efficiency

Sustainability
Overall
Assessment

PPER Mission
Rating
Comments
Relevant (2)
The project was designed as a
pilot project but implemented as
a project, leading to some
disconnection between
objectives and implementation
Effective
Effective
Effective (2)
SSCFs were established and are
still operating
Less
Less
Efficient (2)
EIRR exceeded economic cost of
Efficient
Efficient
capital, despite partial loan fund
cancellation, and delays in
provision of counterpart funding
Likely
Likely
Likely
Still in operation after project
Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable (2) period and intention to continue
Successful
Successful Successful (2) Positive benefits achieved
despite inefficiencies
PCR
Highly
Relevant

IED
Validation
Relevant

14 Papua New Guinea: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project


Table 2: Project Performance RatingsContinued
Ratings
Other Criteria
Performance of
the Borrower and
Executing Agency

PCR

IED
Validation

PPER Mission
Rating

Satisfactory Satisfactory

Satisfactory

Performance of
ADB

Satisfactory Satisfactory

Satisfactory

Impact

Not Rated

Moderate

Moderate

Comments
Government counterpart
funding was largely complete,
although delayed; allocated
coordination costs were
exceeded
Supervision was regular and
thorough; opening of country
office facilitated communication
Impact was substantial and
lasting for about 55% of
smallholders

ADB = Asian Development Bank, EIRR = economic internal rate of return, IED = Independent Evaluation
Department, PCR = project completion report, PPER = project performance evaluation report, SSCF =
support services contract facility.
Note: Rating scale: highly satisfactory = 3; satisfactory = 2; less than satisfactory = 1; unsatisfactory = 0. The
overall assessment is based on the performance of relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability.
Source: Independent Evaluation Department.

B.

Relevance

39.
Project design relevance. The pilot project design was consistent with the
strategies of both ADB and the government, the national and provincial DALs, and the
needs of smallholder farmers at the time of design. The project was in line with the
strategic priorities of the 1999 ADB country operational strategy and the governments
Medium Term Development Strategy, 19972002. The strategy emphasized the need
for (i) providing training at the lower levels of government to ensure that the new roles
and responsibilities associated with decentralization are carried out as envisaged, and
(ii) contracting out the delivery of services with the aim of improving flexibility and
cost-effectiveness. The development strategy was complemented by the 1995 OLPG in
that it focused on improving the impact and efficiency of government services.
40.
The project supported the strategic objectives of ADB for PNG and the
development strategy of the government to revive a stagnant agriculture sector. An
important priority of ADBs operational strategy was to improve policies and services in
the agriculture sector, which provides income to 85% of the population. To stimulate
smallholder production and agricultural growth, it was necessary to increase public
service delivery to the rural population as well as improve operational links with
semiprivate and nongovernment service providers. Improvement of links was to be
facilitated by adopting appropriate contracting-out arrangements. The government
therefore needed to enhance its capacity to identify smallholder needs, choose and
contract appropriate service providers, and supervise service delivery. The project was
designed to assist the government in this effort and hence is considered relevant.
41.
Continuing relevance. The provision of extension services remains a critical
challenge in PNG. There is continued need for support at the national and provincial
levels. In addition, there is growing recognition of the need to support and provide
extension to the district levels. The demand-driven nature, using PRAP, of the pilot
project and the potential to involve all levels of government while incorporating a role
for a growing private sector remain relevant. In addition, the pilot project design

Performance Assessment 15
included a capacity building component that was essential in addressing the weak
implementation capacity of institutions in PNG. At completion, the institutional
capacities of DALs and service providers were improved in community-based planning
and implementing extension support services. The project supported the OLPG
implementation by requiring provinces and districts to take responsibility for most of
the counterpart funds and for allocating resources. The trust accounts are still
operational and the provincial governments continue to allocate a small allowance to
continue support services provider contracting. In recognition of the continued
potential of the projects approach, the New Zealand Agency for International
Development (NZAID) has provided a TA grant to support the continuation of the pilot
project in the two pilot project provinces and expand it to two additional provinces,
Simbu and Central. The PRAP model has now been adopted by the Coffee Industry
Corporation, Simbu Province,15 and by a major nongovernment organization (NGO)
operating in Morobe Province. It was also integrated into the National Agriculture
Development Plan, 20062011 (NADP) and a related agricultural commodity
development project of the World Bank.
42.
Design innovation of the pilot approach (decentralization and private
sector contracting). The project built on lessons from previous ADB projects, the
experiences of the Australian Agency for International Development, the International
Fund for Agricultural Development, and the World Bank, and an analysis of the
challenges to providing support services for smallholder farmers. The previous
Agricultural Research and Extension Project aimed to support research and extension
services. The pilot project had a similar objective but used a new approach. Given the
relatively novel approach, the idea of a pilot project was appropriate. It introduced a
new form of decentralized, participatory planning that is being adopted beyond the
project. In addition to strengthening the implementation capacity of the executing and
implementing institutions, the pilot project introduced the relatively new concept of
contracting the provision of support services to private and public providers. While
contracting was not a new concept in PNG, it was not commonly used in agriculture
support services and was an innovative way of providing extension services.
43.
Alternative approaches. The pilot nature of the project justified the more
limited project size and scope. However, given the challenges experienced related to
delays and the cancellation of loan funds, consideration could have been given to a
smaller TA to test the approach, then upscaled into a larger project; or including the
pilot as a technical component within a larger project with a commercial focus and
larger absorptive capacity for loan funds. Further, insufficient consideration was given
during the design to the implications of implementing a pilot project, given standard
M&E and supervision processes. For example, there was no guidance on how the
replication and upscaling of the pilot findings should be undertaken during
implementation.

15

Central province was willing to replicate the pilot projects approach but experienced issues resulting from
poor human resource recruitment for project coordination, so it ceased funding the project. The evaluation
mission found that, despite little activity to date, there is still interest to replicate the project but with a
different staffing arrangement.

16 Papua New Guinea: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project


44.
Innovation within the
sector.
The
contracting
approach
was
to
form
producer groups for training.
This has resulted in the
formation of a number of
producer groups that have
since grown, diversified, and
explored new products (e.g.,
cassava processing [photo on
next page]). Small groups
formed through the pilot
project have developed into
agricultural production and
marketing cooperatives, improving the internal service provision and increasing the
ease of servicing for provincial and district DAL officers.
45.
The project is assessed relevant. The pilot project design was in line with the
national development context as well as ADB strategies and the guiding government
policies such as OLPG, which promotes decentralization and the National Agricultural
Development Plan. The pilot project introduced the concept of contracting the
provision of support services out to private and public providers. In introducing a new
concept, the design suggested the project be implemented as a pilot project and then
be scaled up and replicated. The pilot nature of the project was effective but lack of
good monitoring systems constrained learning and responsiveness. The project
mechanism, focusing on output delivery, was not sufficiently responsive to the learning
process. The project overestimated the absorptive capacity of the provincial
governments and existing service providers related to the ability to provide support to
small farmers who are not fully commercialized.

C.

Effectiveness

46.
The effectiveness of the pilot project was primarily assessed in terms of the
goals of increasing the production, productivity, and income of smallholder farmers in
the Eastern Highlands and Morobe provinces and ensuring sustainability of farming;
and enhancing the status of women in agriculture. In addition, the project aimed to
establish an effective mechanism for financing private sector service provision in a
manner appropriate to smallholder needs and to increase access to support services for
women smallholders. The objectives of the pilot project were to increase the quantity,
intensity, and quality of support services for smallholders; and strengthen private sector
services providers and their linkages with government. The project design framework
identified five outcome indicators but did not specify targets. The achievements in
relation to the outcomes are summarized in Table 3.

Performance Assessment 17
Table 3: Outcome Indicators and Achievements
Indicator
1. Increased number of
smallholders with
access to support
services
2. Increased intensity of
support services

Output
Number of smallholders reached: 11,835 (52% of target)
Good spread of contracts across districts demonstrating improved
access
About 35% participation of women
Limited provincial DAL extension budget before project, with
budget covering only staff costs
Increased activity during implementation due to project
management and SSCF budget

3. Improved quality of
support services

628 support service contracts completed through the contracting


facility
PRAP addressed farmers' needs better than previous top-down
DAL approach
Service provider training improved quality of services
80% of contracts were successfully completed

4. Increased number of
service providers
5. Improved linkages of
service providers at
different government
levels

Strengthened existing service providers and developed new lead


farmer service providers
Improved linkages in general but mixed results between national
and provincial governments and the respective DALs
In Eastern Highlands, the links were good between government
and service providers
In Morobe, good relationships among service providers but
limited relationship between provincial DAL and service providers

DAL = Department of Agriculture and Livestock, PRAP = participatory rural appraisal planning, SSCF =
support services contract facility.
Source: ADB. 1998. Report and Recommendation of the President to the Board of Directors: Proposed Loan
to Papua New Guinea for the Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project. Manila; and evaluation findings.

47.
Appropriateness of services to smallholder needs and women. Only 52% of
the targeted households were reached but the targeted 30% participation for women
was achieved33% in Eastern Highlands and 37% in Morobe. The demand-driven
approach to identification of service requirements meant that the extension services
provided were generally appropriate to farmer needs and largely delivered at village
level. The participants considered this field-based approach satisfactory although it
resulted in smaller contracts than expected and lower funds utilization. The
participatory planning tools were unanimously supported by DAL officers, service
providers, and farmers as a useful tool for identifying smallholder needs and the PRAP
approach is still being used for needs identification. The training in financial
management was as important as product training because it helped farmers to be
more commercially oriented for all of their farm products. Overall, the training served
as a catalystallowing farmers to expand and diversify their activities (Box 2). The trust
account is an important mechanism for flexibility service delivery.

18 Papua New Guinea: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project


Box 2: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project as a Catalyst for Smallholder
Development
The Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project
served as a catalyst for development in the
Waran community of Kabwum District,
Morobe Province. The community began with
participatory planning, which identified
opportunities and constraints for coffee
development. After receiving basic training
from the project on growing, drying,
processing, and marketing of coffee, the
community had the basic skills and capacity
to receive support from other sources, which
allowed them to further develop their coffee
production. For example, following the
training, the provincial government provided
the community with an ecoprocessor (pictured) to pulp and wash the coffee beans. At the
time of the evaluation, Waran has 65 hectares of coffee and has plans to expand to 125
hectares. It is also working with other partners to explore opportunities to install a micro
hydro facility for electricity.
Source: Evaluation mission field visit, December 2012.

48.
Improvement in support services to smallholders. Prior to implementation
of the project, government extension services had almost ceased to operate and
agriculture was in decline. The project benefited the pilot provinces by providing
technical inputs to farmer groups and building the capacity of the provincial DALs to
manage support service contracts. It improved the access of smallholders in the two
provinces to agricultural support services through the 638 contracts supported by the
contracts facility. The training component was well received by farmer groups,
government employees, and support services providers. The adoption of skills and
technologies helped to improve the livelihood of participating smallholders and their
families. The improvement in quality of support services was assessed as positive, based
on the feedback from the participants in service delivery activities. There was no
baseline from which to measure improvement but the proxy measurement was level of
satisfaction with services provided. An assessment of the service provider feedback was
that 80% of contracts were satisfactorily completed. Supervision missions noted some
concern that the feedback forms were gathered by the contractor themselves and
therefore had inherent bias. During the evaluation mission, the team reviewed a sample
of the feedback forms and the other associated data such as the provincial DAL
feedback on the sessions and the post-activity feasibility assessment for the project
completion report (PCR). Overall, the service feedback sheets are considered to provide
a fair representation of the services provided and they show there was a high degree of
satisfaction with the services provided.
49.
Strengthening of private sector service providers. The number of active
service providers supporting the smallholders in each province has risen sharply with
the pilot projects support. The capacity building for provincial DAL and support
services provider staff has been good, particularly for building skills in planning,
contracting, and management for both the contractors and the government. The
service providers have formed associations that have assisted in gaining and
distributing information on available service provision opportunities. In Morobe, the
association is registered active and has financial members. The range of service

Performance Assessment 19
provision has diversified from the original service providers that were mainly in
technical services to a wide range of skills in post-harvest processing farm and
enterprise management and marketing. In addition, SSCF management units decided
to hire service providers from the support services provider database to monitor and
evaluate the performance of other service providers. This self-monitoring practice was
supported by some verification by the provincial and district DALs.
50.
Private sector support service provider financing mechanism. The SSCF was
established and operated. The flexible nature of the pilot project allowed it to adapt
and recruit support services providers from leading farmers, entrepreneurs, and
provincial DAL staff. The project strengthened the implementation and managerial
capacity of the national and provincial DAL staff and the service providers. These
contracting activities were new to provincial DAL staff and have been adopted and
incorporated into their daily activities. Although more could have been done in terms
of changing staff mind sets and functions through training and other activities, early in
the project. This could have supported the envisaged changing roles of the provincial
and district DAL staff from direct service provision to contract management. The
training for staff in computer skills has also been important. SSCF steering committees
were established in the two provinces as planned and met quarterly as expected. The
provincial DAL SSCF management units assessed possible SSCF contract proposals and
identified providers capable of carrying out the support services. The SSCF steering
committee approved the proposals of the support services providers. This system
provided provincial DAL staff, through PRAP, with experience in identifying extension
needs, selecting and choosing support services providers, and implementing and
monitoring extension programs.
51.
The project is rated effective. Most of the expected outcomes were achieved.
Despite the overoptimistic target of direct beneficiaries and the overestimated
absorptive capacity of the provinces at design to identify, prepare, and implement
contracts, the project was successful in extending the reach of support services across
the provinces. The pilot nature of the project was effective but the lack of good
monitoring systems constrained learning and responsiveness. Good lessons have
emerged over time and have been adopted within the provincial DALs. Service provision
has intensified and improved in terms of access, quality, and diversity of services
provided. Provincial DAL staff and the service providers are more capable and their
roles have shifted to service the smallholder sector more effectively in the two target
provinces. The focus on output targets rather than learning led to the evolution of
different models, rather than one best practice model that could be upscaled
nationwide.

D.

Efficiency

52.
The project was extended twice and over $2.19 million of the loan was
cancelled, $2 million after midterm review as surplus, and $0.19 unspent at project
closure. Delays in provision of counterpart funds constrained project activities and
contributed to the project not achieving its targeted scope. The national elections held
in 2002 and 2007 further slowed implementation. The limited absorptive capacity in
the provincial DALs, caused by unclear institutional arrangements and insufficient skill
sets, also contributed to the delays. Nevertheless, the financial and economic rates of
return were positive (slightly above target) and evidence was found during the mission
of continuing increases in economic activity.

20 Papua New Guinea: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project


53.
The economic internal rate of return for the support services provider approach
was estimated at about 14%, indicating efficiency in achieving project outcomes.16 The
detailed approach to determining the EIRR was validated during the evaluation mission.
This involved a return to 16 of the 62 farm enterprises assessed during the PCR (a 26%
sample). The sample confirmed the high return on investment for some enterprises and
the failure for others. Overall, a positive economic benefit was assessed to have been
achieved by over 50% of the farmers. The PCR attributed the economic efficiency of the
support services provider approach to agricultural extension to, among other things,
the farmer-demand-driven nature of project activities, the performance-based service
delivery system, and the devolution of responsibilities to the districts in identifying and
managing field activities.
54.
Process inefficiencies. Inefficiencies existed in the implementation process.
The project was delayed by 3 years, $2.0 million of the loan was cancelled, and
counterpart funds from provincial governments were not fully provided. The delay
mostly affected the efficiency of the activities aimed at building the technical,
managerial, and administrative skills of staff and services providers. The delayed and
incomplete installation of the MIS diminished the capacity of the provincial
governments to monitor the SSCF process and outcomes effectively. Further, the
project extension policy and guidelines and operating procedures were formulated only
in the 5th year.
55.
The project is rated efficient. Despite the inefficiency in the implementation
process and the resulting delays and loan cancelations, the project is rated efficient
because of the acceptable EIRR.

E.

Sustainability

56.
Continuation of the project. There are positive indications of sustainability.
The provincial governments have made commitments to allocate funds to support
continued application of the contract facility model. Funds were allocated under the
NADP for continued support of the support services provider model, but the expected
support did not eventuate because political processes diverted funds to other purposes.
Nevertheless, institutional arrangements for continued implementation of this model
have been well established by the project and have been continuing. Stakeholders
(provincial DALs, support services providers, and smallholders) are very familiar with
their roles and gained
significant experience
Box 3: Continuing Community Economic Development
in implementing the
support
services
The Sehoka Community Group in Notofano village, Goroka district
comprises 45 women and 30 men. The Smallholder Support
provider
approach.
Services Pilot Project provided training in fish pond husbandry.
Smallholders are using
After the training in 2006, they established six new ponds as a
the
skills
and
collective enterprise with 120 fingerlings in each at a cost of
experience
they
about K1,000 per pond. The ponds have been very successful and
gained
from
the
now some members have their own fishponds. The net return on
project (Box 3) and
annual investment is about 35% and employment for young
are mobilizing their
people has increased through fish husbandry, processing, and
communities
for
marketing.
continued
and
Source: Evaluation mission field visit, December 2012.
stronger links with the
market (Box 4).
16

See Appendix 5 for PCR assessments.

Performance Assessment 21
57.
Replication of key elements of the approach. The pilot project approach has
drawn strong interest from other quarters within the agriculture sector and in
decentralization initiatives. For example, the Coffee Industry Corporation has adopted
the concept. Bris Kanda, a major NGO in Morobe Province, has applied the contractingout approach in collaboration with the project. Simbu Province has adopted and is
financing the concept. Other provinces have reportedly expressed interest in replicating
the model. Local industry has noted an increase in the production of key commodities
and a strengthening of business acumen and practices through the project. The
increase in production contributes toward additional employment in downstream
processing. All these indicate that the project is likely to sustain the outcomes beyond
project completion.
58.
Capacity developed. At the farmer level, there is evidence of enhanced
capacity. A moderate proportion of activities are still operating and some champions
are emerging who have achieved substantial growth, diversification, and
commercialization (Box 4). Most farmers have not been able to sustain the specific
activities for which training was designed because of lack of seeds or other inputs,
marketing constraints, or social reasons. However, the results of the training still
achieve benefits in increased knowledge and practical capability.
Box 4: A Champion for Women's Development
Jenifa Kena was a primary school dropout who
in 2002 was a home-based wife and mother.
She attended a Smallholder Support Services
Pilot Project training on African yam
production. She started her own production
and did so well that she was asked to train
another group of women. She proved to be a
good trainer and became a regular support
service provider. She had never signed a legal
document or earned her own money. She then
attended training on floriculture and also did
well and started a floriculture business. Both
activities flourished and she started buying
yams and flowers from other farmers and marketing them. Through her businesses, she has
earned over K2,000,000 in the last 10 years. She now buys from over 100 farmers, both men
and women, trains women in agriculture production, has purchased a vehicle and a
restaurant, and has recently paid for her own overseas floriculture training.
Source: Evaluation mission field visit, December 2012.

59.
Sustainability is considered likely. At the farm level, beneficiary capacity has
been increased. Some farmers are using the knowledge gained to diversify and improve
their production and marketing in the future. The development of basic skills related to
financial literacy, agronomic practices, and processing have been a catalyst for select
farmers to link with other opportunities and become more commercial. At the
institutional level, project operations are continuing in both provinces even after
project closure. The trust account is a good mechanism for sustainability, as the facility
allows the DAL to operate in a responsive, controlled, and time-effective manner. In
addition, the pilot project model is being replicated in Simbu Province and other
elements of the approach are being used by other government agencies, NGOs, and
international agency projects.

CHAPTER 4

Other Assessments
A.

ADB and Executing Agency Performance

60.
Overall, the performance of the borrower and executing agency is rated
satisfactory, though borderline. The project was successful, but this was mainly due
to the high demand for support from the smallholders and the quality of services
provided at the provincial level rather than the overall borrower and executing agency
performance. Initially, the national DAL, as the executing agency, fulfilled its expected
role in starting up the project (e.g., PCU and trust accounts), and implementation
benefited from a single project coordinator throughout the project period. A rating of
satisfactory for project performance was achieved throughout most of the project
implementation. The support services provider approach has been adopted by PNGs
coffee industry and the adjacent Simbu provincial government. Project supervision,
coordination, and operation were largely effective in ensuring that most expected
outcomes were attained. The Department of Finance provided nearly $1.0 million
more in counterpart funds than expected at appraisal.
61.
Nevertheless, substantial delays occurred in the completion of audit reports and
issuance of audit certificates by the Auditor Generals Office. There were considerable
challenges in funds flow both from the national to provincial government and from the
provincial government to the provincial DALs. The disruptions in funds flow was a main
contributory factor to the need for two project extensions. The provincial DALs were
hindered by cash flow difficulties from the respective provincial government. Although
counterpart funding was provided at national level to overcome lower than expected
provincial counterpart funding in Morobe, the overall counterpart funding provided
was lower than loan agreement levels.
62.
Moreover, the national DAL did not demonstrate a high degree of support for
the pilot project, as had been envisaged in the project design. Project implementation
was largely left to the provincial PCU, without sufficient strategic support from the
executing agency. Implementation delays were not adequately addressed by the PCU
and the national DAL. The projects potential as a pilot project for provincial and
economic development was acknowledged in the NADP but the national DAL did not
sufficiently seize the opportunity to capitalize on the learning of the pilot project. The
lack of an effective M&E system meant that insufficient information was generated on
the project as a pilot project for wider replication.
63.
The national DAL, as the executing agency, executed its expected role as
demonstrated in setting up the PCU and formulating the instruments for the trust
accounts. The same project coordinator held the position throughout the project,
which helped in building relationships with ADB officers, central agency officers,
project staff, and other stakeholders.

Other Assessments 23
64.
Overall, ADB performance is rated satisfactory. ADBs PNG Resident Mission
handled the administration of the project after 2005. Consultations and dialogue with
government and with the executing and implementing agencies took place regularly.
ADB fielded 10 project supervision missions during project implementation. Particularly
in the early stages of the project, ADB worked with the national and provincial DALs to
establish the project approaches. The establishment of the ADB PNG Resident Mission
facilitated communications between the government and ADB, and contributed to a
more comprehensive supervision approach. ADB was responsive to the national DALs
request to extend the loan closing date and to adjust the financing plan to
accommodate changes in project costs. More could have been done to support the
government to take advantage of the project and its pilot nature in line with the ADB
strategic focus on knowledge solutions. This would have required supervision missions
with more emphasis on learning, problem solving, and responsiveness with a view
toward replication and upscaling.

B.

Institutional Development

65.
The project has made a contribution to institutional strengthening within
the two pilot areas. However, to different effect in each province. In Eastern
Highlands Province, good practices have been directly embedded in the provincial DAL,
e.g., the project-introduced PRAP has been slightly modified and is being used in all
districts. The Eastern Highlands provincial DAL worked closely with the district DALs
and has assisted them to strengthen their capacity in proposal writing and contracting.
The service provider ranking practices have also been embedded in DAL recruitment
processes for service providers and staff. The SSPA is not as active as in Morobe but still
has about 60 financial members despite not yet being formally registered.
66.
Morobe Province. In Morobe, the project office was established separately
from the provincial DAL and operates virtually in an autonomous way with the service
providers. The SSPA is registered. It has 104 financial members and over 300 members
on its database. Many service providers are still operating and some at a higher level
than before the project. For others, their ability to continue service provision is limited
by available resources for contracts. Overall, the project mechanisms have been
sustained but they lack strategic links with ongoing funding, therefore there is a higher
risk in Morobe that processes may eventually cease.
67.
National level. The institutional impact has been less than projected at the
national level. The potential to replicate the pilot projects concept and processes in the
NADP was lost because implementation funds were diverted for other purposes. The
change in government officials has reduced the level of ownership of the pilot project
during implementation, despite the consistent staffing in the PCU. Similarly in Morobe,
the PCU operates independently, with little oversight and line management of the
national DAL. This has led to the PCU being marginalized at present. There are,
however, indications of a strengthening of the strategic focus of the national DAL with
the generation of a new strategic plan. The strategic plan was in draft form during the
evaluation mission and incorporated a clear direction toward a private sector approach
at all levels, consistent with the pilot projects approach. Furthermore, a recent increase
in core funding allocation to the districts may result in allocation to the contract
facility.
68.
Organizations that support smallholder farmers and overall institutional
capacity. The project has improved the access of smallholder farmers to agricultural
support services. The formation of farmers' groups has facilitated local service delivery

24 Papua New Guinea: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project


and improved service delivery by the DALs at each level. The access to private sector
service provision through the trust fund facility is continuing albeit at a lower level than
during project implementation. In terms of capacity building, the capacity of the
national and provincial DAL staff to implement the support services providers approach
to extension support services was strengthened.

C.

Impact

69.
Overall, the impact of the project was rated moderate. 17 From an
institutional perspective, there were clear positive effects on farmers skills and
knowledge from access to agriculture support services. The project has improved the
access of smallholder farmers to agricultural support services through the trust fund
activities. The Eastern Highlands DAL continues to be active in supporting smallholders.
The Morobe DAL does not have as strong a relationship with smallholders, with most
project support being carried on through the service provider network when funds are
available. In terms of capacity building, the capacity of the national and provincial DAL
staff to implement the support services providers approach to extension support
services was strengthened. The skills of service providers were developed and improved
through the business training provided by the project. At the national level, the
institutional impact has been less evident. Although the pilot projects approach was
identified as a mechanism for national smallholder support through the NADP,
implementation of the plan has not eventuated.
70.
Follow-up to economic assessment shows continued impact. Although
baseline and comprehensive impact data are absent, the 62 economic assessments
carried out in 2007 demonstrate an increase in production and an increase in income
for about 80% of participant groups. Information is insufficient to determine the extent
of benefit within the groups. A small sample, 16 of the 62 assessment participant
groups (26%), were re-contacted during the evaluation mission; of these, 62% still
demonstrate positive impacts such as an increase in production and an increase in
income. The remaining 38% were considered failures. The analysis determined that six
of the activities had failed, three because of lack of the required farm inputs, two
caused by farmer group management issues, and one resulting from changing interest.
Of the other 10 activities, six had continued successfully and expanded to the extent
that the smallholder had significantly expanded their operations (Box 3) and the
remaining four had not continued the specific activity in which they had received
training because of changes in the market, but had successfully applied the financial
management and post-harvest training to other activities and hence demonstrated a
positive benefit. The remaining 10 (62.5%) demonstrated continuing impact from the
support services, and six (37.5) of the sample showed signs that the original impact of
the training had been capitalized onleading to diversification, opening of new market
links, post-harvest processing, and other secondary benefits.
71.
Mixed impact on women. An associated objective of the project was to
enhance the status of women in agriculture. The project design broadly defined this in
terms of participation. The targeted participation rate for women was 30%. Womenonly groups comprised 8.5% of the total contracts; this was considered to be the most
effective means of reaching women participants. However, most of the groups were
mixed, including a varying number of women participants, and leading to an average
of about 33% women participants. The design was not specific in terms of expected
quantitative and qualitative improvements in socioeconomic status for women but the
17

Impact is rated as substantial (3), significant (2), moderate (1), or negligible (0).

Other Assessments 25
evaluation mission did find substantial impact for women both in increased
involvement in agricultural activities and in capacity. For instance, for many it was the
first time they had been involved in planning activities (through PRAP), completed
evaluation of service providers, and signed participation lists; and for women service
providers, the first time they had signed contracts and had their own income (Box 4).
72.
Capacity developed. The satisfaction levels for the training provided were high
but the level of adoption was constrained by lack of capital for farmers to purchase the
necessary materials to implement the training. The adoption rate was estimated to be
over 20%, which is comparable with other training-only interventions for economic
activities. The rate was improved when the respective DAL or support services provider
staff gave follow-up support and coaching. Smallholders that participated in the
project also benefited from this capacity building component in that they had
experience of participatory planning, playing a central role in the decision making
process that defined their support services needs. A further secondary benefit from the
PRAP was the frequent involvement of village leaders in the process. This led to a better
understanding by local leaders of other development needs such as for seeds,
infrastructure development, access to finance, etc. The PRAP activities were reported to
lead to additional support, often financial, from the local governments beyond the
direct technical support from the provincial DAL.
73.
Overall, the project has been a catalyst toward diversification and higher
capacity for commercialization. The improved financial literacy has contributed to
longer term development in wider household and commercial activities. The impact for
women has been good, leading to more confidence, knowledge, and engagement in
market activities. In addition to the direct impact for project participants, some
evidence exists of replication (indirect benefits) by other farmers as they observed and
copied the improvements made by successful farmers and employment generation
through farm labor and expanded agro-industry. The follow-on support of NZAID has
provided some technical support to the two project provinces and led to expansion of
the approach into Simbu and Central provinces. Simbu Province has been making good
progress despite delays in receiving counterpart funding from the national DAL. Central
Province has experienced internal staffing issues that have resulted in the suspension of
project operations at present.

CHAPTER 5

Issues, Lessons, and


Follow-Up Actions
A.

Issues

74.
Poor monitoring and evaluation and knowledge management. During
project design, the technical review committee highlighted the need for a customdesigned M&E system from commencement, particularly because of the pilot nature of
the project. This did not occur and the monitoring processes established were output
oriented rather than focused on managing information for the innovations being
tested through the project. The full project design documents did provide guidance on
how the pilot project should be implemented. The intention was diluted, though, as
the documents were summarized for loan processing and the project implementation
guidelines were developed. The installation and operation of the MIS was delayed and
incomplete. No comprehensive baseline information was gathered. The project offices
did collect comprehensive data through the PRAP processes but this was not collated
and synthesized as a means of generating learning.
75.
Lack of replication. The pilot project in general was a successful investment.
However, it was designed with a view to subsequent replication and scaling up.
Important lessons were learned in shifting the Government of PNG to a competitive,
private sector contract management approach. The lessons were incorporated in the
NADP and the follow-on NZAID support but the implementation of both initiatives have
stalled. While the initiatives in the two pilot provinces are likely to be sustained, no
alternative mechanism has been identified for capitalizing on the lessons learned and
knowledge generated.

B.

Lessons

76.
Service provider contracting was successful. The projects use of contracting
out as a new approach to the delivery of support services proved successful. It was
relevant, effective, efficient, and benefits were mostly sustained. The contracting
approach has improved the access of smallholder farmers to agricultural support
services and has strengthened the institutional capacities of the national and provincial
DALs and support services providers in implementing contractual service delivery. The
approach has gained acceptance with and beyond the project stakeholders. Other
provinces and development agencies have already replicated the support services
provider model.
77.
The trust fund mechanism facilitated flexibility. Prior to the pilot project,
agricultural service provision suffered from bureaucratic delays that were not

Issues, Lessons, and Follow-Up Actions 27


appropriate to the seasonal and market requirements for agricultural development. The
trust fund modality allowed an accountable and responsive mechanism that is being
continued and valued by the provincial DALs and service providers.
78.
Participatory planning provided a strong foundation for local
development activities. The PRAP process was widely accepted by the targeted
population. It was an effective mechanism for identifying required services but also
served to identify local development needs. These included the formation of producer
groups for higher level production, consolidation, and marketing. In addition, it led to
broader economic support by local leaders for other requirements such as
infrastructure and access to inputs. The demand-driven approach to planning identified
important elements of success that were not originally in the project design; for
instance, the demand for training proved to be a mixture of technical and financial
training.
79.
Investment in service provision in agriculture as an economic catalyst. This
evaluation identified that post-project impact included additional benefits that had
emerged from the catalytic effect of the pilot projects initiatives. The introduction of a
contracting mechanism generated capacity within the provincial government to engage
more with the private sector. This resulted in other initiatives such as trade fairs for
local producers, use of service providers for other agriculture sector activities, and use
of improved recruitment processes in other sectors. For service providers, many had not
considered use of their skills within the private sector for service provision, e.g., past
provincial DAL officers, lead farmers, etc. The opportunities under the pilot project led
them to start a new enterprise, marketing their skills both independently and through
the SSPA. For individual farmers, the training, particularly in post-harvest and enterprise
skills, led to participants expanding and diversifying their economic activities for both
agricultural and non-agricultural enterprises.
80.
Consolidation of the private sector contracting process. The success of the
pilot project approach provides a means to improve access to agricultural support
services across PNG. More could have been done to capture the learning from the pilot
activities and extend them nationwide in PNG. With replication of the pilot project and
further devolution to provincial and district DAL's institutions, programs, and budgets,
there is potential to improve agricultural quality, quantity, and local economic
development. In this regard, the government needs to consider whether to take a
strategic approach to private sector involvement in agriculture by adopting the
projects approach in all provinces and districts as was proposed in the NADP, or
whether the lessons learned will remain within the pilot provinces.

C.

Follow-up Actions

81.
Efficacy of pilot projects. For ADB, the project provides useful lessons on how
a pilot project can generate important knowledge but that a customized M&E system is
critical. Management of knowledge, replication, and upscaling mechanisms require a
specific focus during implementation and wider promotion of lessons should be
considered when designing pilot projects in the future. ADB is no longer focused on the
agriculture sector in PNG but the lessons can be incorporated through work with
partners in PNG and in other relevant ADB pilot or extension projects.

Appendixes

APPENDIX 1: EVALUATION FRAMEWORK

Criteria
Specific Evaluation Questions/Indicators
I. Project Performance
A. Relevance
Are project objectives consistent with national agriculture
and rural development strategies and policies, the country
strategies and concerned ADB sector policies (Food Security
Action Plan), as well as the needs of the beneficiaries?

Data Sources
RRP
Loan agreement

Appraisal report
Were the project strategy (i.e., component mix),
corresponding financial allocations, project management and
MTR and BTORs
execution, supervision, and monitoring and evaluation
arrangements appropriate for achieving the projects core
objectives? Were the components of objectives realistic given PCR
local agro ecological and socioeconomic conditions?
Has the project design been participatory, i.e., has it taken
into consideration input and needs expressed by key
stakeholders, including the government, executing agencies,
service providers, and the expected beneficiaries?

PCR validation
report
2003 CAPE/GAD
evaluation

Has the final appraisal report integrated relevant and


pertinent lessons learned in PNG from ADB and evaluations as
well as from management comments during design? Was the Direct field
observations by the
appraisal report consistent with the TA report? Did they
evaluation mission
gather key information on the local conditions?
Has the project benefited from available knowledge (for
example, the experience of other similar projects in the area
or in the country)?

Key informant
interviews

Assess ex-ante and ex-post relevance. Are the original


objectives still relevant at the time of evaluation? Have
significant changes in the project context or ADB policies
been retrofitted to the design?
Was the linkage between development objectives, intended
outcomes, and outputs coherent? Have project objectives
remained relevant over the period of implementation?
Does the envisaged targeting approach facilitate access for
disadvantaged groups/households (smallholders and women)
as planned?
Did the project create a conducive environment for
enhancing the technical and managerial capacities of key
stakeholders (government and service providers)?
As this was a pilot project, was there sufficient M&E and
flexibility in the design to learn from it and adapt the project
as needed?
B. Effectiveness

The objective of the project was to increase the access by


smallholder households in two provinces to improved
agricultural support services, thereby increasing agricultural

RRP
Loan agreement

30 Papua New Guinea: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project


Criteria

Specific Evaluation Questions/Indicators


production, productivity, and the income of smallholders,
and helping to ensure the sustainability of their farming
systems.
To what extent has the project objective been achieved? The
evaluation will consider the DMF and other indicators such
as:
Changes in the number of smallholders (those with less
than 0.5 hectares) with access to support services
Changes in the intensity/frequency of support services
provided

Data Sources
Appraisal report
MTR and BTORs
PCR
PCR validation
report
GAD evaluation

Changes in the quality of support services


Changes in the number of service providers
Changes in the effectiveness of service provision and
linkages of service providers at different government
levels

PCU
documentation
Direct field
observations by the
evaluation mission

Did farming practices, area, and intensity change?


What were their changes in yields, total output, and
cropping patterns?
Did marketing practices change?
Has the sustainability of farming practices (soil and water
protection, rotation, etc.) changed?
An associated objective was to enhance the status of women
in agriculture by focusing support services on food crop
production, which traditionally was the domain of women.
As such the evaluation will also consider:
Changes in support services for food production and
women
Changes in womens use of support services
Changes in womens agricultural practices and yields
To what extent have the expected outputs been attained?
Output 1: Establishing a support service contract facility in
each of the two provinces to improve performance-based
contractual agricultural support services to smallholders
Output 2: Capacity building for agricultural staff at the
national, provincial district, and local government levels,
as well as for smallholder support service providers
including semiprivate and nongovernment agencies and
groups
Output 3: Effective project coordination, linking activities,
and outputs

Key informant
interviews
Focus group
discussions

Evaluation Framework 31
Criteria

Specific Evaluation Questions/Indicators


Overall, the PPER will try to explain the outcomes achieved:

Data Sources

What factors explain the reasons for the above results?


In particular, were there any major changes in the overall
context (e.g., policy framework, political situation,
institutional set-up, etc.) that affected project
implementation and overall results? If yes, what were they
and did ADB and the government make the required
adjustments to project design and implementation to
ensure the achievement of objectives?
C. Efficiency

The PPER will consider both economic and process level


efficiency when assessing how resources were used to
achieve the outcomes.
What was the project EIRR? If it cannot be recalculated,
the PPER will check the PCR assumptions and validate its
EIRR.
Is the cost ratio of inputs to outputs comparable to local,
national, or regional benchmarks for support services?
What are the loan costs per beneficiary reached (both at
the time of appraisal and evaluation) and how do they
compare with other loan costs of ADB (or those of other
development partner) in PNG?
What were the administrative costs per beneficiary
reached and how do they compare with other ADBfunded operations (or those of other donors) in the same
country or other countries?
Were there any delays in project implementation and
delivery that may affect benefits or costs in a significant
manner?

RRP
Loan agreement
Appraisal report
MTR and BTORs
PCR
PCR validation
report
PCU documentation
Direct field
observations by the
evaluation mission
Key informant
interviews

In addition to delays and cost overruns, were there


unnecessary complications in project management that
could have been avoided?
What are the factors that help explain the efficiency
performance?
D. Sustainability

Was a specific exist strategy prepared and agreed upon by PCR


key partners to ensure post-project sustainability?
PCR validation
How resilient to changes (e.g., government and
report
institutional arrangements) are the achievements?
What are the chances that benefits generated by the
project will continue in the medium term after project
closure, and what factors militate in favor of or against
maintaining benefits?
Political sustainability: Is there clear indication of
government commitment (both at national and local level)
to supporting the project after the loan closing date, for

PCU documentation
Direct field
observations by the
evaluation mission

32 Papua New Guinea: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project


Criteria

Specific Evaluation Questions/Indicators


example, in terms of provision of funds for selected
activities, human resource availability, continuity of propoor policies and participatory development approaches,
and institutional support?
Social sustainability and ownership (as PNG is still a very
traditional society): Do project activities benefit from the
engagement, participation, and ownership of local
communities, grassroots organizations, and the rural
poor? Were the needs of indigenous communities
addressed?

Data Sources
Key informant
interviews
Focus group
discussions

Institutional/organizational sustainability: Are involved


organizations/institutions endowed with sufficient staff,
recurrent budget, and a mandate to continue providing
critical services?
Technical sustainability: Are adopted approaches
technically viable? Do project users have access to
adequate training for maintenance?
Economic and financial sustainability: Are the economic
activities promoted by the project generating economic
profits or losses (net of subsidies)? What is the likely
resilience of economic activities to shocks or progressive
exposure to competition and reduction of subsidies?
Environmental sustainability: Are the ecosystem and
environmental resources (e.g., fresh water availability, soil
fertility, vegetative cover) likely to contribute to project
benefits or is a depletion process taking place?
II. Institutional Development
A. Institutional
Did agricultural institutions (e.g., Department of
Development
Agriculture and Livestock), service providers, and partners
change?
Within these public and private institutions, are there
signs of improved management capacity, skills, etc.?
Did national/sectoral policies or the regulatory framework
affecting the target group change?
Did market structures and other characteristics affecting
the small farmers access to services change?

PCR
PCR validation
report
PCU documentation
Direct field
observations by the
evaluation mission
Key informant
interviews
Focus group
discussions

Evaluation Framework 33
Criteria
B. Impact

Specific Evaluation Questions/Indicators


Data Sources
Did the composition and size of household incomes
PCR
change (more income sources, more diversification, higher
income)?
PCR validation
Did farm households physical assets change (farmland,
water, livestock, trees, equipment, etc.)?
Did other household assets change (houses, bicycles,
radios, telephones, etc.)?
Did beneficiaries have adequate access to markets to take
advantage of enhanced productivity and production?

PCU documentation
Direct field
observations by the
evaluation mission

Key informant
Did the natural resources base status change (land, water, interviews
forest, etc.)? Are there any signs of increased/decreased
soil fertility?
Focus group
discussions
III. Other Assessments
A. ADB
Did ADB mobilize adequate technical expertise in the
Performance
project design?
(quality-at-entry
Was the design process participatory (with national and
and supervision)
local agencies, grassroots organizations)?
Were specific efforts made to incorporate the lessons and
recommendations from previous independent evaluations
and PCRs in project design?
Did ADB (and the government) take the initiative to
suitably modify the project design (if required) during
implementation in response to any major changes in the
context?
What was the performance of ADB supervision?
Was prompt action taken to ensure the timely
implementation of recommendations from BTORs,
including the MTR?
Did ADB undertake the necessary follow-up to resolve any
implementation bottlenecks?
What was the role and performance of the resident
mission?
How was the relationship between headquarters and the
resident mission to support implementation?
Has ADB been active in creating an effective partnership
and coordination among key partners to ensure the
achievement of project objectives?

RRP
PCR
PCR validation
report
PCU documentation
Direct field
observations by the
evaluation mission
Key informant
interviews
Focus group
discussions

34 Papua New Guinea: Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project


Criteria
B. Borrower
Performance
(quality of
preparation,
implementation,
and M&E)

Specific Evaluation Questions/Indicators


Data Sources
Did the government and ADB take the initiative to suitably RRP
modify the project design (if required) during
implementation in response to any major changes in the
PCR
context?
PCR validation
Has the government contributed to planning an exit
report
strategy and/or making arrangements for continued
funding of certain activities?
PCU documentation
Was the government actively involved in the design?
Direct field
Has the government correctly assumed ownership and
observations by the
responsibility for the project? By its actions and policies,
evaluation mission
has the government been fully supportive of project
goals?
Key informant
Has adequate staffing and project management been
interviews
assured? Have appropriate levels of counterpart funds
been provided on time?
Focus group
discussions
Has project management discharged its functions
adequately, and has the government provided policy
guidance to project management when required?
Did the government ensure adequate coordination of the
various departments involved in execution? At both the
national and provincial levels?
Has auditing been undertaken in a timely manner and
reports submitted as required?
Has an effective M&E system been put in place and does it
generate information on performance and impact that is
useful for project management to take critical decisions?
Have loan covenants and the spirit of the loan agreement
been followed?
Has the government facilitated the participation of service
providers as planned?
Have the flow of funds and procurement procedures been
suitable for ensuring timely implementation?

ADB = Asian Development Bank, BTOR = back-to-office report, CAPE = country assistance program evaluation, DMF = design and
monitoring framework, EIRR = economic internal rate of return, GAD = gender and development, M&E = monitoring and
evaluation, MTR = midterm review, PCR = project completion report, PCU = project coordination unit, PNG = Papua New Guinea,
PPER = project performance evaluation report, RRP = report and recommendation of the President, TA = technical assistance.
Source: Independent Evaluation Department.

APPENDIX 2: EVALUATION MISSION ITINERARY

Date/Time
Activity
26 November 2012, Monday
Department of National Planning and Monitoring
13:00
Department of Treasury
14:00
Project Administration Unit team leader and other Papua New Guinea Resident
14:30
Mission staff
Papua New Guinea Resident Mission country director
15:30
Security briefing
16:00
27 November 2012, Tuesday
Project coordinator
09:00
Department of Agriculture and Livestock
Secretary of Department of Agriculture and Livestock
10:00
Senior National Department of Agriculture and Livestock officers
11:00
28 November 2012, Wednesday
World Bank operations officer for sustainable development
09:00
Australian Agency for International Development
13:00
New Zealand Agency for International Development
15:00
29 November 2012, Thursday
Project coordinator
13:30
Department of Agriculture and Livestock
30 November 2012, Friday
European Delegation to Papua New Guinea
11:00
03 December 2012, Monday
Department of Agriculture and Livestock office in Morobe Province
09:00
Deputy provincial administrator for Morobe Provincial Office
11:30
Meeting with smallholder beneficiaries, nongovernment organizations, and farmers
Meetings with other project level stakeholders
04 December 2012, Tuesday
Meeting with support services contract facility manager
14:00
Department of Agriculture and Livestock in Eastern Highlands
Support services contract facility
15:00
05 December 2012, Wednesday
Smallholder beneficiaries, nongovernment organizations, and farmers
10:00
Meetings with other project level stakeholders
06 December 2012, Thursday
Smallholder beneficiaries, nongovernment organizations, and farmers
17:35
Meetings with other project level stakeholders
07 December 2012, Friday
Wrap-up meeting with Department of National Planning and Monitoring (aide10:00
mmoire)

APPENDIX 3: LIST OF PERSONS MET

A.

Department of Agriculture and Livestock


1. Dr. Vele Pat Ila'Ava, Secretary
2. Masayan Moat, Acting Deputy Secretary

B.

Department of National Planning and Monitoring


Koney Samuel, Assistant Secretary

C.

Department of Treasury, Financial Management Division


John A. Uware, Acting First Assistant Secretary

D.

Fresh Produce Development Agency


1. Moses Moruba, Senior Agronomist
2. McKenzie Ziggins, Extension Training Manager
3. Moses Woriga, Crop Agronomy Extension

E.

Goroka Provincial Administration


1. Rose Kurun, Extension Officer
2. Igu Yawane, Provincial Livestock Officer
3. Ekesu Margu, Project ManagerEastern Highlands Province
4. Enoch Yabimo, Spice Officer, Assisting SSSDP
5. Silas Kiafuli, Provincial Fisheries Officer
6. Rodney Sien, Assisting Agriculture PHQEHP
7. Naismeun Mitio, Rice and Grains Officer
8. Stanley Loke, Project Accounts Officer
9. Bubia Muhuju, DirectorDepartment of Agriculture and Livestock, Eastern Highlands
10. Hendrix Fungkepe, District Agriculture Officer
11. Zepy Mopafi, Ex-Principal Project Officer

F.

Siubu Provincial Administration, Division of Agriculture


1. Damien Toki, Principal Advisor
2. Morris Kaupa, Support Services Contract Facility ManagerKundiawa

G.

Asian Development Bank


Kymberley Kepore, Private Sector Development Coordinator

H.

Delegation of the European Union to Papua New Guinea


Clement Bourse, AttachRural Development

I.

International Labour Organization


Line Begby, Associate Expert

J.

New Zealand Agency for International Development


Viola Digwaleu, Development Programme Coordinator

K.

World Bank
1. Allan Tobalbal Oliver, Operations OfficeRural Development, Natural Resources and
EnvironmentSustainable Development
2. Craig Stemp, Country Security Advisor
3. David F. Freyne, Project ManagerWorld Bank Productive Partnerships in Agriculture Project
4. David Young, World Bank Productive Partnerships in Agriculture Project

List of Persons Met 37


L.

Bris Kanda, Inc.


1. Levi B. ToViliran, General Manager
2. Tabasco Naime, Assistant General Manager
3. Ruddie Artango, RepresentativeBris Kanda Board

M.

Coffee Industry Corporation


Navi Anis, Chief Executive Officer

N.

PNG Coffee Exports


John Leahy, General Manager

O.

PNG Sustainable Development Program


Potaisa Hombunaka, Program ManagerAgriculture

P.

Smallholder Support Services Expansion Project


Martin Raurela, Deputy Advisor

Q.

Service Providers
1. Aran Batton
2. Levi Bougaratta
3. Adam Brown
4. Tyruku Daitaru
5. Heron Gapa
6. Giwa Garry
7. Tina Heting
8. Eggref Hilliam
9. John Hut
10. Mere Igu, Yams Training
11. Martha Issac
12. Lloyd Katao
13. Jenifa Kena, Cooking
14. Wayo Kipi
15. Rose Kurun, Vegetable Production Skills
16. Tom Leinan
17. Andrew Lepari
18. Blandina Luare
19. Mita Mafunge
20. Keith Milligan
21. Bruce Murray
22. Elcie Samuel
23. Jacob Solomon
24. Atum Timi
25. Tony Westaway

R.

Others
1. Greg Bosa, PDAL Coordinator Export Crop
2. Ken Elownan, Manager SSCF/PDAC
3. Solly Karero, Field Manager
4. Mr Gitan, Agriculture Manager
5. Augustine Yabina, Agriculture AdvisorCPDAL

APPENDIX 4: PROJECT DESIGN AND MONITORING FRAMEWORK

Design Summary
1.

Performance Targets
Raised income of smallholders
Increased crop and livestock
production and productivity
More sustainable cropping and
livestock practices

To enhance the status of


women in agriculture

Periodic
No natural disasters
socioeconomic and
environmental surveys Political stability
Provincial monitoring Decentralization process
and evaluation systems continues
Agricultural
management
information system

Continued political
support for smallholder
agriculture and women
in agriculture

Provincial monitoring
and evaluation
systems

Adequate counterpart
funding, design, and
management of support
services contract facility

Objective

To increase access by
smallholders to improved
agricultural support
services in the two
provinces

Increased number of smallholder


with access to support services
Increased intensity of support
services
Improved quality of support
services
Increased number of service
providers

Agricultural
management
information system
Quarterly monitoring
and progress reports

Increased effectiveness and


coordination of service provision

Components/
Outputs

3.1 Support services


contract facility (SSCF)
established and
operating

SSCF imprest and counterpart


trust accounts established (Year
1, Quarter 2)
SSCF management unit
established and operational
(staff, office, vehicles, and
equipment provided; Year 1)
SSCF steering committee
established (Year 1, Quarter 2)

Roles of government
agricultural staff
adjusted
Sufficient interest and
capability of potential
support service providers
Focus of service
provision on smallholder
needs

Improved linkages of service


providers at different
government levels
3.

Assumptions and
Risks

Goals

To increase production,
productivity, and income of
smallholder households in
the Eastern Highlands and
Morobe provinces and to
ensure sustainability of
farming systems

2.

Monitoring
Mechanism

Quarterly monitoring
and progress reports
Review missions

Provision of necessary
budgetary appropriations
and counterpart staff at
national and provincial
levels
Adequate implementation
capacity of agricultural
staff and support service
providers

Project Design and Monitoring Framework 39

Design Summary
3.2 Capacity of
government
agricultural staff and
support service
providers improved

Performance Targets
Planning workshops conducted
(3 workshops per year in
Eastern Highlands and 4 in
Morobe; Years 35)

Monitoring
Mechanism

Assumptions and
Risks

Quarterly monitoring
and progress reports

Coordination of national,
provincial, district, and
local government levels

Review missions
Provision of appropriate
and relevant workshops
and training

Management information
system installed and training
provided in 8 districts in Eastern
Highlands and 9 districts in
Morobe (Year 1)

Strong commitment and


motivation of
agricultural staff

Agricultural staff training


provided (3 courses per year
and province; Year 25)
Support service providers
training provided (one courser
per year and province; Years 1
5)
3.3 Project coordination
established and
operating

Project coordination unit


established (staff and
equipment provided; Year 1,
Quarter 2)

Quarterly monitoring
and progress reports
Review missions

Provision of adequate
counterpart staff and
support from the
Department of
Agriculture and Livestock

Source: ADB. 1998. Report and Recommendation of the President to the Board of Directors: Proposed Loan to Papua New
Guinea for the Smallholder Support Services Pilot Project. Manila.

APPENDIX 5: EVALUATION ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT 2007

Table A5.1: Evaluation Summary for Morobe Province

Project

Year
Contract
ImpleYear
Cost
mented Evaluated (K000)

Group Size
%
Cost Per
Women BeneNo.
ficiary

EIRR
(%)

Incremental
SP SatisHH
HH Cash Labor Cash/ faction
Income (Days) Day
Score

Munum Vanilla
2003
2004
3,000
22
0
136
V. High
Mare Vanilla
2004
3,224
22
9
147
V. High
Labu-Puseka Vanilla
2004
4,992
39
3
128
V. High
Lae Vanilla Processing
2004
V. High
Wawin Cattle
2004
2004
1,936
()
Markham Rice
2004
2,654
34
50
78
V. High
1,540
37
Ragidupiat Cocoa PRAP
2004
2006
3,484
102
27
34
48
1,700
37
Sokham Vanilla
2004
2006
4,500
127
30
35
59
1,200
35
Situm Vanilla
2003
2006
13
23
0
V. High
Derim Coffee
2002
2006
4,952
24
13
206
5
260
19
Keimbu Vanilla
()
Numeg Coffee
()
Samsam Poultry
2003
2005
3,074
42
50
73
V. High
2,300
280
Bau Vanilla
2003
2004
3,000
20
50
150
V. High
2,400
39
Markham Yam and Taro
2003
2004
4,611
55
64
84
V. High
2,500
55
Markham Bulb Onion
2003
2004
2,597
31
32
84
Negative
150
44
Kabwum Sheep
2002
2006
9,527
9
2,020
50
Boana Vanilla
2003
2006
4,981
52
2
96
()
Humako Rice
2003
2006
4,800
32
0
150
()
Bau Oil Press
2003
2004
2,014
40
100
50
Negative
Baiun Broilers
2003
2005
3,074
V. High
1,272
18
Kuembu Vanilla PRAP
2004
2006
5,000
127
30
39
Low
337
32
Waran Coffee Quality
2005
2007
4,946
35
3
141
12
847
50
Bonga Fish Nets
2003
2005
4,075
30
100
135
()
Wawin Food Processing
2004
2007
4,975
32
100
155
()
Tent City Food Processing
2004
2007
2,597
31
100
84
()
Bulolo Oil Press
2003
2005
1,443
13
85
111
()
Ragidumpiat Cocoa
2005
2007
6,595
21
0
314
()
Waran Coffee Pests
2006
2007
6,452
30
3
215
12
847
50
Waran Inland Fish
2006
2007
5,000
13
0
385
72
1,914
110
Averages
4,135
41
37
100
31
1,563
66
() = data not available, EIRR = economic internal rate of return, ENV = environmental, FIN = financial, HH = household,
planning, SOC = social, SP = service provider, SUS = sustainability, V. = very.
Source: Project completion report.

79
95
86

14

86
79
73
80
72
92

8
62
45
3
40

80
68
78
81
91

42
46
34

18
11
17

17
17
24
No.

Overall Impact Assessment

ENV

SOC

FIN

SUS

80
80
66
78
66
56
72
60
68
46
82
70
68
70
70
68
90
56
80
72
68
83
90

66
66
66
62
70
76
72
50
80
48

92
86
54
78
54
58
68
82
80
80
70
70
40
98
78
20
50

68
78
68
76
72
68
62
52
72
58
66
70
20
66
62
50
72
50
20
60
62
66
73

80
68
72
72
80
58
50
66
80
70
85

70
82
20
80
73
80
86
91
80
85
56
80
90
60
61
84
80
90
60
63
91
70
80
87
74
70
93
88
75
63
89
90
86
80
80
94
78
85
75
63
81
73
72
69
63
= number, PRAP = participatory rural appraisal

Table A5.2: Evaluation Summary for Eastern Highlands Province


Group Size

Project

Year
Contract
ImpleYear
Cost
mented Evaluated (K000)

5,700
3,500
7,830
4,050
11,468
7,171
14,125
13,275
15,860
10,758
6,700
15,875
4,000
37,425
5,110
3,053
3,020
15,830
18,580
7,200
11,154
13,080
3,880
2,370
3,530
10,220
17,504
20,615
9,800
9,355
3,460
2,755
9,945
return, ENV

20
27
49
27
14
26
9
12
50
17
20
24

5
11
92
11
0
0
11
8
32
6
0
25

285
130
160
150
819
276
1,569
1,106
317
633
335
661

23
26

100

1,627
197

43
35
64
40
28
60
35
35
35
64
50

29
20
11
29
100
29
29
20

70
452
290
180
398
218
111
101
292
274
412

29
96
323
50
69
29
96
95
34
33
296
= environmental, FIN =

EIRR
(%)

HH
HH Cash Labor
Income (Days)

SP SatisCash/ faction
Day
Score

Overall Impact Assessment

ENV

SOC

FIN

()
78
40
40
40
V. High
4,020
48
84
73
80
60
60
V. High
1,300
36
36
87
80
60
80
49
1,310
48
27
81
60
80
60
17
1,382
28
49
70
60
60
20
22
710
18
39
80
40
60
80
Negative
510
8
64
90
100
80
80
33
3,418
260
13
84
60
60
80
Negative
450
182
2
97
80
100
50
Negative
1,700
320
5
77
60
60
60
()
82
80
60
60
32
1,800
48
38
63
60
80
60
()
Negative
79
34
1,276
108
12
83
60
80
100
()
80
()
78
27
2,850
12
238
76
60
60
80
44
1,070
90
12
76
60
80
100
Negative
5
505
24
21
81
60
80
30
44
1,772
20
89
91
80
80
90
()
78
()
86
()
81
36
718
20
36
81
60
80
90
16
516
12
43
86
80
80
70
46
3,770
48
79
79
80
80
80
31
1,510
24
63
85
60
100
70
Negative
41
60
1
77
60
80
20
()
79
()
81
31
1,531
71
22
81
66
73
66
financial, HH = household, No. = number, SOC = social, SP = service provider,

SUS
40
80
60
80
60
60
80
80
60
80
80

80

40
80
60
80

80
70
80
70
20

68
SUS =

Evaluation Economic Assessment 2007 | 41

Kamano 2 Chilli
2001
2004
Gimisave Fish
2002
2004
Asukena Vegetables
2004
2004
Kenetisaro Fish
2004
2004
Mai Ducks
2003
Gahana Coffee
2004
2005
Kami Bees
2004
2005
Lampo Tomatoes
2006
2006
BK Siane Sheep
2003
2004
Iffiufa Carrots
2006
2006
Juvagi Fish
2003
2004
Avata Fish
2002
2004
Akiyuga Coffee Bookkeeping
2005
2007
Gipaheka Floriculture
2005
2007
Mapi Fish Husbandry
2005
2007
Middle Bena Bookkeeping
2005
2007
Gotomi Honey Cooking
2006
2007
Aukanapa Sheep
2005
2007
Daulo Potatoes
2005
2007
Jonivi Fish
2005
2007
Gotomi Honey Bees
2006
2007
Akiyuga Coffee
2005
2007
Aukanapa Cooking
2005
2007
Bata Citrus Cooking
2005
2007
Isontenu Bookkeeping
2005
2007
Isontenu Poultry
2005
2007
Middle Bena Honey Bee
2005
2007
Liorofa Sheep
2005
2007
Inenento Sheep
2002
2007
Bata Citrus Husbandry
2005
2007
Liorofa Cooking
2005
2007
Bata Bookkeeping
2005
2007
Averages
() = data not available, EIRR = economic internal rate of
sustainability, V. = very.
Source: Project completion report.

No.

Incremental

Cost Per
%
BeneWomen ficiary