The zero point energy of the quantum-vacuum

Claus Wilhelm Turtur
Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Wolfenbu¨ttel, Germany
Abstract
Purpose – The purpose of the paper is the presentation of a new source of energy, the so-called zero point energy (ZPE) of the quantum-vacuum. Same
as thermal heat or as ponderable matter have been identified as a type of energy some centuries ago, space is now being identified a type of energy.
The advantage of ZPE is its application, because it is an energy source with many practical advantages: clean, friendly to environment and health,
extremely low cost, inexhaustible, available everywhere and at all time. It is not expected that this type of energy will be the main source for the future
air transport system, which is topic of this special issue. However, if the ZPE technology is developed at a more advanced level, it might contribute as
energy source for instance during taxing to a certain level.
Design/methodology/approach – ZPE-converting engines can be constructed on the basis of the theory presented here, which is new.
Findings – In the next steps, the technology needs to be further studied. For instance more powerful engines on the basis of his theory need to build
and investigated, although the applications seem to be almost anywhere, it needs to be found out which applications are the most appropriate in the
first step.
Originality/value – ZPE engines exist already, but the theory of ZPE conversion is unique and new in the work presented here. It can be understood on
the basis of the finite propagation speed of the interacting fields, similar to retarded potentials of Lienart and Wiechert. The experimental verification of
this theory is also presented in the article here.
Keywords Clean alternative energy, Free energy, Green power supply, New source of energy, Zero point energy of the quantum-vacuum
Paper type Research paper

take notice of the energy and/or entropy exchange with the
quantum-vacuum, as confirmed with light-emitting diodes
shown by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(COP ¼ 230 per cent; Santhanam et al., 2012).
The authors of this MIT-experiment refer to thermal
energy, being extracted from the environment – without
having a difference of temperature to a second thermalreservoir. This would either contradict to the second law of
thermodynamics – or confirm an exchange of entropy with
the quantum-vacuum. In this aspect, the MIT light-emitting
diodes can be understood as “quantum-vacuum entropy”
device instead of “quantum-vacuum energy” device.
The physics fundament of powerful ZPE-conversion is not
yet understood, at least not completely. The presented paper
gives a theoretical concept for a possible physics fundament of
ZPE-conversion, which is new, and which is now available for
everybody to be verified (or falsified). This theoretical work is
verified by the author with one experiment (the electrostatic
rotor), and it would be desirable to find further researchers, to
perform further experiments, for its validation.

Introduction
The utilization of the zero point energy (ZPE) of the quantumvacuum is explained by the theory of the finite propagation
speed (FPS) of the fields of the fundamental interactions of
nature. For technical purpose, rather often engines are used,
working on the basis of electromagnetic interaction. Due to the
theory of relativity, electric and magnetic fields, as well
as electromagnetic waves, propagate with the speed of light.
This allows the construction of energetically non-conservative
cycles of motion of an electrostatic charge within an electric
field, as well as of a magnet within a magnetic field. Both
principles can be used to convert ZPE into classical energy.
The article explains the basics of FPS-theory, an
experiment for its verification and finally the construction of
a powerful ZPE-engine.

Main section
The utilization of ZPE is often under controversial discussion,
although there are already existing devices available, for
instance such as Terawatt Research LLC (www.terawatt.com/
¨ V-Rheinland and by
2012) with certificates by TU
Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. (COP above 300 per cent),
or such as LUTEC (www.lutec.com.au/how/2011) with
certificates by Socie´te´ Ge´ne´rale de Surveillance (SGS) (COP
up to 1,440 per cent). Also the scientific community begins to

1. The theory of the FPS of the fields of the fundamental
interactions
Let us tend our attention to two electrical charges, Q1 and Q2,
who interact with each other via Coulomb-force (Figure 1).
Q1 is in motion along the red path and Q2 moves along the
blue path. If we observe the situation at the moment of time

The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at
www.emeraldinsight.com/1748-8842.htm

The author wants to express his very deep thanks to his wife Dr O. Turtur
for supporting him with practically as well as with her very economic
housekeeping budget, because they had to finance all their work by
themselves.

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal
85/6 (2013) 493– 496
q Emerald Group Publishing Limited [ISSN 1748-8842]
[DOI 10.1108/AEAT-09-2012-0149]

Received: 27 September 2012
Revised: 20 December 2012
Accepted: 1 January 2013

493

bj as indicated by the green arrow. the author explains an energy cycle between the electrostatic field’s energy and the ZPE. v~ 2 . which was just enough to surmount the forces of friction between the rotor and the vacuum oil. one of them reaching Q2 at the moment tb at which Q2 is at the position x2. x2 .b tb 2. tÞ z y x Coulomb-force following Lienard-Wiechert’s retarded potential 50º ð1Þ Thus. At the moment of time ta. Thus.b t b called tb. Following the theory of relativity.The ZPE of the quantum-vacuum Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal Claus Wilhelm Turtur Volume 85 · Number 6 · 2013 · 493 –496 Figure 1 The fundamental interactions in the dynamic view speed of propagation of the interacting field is the more exact and realistic point of view. we come to a COP ¼ 5. At this moment ta. because Q2 has to move from tx in the same time. v1 . but at one moment tb.b 2 x1. If this consequence is sensible and correct. and due to the special geometry of the rotor-blades. charge Q1 has been at the position x1. explaining that the force of interaction in the reality is different from the classical approximation following the distance of the green arrow. in order to avoid gas molecules. The consequence is that Newton’s axiom “actio ¼ reactio” is delayed in time.b due to its motion. as soon as they are in motion fast enough to touch a realistic percentage of the propagation speed of the fields. This leads us to the conception of the FPS of the fields. which is a consequence of the FPS-theory. in reality the electrostatic field propagates with the speed of light. t Þ j2 r ðx1 . Finally an electrical power of (2. in order to produce a mechanical power of (150 ^ 50) nanoWatts of the rotation of the rotor. charge Q1 had emitted its electric field into all directions of space (see black arrows). Nevertheless. the real existing isolation between field source and rotor can never be absolutely perfect. 1997). Experimental verification of the FPS-theory In Turtur (2000-2010). which is known as BiefildBrown effect. And it is important to emphasize that the analogue point of view can be constructed for the magnetic interaction and magnetic fields. this attractive force causes an endless rotation of the blue rotor. Q2 Q1 x1. If we would like to understand this within the terminology of “coefficient of performance of classical energy”. Analogously we understand that Q1 at x1.97 ^ 0. the field source attracts the rotor will endlessly. as well as an energy cycle between the magnetic field and the ZPE.b and tb feels the Coulomb-force according to the purple arrow and not according to the green arrow. This means that we have to introduce the motion of the interacting partners into the position vectors within Coulomb’s law: ~C ¼ F Figure 2 An electrostatic rotor as a possible setup for the conversion of ZPE 1 q1 · q2 · · ~e ~ ~ ~ ~ 4p 10 j~rðx~1 .a and charge Q2 has been at the position x2. This is the distance to be applied within Coulomb’s law for the calculation of Coulomb’s force between Q1 and Q2. indeed takes energy once which is necessary to load the capacitor. In reality the verification experiment has been performed in a vacuum of about 102 6 mbar. But: the approach as described can only be applied as long as we regard the electrostatic field to propagate with infinite speed. so the “actio” is to be regarded at a different moment than “reactio”. we see that the infinite speed of propagation of the interacting field is a static approximation. on which the rotor was swimming inside the vacuum chamber. the distance between Q1 and Q2 is jx2. when the field of interaction has to move from tx to tb. In reality this is not the case. so that some electrical charge was lost from the field source. which is the speed of light. v~ 1 .89) nanoWatts had been necessary (detected with a voltmeter and a picoamperemeter) to maintain the electrical charge on the field-source. x~2 . in reality Q2 at x2. After this initialisation. so that permanent magnets can be used to convert ZPE.a.a x2.a ta ta x2. But this is only possible as soon as we get free from the old-fashioned static approximation of Coulomb’s law. not taking any classical energy any further. v2 .b and tb feels the Coulomb-force according to the black arrow and not according to the green arrow. But the more precise few has the huge advantage to allow us to construct non-conservative cycles of motion within the electrostatic field. consisting of the red and blue parts. (of the air) transporting classical electrical energy from the field source to the rotor. whereas the finite 45º 494 . it should be possible to drive an electrostatic rotor (blue colour in Figure 2) permanently and indefinitely just by putting electrical charge onto the field source (disc in red colour in Figure 2). indicating at least 147 nanoWatts had x1.050 per cent. force and counter-force are not identically the same. which did not take the speed of the interacting partners into account. The initialisation of the motion by charging the field source electrically. which leads us to Figure 1. This conception is first explained by Lie´nard and Wiechert under the name of the retarded potentials (Landau and Lifschitz .

Consequently. potential energy of the spring and field’s energy) is constant. replaced by some others setup. that the laws of Biot-Savart and the Lorentz-force applied for the computation of the setup according to Figure 4. Nevertheless. as soon as the bodies move away from each other. because the electric resonance with in the LC-circuit and the mechanical motion of the magnet on the one hand. due to the additional electrostatic or magnetic force. the finite speed of propagation of the fields is included implicitly into Coulomb’s law. If the bodies are charged up electrically. Construction of a powerful ZPE-engine An output-power of 150 nanoWatts is only a fundamental scientific experiment. But on the background of the theory it is clear. within their oscillation. the next step of investigation should be: the FPS should be introduced into the theoretical simulation of the system shown in Figure 4. have to be adjusted to the propagation speed of the (magnetic) fields on the other hand. and a verification of the conversion of ZPE. which allows a very high speed of the interacting partners. But: as long as the finite speed of propagation of the fields is not taken into account. 2010-2011). Obviously some of the fundamental laws of classical electrodynamics (which are verified many millions of times) contain the finite speed of propagation of the fields implicitly – in order to describe nature properly. are due to the imperfections of the real isolators in the experimental setup. but the application is the clean energy-supply for everybody. the power being converted from the quantumvacuum is very small. and as soon as the oscillation of the plates comes into resonance with the propagation fields (of electrostatic interaction between the plates). And from theory. Consequently. if we remember that the electrostatic rotor of Figure 2 behaves similar: there. that the FPS has to be taken additionally into account. that the 3 nanoWatts being lost. But it is not sure. Of course. resulting in an exemplary demonstration. the rotation will have to be much faster. One possible theoretical concept for this development is presented now. If future theoretical simulations will show. as soon as the bodies move towards each. how to develop construction-plans of such an engine. and the electrical field’s energy oscillating within an LC-oscillation-circuit. which is about the same order of magnitude as the MITpublication reported above. A design-example up to now was simulated on the computer with a magnet of about 10 cm of diameter rotating within a coil of about 15 £ 15 cm. And this needs many powerful ZPE-engines.100 round per minute. the speed of light) in order to convert a remarkable amount of conversion of ZPE. The bodies can be brought into harmonic oscillation. connecting the mechanical motion of the rotation of the magnet with the motion of the electromagnetic field within the coil and the capacitor. the setup should work as a ZPE-converter. which is designed to produce a power density of several hundred Watts per liter of engine-volume. also contain the finite speed of propagation of the fields implicitly. This can be possible. being supported from an invisible source of energy permanently. as shown in Figure 4. which is proven by theoretical calculations. a (small) setup does not 3. this source of energy is to be known as the ZPE of the electromagnetic waves of the quantum-vacuum (Turtur. the classical energy (consisting of kinetic energy. Therefore. Surprisingly. where two flexible membranes (plastic/rubber foils with metallic cover) are made plates of a capacitor. namely in the range of some picoWatts. that the attractive magnetic force during the period of the contraction of the spring is smaller than the attractive magnetic force during the period of the extraction of the spring – both due to the finite speed of the motion of the magnets. The system as shown in Figure 4 was simulated theoretically by solving the differential equations of its motion.e. Figure 3 shows a very simple setup for a very first approach to the FSP-theory: two bodies m1 and m2 are mechanically connected with each other by a coil spring. to start with the principle validation of the “theoretical concept of the FPS of the fields” can be suggested according to the setup in Figure 5. this means as long as the situation is regarded statically with the approximation of infinitely fast fields. The system has got the name “electromechanic double resonance converter” (EMDR). the solutions of the differential equations lead us to the conversion of ZPE even without taking the finite speed of propagation of the fields into account explicitly. giving an electrical power output of about 52 Watts and additionally a mechanical power output of about 528 Watts – about 580 Watts in sum. the compression of the spring is less strong than the extraction of the spring. An oscillation of those capacitor-plates can be initiated by applying an ACvoltage. the setup must be Figure 3 Two oscillating bodies with interacting field as a very simple approach to FPS-theory m1 mass m1 deflection x1 velocity v1 Figure 4 Possible setup of a powerful magnetic ZPE-motor m2 Line of Symmetry in the middle mass m2 deflection x2 velocity v2 495 . so that the amplitude of the oscillation is growing during time. But if the FPS of the fields is being taken into account. the oscillation will no longer be harmonic. 2010-2011). This can be realized with a magnet rotating within a coil. the force of electrostatic or magnetic interaction is reduced.The ZPE of the quantum-vacuum Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal Claus Wilhelm Turtur Volume 85 · Number 6 · 2013 · 493 –496 been converted from the ZPE. The problem is that the speed of motion of the interacting partners must be somehow comparable to the speed of propagation of the interacting fields (i. This means. 30. A very first and rather easy experiment. or if they are replaced by permanent magnets. The EMDR-converter can be one possible future experiment for the validation of the “theoretical concept of the FPS of the fields” (which is new here) explaining the conversion of ZPE. and on the other hand. Such devices must be developed (Turtur. the force of interaction is enhanced.

.youtube. and Ram. clean. (2012). . but the detection of this power makes the simplicity of the setup: if the geometrical dimensions of the capacitor and the membranes (with their spring-constant) is adjusted in appropriate manner to each other and to the distance of the fields in propagation.pdf Turtur.ostfalia.de/export/sites/default/de/pws/ turtur/NeuesVerzeichnis/Forschungplan_englisch. so that the lower limit of power-sensitivity is about several 102 16.D. . which will hopefully be made available for everybody in future. Vol. dependent on trajectories of the partners of interaction. and Lifschitz.youtube. C. Conversion of the Vacuum-Energy of Electromagnetic Zero-Point Oscillations into Classical Mechanical Energy. The author of the paper presents a fundamental theory of utilising ZPE..au/how/2011 www. available at: www. if somebody has the possibilities. available at: www. inexpensive and inexhaustible. which could in principle be used by everybody for free – solving our energy-problem completely. plastic frame foil with metallic cover References without voltage applied Landau.com/watch?v¼BbhkXDacNx8 http:freeenergynews. Lehrbuch der Theoretischen Physik. so that the setup works in the range of an acoustic signal. Utilization of Vacuum-Energy: Theoretical Fundament and Explanation of the ZPE-Motor. Turtur. 097403. which can be understood as the “concept of the FPS of the fields”. C. C. the author published a scientific plan (Turtur. This should give a good chance to detect ZPE-conversion in a rather efficient way.com/reprints 496 .W. causing a retardation of the fundamental interactions of nature. Santhanam.102 15 Watts. The sensitivitylimit of human ears is an acoustic intensity of 102 12 Watts/ m2. (2010-2011).de/export/ sites/default/de/pws/turtur/FundE/Schrift_03f_englisch.The ZPE of the quantum-vacuum Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal Claus Wilhelm Turtur Volume 85 · Number 6 · 2013 · 493 –496 Further work Figure 5 Possible setup for a first and simple verification-experiment of the “theoretical concept of the FPS of the fields” In order to explain some ideas how the ZPE research work could be continued in future. (1997). Living Review. P. Living Review.com Or visit our web site for further details: www.de To purchase reprints of this article please e-mail: reprints@emeraldinsight. Physical Review Letters.W.W. Harri Deutsch Verlag. E. 108. L.M. Klassische Feldtheorie. Band 2. which can be heard directly with our human ears. to develop the new clean ZPE source for mankind. D. Frankfurt.emeraldinsight. available at: www. Corresponding author Claus Wilhelm Turtur can be contacted at: c-w.com/Directory/Lutec1000/ The ZPE of the quantum-vacuum is an interesting new source of energy. 2012). Gray.lutec.ostfalia. Web sites Conclusion LUTEC – www.J. Research Concept – Zero Point Energy. (2012).pdf Turtur.turtur@ ostfalia.de/export/sites/ default/de/pws/turtur/DownloadVerzeichnis/Series-english5Articles.ostfalia.com/watch?v¼g59cGTswGCI www. and the size of the ears is not more than several cm2. “Thermoelectrically pumped light-emitting diodes operating above unity efficiency”. R.J.com. 12th ed.pdf with voltage applied produce much power (a computation was simulated in the range of few picoWatts). p. There are some ZPE-motors already existing on our earth. (2000-2010). the working-frequency of the system can be some kiloHertz.

Further reproduction prohibited without permission.Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. .