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**Concrete has very good compressive strength and almost negligible tensile
**

strength. Hence, steel reinforcement is used on the tensile side of concrete. Thus,

singly reinforced beams reinforced on the tensile face are good both in compression

and tension. However, these beams have their respective limiting moments of

resistance with specified width, depth and grades of concrete and steel. The amount of

steel reinforcement needed is known as Ast,lim. Problem will arise, therefore, if such

a section is subjected to bending moment greater than its limiting moment of

resistance as a singly reinforced section.

There are two ways to solve the problem. First, we may increase the depth of the

beam, which may not be feasible in many situations. In those cases, it is possible to

increase both the compressive and tensile forces of the beam by providing steel

reinforcement in compression face and additional reinforcement in tension face of the

beam without increasing the depth (Fig1). The total compressive force of such beams

comprises (i) force due to concrete in compression and (ii) force due to steel in

compression. The tensile force also has two components: (i) the first provided by

Ast,lim which is equal to the compressive force of concrete in compression. The second

part is due to the additional steel in tension - its force will be equal to the compressive

force of steel in compression. Such reinforced concrete beams having steel

reinforcement both on tensile and compressive faces are known as doubly reinforced

beams.

Doubly reinforced beams, therefore, have moment of resistance more than the

singly reinforced beams of the same depth for particular grades of steel and concrete.

In many practical situations, architectural or functional requirements may restrict

the overall depth of the beams.

It may be noted that even in so called singly reinforced beams there would be

longitudinal hanger bars (or stirrup holders) in compression zone for locating and fixing

stirrups.

447 fck Asc – d- Area of compression steel Effective depth of beam top surface and d’- depth of compression reinforcement from the . It can be considered as a combination of: a.133 for Fe 500 Mu.2 = Moment capacity of the steel beam section.fcc )x Asc (d-d’)Where fsc – stress in compression steel when strain in topmost compression fibres of concrete reaches a maximum value of 0.0035 (Table F in SP 16 reproduced below as table 1) fcc – stress in concrete at a distance d’ from the top fibres = 0.A steel beam without any concrete but reinforced with tension and compression steel Moment of resistance of a doubly reinforced section is the sum of moments of resistance of (a) and (b) Mu. neglecting the effect of concrete = (fsc.1 = limiting moment of resistance of the singly reinforced section = K bd 2 Where K = 0.149 for Fe 250 = 0.Fig 1 Reinforced concrete beams with compression reinforcement is required in cases where the depth of the beam is restricted and the singly reinforced section is insufficient to resist the moment of the section.A singly reinforced beam with limiting value of moment of resistance b.138 for Fe 415 and 0.

0041739 (ref.1 = limiting moment of resistance of the singly reinforced section = K bd 2……………. The designer has to determine Asc and Ast of the beam from the given factored moment. D.15 217. Mu.4 355 412 0. d. lim from Eqs.4 329 370 Strain at yield 0. lim and Ast. grades of concrete and steel.20 217. 1 and 2respectively.Table 1 Values of fsc for different values of d'/d fy 2 (N/mm ) 250 415 500 d'/d 0. the given data are b.0038043 0. These problems can be solved by two ways: (i) use of the equations developed for the doubly reinforced beams.10 217.0010869 0.1 .4 342 395 0. named here as direct computation method.05 217. (a) Direct computation method Step 1: To determine Mu.4 353 412 0. table F of SP-16) Design type of problems In the design type of problems. (ii) use of charts and tables of SP16.

87 fy (d-0.lim / 0.87 x 415 (500. Ast2 = Mad/ 0. Example: A concrete beam of rectangular cross section 250mm x 550 mm (overall) is to be designed for resisting a factored moment of 225 kNm.lim = 0.149 for Fe 250 = 0.Where K = 0. Hence (fsc.lim) = Mu.42x 240) .138 fck bd2 = 0.133 for Fe 500 Ast1 = Mu. Assume effective cover of 50mm) Use M20 concrete and HYSD bars of grade 415. d= D.cover= 550-50=500. Mu2 or Mad = Md – Mu.lim This additional moment needs to be resisted by Ast1 and Asc.lim/ 0.max= 0.0.42 Xu.48 d = 0.fcc ) (d-d’) Steel in the compression zone replaces concrete of equal area. Md= 225x106 Nmm Assuming a balance section of size 250mmX 550mm.87 fy (d-d’) Ast = Ast1+ Ast2 Compression Steel Asc = Mad/ (fsc.138 x 20 x 5002 = 173.mm = 173.138 for Fe 415 and 0.max) Xu.87fy (d-0.5 x 106/ 0. Data: b=250mm. d’=50mm.fcc ) instead of just fsc. Mu.eff.42Xu. Ast2 and Ast from Eqs. Determine the steel area required. Asc.5kNm < Md Ast1 (corrosponding to Mu.48 x 500 = 240mm Ast1= 173.5 x 106 N.max) Step 2: To determine Mu2.

446x 20 = 8.20.1 . 0.5x 106 / 0. For intermediate values interpolation may be done) fcc = 0.5 = 51. for Fe 415 and d’/d= 0. 12mm dia bars Asc = 339 mm2 (Draw a section of the beam marking dimensions and labeling the bars) Method 2: Using SP 16 1.05.3mm2 Ast2 is calculated from additional moment.0.lim = 225-173. Calculate Mu.138 x 20 x 5002 = 173.mm = 173.446 fck = 0.5kNm = Mad Additional tension steel Ast2 = Mad/ 0. Mu.87 x 415 x (500-50) = 316. Ast= 1520 mm2) Asc = Mad/ (fsc. fsc = 353 MPa [ Table gives d’/d values of 0.1 .9 = 1517 mm2 ( provide four numbers of 22 mm dia bars .5x 106 / (353-8. Md – Mu.94 MPa Substituting these values in eqn for Asc = Mad/ (fsc.94) (500-50) =332.5 x 106 N.15 and 0.fcc ) (d-d’) = 51. D’/d = 50/500 = 0.6 mm2 Provide 3 no.1.= 1200.fcc ) (d-d’) fsc is found from from Table F of SP16 (reproduced above as Table 1).9mm2 Ast = Ast1+ Ast2 = 1200 +316.87 fy (d-d’) * here is d-d’] = [* lever arm 51.lim = 0.5kNm This is less than Md.lim assuming singly reinforced balanced section. which is equal to 225 kNm .138 fck bd2 = 0.

271 x 250x500/100 =338.1 Tension steel % Pt =1.271 = Asc = Pc X bxd/100 = 0.75 mm2 . d’/d. fy and fck.6 N/ mm2 Reading from Table 50 for Fe 415 and fck=20.Hence beam shall be designed as doubly reinforced beam.214 = Ast = Pt x b x d /100 = 1. for d’/d = 0. Doubly reinforced sections % steel is given in Table 45 onwards in SP 16 for various values of M/bd2.214 x 250 x 500/100 = 1517 mm2 Compression Pc = 0. M/bd2 = 225x106/ 250 x 500 x 500 = 3.

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