7/13/2014

blood group :: Paternity testing -- Encyclopedia Britannica

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Sylvia Dorothy Lawler,
M.D.
Last Updated
2-3-2014

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Paternity testing

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Although blood group studies cannot be used to prove

Introduction

paternity, they can provide unequivocal evidence that a male

Historical background
The importance of antigens and

is not the father of a particular child. Since the red cell

antibodies

antigens are inherited as dominant traits, a child cannot have

Chemistry of the blood group

a blood group antigen that is not present in one or both

substances

parents. For example, if the child in question belongs to group

Methods of blood grouping

A and both the mother and the putative father are group O,

Uses of blood grouping

the man is excluded from paternity. The table shows the

Blood groups and disease

phenotypes (observed characters) of the offspring that can
and cannot be produced in the matings on the ABO system,

considering only the three alleles (alternative genes) A, B, and O. Similar inheritance patterns are
seen in all blood group systems. Furthermore, if one parent is genetically homozygous for a
particular antigen—that is, has inherited the gene for it from both the grandfather and grandmother
of the child—then that antigen must appear in the blood of the child. For example, on the MN
a father whose
phenotype isLISTS
M and whose
genotype
is STORY
MM (in other words, aSearch
man who
is of
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blood type M and has inherited the characteristic from both parents) will transmit an M allele to all
his progeny.
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Exclusions of paternity on
the ABO system
matings

possible
children

impossible
children

OXO

O

A, B, AB

OXA

O, A

B, AB

OXB

O, B

A, AB

O X AB

A, B

O, AB

AXA

O, A

B, AB

AXB

O, A, B, AB

A X AB

A, B, AB

O

BXB

O, B

A, AB

B X AB

A, B, AB

O

AB X AB

A, B, AB

O

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In medicolegal work it is important that the blood samples are properly identified. By using multiple
red cell antigen systems and adding additional studies on other blood types (HLA [human leukocyte
antigen], red cell enzymes, and plasma proteins), it is possible to state with a high degree of
statistical certainty that a particular male is the father.

Blood groups and disease
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Other methods for localizing markers on chromosomes include somatic cell hybridization (cell culture with alignment of single strands of RNA and DNA) and use of DNA probes (strands of radiolabeled DNA). 22 pairs of which are autosomes (chromosomes other than sex chromosomes). ABO incompatibility usually leads to mild disease. The reproductive cells contain half the number of chromosomes of the rest of the body. There are other Word Nerd Quiz examples that illustrate the importance of blood groups to the normal functions of red cells. Loci that are farther apart can be separated by recombination. they can be used as genetic markers in family studies to investigate whether any two particular loci are sited on the same chromosome—i. incompatibility is now largely preventable by treating Rh-negative mothers with Rh immunoglobulin. enter the fetal circulation. Duodenal ulceration is more common in nonsecretors of ABH substances than in secretors. a simian malaria parasite. and the severity of the disease in the fetus varies greatly. which is unique among the blood groups in being located on the X chromosome. if the loci are close together. Rh. These methods are useful in classical linkage studies to locate blood group loci. The baby may be anemic at birth. Once the antibody disappears. Individual chromosomes are identified by the banding patterns revealed by different staining techniques. and. which can be treated by transfusion with antigen-negative red cells. there are 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs. the child’s own red cells survive normally. There is evidence that Duffy-negative human red cells are resistant to infection by Plasmodium knowlesi. cause erythroblastosis fetalis. The site of a particular genetic system on a chromosome is called a locus. Since the blood groups are inherited in a regular fashion. react with the fetal red cells. The characteristic number of 46 chromosomes is restored at fertilization. The McLeod phenotype (weak Kell antigens and no Kx World War I Quiz antigen) is associated with acanthocytosis (a condition in which red cells have thorny projections) and a compensated hemolytic anemia. Genetic and evolutionary significance of blood groups Blood groups and genetic linkage Red cell groups act as markers (inherited characteristics) for genes present on chromosomes. as well as other red cell group antigens. or D antigen. Even total exchange transfusion may be necessary. which do not react with the antibody. The loci of the blood group systems are on the autosomes. It also decreases the amount of antibody and allows the child to recover from the disease. The results must be assessed statistically to determine linkage. In a classical pedigree linkage study. In persons who lack all Rh antigens. Hyperbilirubinemia (an increased amount of bilirubin. red cells of altered shape (stomatocytes) and a mild compensated hemolytic anemia are present.7/13/2014 blood group :: Paternity testing -. the genes will rarely be separated. In this disease IgG blood group antibody molecules cross the placenta. which prevents immunization (forming antibodies) to the D antigen. gene linkage. a breakdown product of hemoglobin. Other studies indicate that History Buff Quiz P. designated XX in females and XY in males.. all the members of a family are examined for a test character and for evidence of the nonindependent segregation of pairs of characters.com/EBchecked/topic/69795/blood-group/33506/Paternity-testing 2/4 . Exchange transfusion eliminates most of the hemolysis by providing red cells. ova carry an X chromosome and spermatozoa an X or a Y. Genes carried by the X chromosome are said to be sex-linked.britannica. For QUIZZES practical purposes. with the remaining pair being the sex chromosomes.. transfusions may be given while the fetus is still within the uterus (intrauterine transfusion). are linked. and disease associated with genes for blood group systems chromosome gene known linkage associated disease 1 Rh EL1 elliptocytosis Rh PGD Rh PGM Rh ENO Rh UMPK http://www. Segments of chromosomes or chromosomes that are aberrant in number and morphology may be precisely identified. except for Xg. See More. The loci for many red cell groups have been found on chromosomes and in many cases have been further localized on a particular chromosome. Stomach cancer is more common in people of group A than in those of groups O and B.e. and destroy them. This happens when material is exchanged between homologous chromosomes (pair of chromosomes) by crossing over during the process of cell division (mitosis). Chromosome location. however. In some cases.. falciparum receptors may reside on glycophorin A and may be related to the Wrb antigen.Encyclopedia Britannica In some cases an increased incidence of a particular antigen seems to be associated with a certain disease. Only certain blood group systems cause erythroblastosis fetalis. The genes sited at loci on the same chromosome travel together from parent to child. which are responsible for their expression. Blood group incompatibility between mother and child can cause erythroblastosis fetalis (hemolytic disease of the newborn). Each locus may be the site of several alleles (alternative genes). Many other Rh antigens. in the blood) may lead to neurological deficits. In an ordinary cell of the human body. these statistical correlations are unimportant.

Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 Next Page Do you know anything more about this topic that you’d like to share? http://www. In spite of the large number of families that have been studied. As a new sugar is added. The detection of recombination (exchange of material between chromosomes) or mutation in human families is complicated by questions of paternity. The red cells of a person whose genotype is MM show more M antigen than do MN red cells. The amount of antigen present may depend on the amount of gene product inherited or on the activity of the gene product (i. transferase). This may be due to the suppressor effect of D on E. more E antigen is produced than in the combination cDE/cde. the amount of antigen produced depends on the genetic constitution. Such effects within a genetic complex can be due to determinants on the same chromosome—they are then said to be cis—or to determinants on the opposite chromosome of a chromosome pair—trans. while the structural genes are responsible for their qualitative characteristics. The operator genes are responsible for the quantity of Rh antigens. The paucity of examples may indicate that the recombinant and mutation rate for blood group genes is lower than that estimated for other human genes. The operator genes are themselves controlled by regulator genes. the same mechanism may also play a role in antigen expression. The amount of antigen produced can also be influenced by the position of the genes. a new antigen is produced.com/EBchecked/topic/69795/blood-group/33506/Paternity-testing 3/4 . but specific activity of the inherited transferase may be more important. In the Rh combination cdE/cde. which turn the activity of closely linked structural genes on or off. it is an extremely rare occurrence. The ABO blood group gene codes for a specific carbohydrate transferase enzyme that catalyzes the addition of specific sugars onto a precursor substance. In the case of ABO.britannica.. Antigens in the MNSs blood system are the products of genes that control terminal amino acid sequence.e. The inheritance of the Rh system probably depends on the existence of operator genes.Encyclopedia Britannica Rh FUCA 1 Radin Rh 1 Scianna Rh 1 Fy AMY1 Fy AMY2 4 MNSs Gc 4 Gc Dombrock 6 Chido HLA 6 Rogers HLA 9 ABO AK1 19 Lewis C3 19 Lutheran secretor Lutheran APOE Lutheran PEPD Lutheran DM Lutheran FHC Lutheran NF 19 H X Xg sclerotylosis nail-patella syndrome myotonic dystrophy familial hypercholesterolemia neurofibromatosis hemophilia In some of the blood group systems. An example of suppression in the trans situation is that more C antigen is detectable on the red cells from CDe/cde donors than on those of CDe/cDE people.7/13/2014 blood group :: Paternity testing -.

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