Advanced Civil and Environmental Engineering Lecture

: Ni Made Pertiwi Jaya
Student Number : 14-8710-601-2
Study Program : Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, Graduate School of
Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University

Nature Protection of Mangrove Forest Area in Coastal Areas of Bali, Indonesia

Current Condition of Mangrove Forest Areas
Mangroves are a taxonomically diverse group of salt-tolerant, mainly arboreal, flowering
plants that grow primarily in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Climatic factors such as
temperature and moisture affect mangrove distribution. In some areas, coastal processes such
as tidal mixing and coastal currents may also influence mangrove distribution through
affecting propagule dispersal. Mangrove species vary greatly regionally and with response to
environmental factors.
Mangroves have tremendous social and ecological value. The
annual economic value of mangroves, estimated by the cost of
the products and services they provide, has been estimated to be
$200,000 - $900,000 per hectare (Wells et al., 2006). The
mangrove ecosystem provides income from the collection of the
mollusks, crustaceans, and fish that live there. Mangroves are harvested for fuelwood,
charcoal, timber, and wood chips. Services include the role of mangroves as nurseries for
economically important fisheries, especially for shrimp. Mangroves also provide habitats for
a large number of molluscs, crustaceans, birds, insects, monkeys, and reptiles. Other
mangrove services include the filtering and trapping of pollutants and the stabilization of
coastal land by trapping sediment and protection against storm damage.
The archipelago of Indonesia contains the largest area of mangroves in the world. The
country can be divided in eight main groups of islands that are Bali, Irian Jaya, Java,
Kalimantan, Maluku, Nusa Tenggara, Sulawesi and Sumatera. Mangroves are located along
the coast of all islands in total of 3,493,110 hectares. The most recent estimates suggest that
mangroves presently occupy about 14,653,000 hectares of tropical and subtropical coastline
(Wilkie and Fortuna 2003). This data showed that Indonesia contributed about 24% of total
mangroves areas in the world.

Three largest locations of the mangrove forests in Bali are Ngurah Rai Grand Forest Park (Tahura Ngurah Rai) with the area of 1373.Figure 1. 2006).21 hectares located outside the forest area. mangroves are also threatened by the impact of global climate change. urban development and infrastructure. they are being destroyed at alarming rates. Over the last 50 years. conversion into large scale development such as agriculture.5 hectares located inside the forest area and 890. Shrimp aquaculture accounts for the loss of 20 to 50 percent of mangroves worldwide. The greatest human threat to mangroves is the establishment of shrimp aquaculture ponds. In addition to these anthropogenic threats. about one-third of the world’s mangrove forests have been lost. Human threats to mangroves include the overexploitation of forest resources by local com-munities. many developing countries are replacing these forests with agricultural land or shrimp aquaculture production. salt extraction.5 hectares. 2007). forestry. and diversion of freshwater for irrigation (McLeod and Rodney.71 hectares consists of 2177. mangrove forest spread across multiple locations in an area of 3067. Because mangroves are often viewed as wastelands. Problems of the Mangrove Forest Area Although mangrove ecosystems have tremendous value for coastal communities and associated species. . 2006) Especially in Bali. Global distribution of mangroves (Source: McLeod and Rodney. Nusa Lembongan with area of 202 hectares. and the West Bali National Park with area of 602 hectares (Faiq.

mangrove forests can be a source of wood and non-wood products that can be an alternative source of livelihood for local communities. trash and water pollution were the main problem that causes suppression of the growth and development of mangrove forests in Bali. The development occurs in all parts of Bali. as a key country of mangroves which has the world’s largest intact mangroves. land conversion. 2012. Mangrove forest as one important support for the coastal areas in Bali was eroded as the result of exploitation. as one of the famous tourism destination. Land conversion. Bali is one the provinces that has been experienced the high loss of mangrove areas. and the development of mass tourism that does not consider environmental aspects (Azizah et al. Mangrove forest damage due to conversion of forest into farms and excessive logging keeps going and getting worse from year to year (Putri. crab. the projected rate of loss is even higher with 90 percent loss in some provinces (Setyawan. leaving the vulnerability on the preservation of nature. In addition. Mangrove in ecological system acts as a supplier of organic materials to maintain a stable production of fish. 2014). Whereas.Projections suggest that mangroves in developing countries are likely to decline another 25 percent by 2025. the area was widely used as a pond for fish or shrimp aquaculture by the surrounding communities.. . et al. It was mainly caused by human threats. Figure 2. shrimp. 2003). and others. The condition of mangrove forest in Bali in 1993 (Source: Central Management of Mangrove Forest Region I. tourism business is growing rapidly in Bali in order to accommodate the high number of domestic and foreign tourists’ arrival. mangrove forests provide shoreline protection from erosion and further damage caused by waves or wind.. In addition. 2013) Furthermore. In Indonesia.

2007). The project was to develop Mangrove Information Center (MIC) in the area of the mangrove forest (Faiq. 2006). and the others are two experts from Japan (Ben. The projects were considered successful enough to develop and preserve various types of mangroves plants (Faiq. Local communities are also used to make the mangrove forest area as a place of recreation such as fishing. Then the area became a place of recreation for city dwellers and tourists. The area of the mangrove forest was arranged in such a way. Figure 3. .Restoration of the Mangrove Forest Area Regarding in many benefits of mangroves. half of them are technical workers from Mangrove Forest Management Center. The aim is to carry out investment to support reforestation and sustainable management of mangrove forests. the mangrove forest areas were protected as nature protection area and maintained as Ngurah Rai Grand Forest Park (Tahura Ngurah Rai). connected with the path and furnished with a tower which can use both to monitor and see the view of the mangrove forest area. The current condition of Mangrove Forest Park in Bali (Source: Central Management of Mangrove Forest Region I. Ministry of Forestry of Indonesia in cooperation with the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) initiated projects for mangrove restoration in 1993. It is intensively handled by 42 workers. This project was followed by further projects as a means of distributing the results of previous projects to the public by strengthening the education system and the sustainable management of mangrove forests. The pilot project of mangrove forest development was located in south part of Bali. 2007). 2013) After conducted the restoration projects. The result is a mangrove rehabilitation area of 253 hectares.

the mangroves restoration projects were done by various groups that are the government both national and local. interested parties. even in Asia (Bali Excellence. The purposes were set by involving the government too that are generally to recover and conserve the natural function of the mangrove forest. around the Benoa Harbor area until near the Ngurah Rai airport. technical workers work as specialist and the communities are interested parties. Planting activity is still done on an ongoing basis (Putri. The mangrove forest expected to serve as lungs of the city. the government as decision maker conducted observations to understand the current situation of the mangrove forests in Bali. The government has a function as decision makers while some experts are stake holders. It also needs participation of various groups.A group of experts have carried out a close look to observe the mangroves development at Mangrove Forest Park. Firstly. planning or designing. Each group might have different function related with their position or experiences. and monitoring. management or maintenance. From some observations and monitoring programs. construction or execution. In the future. the mangrove restoration projects which is initiated in Bali have already obeyed it. and specialists. such as decision makers. and involvement of the surroundings communities. purpose setting. stake holders. All of those steps should be done based on scientific knowledge. technical workers from JICA. some experts. The monitoring conducts continuously along with the management and maintenance. 2014). The points are the understanding of current situation. and a high use of it as a fish or shrimp pond. such as land conversion. But they should be work together as a team and complete each other works. After understanding the condition. 2014). among others from Japan. the experts as stake holders set the purpose of the project. Regarding to the Comprehensive Procedure for Nature Restoration. In this project. Obedience of the Mangroves Restoration Projects with the Comprehensive Procedure for Nature Restoration There are some important points that should be included in a nature restoration program or project based on the Comprehensive Procedure for Nature Restoration. . Germany. From the observation they realized that mangroves have many benefits and it has been damaged by human threats. Philippines. the Ngurah Rai Grand Forest Park awarded as the best of mangrove forests in Indonesia. the mangrove areas will extend its location on the south coast beaches of Bali. Italy and the United States. trash and water pollution.

or passive participation by making a donation. considering that Bali is a tourism area. In order to ensure the sustainability of the mangroves in accordance with the purpose to conserve it. This agency is cooperated with technical workers from JICA which is mainly functioning in management. Some private companies. all of the groups were involved in those activities. the planning was made the damaged area to be both ecological and entertaining by building interconnected path and observation tower inside the mangroves plantation areas. This step followed by some management and maintenance so that the mangroves plants can grow well as expected and all of the facilities can be used continuously. maintenance and monitoring the mangrove forest area. Monitoring activity also conducted a long with the maintenance of the mangroves areas to ensure that all of the programs especially the management and maintenance works properly. Mangroves cultivation and some facilities construction are part of construction or execution procedure. . These activities were conducted by the interested parties like surrounding communities. the mangrove forest has been assigned as nature protection area so that any activities could not be done in this area.The planning and designing is a procedure to decide the best way to restore the mangrove. they specify some types of mangroves which can grow well in the area. Besides. It was carried out by technical workers from JICA who have experienced in mangroves restoration. government’s institutions or agencies and social agencies also involve in the planting activities. As long as the project is to replant mangroves. The area declared as Ngurah Rai Grand Forest Park (Tahura Ngurah Rai) and managed by government agency that is Central Management of Mangrove Forest Region I. The involvement can be through active participation by taking a part in the cultivation or maintenance activities. In the other words.

E. Faculty of Science and Technology. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Balai Mangrove Bali. No. (Accessed on December (Accessed on December 26. Wells . Bali has the Best Mangrove in Asia... United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre.wwf. Yogi S. . Witri A. Program Study of Biology. 2003. 2006. M. Cambridge. Switzerland: The World Conservation Union (IUCN).wordpress. Jurnal (Accessed on December 26.balaimangrovebali.. Wilkie. Purin C. C. Salm. WWF will Immediately Rehabilitate Mangrove Forest in Bali Coastal. 2. 2006. 2003. Past and Present. Mangroves Forest as Tourism Destination. Putri. United Kingdom. Ravilous. 2013. Siti K. 63.References: Azizah. http://baliexcellence. 2014. 2014) McLeod. National University of Syarif Hidayatullah. Bali Excellence. 2014). Ahmad D.S. Ciptanti. Successful ecological Restoration of Mangrove. Page 105-118.. Forest Resources Assessment Working Paper No. Vol. P. Restoration of Mangrove Ecosystem in Java. Yogyakarta: Mangrove Action Project/ Yayasan Rumput Laut. 5.or. Jakarta. Ecological Restoration of Mangrove Forest.. Faiq. Managing Mangrove for Resilience to Climate Change. In the Front Line: Shoreline Protection and Other Ecosystem Services from Mangroves and Coral Reefs. No. IUCN Resilience Science Group Working Paper Series.L. Tahura Ngurah Rai. 2014. Elizabeth and Rodney V. Forest Resources Division. 2014) Ben Brown. 2006. 2007. and Lukman. Kusumo (Accessed on December 26. https://f4iqun.Andari H. 2012. http://www.. http://www.. Status and Trends in Mangrove Area Extent Worldwide. 2. Corcoran. and S. 2014) Setyawan. Page 8-11.