Module 8-Abbreviations



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Chapter III - Human Anatomy
First let us understand more about the human skeleton as it forms the framework of human
body about which all organs and systems function and perform.
The human skeleton is made of bones, some of them joined together, supported and
supplemented by a structure of ligaments, tendons, muscles, and cartilage.
The skeleton changes composition over a lifespan. Early in gestation, a fetus has no hard
skeleton — bones form gradually during nine months in the womb. When a baby is born it
has more bones than it will as an adult. On average, an adult human has 206 bones in their
skeleton (the number can vary slightly from individual to individual), but a baby is born with
approximately 270. The difference comes from a number of small bones that fuse together
during growth. These include the bones in the skull and the spine. The sacrum (the bone at
the base of the spine) consists of six bones, which are separated at birth but fuse together
into a solid structure in later years.
There are 6 bones (three on each side) in the middle ear that articulate only with
themselves, and one bone, the hyoid bone, which does not touch any other bones in the
The longest bone in the body is the femur and the smallest is the stapes bone in the middle

. Organization One way to group the bones of the human skeleton is to divide them into two groups. Gender differences There are many differences between the male and female human skeletons. Most striking is the difference in hip bones owing to differences related to the process of reproduction. ribs and sternum. It is also necessary for protection of vital organs and is needed by the muscles for movement. Women also tend to have narrower rib cages.Fig: Human Skeleton Function The skeleton functions not only as the support for the body but also in hematopoiesis. and less pronounced cranial features such as the brow ridges and occipital protuberance (the small bump in the cranium's posterior). namely the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. There are also a number of smaller differences between human male and female skeletons. smaller teeth. bones of the pelvis and bones of the lower limb. Men tend to have slightly thicker and longer limbs and digit bones while women tend to have larger pelvic bones in relation to body size. the manufacture of blood cells that takes place in bone marrow (which is why bone marrow cancer is very often a terminal disease). Not only does the skeleton serve to help manufacture blood cells. scapulae. the vertebrae. bones of the upper limb. but it also serves as a mineral storage deposit in which nutrients can be stored and retrieved. less angular mandibles. The appendicular skeleton consists of the clavicles. The axial skeleton consists of bones in the midline and includes all the bones of the head and neck. and very likely also to the biological process of sexual selection.

Frontal bone 2.) In the skull (22): Cranial bones: 1. Mandible Palatine bone (2) Lacrimal bone (2) Vomer bone inferior nasal conchae (2) In the middle ears (6): Malleus (2) Incus (2) Stapes (2) In the throat (1): Hyoid bone In the shoulder girdle (4): 25. Here is a list of all human bones: A typical adult human skeleton consists of the following 206 bones.Diseases The skeleton can be affected by many diseases that compromise physical mobility and strength. Skeletal diseases range from minor to extremely debilitating. Zygomatic bone (2) 6. Parietal bone (2) 3. Scoliosis is another. Ribs (2 x 12) . Scapula or shoulder blade (2) In the thorax (25): 10. Osteoporosis can increase the likelihood of fractures and broken bones. when the spine curves from side to side. Bone cancer and bone tumors are extremely serious and are sometimes treated by radical surgery such as amputation of the affected limb. especially among post-menopausal women and the elderly. Nasal bone (2) 7. Temporal bone (2) 4. Various forms of arthritis attack the skeleton resulting in severe pain and debility. Sternum 28. Occipital bone Sphenoid bone Ethmoid bone Facial bones: 5. Clavicle or collarbone (2) 29. Superior and inferior maxilla 9. (Numbers in bold refer to the diagram at right.

12. Cervical vertebrae (7) incl. Ossa coxa (hip bones or innominate bones) (2) 16. 20. Femur (2) Greater trochanter of femur Condyles of femur Patella (2) Tibia (2) Fibula (2) In the feet (52): Ankle (tarsal) bones: Calcaneus (heel bone) (2) Talus (2) . 19. Humerus (2) Condyles of humerus Ulna (2) Radius (2) Head of radius In the hands (54): Wrist (carpal) bones: Scaphoid bone (2) Lunate bone (2) Triquetrum bone (2) Pisiform bone (2) Trapezium (bone) (2) Trapezoid bone (2) Capitate bone (2) Hamate bone (2) Palm or metacarpal bones: Metacarpal bones (5 × 2) Finger bones or phalanges: Proximal phalanges (5 × 2) Intermediate phalanges (4 × 2) Distal phalanges (5 × 2) In the pelvis (4): 15. Sacrum Coccyx In the legs (8): 17.In the vertebral column (24): 8. 13. 27. 21. 22. Atlas & axis 14. 23. Lumbar vertebrae (5) Thoracic vertebrae (12) In the arms (6): 11. 26.

Ilium. which fuse in adults to form the sacrum.Navicular bone (2) Medial cuneiform bone (2) Intermediate cuneiform bone (2) Lateral cuneiform bone (2) Cuboidal bone (2) Instep bones: Metatarsal Bone (5 × 2) Toe bones: Proximal phalanges (5 × 2) Intermediate phalanges (4 × 2) Distal phalanges (5 × 2) The infant skeleton has the following bones in addition to those above: 1. which fuse in adults to form the coccyx. 3. which fuse in adults to form the pelvic girdle The bones of the human skeleton are structurally and in many taxonomies organized as those of the: Skull Middle ear Throat Shoulder girdle Ribcage Vertebra Arms Hands Pelvis Legs Feet . 2. Sacral vertebrae (4 or 5). ischium and pubis. Coccygeal vertebrae (3 to 5).