FDP on

EE2036 Flexible AC Transmission System
Organized by
Dr. R.P. Kumudini Devi & Dr. P. Somasundaram
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering,
College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University, Chennai

Sponsored by Anna University
Chennai
1/15/2015

Coordination of FACTS
controllers
By
Dr. S. Arunachalam
Associate Professor,
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai

1/15/2015

INTRODUCTION

Schematic Diagram of SVC Control
System

Basic Modes of SVC Control
Voltage control
mode
Reactive power
control mode
Electrical
Damping
Enhancement

• Signals
• Transmission Line Current
• Transmission line active/reactive power
• Bus angle and Frequency
• Angular velocity of synchronous generator

Need for Damping by FACTS Controllers

• Due to complexity of the present day system the number of
modes of oscillation experienced by the generators has
become large and the frequency of these modes has begun to
vary over a wide range.
• Design of effective PSS has become extremely complex and
difficult.

Role of a FACTS Controller
• In addition to doing its own function it is
designed to enhance the secure operation by
providing sufficient damaging over a wide
range of power system operating conditions.
• FACTS controllers do provide these system
improvements but the problem is they may
interact adversely with one another.

Working of FACTS Controllers
FACTS damping control is superimposed on FACTS normal
control functions.
Sometimes the effectiveness can be hampered by the
interaction between FACTS normal control and the
damping control functions.

Changing the parameters of one FACTS controller affects
the parameters of other FACTS controllers

Co-ordination
Simultaneous tuning of the controllers to
attain an effective, positive improvement of
the overall control scheme

CONTROLLER INTERACTIONS

Controller
Interactions

Multiple FACTS
controllers of same
kind

Multiple FACTS
controllers of
different kind

Multiple FACTS
controllers and HVDC
converter controllers.

Classification
based on
Frequency
Ranges

Steady State Interactions
Electromechanical oscillations
Small signal or control oscillations
Sub synchronous resonance
Electromagnetic transients

Steady State Interactions
Frequency

• 0 Hz

Example

• Steady State voltage control of FACTS and HVDC supplementary
control for voltage regulation

Program

• Load Flow and Stability Programs

Index
Mitigate

• Voltage Stability Factors

• Centralized control of participating controllers
• Combination of local and Centralized control of participating
controllers

Electro Mechanical-Oscillation
Interactions

Frequency

• Local Mode 0.8 - 2 Hz
• Inter Area Mode 0.2-0.8 Hz

Example

• Interactions between Facts controllers which also involves generators
and associated PSS controls

Program

• Eigen Value Analysis Programs

Index
Mitigate

• Damping of sensitive modes

• Co-ordinated operation of different FACTS controllers
• Damping of different modes of oscillations assigned to separate
controllers

Control or Small Signal Oscillations

Frequency

•2-15 Hz

Example

•Interactions between Facts controllers and transmission network
•Resonance between series capacitors and shunt reactors

Program

•Frequency Scanning Programs
•EMTP
•Physical simulators
•Eigen Value analysis

Index
Mitigate

•Network Strength
•FACTS control Parameters

•Tuning of Controller gains

Sub synchronous Resonance
Interactions

Frequency

• 10-50/60 Hz

Example

• Generators Torsional System and Series compensated transmission
line, HVDC converter controls or even SVCs

Program

• Frequency Scanning Programs
• EMTP
• Eigen Value analysis

Index
Mitigate

• Damage caused to generator shaft

• Coordinated control of FACTS devices

High Frequency Interactions
Frequency

• >15 Hz

Example

• Large nonlinear disturbance

Program

• Frequency Scanning Programs
• EMTP
• Eigen Value analysis

Index
Mitigate

• THD

• Coordinated control of FACTS devices located within 3 major buses

Stability of control system during coordination of FACTS devices

FREQUENCY RESPONSES OF FACTS
CONTROLLERS

Frequency Response of SVC


Reactive Power absorption of 22.5 Mvar to maintain bus voltage magnitude at
1.02 p.u.
Reactive Power injection of 50 Mvar to maintain bus voltage magnitude at 1.1
p.u.

Magnitude
Plot

Phase Angle
Plot

Frequency Response of TCSC

Magnitude
Plot

Phase Angle
Plot

Uncoupled SVC Buses (Transfer reactance high)
Coupled SVC Buses (Transfer reactance is low and depends on short
circuit capacity)

SVC-SVC INTERACTION

Test System

SVC-SVC
SVC-TCSC

HIGH FREQUENCY INTERACTIONS

Study System for Analysis of High
Frequency Interaction between SVCs

For a 2% Step change
in voltage
Eigen Value=-19+19.7
Eigen Value=-19-19.7

For a 2% Step change
in voltage
Eigen Value=-19.7+119
Eigen Value=-19.7-119

Response of individually Designed SVC
to step change in voltage of SVC 2

Response of coordinated control of
SVCs

Study System for SVC-TCSC
interactions

Response of TCSC

Response of SVC

Combined Response
of SVC and TCSC

Response after
Coordinated design
of SVC and TCSC

COORDINATION OF MULTIPLE
CONTROLLERS USING LINEAR CONTROL
TECHNIQUES

Basic Procedure for controller design
Derivation of the system model
Enumeration of the system performance specification
Selection of measurement and control signals
Controller design and coordination
Validation of design and performance evaluation

Derivation of System Model
Reduced Order Non Linear model of the power system

Linearized around an operating point

Further reduced depending upon the modes to be
damped but should retain same modal characteristics
over narrow range of frequencies

If these are not possible we can use identification
techniques

Enumeration of system performance
specifications
It should help the system survive the first few oscillations
of a severe disturbance
A minimum level of damping is ensured during the steady
state
Should avoid interactions with other controllers
Robust

Selection of Measurement and Control
Signal
Selected signals should be
Observable and controllable of the
relevant modes to be damped.

Controller Design and Coordination

Validation of design and performance
evaluation
• Non linear time domain simulation

COORDINATION USING
CONSTRAINED OPTIMIZATION

Global Coordination using non linear
constrained optimization

PLACEMENT OF FACTS DEVICES

Placement of FACTS Devices
Large Scale
non linear
optimization
problem
with the
objective of
finding new
location and
size to cover
normal and
contingency
condition

Conventional
methods
Heuristic
Methods

Sensitivity
Based Methods

Generalized Reduced Gradient
Newton's Approach
SQP
Simulated Annealing
GA
Tabu Search
ACO
Firefly Algorithm
PSO
Analysis based on Index

Eigen value Analysis

Reference
• Thyristor-Based Facts Controllers for Electrical
Transmission Systems by R. Mohan Mathur,
Rajiv K. Varma