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Ripple Tank
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Detector pag
X-ray Energy

PHYSICS

L A B O R AT O R Y E X P E R I M E N T S

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Dear customer,
this catalogue of physics laboratory experiments for universities, colleges, high schools etc. is a valuable and
extensive work of scientific literature for experiment-oriented education purposes. It includes numerous successful
and classical experiments playing an essential role in every physics laboratory course. The experiments have been
field-tested over and over again and countless enthusiastic customers all over the world have been inspired
by them.
Our team of experienced scientists has set great store on using both classical equipment, such as oscilloscopes,
recorders etc., and modern interface systems like our Cobra3 system for the experiments. This is why you will often
find several versions for one experiment. Just choose the experiment version which best meets your specific
requirements.
If you need help in selecting the right experiments, our sales representatives in your country would be more than
happy to assist you.
We hope you enjoy our manual and look forward to your questions.
Phywe Systeme GmbH & Co. KG

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG
Robert-Bosch-Breite 10
D-37079 Göttingen · Germany
Phone + 49/551/604- 0
Fax
+ 49/551/604 -115
www.phywe.com
int.sales@phywe.com

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Seite 1

About Phywe

Founded in Göttingen, Germany in 1913 by Dr. Gotthelf Leimbach, Phywe Systeme GmbH & Co. KG quickly advanced
to one of the leading manufacturers of scientific equipment.
Over this period of more than 90 years Phywe has been putting quality and innovation into its products as a
fundamental requirement.
As a well known international supplier in the fields of science and engineering we have made a significant impact on
the market through high quality equipment.
Phywe products are made in Germany and in use throughout the world in the fields of education und research, from
primary schools right through to university level.
Up-to-date educational systems, planning and commissioning of scientific and engineering laboratories to meet
specific requirements are our daily business.
As a supplier of complete, fully developed and established systems, Phywe provides teaching and learning systems
for students as well as teacher demonstration experiments. The system ranges from simple, easy to operate
equipment intended for student use up to coverage of highly sophisticated and specialised university equipment
demands.
Phywe Systeme GmbH & Co. KG has achieved a very high standard based on research and technology and through
exchange of experiences with universities and high schools as well as with professors and teachers.
As experienced and competent manufacturer, we would gladly assist you in the
selection of the "right" experiments for your particular curricula.

1

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Mechanics
Phywe
in the University City of Göttingen –

Measurement techniques

Natural sciences have a longstanding
tradition in Göttingen. More than 40 Nobel
prizewinners coming from all areas of
scientific disciplines and numerous university
institutes successfully conduct research in
practically all areas of science.

The following research institutions and
university institutes are located in Göttingen:
Academy of Science, several Max-Planck
institutes, the German Primate Centre, the
Centre of Molecular Physiology of the Brain,
the Centre of Molecular Life Science –
to name just a few.

We are in contact with these institutions and
exchange our views with them to ensure that
the latest trends and scientific innovations
are always reflected in the product range of
Phywe Systeme GmbH & Co. KG.

2

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A Center of Natural Sciences in Germany

Nobel Price winner
Prof. Otto Hahn visiting
PHYWE in 1966

GÖTTINGEN is a city of teaching and research. Scientific equipment, teaching
equipment and laboratory installations developed and produced in this city are famous
throughout the world.
Göttingen would not be what it is without its university.
“Georgia Augusta” was founded in 1734 and by 1777 it was Germany‘s largest
university, with 700 students. It still is one of the leading universities in Germany, with
14 faculties, significant scientific facilities and more than 30,000 students.
The gracious Goose Girl (“Gänseliesel”) on the market place well is the most kissed girl
in Germany. Why? Because every newly graduated doctor must kiss the cold beauty on
her bronze mouth. That is Göttingen tradition.
Doctor’s kiss for the “Goose Girl”

3

English) and Natural Sciences on the board (available in German.2007 12:53 Uhr Seite 4 – catalogues. Available in English and Spanish. Additionally you can find a large number of laboratory materials and an insight in our particularly successful teaching systems TESS. For the student system “Advanced Optics and Laser Physics” a special brochure is available in English. English. Cobra3 and Natural Sciences on the board. Cobra3 (available in German. 4 .Vorspann 09. Laboratory Experiments Physics is also available on CD-ROM. brochures and more… PHYSICS – CHEMISTRY – BIOLOGY The comprehensive catalogue for physics. Available in English. technical colleges and similar institutions and also for advanced courses in high schools. Special brochures Additionally there are special brochures for our particularly successful teaching systems TESS (available in German. French and Spanish). English). Laboratory Experiments The experiments in the Phywe publication series “Laboratory Experiments” are intended for the heads of laboratories. colleges of advanced technology. chemistry and biology.08.

37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 5 . All you need is a PC. The advantage is that you can process the data particularly well using a PC.Vorspann 09. Computer-Assisted Experiments with our Cobra3 PC Interface A large number of experiments can be performed in a particularly comfortable and elegant way with the help of our Cobra3 measurement interface. These instruments can be connected directly to a PC where you can use the Phywe measure Software to work with the data. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. we have added pictograms to several of our experiments. These pictograms give you a quick overview of the most important features of the experiments and provide you with all the essential information at a glance. Here you will also find particularly successful experiments with new additional features to offer you even more measurement and experiment possibilities. We would be more than happy to provide you with references upon request.08.2007 12:53 Uhr Seite 5 Phywe is uncomplicated Handbooks Physics To help you in selecting your experiments. KG · D . Our Best-Sellers Particularly successful and reliable products which have been field-tested over and over again in numerous countries .some for many years. New Products New products which have been launched in the last few months. PC interfaced instruments Some Phywe devices already have an interface included.

is measu Fig. forbid conduction band. The polarlies when charged. extrinsic condu resistance. the specif rs are netic field. choose the ”Regression”-icon.. asurement like in Fig Fig. temmeasured at room s the sample is of the 2. intrins band theory. Now. the voltag gnetic field to a Determine value of e and cur 250 mT the ren hal t on l voltage -30 mA up as a functio the power sup by to 30 mA ply. r the acwith the the guideinput on The con the backsi 12V~ output nec de of the Unit is rea tion to the Analo modg lized via module. 3.) k  8. prot.1: Experiment Fig.01 06501. It has age the crysta to the magnet ver l The differe to be in the cen in par ticular. 6 shows that there is a linear relationship between the current I and the Hall voltage UB: UH = a · I where a = proportionality factor. 8. black Connecting cord. do as follows: Choose the channel modification in the analysis-menu. groove in with a hall probe.1. The band the mobility of the charge carrie and r of charge carrie the measurements. To perform as gauge the measurement the Cobra s. Eg = energy of bandgap.99 12109. The the of the pow module is directly hall-effekt-modu test piece on l via er unit ove connected ule. 5: Ca libration menu. al set-up Fig. You will n in steps of the cur receive a rent from typical me of nearly 5 mA.37070 Göttingen . Germany This is the ment. To receive the necessary graph. (Since the measurements were made with a constant current. le ent-scree n by pre via ”options” (Fig ssing the .5).05 LEP 5. T = absolute temperature. clearly quadratic. 7 shows the non-linear. magn cient.00 06489. from which Eg can be determined. (F = force acting on charge carriers. plane nt. This phenomenon arises from the Lorentz force: the charge carriers giving rise to the current flowing through the sample are deflected in the magnetic field B as a function of their sign and their velocity v: ‫ك‬ 3. SYSTEME GMBH • Physics • PHYWE tory Experiments publications • Labora PHYWE series of 25301-11 b  1 Eg 2k . So ctly put into the re. mobility. e. coeffi Hall g. The 3.3): Fig. displayed choose. a voltage – the so-called Hall voltage – is produced between two superposed points on opposite sides of the strip. p-Ge.07 · 103 K. plotted on a graph 2 nium rectangular germa Principle Hall voltage of a magThe resistivity and of temperature and ured as a function ic conductivity.01 -11 ra3 rmanium with Cob Hall effect in p-ge Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT unit y Cobra3 power suppl le modu Tesla measuring Hall Cobra3 Software RS 232 data cable 12150. laminated Iron core. KG · D . etc. 3: Sta rt menu of the sof tware Co bra3 Hall effect. . The Hall voltag at room temperature together with the 1 R netic induction B. red Connecting cord. The voltage acros ant control current as a function perature and const B. To determine the regression line. ll voltage as a fun ction of cur rent.18 · 103 K with a standard deviation sb = ± 0. you have the desired graph. 4 25301-11 LEP 5.6. avo y carefully. cap tange Hall probe. 500 mm. The to be put into Fig. 16502. All experiments are uniformly built-up and contain references such as Related topics and Principle and task to introduce the subject. Since negative and positive charge carriers in semiconductors move in opposite directions. Set the parameters as shown in Fig. U-sha 2 . Example of measurement parameters 2 25301-1 1 PHYWE series of publications • Laborat ory Experim ents • Phy sics • PHY WE SYS TEME GM BH • 370 70 Götting en. you can measured s before every me . 2. If the logarithm of the conductivity is plotted against T-1 a straight line is obtained with a slope Germany • 37070 Göttingen.55 07359. valence band. b   Eg 2k   4.12 Laboratory Experiments Physics 6 Laboratory Experiments. 1 magnetic induction ant const at 1 le is measured band across the samp temperature. blue Connecting cord. 11801. The type of charge carrier causing the flow of current can therefore be determined from the polarity of the Hall voltage.55 02025. Ha parameters hav ll voltage e .00 1 1 1 1 2 and conTasks room temperature e is measured at control current and 1. The Hall voltag magnetic induction ture at constant 1 . V DC/6 V. 500 Connecting cord.01 07359. change in resistance as the field strength increases. Continue. band tivity.00 14521. 100 mm. can be dire tic field has to be the softwa measured Fig.00 12151. technical colleges and similar institutions and also for advanced courses in high schools. 500 mm. determined from Equipment le. 1 lated from the meas tempera1 as a function of are e UH is measured B and the values 2 5.03) eV. we have s  s0 · exp a  Eg 2 kT b where s = conductivity.42 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 30330348mm. ctivity.02 13505. 1. LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS PHYSICS Klaus Hermbecker Ludolf von Alvensleben Regina Butt Andreas Grünemaier Robin Sandvoß Laboratory Experiments 1.00 13610. Hall effect modu carrier board Hall effect.3. LEP 5. The voltage 2 a function of the from the measurecontrol current as 1 nium is calculated spacing of germa 1 ments. k = Boltzmann constant. Choos e The the Samp Hall voltage as the le curren t as x-axis measurement Choose -channel the . the type sample are meas spacing. l = 250 Support rod -PASS -PASSRight angle clamp 100 mm.55 02040.11. 16502. a RS232 In 2 – por t of the cable from Cobra The Tes the RS232 3 Basicla-modu -port of the le is con Interface. where U is the voltage across the sample. the car- PHYWE series of publications • Laboratory Experiments • Physics • PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH • 37070 Göttingen..08.01 07361. Fig.3. The sign of the 4.Vorspann 09. You can als Start the o calibrate the Tes measurem la-modu ton. Semiconductor.12.04 07361. 1 the magas a function of 1 e UH is measured . red mm.61 14602. He start-screen wh ich appear re. the for boathe rd has shown in groove. they are deflected in the same direction. spacin Theory and evaluation states full theory involved and shows graphical and numerical experimental results including error calcules. blue Connecting cord. 2: Ha red ll effect in sample of ity sign of rectangul the Hall ar sec vol riers are negatively tage shown app tion. Therefore us the channel modification in the analysis-menu. which asureSample current (Fig . Remember the procedure with the parameters in Fig. ”continue” -but- Fig. The change in resistance of the sample due to the magnetic field is associated with a reduction in the mean free path of the charge carriers. Fig. The Hall voltag as a function of the compensation for t stant magnetic field (measurement withou plotted on a graph defect voltage). 4: Exa mple of measurem ent param eters. e = elementary charge).g. From the measured values used in Fig. 11: Parameters for the first channel modification. start the You will software receive the 3 Hall-Effect. you can be directly on which the modul e the Ge-sa sure that the ma gnetic flux as shown in mple. In the region of intrinsic conductivity.3. knowing the direction of the current and that of the magnetic field. we can put s ~ U–1. 600 turns ped. so tre betwe id en the pol bending the The magnent measurement s are con trolled by e pieces.93 02002. measurement on Set the ”key pre ma changing ss”. ic conducRelated topics den zone.01 -11 Hall effect in p-germanium with Cobra3 Theory and evaluation If a current I flows through a conducting strip of rectangular section and if the strip is traversed by a magnetic field at right angles to the direction of the current.4) as a fun to be ction of Fig. 6: Ha . 12 V AC Power supply 0-12 -PASS base Tripod mm -.2007 12:53 Uhr Seite 6 Laboratory Experiments.01 -11 Hall effec t in p-ger manium with Cobra 3 Set-up and procedure The exp erimental Fig. Physics Print Version No.32 CD No. Pole pieces.04 07361.625 · 10 5 Since ‫ ك‬B 2 F  e 1v eV K we get Eg = b · 2k = (0. and Continue. and cho following ose window (Fig.1.00 11805. the slope of the regression line ln s  ln s0  Eg 2k · T 1 is Picture and Equipment List guarantee time-saving and easy conducting of the experiment. German y Experimental literature 16502. conductivity etic Lorentz force.72 ± 0. nected to the mo The plate dule-port has to be of the as not to brought up dam plate. 12: Parameters second channel set-up ismodification. colleges of advanced technology. the Hall constant H 1 n p are calcuntratio charge carriers and conce r and the carrie 1 Hall mobility mH urements. Coil. Physics The experiments in the PHYWE Publication Series “Laboratory Experiments Physics” are intended for the heads of physics laboratory courses at universities. square.01 06514.

square. Windows® 95 or higher Quantity Order No. l = 500 mm.93 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. cap 13610. we will gladly send you detailed experimental descriptions. l = 100 mm.04 1 Connecting cord.50 1 Power supply. KG · D . 600 turns 06514. On request.01 1 1 Coil. if you would like to order the complete experiment.01 2 Iron core. Manual on CD-ROM included Hall effect in p-germanium with Cobra3 P2530111  Comprehensive experiments – cover the entire range of classical and modern physics  Complete equipment offering modular experimental set-up – multiple use of individual devices. Physics The present volume which has been developed by PHYWE.00 1 Cobra3 Software Hall 14521. The experiments can be ordered or offered completely or partially.05 2 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. 12 V 12151.01 1 Connecting cord. 12 V AC 13505. if desired.00 2 PC. prot.55 1 Connecting cord. You can order the experiments as follows: You Whatcan you order need: the experiments as follows:  Didactically adapted descriptions of experiments – easy. 11801.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 7 .2007 12:53 Uhr Seite 7 Laboratory Experiments. Please specify this Order No. complements the previously existing collection of about 236 experiments in twenty-six chapters as the following comprehensive Table of Contents shows. blue 07361.99 1 Tesla measuring module 12109. laminated 06501.01 2 Connecting cord. p-Ge. direct preparation by the students is possible Hall effect module. l = 500 mm.. red 07361.55 1 Support rod -PASS-. Complete Equipment Set. red 07359.61 1 RS 232 data cable 14602. plane 06489.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. tangent.Vorspann 09. In this brochure we present the experiments in short form. l = 100 mm.04 1 Connecting cord. cost effective and flexible  Excellent measurement accuracy – results agree with theory  Developed and proven by practicians – unproblematical and reliable performance  Computer-assisted experiments – simple.00 1 Pole pieces. carrier board 11805.08. black 07361. rapid assessement of the results PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. in accordance with the Comprehensive Equipment Lists. U-shaped.00 1 Hall probe. USB 12150. blue 07359.00 Hall effect. l = 500 mm. l = 250 mm 02025.02 1 Power supply 0-12 V DC/6 V.

01-00 Measuring the velocity of light 1.12-00 Ballistic Pendulum 1.07-00 Refraction index of air and CO2 with Michelson interferometer 8 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.4.5.2007 12:53 Uhr Seite 8 Summary 1 Mechanics 1.06-00 1.19-15 Interference of two identical ultrasonic transmitters 1.07-01 Free fall 1.5.2 Statics 1.09-11 Interference of acoustic waves.5.27-01 Forced Oscillations – Pohl’s pendulum 1.3.3.11-00 Projectile motion 1.1 Geometrical Optics 1.2.05-00 Michelson interferometer 1.2.02-00 Modulus of elasticity 1.4.1.5.2.02-00 Surface of rotating liquids 2.01-00 Moments 1.21-11 Determination of the velocity of sound (sonar principle) 1.01-00 Vibration of strings 1.2.4.3.6 Handbooks 1.5.07-11 Free fall with Cobra3 1.3.23-11 Pendulum oscillations with Cobra3 1.3.3.5.2.3.3.3.03-00 Interference at a mica plate according to Pohl 1.28-01 Moments of inertia / Steiner’s theorem 2.2 Interference 1.3.4.16-11 Centrifugal force with Cobra3 1.09-01 Determination of the gravitational constant with a Cavendish balance 1.08-00 Lift and drag (resistance to flow) 1.22-00 Ultrasonic Michelson-Interferometer 1. determination of wavelength 1.34-00 Wave phenomena in a ripple tank 2.5.03-01/05 Newton’s second law / Air track or Demonstration track 2 1.07-01/15 Wavelengths and frequencies with a Quincke tube 1.01-00 Density of liquids 2.26-11 Harmonic oscillations of spiral springs – Springs linked in parallel and series 1.08-11 Resonance frequencies of Helmholtz resonators with Cobra3 1.13-00 Stationary ultrasonic waves.01-00 Measurement of basic constants: length.5.3.33-00 Phase velocity of rope waves 2.3.30-00 Torsional vibrations and torsion modulus 2.04-00 Viscosity measurements with the falling ball viscometer 1.20-00 Interference of ultrasonic waves by a Lloyd mirror 1.02-00 Laws of lenses and optical instruments 1.4 Mechanics of Liquids and Gaseous Bodies 2.3.3.05-00 Surface tension by the ring method (Du Nouy method) 1.5.14-00 Absorption of ultrasonic in air 1.3.3.4.1 Measurement Techniques 1.3.3 Dynamics 1.06-01/15 Velocity of sound using Kundt’s tube 1. Determination of resonance frequencies by Fourier analysis 1.2.3.5.05-01/05 Laws of collision / Air track or Demonstration track 1.35-00 Interference and diffraction of water waves with the ripple tank Optics 2.11-00 Phase and group velocity of ultrasonics in liquids 1.15-15 Ultrasonic diffraction at different single and double slit systems 1.07-00 Barometric height formula 1.5.16-15 Ultrasonic diffraction at different multiple slit systems 1.5.5.5.5.3.3.2.1.25-11 Coupled Pendula with Cobra3 Magnet Board Mechanics 2 1.Vorspann 09.16-01 Centrifugal force 1.3.2.3.5 Mechanical Vibration.32-00 The propagation of a periodically excited continuous transverse wave Dispersion and resolving power of the prism and grating spectroscope 1.2.03-11 Velocity of sound in air with Cobra3 1.4-06-11 Surface tension by the pull-out method with Cobra3 1.27-11 Forced Oscillations – Pohl’s pendulum.4.18-00 Diffraction of ultrasound at a Fresnel zone plate / Fresnel’s zone construction 1.28-11 Moments of inertia of different bodies / Steiner’s theorem with Cobra3 2.03-11/15 Newton’s second law with Cobra3 / Air track or Demonstration track 1.13-11 Moment of inertia and angular acceleration with Cobra3 1.05-11/15 Laws of collision with Cobra3 / Air track or Demonstration track 1.5.3.5.3.1.5.01-01 Hooke’s law 1.02-00 Newton’s rings 2.12-00 Temperature dependence of the Velocity of sound in liquids 1.18-00 Mechanical conservation of energy / Maxwell’s wheel 1.5.15-00 Moment and angular momentum 1.5.37070 Göttingen .19-00 Laws of gyroscopes / 3-axis gyroscope 1.04-00 Fresnel’s zone construction / zone plate 1.22-00 Reversible pendulum 1.01-11 Hooke’s law with Cobra3 1. KG · D .3.3.5.5.10-00 Optical determination of velocity of sound in liquids 1.21-00 Mathematical pendulum 1.4.25-01 Coupled Pendula Physics Demonstration Experiments – Magnet Board Mechanics 1 1.3.13-01 Moment of inertia and angular acceleration Diffraction of ultrasonic waves at a pin hole and a circular obstacle 1.3. stationary waves and diffraction at a slot with Cobra3 1.24-15 Ultrasonic Doppler effect 1.01-00 Interference of light 1.3.23-01 Pendulum oscillations / variable g pendulum Physics Experiments – Linear Motion 1.3.3.03-00 Mechanical hysteresis 1. weight and time 1.3.5.08.03-00 Viscosity of Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids (rotary viscometer) Coherence and width of spectral lines with Michelson interferometer 2.04-01/11 Acoustic Doppler effect 1.3.17-15 1.1.31-00 Moment of inertia and torsional vibrations 2.20-00 Laws of gyroscopes / cardanic gyroscope 1.03-00 1.2.3. Acoustics 1.23-00 Ultrasonic diffraction by a straight edge 1.3.05-15 Chladni figures with FG-Module 1.3.

2.02-01/15 Magnetic field of single coils / Biot-Savart’s law 3.02-00 Charging curve of a capacitor 3.12-00 Faraday’s law 4.03-00 Intensity of diffractions due to pin hole diaphragms and circular obstacles Vapour pressure of water below 100°C / Molar heat of vaporization 3.1 Electricity Stationary Currents 2.2.12-00 Fourier optics – 4f Arrangement – Filtering and reconstruction 4.01-00 Thermal expansion in solids and liquids 3.01-00 Solar ray Collector 3.1 Thermal Expansion 3.05-00 Adiabatic coefficient of gases – Flammersfeld oscillator 4.06-00 Diffraction intensity through a slit and a wire – Babinet’s theorem 2.2007 12:53 Uhr Seite 9 Summary 2.3.09-01 Characteristic curves of a solar cell 4.01-00 Vapour pressure of water at high temperature 2.02-00 Thermal and electrical conductivity of metals 3.04-00 Lambert’s law 2.6.2.07-00 Semiconductor thermogenerator Advanced Optics and Laser Physics – Handbook 1–3 4.01-15 Ohm’s Law with FG-Module 2.01-00 Faraday effect 2.2.08-00 Peltier heat pump Physics Demonstration Experiments – Magnet Board Optics 4.01-00 Diffraction at a slit and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle 3.Vorspann 09.4.2.1.06-00 3.3.6.5.1.2 Electric Field 4.04-00 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.09-00 Nd-YAG laser 4.02-01 Heat capacity of gases 4.6 Applied Optics Phase Transitions 3.03-00 Capacitance of metal spheres and of a spherical capacitor 4.2. Electrolysis with FG-Module 3 Thermodynamics 3.02-00 Mechanical equivalent of heat 4.2.02-00 2.3 Magnetic Field 3.1.3.5.5.1.05-00 Determination of the diffraction intensity at slit and double slit systems 3.6. Friction Heat 4.7 Handbooks 4.02-11 Heat capacity of gases with Cobra3 3.06-01/15 Current balance/ Force acting on a current-carrying conductor 2.6.03-00 Boiling point elevation 2.1.2.4.3.01-11 Heat capacity of metals with Cobra3 4.4.4.04-01 Coulomb’s law / Image charge 4.08-00 Optical pumping 4.04-00 Thermal equation of state and critical point 3.04-00 Diffraction intensity for multiple slits and grids 3.11-00 Fourier optics – 2f Arrangement 2.6 Applied Thermodynamics 3.08.03-00 Internal resistance and matching in voltage source 2.03-00 Maxwellian velocity distribution 3.02-11 Photometric law of distance with Cobra3 2.6.2.2.02-00 Heat pump 3.06-00 Joule-Thomson effect 4.01-01 Heat capacity of metals 4.2.02-00 Kerr effect 2.6.5.6.3.5.5 Polarisation 2.03-01/15 Magnetic field of paired coils in Helmholtz arrangement 3.05-00 Coulomb potential and Coulomb field of metal spheres Dielectric constant of different materials 3.3 Diffraction 3.01-00 Electrical fields and potentials in the plate capacitor Ideal and Real Gases 4.01-01 Measurement of small resistance 2.2.6.4.02-00 Polarimetry 2.7 Handbooks Glas jacket system Demonstration Experiments Physics – Magnetic Board Heat 4 2.3.04-00 CO2-laser 2.3.1.1.1.5 Transport and Diffusion 2.6.2.07-01 Helium Neon Laser 4.3.6.4 Photometry 2.1.4.1.03-00 Fresnel’s equations – theory of reflection 2.02-01 Photometric law of distance 2.1.13-15 Second order conductors.04-15 Coulomb’s law with Cobra3 4.02-15 3.10-00 Fibre optics 4.02-00 Diffraction of light at a slit and an edge 3.3.01-01/15 Stefan-Boltzmann’s law of radiation 3.02-00 Wheatstone Bridge 2.3.2 4.1.03-00 Heat insulation / Heat conduction 3.6.04-00 Freezing point depression 2. KG · D .04-01/15 Temperature dependence of different resistors and diodes 4.2.01-00 Earth’s magnetic field 3.04-00 Malus’ law 2.4 2.6.6.03-00 Recording and reconstruction of holograms 2.6.05-11 LDA – Laser Doppler Anemometry with Cobra3 4.2.3.04-01/15 Stirling engine 3.01-15 Equation of state of ideal gases with Cobra3 Switch-on behaviour of a capacitor and an inductivity with FG-Module 3.6.2.1.5.4.3.3 Calorimetry.37070 Göttingen Magnetic moment in the magnetic field Laboratory Experiments Physics 9 .1.01-01 Equation of state of ideal gases 4.11-00 Characteristic and efficiency of PEM fuel cell and PEM electrolyser 4.3.01-00 Polarisation by quarterwave plates 2.09-15 Characteristic curves of semiconductors with FG-Module 4.

01-11 Hall effect in p-germanium with Cobra3 4.4.10-00 Surface treatment / Plasma Physics 4.4.4.10-05 Zeeman effect 5.4.4.4.4.28-00 5.01-00 5.2.16-00 5.04-01/11 Coil in the AC circuit with Cobra3 5.5.4.2.2.01-01 Half-life and radioactive equilibrium 5.08-00 Atomic spectra of two-electron systems: He.4.1.13-00 Electron diffraction 5.08-00 Radiation field of a horn antenna / Microwaves 4. Plasma Physics 4.2.26-00 5.10-00 RLC measuring bridge 5.4.21-01/11/15 Rutherford experiment 10 Laboratory Experiments Physics 5.2 Radioactivity 5.17-00 5. KG · D .01-00 Transformer 4.4 Electrodynamics Law of distance and absorption of gamma or beta rays 4.4.03-01/11 Inductance of solenoids 4.01-11 5.27-00 X-Ray Experiments Interface-System Cobra3 Physics and Chemistry/Biology PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.23-00 5.3.04-11 Band gap of germanium with Cobra3 4.4.2.4.08-00 Magnetostriction with the Michelson interferometer 5.4.22-00 5.07-00 Balmer series / Determination of Rydberg’s constant 5.06-01/11 RLC Circuit with Cobra3 4.4.4.03-11 5.2.05-01/15 Capacitor in the AC circuit 5.3.46-01/11/15 Photonuclear cross-section / Compton scattering cross-section 4.02-00 5.42-01/11/15 Energy dependence of the -absorption coefficient 5.3.41-01/11 4.5 Electromagnetic Oscillations and Waves 5.4.4.3.4.5.1.2.2.23-01/11/15 Study of the -energies of 226Ra 5.1.24-00 5.4.18-00 5.09-01/15 High-pass and low-pass filters 5.4.40-00 Characteristic X-rays of copper Characteristic X-rays of molybdenum Characteristic X-rays of iron The intensity of characteristic X-rays as a function of anode current and anode voltage Monochromatization of molybdenum X-rays Monochromatization of copper X-rays K doublet splitting of molybdenum X-rays / fine structure K doublet splitting of iron X-rays / fine structure Duane-Hunt displacement law and Planck's “quantum of action” Characteristic X-ray lines of different anode materials / Moseley's Law.01-00 Elementary charge and Millikan experiment 5.20-15 Alpha-Energies of different sources with MCA 5.02-01/15 Magnetic induction 4.05-00 Magnetic field outside a straight conductor 5.4.25-00 Half-life and radioactive equilibrium with Cobra3 Poisson’s distribution and Gaussian distribution of radioactive decay with Cobra3 – Influence of the dead time of the counter tube 5.21-00 5.3.06-00 5.02-00 Specific charge of the electron – e/m 5.2007 12:53 Uhr Seite 10 Summary 4.04-00 Visualisation of radioactive particles / Diffusion cloud chamber 5. one-electron and two-electron spectra 5.3 Solid-state Physics.04-01 Band gap of germanium Electron absorption 5.05-00 Diffraction of microwaves 4.4.03-11 Franck-Hertz experiment with Hg-tube 5.3.4.11-00 5.14/15-00 5.Vorspann 09.02-01/11 Hall effect in n-germanium 4.11-01/11 Stern-Gerlach experiment 5.2.4.32-00 -spectroscopy 4.4.2.1.04-00 Interference of microwaves 5. phase shift and power in AC circuits 4.4 Handbooks 4.01-01 Hall effect in p-germanium 4.1.1.3.3.5.4. Rydberg frequency and screening constant Absorption of X-rays K.4.03-00 Hall effect in metals 5.05-00 5.07-00 Rectifier circuits 5.04-00 5.07-11 Ferromagnetic hysteresis 5.11-00 Resistance.1.4.3.12-11 Induction impulse 5.1.4.1.20-00 5.47-01/11/15 X-ray fluorescence and Moseley’s law 4.04-01/05 Planck’s “quantum of action” from photoelectric effect (line separation by interference filters) 5.5.45-01/11/15 Internal conversion in 137mBa 4.06-00 Diffraction and polarization of microwaves 5.1.24-01/11/15 Energy loss of -particles in gases 4.03-00 5.1 Physical Structure of Matter 5.09-00 5. Hg 5.4.3.02-00 Coupled oscillating circuits 5.1.1.22-01/11/15 Fine structure of the -spectrum of 5.03-15 Franck-Hertz experiment with Ne-tube 5.06-00 Fine structure.4.19-00 5.07-00 5.4.2.44-01/11/15 Compton effect 5.2.08.5.2.4.37070 Göttingen .31-00 4.13-00 5.11-00 Paschen curve / Plasma Physics 4.06-00 Magnetic field inside a conductor 5.4.4.4.4.08-00 5.05-01/05 Planck’s “quantum of action” from the photoelectric effect (line separation by defraction grating) 5.2.1.2.3.12-00 Electron spin resonance 5.10-00 241 Am 5.3.09-00 Frustrated total reflection / Microwaves 5.4 X-ray Physics 4.12-00 Physics of the Electron 5.4.4.5.2.08-00 RC Filters 5.and L-absorption edges of X-rays / Moseley's Law and the Rydberg constant Examination of the structure of NaCl monocrystals with different orientations X-ray investigation of different crystal structures / Debye-Scherrer powder method X-ray investigation of crystal structures / Laue method Compton scattering of X-rays X-ray dosimetry Contrast medium experiment with a blood vessel model Determination of the length and position of an object which cannot be seen Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer patterns of powder samples with the three cubic Bravais lattices Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer patterns of powder samples with diamond structure (germanium and silicon) Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer patterns of powder samples with a hexagonal lattice structure Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer patterns of powder samples with a tetragonal lattice structure Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer patterns of powder samples with a cubic powder sample Diffractometric measurements to determine the intensity of Debye-Scherrer reflexes using a cubic lattice powder sample Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer measurements for the examination of the texture of rolled sheets Characteristic X-rays of tungsten Spectroscopy with the X-ray energy detector 5.6 Handbooks Demonstration Experiments Physics – Electricity/Electronics on the Magnetic Board 1 + 2 5 5.4.

2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 11 1 Mechanics .LEP_1_1 09.08.

6 Mechanical Vibration.07-01 Free fall 1.2.04-00 1.11-00 Projectile motion 1.5.27-11 Forced Oscillations – Pohl’s pendulum.21-00 Mathematical pendulum 1.08-00 1.3.LEP_1_1 09.25-01 Coupled Pendula 1.03-00 Statics Moments Modulus of elasticity Mechanical hysteresis 1.04-01/11 1.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 12 1 Mechanics Contents 1.5.32-00 12 Laboratory Experiments Physics 1.03-11/15 Dynamics Hooke’s law Hooke’s law with Cobra3 Newton’s second law / Air track or Demonstration track Newton’s second law with Cobra3 / Air track or Demonstration track 1.33-00 1.01-00 1.08-11 1.4.35-00 Phase velocity of rope waves Wave phenomena in a ripple tank Interference and diffraction of water waves with the ripple tank 1.3. determination of wavelength Absorption of ultrasonic in air Ultrasonic diffraction at different single and double slit systems Ultrasonic diffraction at different multiple slit systems Diffraction of ultrasonic waves at a pin hole and a circular obstacle Diffraction of ultrasound at a Fresnel zone plate / Fresnel’s zone construction Interference of two identical ultrasonic transmitters Interference of ultrasonic waves by a Lloyd mirror Determination of the velocity of sound (sonar principle) Ultrasonic Michelson-Interferometer Ultrasonic diffraction by a straight edge Ultrasonic Doppler effect Handbooks Physics Experiments – Linear Motion Physics Demonstration Experiments – Magnet Board Mechanics 1 Physics Demonstration Experiments – Magnet Board Mechanics 2 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.3.01-11 1.16-11 Centrifugal force with Cobra3 1.18-00 1.14-00 1.08.3.03-11 1.26-11 Harmonic oscillations of spiral springs – Springs linked in parallel and series 1.5.20-00 Laws of gyroscopes / cardanic gyroscope 1. Acoustics Vibration of strings Velocity of sound in air with Cobra3 Acoustic Doppler effect Chladni figures with FG-Module Velocity of sound using Kundt’s tube Wavelengths and frequencies with a Quincke tube Resonance frequencies of Helmholtz resonators with Cobra3 Interference of acoustic waves.3.3.3.09-11 1.2 1.3.3.5.5 1.5.5.01-01 1.01-00 1. weight and time 1.3.05-00 1.2.1.4.3.5.3.31-00 Moment of inertia and torsional vibrations The propagation of a periodically excited continuous transverse wave 1.10-00 1.22-00 1.01-00 1.18-00 Mechanical conservation of energy / Maxwell’s wheel 1.3.05-15 1.5.3.23-01 Pendulum oscillations / variable g pendulum 1.24-15 1.12-00 1.27-01 Forced Oscillations – Pohl’s pendulum 1.23-11 Pendulum oscillations with Cobra3 1.4-06-11 1.17-15 1.4.20-00 1.1 1.5.34-00 1.4.19-15 1.3.3.16-15 1.5.01-00 Measurement Techniques Measurement of basic constants: length.3.5. KG · D .05-11/15 Laws of collision with Cobra3 / Air track or Demonstration track 1.28-11 Moments of inertia of different bodies / Steiner’s theorem with Cobra3 1.3. Determination of resonance frequencies by Fourier analysis 1.02-00 1.3.5.21-15 1.07-00 1.30-00 Torsional vibrations and torsion modulus 1.09-01 Determination of the gravitational constant with a Cavendish balance 1.03-00 Mechanics of Liquids and Gaseous Bodies Density of liquids Surface of rotating liquids Viscosity of Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids (rotary viscometer) Viscosity measurements with the falling ball viscometer Surface tension by the ring method (Du Nouy method) Surface tension by the pull-out method with Cobra3 Barometric height formula Lift and drag (resistance to flow) 1.05-01/05 Laws of collision / Air track or Demonstration track 1.3.4.5.19-00 Laws of gyroscopes / 3-axis gyroscope 1.3.13-11/15 Moment of inertia and angular acceleration with Cobra3 1.07-01/15 1.37070 Göttingen .5.3.5.3.12-00 Ballistic Pendulum 1.3.15-00 Moment and angular momentum 1.07-11 Free fall with Cobra3 1.3.3.3. stationary waves and diffraction at a slot with PC interface Optical determination of velocity of sound in liquids Phase and group velocity of ultrasonics in liquids Temperature dependence of the Velocity of sound in liquids Stationary ultrasonic waves.3.5.02-00 1.3.13-00 1.5.4.28-01 Moment of inertia / Steiner’s theorem 1.25-11 Coupled Pendula with Cobra3 1.3.3 1.4 1.22-00 Reversible pendulum 1.3.5.3.4.16-01 Centrifugal force 1.06-01/15 1.5.3.23-00 1.3.15-15 1.5.5.5.3.5.13-01/05 Moment of inertia and angular acceleration 1.2.03-01/05 1.3.11-00 1.

32 A. weight and time P2110100 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Determination of the thickness of plates and the radius of curvature of watch glasses with the spherometer. l = 2 m Connecting cable. d = 24 mm. 4 decades Alternatively to 13600.5 mm.00 02214.02 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 Fixed jaw blade Measuring faces for depth measurement Measuring faces for outside measurement Vernier caliper Tasks: 1. 500 g Set of precision weights. d = 0.00 03012.00 03017. KG · D .20 03913.00 34575..0 mm.00 34572.55 09936. yellow. AR-glass. set of 8 Fishing line on spool. in case Iron column Iron wire.00 07361. AR-glass. Determination of the thickness of wires. Determination of the volume of tubes with the caliper gauge.01 07361.00 08203.55 02040. weight and time 1.00 02090. blue.00 11207.00 02466.65 45158. red.00 34574. d = 100 mm Watch glass. 3. l = 630 mm Tripod base -PASSRight angle clamp -PASSMeasuring tape. d = 8 mm. 32 A.08.20 13600. square.LEP_1_1 09. 10 pcs.00 06104. thicknesses. 4 mm plug. d = 32 mm Rod with hook Support rod -PASS-.99 1 Knife-edge measuring faces for inside measurement Slide Guide bar Vernier Depth measuring Graduated scale Movable jaw blade Precision balance.01-00 What you can learn about …  Length  Diameter  Inside diameter thickness  Curvature  Vernier  Weight resolution  Time measurement Principle: Caliper gauges. Manual on CD-ROM included Measurement of basic constants: length. micrometers and spherometers are used for the accurate measurement of lengths. A mechanical balance is used for weight determinations. l = 50 cm Connecting cable.00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 36701. straight. cubes and plates with the micrometer.1.. Complete Equipment Set.01 02051. 32 A. d = 125 mm Glass tube. 4 mm plug. a decade counter is used for accurate time measurements. l = 120 mm Cubes. d = 1.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 13 .93: Timer 2-1 03010. double pan type.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 13 Mechanics Measurement Techniques Measurement of basic constants: length. 4 mm plug. l = 50 cm Connecting cable. 100 mm x 85 mm x 1 mm Watch glass.04 07361. stainless steel Micrometer Spherometer Light barrier. accuracy of measurement and reading accuracy are demonstrated. diameters and curvatures. What you need: Vernier calipers.01 06270.55 02002. l = 80 mm. 1 mg. l = 10 m Aluminium foil. 4 sheets Glass plate.50 44070.93 1 1 1 1 1 13607. Measuring procedures. l = 100 mm Steel balls with eyelet. Glass tubes. d = 80 mm Watch glass. compact Digital counter. 2.200 g. l = 50 cm 44011.00 02027.

01-00 Moments What you can learn about …  Moments  Couple  Equilibrium  Statics  Lever  Coplanar forces Principle: Coplanar forces (weight. moment as a function of the force. coated black 02206.12 m Tripod base -PASS- 02002.5 mm.37070 Göttingen . l = 400 mm 02026.00 1 Rule. the moments are determined as a function of the magnitude and direction of the forces and of the reference point. coated black 02205. Complete Equipment Set. In equilibrium. Manual on CD-ROM included Moments P2120100 Moment as a function of the distance between the origin of the coordinates and the point of action of the force. Tasks: 1.00 1 Weight holder for slotted weights 02204. moment as a function of the angle between the force and the position vector to the point of action of the force.2.55 1 Bolt with pin 02052.01 4 Slotted weight.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 14 Mechanics Statics 1. 200 mm 09937. plastic. 50 g. 10 g. KG · D . l = 100 mm 02090.1 kg Moments disk 02270.01 1 Fishing line on spool.01 2 r2 = 0. 3.55 2  Barrel base -PASS- 02006.55 1 Swivel clamp -PASS- 02041. Moment as a function of the distance between the origin of the coordinates and the point of action of the force.08. 14 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 1 Precision spring balance 1 N 03060.00 1 Slotted weights.55 1 Support rod -PASS-.55 2 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. 2. What you need: m = 0.01 1 =  /2. square.LEP_1_1 09. d = 0. spring balance) act on the moments disc on either side of the pivot.

00 1 Steel 10 2 2. square.55 2 Aluminium 102 6.55 2 Support rod -PASS-. l = 2 m 09936.00 2 Steel 10 3 2. 10/0. l = 630 mm 02027.204 · 1011 Precision spring balance 1 N 03060.00 1 Dial gauge. Manual on CD-ROM included Modulus of elasticity P2120200 Table 1: The modulus of elasticity for different materials. Tasks: 1.55 5 Slotted weights.01 mm 03013.LEP_1_1 09. Determination of the characteristic curve of the dial gauge 2. coated black 02205.059 · 1011 17570. The modulus of elasticity is determined from the bending and the geometric data of the bar.02-00 What you can learn about …  Young’s modulus  Modulus of elasticity  Stress  Deformation  Poisson’s ratio  Hooke’s law Principle: A flat bar is supported at two points.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 15 . 50 g.5 2.5 2.00 1 Holder for dial gauge 03013.01 6 Measuring tape. square.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 15 Mechanics Statics Modulus of elasticity 1.55 1 Brass 102 9. It is bent by the action of a force acting at its centre.01 1 Steel 201. aluminium and brass. at constant force ● of the distance between the support points at constant force 3.01 Flat rods.702 · 1010 Support rod -PASS-. at constant force ● of the width. Determination the modulus of elasticity of steel. What you need: Material Dimensions [mm] E N · m-2 1 Steel 10 1. Determination the bending of flat bars as a function ● of the force ● of the thickness.111 · 1011 Tripod base -PASS- 02002.063 · 1011 Knife-edge with stirrup 03015.00 1 Bolt with knife edge 02049. KG · D .01 10 Slotted weight.222 · 1010 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.5 2.2. 10 g.00 1 Steel 151. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. l = 250 mm 02025.08. coated black 02206.171· 1011 Weight holder for slotted weights 02204. set Complete Equipment Set.

06 1 Torsion rod.03 1 Torsion rod. l = 250 mm 02025. l = 300 mm 02421. l = 500 mm 02421. Al. square.05 1 Torsion rod.03-00 Mechanical hysteresis What you can learn about …  Mechanical hysteresis  Elasticity  Plasticity  Relaxation  Torsion molulus  Plastic flow  Torque  Hooke’s law Principle: The relationship between torque and angle of rotation is determined when metal bars are twisted. l = 500 mm 02421. Record the stress-relaxation curve with various relaxation times of different materials.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 16 Mechanics Statics 1. l = 630 mm 02027. The hysteresis curve is recorded.01 1 Precision spring balances. d = 2 mm. l = 400 mm 02421.55 1 Support rod -PASS-.08 1 Precision spring balance 1 N 03060. 2.55 1 Support rod -PASS-. Complete Equipment Set. 1/100 s 03071. Al.LEP_1_1 09. d = 4 mm. Al. Al.07 1 Torsion rod. d = 3 mm.08.02 1 Stopwatch. d = 2 mm. Tasks: 1. Record the hysteresis curve of steel and copper rods. KG · D .5 N 03060.02 1 Torsion rod.5 m long. l = 500 mm 02421.55 2 Mechanical hysteresis curve for the torsion of a copper rod of 2 mm diameter and 0. d = 2 mm. 2.37070 Göttingen . square. brass. Manual on CD-ROM included Mechanical hysteresis P2120300 16 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. digital.04 1 Torsion rod.01 1 Support base -PASS- 02005.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. Al. d = 2 mm.00 1 Torsion rod. l = 500 mm 02421. d = 2 mm.01 1 Torsion rod. copper. l = 500 mm 02421. steel.2. What you need: Torsion apparatus 02421. d = 2 mm. l = 500 mm 02421.

37070 Göttingen Theory (Hook’s Law) Fw N X 2. silver bronzing 02206. coated black 02206. 50 g. is submitted to the same forces. coated black 02205. KG · D . 50 g.01 2 Slotted weights.00 1 Holding pin 03949. The elongation of the helical spring.00 1 Meter Scale. silver colour 02205.00 1 Weight holder for slotted weights 02204. l = 1000 mm 02028.00 1 Helical springs.0 X 10 12 14 16 18 X X X X X 0.55 1 Support rod -PASS-. l = 1000 x 27 mm 03001. Determining the spring constants of helical springs 2.00 1 Complete Equipment Set. 3 N/m 02220.02 2 Helical springs. Study of the elongation of a rubber band What you need: Tripod base -PASS- 02002.3. For comparison.08. l = 200 mm 02412. plastic. Laboratory Experiments Physics 17 . red 02201. 10 g.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 17 Mechanics Statics Hooke’s law 1.5 X X X X 0 0 B 2 4 6 8 l cm Acting weight Fw as a function of the extension l for a rubber band (elastic hysteresis).55 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006.0 A Experiment X X X X X 1. 20 N/m 02222.00 1 Square section rubber strip.55 1 Cursor for scale. which depends on the deforming force. a rubber band.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.LEP_1_1 09.01 1 Slotted weights. for which no proportionality exists between the exerted force and the resulting elongation. 10 g. l = 10 m 03989.5 X X X X 1.02 2 Slotted weight. square.00 1 Slotted weights. Tasks: 1.00 1 Silk thread on spool. is studied by means of the weights of masses.01-01 What you can learn about …  Hooke's law  Spring constant  Limit of elasticity  Elastic hysteresis  Elastic after-effect Principle: The validity of Hooke's law is determined for two helical springs with different spring constants. Manual on CD-ROM included Hooke’s law P2130101 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 2 pieces.

.99 14515.00 02062. 3 N/m Helical springs. Verification of Hooke’s law. KG · D . 3. 4. 30 N/m Right angle clamp -PASSSupport rod -PASS-. What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.55 02060.08. USB Power supply 12V/2A Software Cobra3 Force/Tesla Square section rubber strip.27 07542. for which there is no proportionality between acting force and resulting extension.4 mm plug Helical springs.55 02010. Manual on CD-ROM included Hooke’s law with Cobra3 P2130111 18 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 02040.01 12004.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 18 Mechanics Statics 1. Complete Equipment Set.10 07542.61 03989.4 mm.00 02095. d = 0.LEP_1_1 09. Tasks: 1. opening width 0. square. Calibration of the system (movement sensor and force sensor). l = 1000 mm Stand tube Barrel base -PASSBench clamp -PASSPlate holder.00 02222.00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Characteristic elongation curve for a helical spring with D = 20 N/m.00 03001. l = 10 m Newton measuring module Newton Sensor Movement sensor with cable Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair Adapter.. l = 50 mm PC. In comparison.37070 Göttingen .10 mm Meter Scale.55 02028.00 02224. Windows® 95 or higher 12150. Determination of the spring constant and evaluation of a hysteresis curve.20 02220.50 12151.3. BNC socket . Measurement of the tensile force as a function of the path for three different helical springs and a rubber band.00 02006.00 12110.01-11 Hooke’s law with Cobra3 What you can learn about …  Spring constant  Limit of elasticity  Extension and compression Principle: The validity of Hooke’s Law is proven using various helical springs with different spring constants. l = 1000 x 27 mm Nylon thread on spool. 20 N/m Helical springs. the behaviour of a stretched rubber band is examined. 2.00 12110.

4 mm plug.00 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. l = 100 cm Connecting cable.12 1 11307. 32 A. Set-up of experiment P2130301 with air track What you need: Experiment P2130305 with demo track Experiment P2130301 with air track Timer 4-4 Light barrier. polished Slotted weights.03 1 03916.00 1 1 02006.03-01/05 What you can learn about …  Velocity  Acceleration  Force  Acceleration of gravity Principle: The distance-time law. square. Manual on CD-ROM included Newton’s second law / Air track or Demonstration track P21303 01/05 Laboratory Experiments Physics 19 .37070 Göttingen The distance travelled s plotted as a function of the time t .11 1 11306. Velocity as a function of time 4.00 20 20 02205.17 1 13770. 50 g.00 1 11306. Acceleration as a function of force.15 1 11202.55 4 02040. 4 mm plug.55 4 11308. l = 1.08. coated black Stop.97 1 11205. 4 mm plug.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 19 Mechanics Dynamics Newton’s second law / Air track or Demonstration track 1. l = 100 cm Connecting cable. l = 1.55 4 02026. 10 g. You can find more Tasks: Determination of: experiments in experimental literature 1.10 1 11305. l = 100 mm Slotted weights.05 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 Complete Equipment Set.99 1 1 11207.02 07363.08 1 1 11202. w = 100 mm Needle with plug Demonstration Track.20 4 4 11201.00 1 11305. m2 = 201 g.03 1 1 11202. Aluminium. Connecting cable.01 1 11202.00 1 1 02407. l = 100 cm Connecting cable.00 1 11202.05 1 1 03935. mechanical with release Starter system for motion track Magnet with plug for starter system Fork with plug Tube with plug Plasticine. yellow.02 07365. 4 mm plug.02 1 11202. Distance travelled as a function of time “Linear Motion” 3.5 m Cart. black. KG · D . silver bronzing Barrel base -PASSSupport rod -PASS-. 32 A.01 4 4 11202.5 m Glider for air track Diaphragm. 16001.3.06 1 1 11305.04 07365. l = 400 mm Right angle clamp -PASSShutter plate for low friction cart.00 4 48892. 1 g. and the relationship between mass. Acceleration as a function of the accelerated mass Order No. l = 200 mm Weight holder. l = 200 cm Connecting cable. 1g. the velocitytime law. 32 A. acceleration and force are determined with the aid of the air track rail for uniformly accelerated motion in a straight line. 4 mm plug. 32 A.07 1 1 02412.19 1 11202.14 1 1 11202. OHAUS CS2000 13605. l = 200 cm 07363.LEP_1_1 09. blue. yellow.13 1 11309.00 1 11202.01 8 8 02206.10 1 11305.02 (see page 84) 2.01 07363. low friction sapphire bearings Pulley for demonstration track Holder for pulley Weight for low friction cart. red. adjustable Endholder for air track rail Starter system.02 1 11202. 32 A. compact Precision pulley Air track rail Blower 230V/50Hz Pressure tube. 10 sticks Hook with plug Silk thread on spool. m1 = 10 g. 400 g End holder for demonstration track Holder for light barrier Portable Blance. coated black Slotted weight.

32 A. Silk thread on spool. l = 2 m 09936.5 m 11205.03 1 1 Hook with plug 11202. KG · D .00 1 Connecting cable. l = 100 mm 02030. l = 1. 50 g. 400 g 11306. 4 Connecting cable.15 1 1 1 PC.00 1 Support rod. pack of 2 07278.01 4 4 Slotted weights.02 4 Stop.13 1 Tasks: Magnet with plug for starter system 11202. OHAUS CS2000 48892.99 1 1 Software Cobra3. USB 12150. The conservation of energy can be investigated. stainless steel 18/8. plastic insulation.14 1 Tube with plug 11202. 1 g. mechanical with release 11202.03-11/15 Dynamics Newton’s second law with Cobra3 / Air track or Demonstration track What you can learn about …  Linear motion  Velocity  Acceleration  Conservation of energy Principle: According to Newton’s 2nd law of motion for a mass point.05 1 1 Holder for pulley 11305. l = 1.02 Slotted weights. adjustable 11202.02 1 1 Cart. silver bronzing 02206.01 1 Glider for air track 11202.17 1 Blower 230V/50Hz 13770.06 1 1 Path-time law. acceleration and force are investigated.10 End holder for demonstration track 11305. pack of 10 07276.04 1 1 Demonstration Track. the relationship between mass.50 1 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151.5 m 11305. acceleration and force are determined.00 1 1 Needle with plug 11202. red. low friction sapphire bearings 11306.00 20 9 1 Slotted weights. 10 g. coated black 02205.37070 Göttingen . 32 A. the velocitytime law and the relationship between mass. Windows® 95 or higher Weight for low friction cart. compact 11207. blue.19 1 Starter system.00 2 Support rod.00 1 1 Weight holder. 1 g. Aluminium.20 1 1 Air track rail 11202. polished 03916. 4 mm plug.00 1 Bosshead 02043. d = 10 mm 02031.08. Set-up of experiment P2130315 with demo track What you need: Experiment P2130311 with air track Experiment P2130315 with demo track Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. 4 mm plug.00 1 Connecting plug. l = 200 mm 02412. 10 sticks 03935.61 1 1 Light barrier.00 1 Measuring tape. l = 100 cm 07363. yellow.07 1 1 The distance-time law. 32 A.3.97 1 Pressure tube. black. l = 100 cm 07363.00 1 1 Connecting cable.00 1 1 Bench clamp -PASS- 02010.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 20 Mechanics 1.12 2 Portable Blance. l = 250 mm. 4 mm plug.11 1 Crocodile clips. silver bronzing 02407.01 1 1 20 Laboratory Experiments Physics Complete Equipment Set. l = 100 cm 07363. stainless steel 18/8.LEP_1_1 09. Translation/ Rotation 14512.05 1 1 Plasticine. Manual on CD-ROM included Newton’s second law with Cobra3 / Air track or Demonstration track P21303 11/15 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.

02 Diaphragm. blue.5 m 11305.4 In accordance with the mean value of the measured energy of the first glider before the colli- sion. Aluminium.12 Connecting cable.3. 11202.00 Starter system for motion track 11309. 2.4 As in Task 1. Inelastic collision 2.3. l = 1. For purposes of comparison the measuring points (see 1. the theoretical an measured energy values are compared. Manual on CD-ROM included Laws of collision / Air track or Demonstration track P21305 01/05 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 50 g. 2.02 Connecting cable.LEP_1_1 09. Tasks: 1.00 Cart. 32 A. 32 A.09 Plate with plug 11202.37070 Göttingen Elastic collision: calculated energies after the collision as functions of the mass ratio of the gliders. yellow.10 Starter system.2 The energy values are plotted as in Task 1.55 Demonstration Track. the theoretical values of the impulses for the two gliders are entered for a range of mass ratios from 0 to 3.99 Portable Blance. l = 400 mm 02026.08.00 Holder for light barrier 11307.15 Slotted weights.14 Endholder for air track rail 11202.10 Shutter plate for low friction cart. are measured before and after collision. In order to clearly illustrate the energy loss and its dependence on the mass ratios. 1.2 Their energies. coated black 02206.01 Connecting cable.03 Tube with plug 11202. compact 11207. 10 pcs.00 End holder for demonstration track 11305.1 1. 4 mm plug. mechanical with release 11202. 4 mm plug. 32 A. w = 100 mm 11308. Set-up of experiment P2130505 with demo track What you need: Experiment P2130505 with demo track Experiment P2130501 with air track Air track rail 11202.01 Slotted weight.2. 10 g. 400 g 11306. l = 100 mm 11202.3 The theoretical and measured impulse values are compared as in Task 1. in a manner analogous to Task 1.13 Magnet with plug for starter system 11202. 2. l = 100 cm 07363.1 The impulses of the two gliders as well as their sum after the collision. For comparison the mean value of the impulses of the first glider is entered as a horizontal line in the graph. 4 mm plug. 2.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 21 Mechanics Dynamics Laws of collision / Air track or Demonstration track 1.55 Support rod -PASS-. red. KG · D . l = 100 cm 07363.5 m 11205. the theoretical functions of the total energy of both gliders and the energy loss after the collision are plotted. moving without friction on an air-cushion track. for both elastic and inelastic collision.00 Weight for low friction cart.97 Pressure tube.00 Barrel base -PASS02006.04 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 10 6 6 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 Complete Equipment Set.01 Light barrier. Laboratory Experiments Physics 21 .4.1) are plotted in the graph.08 Rubber bands for fork with plug. Elastic collision 1. OHAUS CS2000 48892. In the process. low friction sapphire bearings 11306.20 Timer 4-4 13605.3.17 Blower 230V/50Hz 13770. 1.1.01 Glider for air track 11202. the measured values are compared with the theoretical curves.1 The impulse values are plotted as in Task 1. coated black 02205.06 Fork with plug 11202. the theoretical values of the energy after the collision are plotted analogously to Task 1. square.05-01/05 What you can learn about …  Conservation of momentum  Conservation of energy  Linear motion  Velocity  Elastic loss  Elastic collision Principle: The volocities of two gliders. l = 100 cm 07363. l = 1.55 Right angle clamp -PASS02040.05 Needle with plug 11202.3 In accordance with the mean value of the measured impulse of the first glider before the collision.

Complete Equipment Set. 4 mm plug. 32 A.3. 32 A. l = 10 cm Diaphragm.09 11202. Inelastic collision A glider. is conducted by varying mass of the resting glider. OHAUS CS2000 Demonstration Track. 4 mm plug.55 02043. stainless steel 18/8. KG · D .01 11202.02 07363. 32 A. after it are to be measured. 10 sticks Support rod. l = 1.13 11202. red.00 11309. 4 mm plug. Aluminium. l = 100 mm Tube with plug Needle with plug Fork with plug Rubber bands for fork with plug. l = 100 cm Connecting cable. 400 g Shutter plate for low friction cart.04 12150.15 02205.08. red.37070 Göttingen .20 48892. A measurement series with different masses of the resting glider is performed: the velocities of the first glider before the collision and those of both gliders.00 11305. coated black Light barrier. for both elastic and inelastic collision. compact Portable Blance. low friction sapphire bearings Starter system for motion track Weight for low friction cart.05 11202.17 13770. whose mass always remains unchanged.00 11202.00 11305.00 02006. 32 A.5 m Glider for air track Diaphragm.14 11202. 50 g. Timer/Counter Plasticine. adjustable Connecting cable. Windows® 95 or higher 11202.5 m Cart. l = 25 mm PC. 4 mm plug.99 14511.01 11207. collides with a constant velocitiy with a second resting glider.03 11202. yellow. moving without friction on an air-cushion track.97 11205. coated black Slotted weight.61 03935.00 11307.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 22 Mechanics 1. in which the velocities of the first glider before the collision and the velocities of both gliders after it are to be measured. are measured before and after collision. which have equal velocities. USB Power supply 12V/2A Software Cobra3.10 11202.03 02032.02 11202.01 02206. Elastic collision A glider whose mass always remains unchanged collides with a second resting glider at a constant velocity.00 11306. l = 1. 10 pcs. w = 100 mm Holder for light barrier End holder for demonstration track Connecting cable.50 12151. l = 100 cm Connecting cable.04 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 10 4 6 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 Measuring parameters for velocity measurement Tasks: 1. Manual on CD-ROM included Laws of collision with Cobra3 / Air track or Demonstration track P21305 11/15 22 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.05-11/15 Dynamics Laws of collision with Cobra3 / Air track or Demonstration track What you can learn about …  Conservation of momentum  Conservation of energy  Linear motion  Velocity  Elastic loss Principle: The velocity of two gliders.00 11306.LEP_1_1 09. mechanical with release Magnet with plug for starter system Endholder for air track rail Slotted weights. 10 g.19 07359. l = 100 cm Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. A measurement series. blue. l = 500 mm Barrel base -PASSBosshead Stop.12 07363.01 07363. Plate with plug Starter system. 2. Set-up of experiment P2130511 with air track What you need: Experiment P2130515 with demo track Experiment P2130511 with air track Air track rail Blower 230V/50Hz Pressure tube.06 11202.10 11308.01 11202.08 11202.

93 1 Timer 2-1 13607. KG · D .04 2 Alternatively to 13600.LEP_1_1 09. l = 100 cm 07363.07-01 What you can learn about …  Linear motion due to constant acceleration  Laws of falling bodies  Gravitational acceleration Principle: A sphere falling freely covers certain distances.55 1 Connecting cable. square. blue. 4 decades 13600. l = 1000 mm 02028. To determine the functional relationship between height of fall and falling time (h = h(t)=1/2 gt2).00 1 Support rod -PASS-. What you need: Falling sphere apparatus 02502. The acceleration due to gravity can be determined.3. Tasks: 1.. The falling time is measured and evaluated from diagrams.08. To determine the acceleration due to gravity. 32 A.00 1 Meter Scale. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 23 . red 02201.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. plastic. 4 mm plug. l = 100 cm 07363. l = 1000 x 27 mm 03001.55 2 Plate holder.. 2.01 2 Connecting cable.00 1 Cursor for scale.93: Complete Equipment Set. opening width 0. 4 mm plug. red.99 1 Support base -PASS- 02005.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 23 Mechanics Dynamics Free fall 1. 32 A. 2 pieces.88 1 Digital counter.10 mm 02062. Manual on CD-ROM included Free fall P2130701 Height of fall as a function of falling time.

What you need: Falling sphere apparatus Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.07-11 Free fall with Cobra3 What you can learn about …  Linear motion due to constant acceleration  Laws governing falling bodies  Acceleration due to gravity Principle: The fall times t are measured for different heights of fall h.37070 Göttingen . l = 150 cm Connecting cable.LEP_1_1 09. square.55 02028.55 02040. 4 mm plug. Windows® 95 or higher 02502.00 07362. 32 A. l = 150 cm PC. 4 mm plug. KG · D . h is represented as the function of t or t2.50 12151. l = 75 cm Connecting cable. Tasks: Determination of: – Distance time law for the free fall.88 12150. Manual on CD-ROM included Free fall with Cobra3 P2130711 24 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. – Precise measurement of the acceleration due to gravity for the free fall. l = 1000 mm Right angle clamp -PASSMeasuring tape.99 14511.02 07362. 32 A.02 07364. – Velocity-time law for the free fall. yellow. 4 mm plug.55 09936. l = 75 cm Connecting cable. 32 A.08. Complete Equipment Set.61 02002. yellow. 32 A. blue. so the distance-time law of the free fall results as 1 h = · g · t2 2 Then the measured values are taken to determine the acceleration due to gravity g. l = 2 m Connecting cable. 4 mm plug.04 07364. Timer/Counter Tripod base -PASSSupport rod -PASS-. blue. USB Power supply 12V/2A Software Cobra3.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 24 Mechanics Dynamics 1.04 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 Height of fall as a function of falling time.3.

using either the acceleration method. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.08. that the beam is subjected to damped oscillation across a new equilibrium position.3.00 1 Data cable 2 x SUB-D. This can be recorded over time by an interface system.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 25 Mechanics Dynamics Determination of the gravitational constant with a Cavendish balance 1. 3. KG · D . Determine the gravitational constant.00 1 Complete Equipment Set. the twisted metal thread generates a restoring moment of rotation. forces of attraction resulting from gravitation effect acceleration of the small balls in the direction of the larger balls.37070 Göttingen Tasks: 1. 9 pole 14602. so What you need: Cavendish-balance.09-01 What you can learn about …  Law of gravitation  Torsional vibrations  Free and damped oscillations  Forced oscillations  Angular restoring moment  Moment of inertia of spheres and rods  Steiner`s theorem  Shear modulus Principle: Two small lead balls of equal mass are positioned one at each end of a beam which is held suspended by a thin tungsten thread. plug/socket. Manual on CD-ROM included Determination of the gravitational constant with a Cavendish balance P2130901 Output voltage of the free and damped oscillating Cavendish balance. 2. At the same time. computerized 02540. When two further. so that it can swing freely across its equilibrium position. Calibrate the voltage of the capacitive angle sensor. the final deflection method or the resonance method. An integrated capacitive sensor produces a direct voltage that is proportional to the angle of deflection. but larger. Determine the time of oscillation and the damping of the freely swinging torsion pendulum.LEP_1_1 09. d = 35 mm 02122.00 1 Circular level with mounting. The gravitational constant can be determined both from the difference in the angle of rotation of the different equilibrium positions and from the dynamic behaviour of the swinging system during attraction. Laboratory Experiments Physics 25 . lead balls held on a swivel arm are now brought near to the small lead balls. and the value of the angle of rotation that is required be so determined.

10 1 Recording paper. 1 roll. 25 m 11221.4 A with DC-socket 2. hardened and polished.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 26 Mechanics Dynamics 1.01 1 Steel ball. To determine the (maximum) range as a function of the initial velocity.LEP_1_1 09.3.3 m/s Curve 2 v0 = 4.00 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006. l = 1000 x 27 mm 03001.99 1 Complete Equipment Set. The relationships between the range. and the firing velocity are determined. 3.11-00 Projectile motion What you can learn about …  Trajectory parabola  Motion involving uniform acceleration  Ballistics Principle: A steel ball is fired by a spring at different velocities and at different angles to the horizontal. Manual on CD-ROM included Projectile motion P2131100 Maximum range as a function of the angle of inclination  for different initial velocity v0: Curve 1 v0 = 5.08.1 m/s Tasks: 1.1 m/s Curve 3 v0 = 3.55 1 Speed measuring attachment 11229. d = 19 mm 02502.30 1 Power supply 5 VDC/2. the angle of inclination. the height of projection. What you need: Ballistic unit 11229. 2.01 2 Two tier platform support 02076. To determine the range as a function of the angle of inclination.37070 Göttingen .1 mm 13900. KG · D .03 1 Meter Scale. 26 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. To determine the maximum height of projection as a function of the angle of inclination.

3.1 mm 13900. direct measurement of the initial velocity of the ball can be made. 2. Laboratory Experiments Physics 27 . Correction of the velocity values from Tasks 2. two light barriers and a time measuring device are available. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 27 Mechanics Dynamics Ballistic Pendulum 1. additionally. This is an inelastic collision in which the momentum remains unchanged. Plotting of the velocity v of the steel ball as a function of the maximum deflection  (0…90 °) of the pendulum according to formula (3).LEP_1_1 09. 5. ballistic unit 11229. Give reasons for contingent systematic deviations from the theoretical curve. Manual on CD-ROM included Ballistic Pendulum P2131200 1.10 1 Ballistic pendulum f. measure the initial velocities corresponding to the three tension steps of the throwing device by performing 10 measurements each with subsequent mean value calculation. one can infer the velocity of the pendulum’s mass (including the projectile’s mass) at the lowest point of the pendulum’s oscillation from the amplitude of the pendulum’s oscillation. Measurement of the oscillation amplitudes of the ballistic pendulum after capturing the steel ball for the three possible tension energies of the throwing device.99 1 Complete Equipment Set.4 A with DC-socket 2. The momentum of the two masses in this phase of the oscillation must thus be equal to the impulse of the projectile before it struck the pendulum.30 1 Steel ball. 3. d = 19 mm 02502. Determination of the correction factor fcor for the utilised pendulum for the conversion of the velocities determined by using the approximation formula into the values obtained from the exact theory. KG · D .20 1 Speed measuring attachment 11229.08. the projectile remains in the pendulum mass and oscillates with it.37070 Göttingen A classic method of determining the velocity of a projectile is to shoot the projectile into a resting mass which is large compared to the projectile’s mass and hung as a pendulum. one can calculate the projectile’s velocity. hardened and polished. In the process. the following set-up is used here: A steel ball is shot at the mass of a pendulum with the aid of a spring catapult. If. The pendulum mass has a hollow space in which the steel ball is held. Calculation of the initial velocities of the ball from the measured oscillation amplitudes and the mechanical data of the pendulum is performed using the approximation formula (3). Experimental set-up with supplement for direct measurement of the initial velocity of the ball. If one knows the masses of the pendulum and the projectile. an independent. taking into consideration the special mechanical data of the experiment. If the pendulum’s mechanical data are known. 4. If the supplementary devices for the direct measurement of the initial velocity are available.12-00 What you can learn about …  Potential and kinetic energy  Rotational energy  Moment of inertia  Inelastic collision  Principle of conservation of momentum  Angular momentum  Measurement of projectile velocities Principle: Tasks: What you need: Ballistic unit 11229. In order to be able to use this measuring principle without danger. Plot the measured points in the diagram from Task 3.01 2 Power supply 5 VDC/2.

l = 1000 mm Support rod -PASS-. G1 Circular level Weight holder for slotted weights Measuring tape. l = 200 mm Support rod -PASS-. What you need: Experiment P2131305 with precision pivot bearing Experiment P2131301 with air bearing Tripod base -PASSPrecision pivot bearing Inertia rod Turntable with angular scale Aperture plate for turntable Air bearing Holding device with cable release Precision pulley Blower 230 V/50Hz Pressure tube.08. coated black Weight holder. 1 g.3.00 02028. l = 1. Manual on CD-ROM included Moment of inertia and angular acceleration P2131301/05 28 Laboratory Experiments Physics Moment of inertia of a mass point as a function of the square of its distance from the axis of rotation.02 13770. square.00 02204. 50 g. the moment of inertia is determined as a function of the mass and of the distance from the axis of rotation. l = 400 mm Right angle clamp -PASSBench clamp -PASSConnecting cord. polished Slotted weights. 32 A. 20. 1000 mm.00 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 20 10 10 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Complete Equipment Set. 10 g.01 11207.55 02040. of a bar. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. coated black Slotted weight.4 A with 4 mm plugs Supporting blocks. KG · D .5 m Light barrier with counter Power supply 5 V DC/2.00 02205.01 07363.04 07542. red Connecting cord. silver bronzing Silk thread on spool.00 02412.99 02070.97 11205.00 09936. Set-up of experiment P2131305 with pivot bearing 3.55 02010.30 11076. 1.00 03916. 1g. Tasks: From the angular acceleration.18 02122.55 02419. of a disc. Capacitor 100 nF/250V.37070 Göttingen . l = 2 m 02002.05 02417.LEP_1_1 09.00 07363. blue Adapter.55 02026.26 39105. 30. The moment of inertia is determined from the angular acceleration. 10.03 02417.02 02417. 2.04 11201. BNC-plug/socket 4 mm. 1000 mm.13-01/05 Dynamics Moment of inertia and angular acceleration What you can learn about …  Angular velocity  Rotary motion  Moment  Moment of inertia of a disc  Moment of inertia of a bar  Moment of inertia of a mass point Principle: A moment acts on a body which can be rotated about a bearing without friction.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 28 Mechanics 1.01 02206. of a mass point. square. 40 mm Slotted weights.01 02417. 32 A.01 02407.00 02417.

plug/socket. Rotation angle  is proportional to the time t required for the rotation. yellow. Measurement of the laws of angle and angular velocity according to time for a uniformly accelerated rotational movement.50 Tripod base -PASS02002.00 Stand tube 02060. 3.00 Connecting cable. 50 g. the changing angle of rotation increases proportionally to the square of the time and the angular velocity proportional to the time. KG · D .03 Power supply 12V/2A 12151.01 Connecting cable. 1 g.00 Bosshead 02043. Translation/ Rotation 14512.04 Aperture plate for turntable 02417. l = 1. 4 mm plug.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 29 . compact 11207. 32 A.55 Precision pivot bearing 02419. 1 g 02407-00 PC.01 Air bearing 02417. 4 mm plug.61 Light barrier.13-11/15 What you can learn about …  Angular velocity  Rotation  Moment  Torque  Moment of inertia  Rotational energy Principle: If a constant torque is applied to a body that rotates without friction around a fixed axis. coated black 02206.00 Slotted weights. coated black 02205. l = 100 cm 07363.00 Inertia rod 02417. red. USB 12150. Set-up of experiment P2131311 with air bearing What you need: Experiment P2131315 with precision pivot bearing Experiment P2131311 with air bearing Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. 32 A.02 Data cable. Manual on CD-ROM included Moment of inertia and angular acceleration with Cobra3 P2131311/15 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 Support rod.01 Slotted weight.01 Silk thread on spool.04 Connecting cable.08.05 Slotted weights. Measurement of the laws of angle and angular velocity according to time for a uniform rotation movement. 9 pole 14602-00 Weight holder.00 Circular level with mounting.00 Weight holder for slotted weights 02204. Windows® 95 or higher 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 20 3 10 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Potential energy and additionally the rotational energy. Complete Equipment Set. l = 200 mm 02412. 10 g. d = 35 mm 02122. l = 100 cm 07363. stainless steel 18/8.20 Blower 230V/50Hz 13770.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 29 Mechanics Dynamics Moment of inertia and angular acceleration with Cobra3 1.3.5 m 11205.99 Software Cobra3. Tasks: 1. 2. 32 A.00 Measuring tape. blue.02 Holding device with cable release 02417. polished 03916. d = 10 mm 02031.01 Turntable with angular scale 02417. l = 2 m 09936.00 Bench clamp -PASS02010. l = 250 mm. l = 100 cm 07363.97 Pressure tube. 4 mm plug.LEP_1_1 09.

the following will be determined: 1. 1 g. 4 mm plug.LEP_1_1 09. What you need: Turntable with angular scale 02417. The angular acceleration is determined as a function of the moment.97 1 Light barrier with counter 11207.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 30 Mechanics Dynamics 1.00 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. l = 1. KG · D .015 m.3. 4 mm plug. l = 100 cm 07363.04 1 Air bearing 02417. G1 39105. the angular acceleration as a function of time.37070 Göttingen . blue.04 1 Connecting cable.00 Connecting cable.01 kg. l = 100 cm 07363.55 1 Bench clamp -PASS- 02010.01 1 Blower 230V/50Hz 13770.15-00 Moment and angular momentum What you can learn about …  Circular motion  Angular velocity  Angular acceleration  Moment of inertia  Newton’s laws  Rotation Principle: The angle of rotation and angular velocity are measured as a function of time on a body which is pivoted so as to rotate without friction and which is acted on by a moment.00 20 Silk thread on spool. r = 0. 3. Tasks: With uniformly accelerated rotary motion. l = 200 mm 02412. BNC plug/4 mm socket 07542. Manual on CD-ROM included Moment and angular momentum P2131500 Angle of rotation as a function of time with uniformly accelerated rotary motion for m = 0. the angular velocity as a function of time.08. the angle of rotation as a function of time. the angular acceleration as a function of the lever arm.5 m 11205.30 1 Power supply 5 V DC/2. 1 g.05 1 Holding device with cable release 02417.55 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006. 2.99 1 Capacitor 100 nF/250 V. 32 A.01 1 Precision pulley 11201. polished 03916. d = 35 mm 02122. 30 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. red.01 1 Circular level with mounting.26 1 Weight holder.00 2 1 Complete Equipment Set.02 1 Pressure tube.00 1 Slotted weights. silver bronzing 02407.02 1 Aperture plate for turntable 02417. 4.18 1 Adapter. 32 A.4 A with 4 mm plugs 11076.

Tasks: Determination of the centrifugal force as a function 1.00 2 Bench clamp -PASS- 02010.30 1 Complete Equipment Set.00 1 Driving belt 03981.16-01 What you can learn about …  Centripetal force  Rotary motion  Angular velocity  Apparent force Principle: A body with variable mass moves on a circular path with adjustable radius and variable angular velocity. l = 250 mm 02025. 2 N 03065. The centrifugal force of the body will be measured as a function of these parameters. of the distance from the axis of rotation to the centre of gravity of the car.LEP_1_1 09.3. l = 100 mm 02090.5 mm.4 A with 4 mm plugs 11076. of the angular velocity.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 31 Mechanics Dynamics Centrifugal force 1.00 1 Bearing unit 02845. l = 10 cm 02036.00 1 Car for measurements and experiments 11060. coated black 02206. KG · D .01 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006.20 1 Support rod -PASS-.01 4 Slotted weight. What you need: Centrifugal force apparatus 11008. 50 g. d = 0.93 1 Gearing 30:1 11029. stainless steel. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. of the mass.00 1 Laboratory motor.00 1 Support rod with hole. coated black 02205. Manual on CD-ROM included Centrifugal force P2131601 Centrifugal force as a function of the angular velocity v.08. 3.00 1 Transparent spring balances. 10 g.99 1 Spring balance holder 03065.55 1 Bosshead 02043. 220 VAC 11030.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 31 .03 1 Slotted weights. 2.55 1 Power supply 5 V DC/2.00 1 Holding pin 03949.00 2 Fishing line on spool.01 2 Light barrier with counter 11207. square.

01 1 Support rod -PASS-. 2.00 1 Driving belt 03981. 50 g. l = 10 cm 02036.00 1 Newton Sensor 12110. Complete Equipment Set.00 1 Car for measurements and experiments 11060.5 mm. KG · D .55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.01 2 PC.3.00 1 Slotted weights.16-11 Centrifugal force with Cobra3 What you can learn about …  Centrifugal force  Centripetal force  Rotary motion  Angular velocity  Apparent force Principle: A body with variable mass moves on a circular path with adjustable radius and variable angular velocity. Tasks: Determination of the centrifugal force as a function 1. l = 250 mm 02025.93 1 Gearing 30:1 11029. USB 12150. of the mass. What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. of the angular velocity.00 1 Laboratory motor. coated black 02206. square.LEP_1_1 09. coated black 02205. 10 g. 220 VAC 11030.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. 3.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 32 Mechanics Dynamics 1.61 1 Centrifugal force apparatus 11008. of the distance from the axis of rotation to the centre of gravity of the car.55 1 Bench clamp -PASS- 02010. Windows® 95 or higher Typical evaluation of central force as a function of the square of angular velocity. Manual on CD-ROM included Centrifugal force with Cobra3 P2131611 32 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. l = 100 mm 02090.99 1 Newton measuring module 12110.00 1 Bearing unit 02845.00 1 Holding pin 03949.08.01 1 Software Cobra3 Force/Tesla 14515.00 3 Fishing line on spool. d = 0.37070 Göttingen . The centrifugal force of the body will be measured as a function of these parameters.01 4 Slotted weight. stainless steel.00 1 Support rod with hole.

04 1 Plate holder. opening width 0. the energy of translation. Manual on CD-ROM included Mechanical conservation of energy / Maxwell’s wheel P2131800 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Tasks: What you need: Support base -PASS- 02005. red 02201.99 1 Complete Equipment Set.08. 4 mm plug.. Connecting cable. which can unroll with its axis on two cords.37070 Göttingen Energy of the Maxwell disk as a function of time. KG · D .01 1 are determined as a function of time. 2 pieces.00 1 3.18-00 What you can learn about …  Maxwell disk  Energy of translation  Energy of rotation  Potential energy  Moment of inertia  Angular velocity  Angular acceleration  Instantaneous velocity  Gyroscope Principle: A disk.. G1 39105. Support rod -PASS-. BNC plug/4 mm socket 07542. Energy of rotation Laboratory Experiments Physics 33 .04 1 Light barrier with counter 11207.18 1 Power supply 5 V DC/2.00 1 2. energy of translation and energy of rotation are converted into one another and are determined as a function of time. Energy of translation 3. l = 100 cm 07363.55 4 Using the Maxwell disk.26 1 Capacitor 100 nF/250 V. Connecting cable. Cursor for scale. l = 1000 mm 02028. blue.55 3 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.10 mm 02062.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 33 Mechanics Dynamics Mechanical conservation of energy / Maxwell’s wheel 1.3. Potential energy. 32 A. square. Negative potential energy 2.LEP_1_1 09. Maxwell wheel 02425. l = 1000 x 27 mm 03001. 32 A.00 1 Adapter. plastic. 1.30 1 Holding device with cable release 02417. the energy of rotation. Meter Scale. red. the potential energy.55 1 The moment of inertia of the Maxwell disk is determined. moves in the gravitational field. 4 mm plug. l = 100 cm 07363.4 A with 4 mm plugs 11076.00 1 1.

If the axis of rotation of the forcefree gyroscope is slightly displaced. Investigation of the relationship between nutation frequency and gyro-frequency.30 1 Power supply 5 V DC/2. What you need: Gyroscope with 3 axis 02555. Manual on CD-ROM included Laws of gyroscopes / 3-axis gyroscope P2131900 Determination of the momentum of inertia from the slope of straight line tR-1 = f(tP). Determination of the momentum of inertia of the gyroscope by measurement of the angular acceleration. coated black 02205.19-00 Laws of gyroscopes / 3-axis gyroscope What you can learn about …  Momentum of inertia  Torque  Angular momentum  Precession  Nutation Principle: The momentum of inertia of the gyroscope is investigated by measuring the angular acceleration caused by torques of different known values.00 1 Light barrier with counter 11207.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 34 Mechanics Dynamics 1.00 1 Stopwatch.01 4 Complete Equipment Set.55 1 Slotted weights. KG · D .3.08. Determination of the momentum of inertia by measurement of the gyro-frequency and precession frequency.01 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006. Tasks: 34 Laboratory Experiments Physics 1. The nutation frequency will be investigated as a function of gyro-frequency. 1/100 s 03071. 2. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.37070 Göttingen . The relationship between the precession frequency and the gyro-frequency of the gyroscope with 3 free axes is examined for torques of different values applied to the axis of rotation. digital.4 A with 4 mm plugs 11076. In this experiment.99 1 Additional gyro disk with counter weight 02556. 3. Investigation of the relationship between precession and gyro-frequency and its dependence from torque. 4. a nutation is induced. two of the axes of the gyroscope are fixed. 10 g.LEP_1_1 09.

A detailed handbook (128 pages) containing additional experiments is included.LEP_1_1 09.08.37070 Göttingen Precession frequency as a function of the gyro frequency for different additional masses.112 kg Digital stroboscope 21809. The relationship between precession frequency or nutation frequency and gyro-frequency is examined for different moments of inertia. a nutation is produced. in the equipment. Laboratory Experiments Physics 35 . Magnus type. free of charge. KG · D .20-00 What you can learn about …  Moment of inertia  Torque  Angular momentum  Nutation  Precession  Chaotic behaviour Principle: If the axis of rotation of the forcefree gyroscope is displaced slightly. m2 – m1 = 0. 2.93 1 3. Additional weights are applied to a gyroscope mounted on gimbals. Manual on CD-ROM included Laws of gyroscopes / cardanic gyroscope P2132000 Tasks: Note: 1.01 1 2. To determine the precession frequency as a function of the torque and the angular velocity of the gyroscope. m1 = 0. 1/100 s 03071. Handbook 02550. digital. What you need: Gyroscope. m2 = 0.3. To determine the nutational frequency as a function of the angular velocity and the moment of inertia.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 35 Mechanics Dynamics Laws of gyroscopes / cardanic gyroscope 1. incl. so causing a precession.00 1 1. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.163 kg Stopwatch.051 kg Complete Equipment Set.

LEP_1_1 09.3. l = 1000 x 27 mm 03001. The oscillation period is determined as a function of the deflection. 3. What you need: Light barrier with counter 11207.08. suspended on a thread and subjected to the force of gravity. Tasks: 1.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 36 Mechanics Dynamics 1. 2.30 1 Power supply 5 V DC/2. l = 100 mm 02090. square.00 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.55 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. The period of the oscillation thus produced is measured as a function of the thread length and the angle of deflection.37070 Göttingen .4 A with 4 mm plugs 11076. 2 pieces. Manual on CD-ROM included Mathematical pendulum P2132100 Period of the pendulum as a function of the angle of deflection.00 1 Fishing line on spool.01 1 Meter Scale. is deflected from its position of rest. d = 32 mm 02466.99 1 Steel balls with eyelet.21-00 Mathematical pendulum What you can learn about …  Duration of oscillation  Period  Amplitude  Harmonic oscillation Principle: A mass.55 1 Complete Equipment Set. The acceleration due to gravity is determined. plastic.55 2 Clamping pads on stem 02050. For small deflections. the oscillation period is determined as a function of the cord length.01 1 Steel balls with eyelet.4 mm 02465. d = 0. considered as of point form. l = 1250 mm 02029.00 1 Support rod -PASS-. KG · D . 36 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. red 02201.00 1 Cursor for scale.5 mm. d = 25.

00 1 Complete Equipment Set.08. knowing neither the mass nor the moment of inertia of the latter.LEP_1_1 09.50 1.22-00 What you can learn about …  Physical pendulum  Moment of inertia  Steiner’s law  Reduced length of pendulum  Reversible pendulum  Terrestrial gravitational acceleration Principle: By means of a reversible pendulum.30 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.30 'a X 'min X 's ' cm Period T2 as a function of the position of the axis of rotation of the physical pendulum. l = 2 m 09936. stainless steel.56 X 1. terrestrial gravitational acceleration g may be determined from the period of oscillation of a physical pendulum.00 2 Power supply 5 V DC/2.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 37 Mechanics Dynamics Reversible pendulum 1.42 30 1. Manual on CD-ROM included Reversible pendulum P2132200 T2 S X 1. square.34 X X X X X X 1.55 1 Support rod -PASS-.99 1 Light barrier with counter 11207.55 3 Measuring tape. KG · D . Determination of terrestrial gravitational acceleration g.00 1 Bolt with knife edge 02049.55 3 Bench clamp -PASS- 02010. Measurement of the period for different axes of rotation.00 2 Tripod base -PASS- 02002.4 A with 4 mm plugs 11076. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. l = 250 mm 02025.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 37 . 2. l = 750 mm 02033. Tasks: 1.3. What you need: Bearing bosshead for reversing pendulum 02805.38 40 50 60 X X X 1.00 2 Support rod.

compact 11207. On the moon’s surface the “lunar acceleration of gravity” gm is only 16. lower curve: L = 141 mm. 32 A.55 1 Connecting cable. Graphical analysis of the measured correlations and a comparison with the theoretical curves. The measured points are plotted above the corresponding theoretical curve (solid line).37070 Göttingen . Measurement of the oscillation period of the pendulum as a function of the angle of inclination  of the oscillation plane for two different pendulum lengths.99: Timer 2-1 Complete Equipment Set.02 1 Connecting cable.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 38 Mechanics Dynamics 1. The angle F. l = 50 cm 07361.10 1 Light barrier. which is assumed to be known. l = 50 cm 07361. 4 mm plug. What you need: Variable g-pendulum 02817. of the oscillation plane.6 % of the earth’s acceleration of gravity g. which have been standardised with the measured value at  = 0. Tasks: 1.00 1 Holder for light barrier 02817. The pendulum that is to be used is constructed in such a manner that its oscillation plane can be progressively rotated from a vertical orientation to a horizontal one. Calculation of the effective pendulum length l for the acceleration of gravity.20 1 Timer 4-4 13605. KG · D . yellow. Manual on CD-ROM included Pendulum oscillations / variable g pendulum P2132301 38 Laboratory Experiments Physics Oscillation period of the pendulum as a function of the slope . Calculate the angle  and set it on the device such that the pendulum in the laboratory oscillates with the same oscillation period with which it would oscillate on the moon in a perpendicular position. blue. 2. 4.LEP_1_1 09.3. 3. 32 A.99 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. 4 mm plug. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.04 1 Alternatively to 13605. red.23-01 Pendulum oscillations / variable g pendulum What you can learn about …  Oscillation period  Harmonic oscillation  Mathematical pendulum  Physical pendulum  Decomposition of force  Moment of inertia Principle: Investigate the oscillation behaviour of a pendulum (rod pendulum) by varying the magnitude of the components of the acceleration of gravity which are decisive for the oscillation period. Comparison of this value with the distance between the pivot point of the pendulum and the centre of gravity of the mobile pendulum weight.01 1 Connecting cable.08. Compare the measured oscillation period with the calculated one. by which the oscillation plane deviates from its normal vertical position. 32 A. Upper curve: L = 270 mm. l = 50 cm 07361.99 1 13607. 4 mm plug. can be read from a scale.

Tasks: 1. silver bronzing Steel balls with eyelet.23-11 What you can learn about …  Oscillation period  Harmonic oscillation  Mathematical pendulum  Physical pendulum  Variable g-pendulum  Decomposition of force  Gravitational force Principle: Earth’s gravitational acceleration g is determined for different lengths of the pendulum by means of the oscillating period.55 02010.LEP_1_1 09. l = 2 m Pendulum PC.61 12004.00 02089.. USB Power supply 12V/2A Software Cobra3. 2.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 39 .10 mm Right angle clamp -PASSBench clamp -PASSProtractor scale with pointer Circular level with mounting.00 02040.01 02002.7 mm.00 02122. 3.10 07542. only one component of the gravitational force acts on the pendulum movement.99 14512. Windows® 95 or higher 12150.3. Translation/ Rotation Movement sensor with cable Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair Adapter.00 02466. l = 20 mm Weight holder.55 02028. Determination of g.55 02060. Determination of the oscillation period of a thread pendulum as a function of the pendulum length. d = 32 mm Tripod base -PASSSupport rod -PASS-.4 mm plug Silk thread on spool. Determination of the gravitational acceleration as a function of the inclination of the pendulum force.08. l = 1000 mm Stand tube Plate holder. l = 200 mm Fishing line on spool.00 09936.27 07542. 1g.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 39 Mechanics Dynamics Pendulum oscillations with Cobra3 1.00 12004. d = 0.00 08218.00 02062.00 02407.11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 Typical measurement result Complete Equipment Set. KG · D . If the oscillating plane of the pendulum is not parallel to the gravitational field of the earth. BNC socket . d = 35 mm Measuring tape.20 02412.50 12151. opening width 0. What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.. Manual on CD-ROM included Pendulum oscillations with Cobra3 P2132311 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. square.

93 1 Bench clamp -PASS- 02010. coated black 02205. 4 mm plug.00 1 Connecting cable.02 4 Connecting cable.01 2 Connecting cable.95 1 Power supply 0-12 V DC/ 6 V. 3 N/m 02220. l = 100 cm 07363. To determine the pendulum’s characteristic frequency from the vibrational modes with coupling and to compare this with the characteristic frequency of the uncoupled pendula. l = 2 m 09936. To check the linear relation between the square of the coupling-lengths and What you need: Pendulum with recorder connection 02816. yellow.00 1 Slotted weights.00 2 Helical springs. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.08.00 1 Weight holder for slotted weights 02204. l = 630 mm 02027. KG · D . To determine the coupling factors for various coupling-lengths using a) the apparatus constants b) the angular frequencies for “inphase” and “in opposite phase” vibration c) the angular frequencies of the beat mode. Manual on CD-ROM included Coupled Pendula P2132501 40 Laboratory Experiments Physics a) the particular frequencies of the beat mode l = 30 cm b) the square of the frequency for “in opposite phase” vibration. 4 mm plug.00 1 Rod with hook 02051. The amplitudes of both pendula are recorded as a function of time for various vibrational modes and different coupling factors using a y/t recorder. 32 A. 32 A.55 2 Measuring tape.01 5 Yt recorder. 3. l = 100 cm 07363. 32 A. 10 g. blue. 2. 4. 2 channels 11415. square. 12 V AC 13505. The coupling factors are determined by different methods.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 40 Mechanics Dynamics 1. 5.37070 Göttingen .LEP_1_1 09.25-01 Coupled Pendula What you can learn about …  Spiral spring  Gravity pendulum  Spring constant  Torsional vibration  Torque  Beat  Angular velocity  Angular acceleration  Characteristic frequency Principle: Two equal gravity pendula with a particular characteristic frequency are coupled by a “soft” spiral spring. Tasks: 1. red. l = 100 cm 07363.3. 4 mm plug. To determine and to adjust the characteristic frequencies of the uncoupled pendula. Speed of recorder: t = 10 s/Div. To determine the spring constant of the coupling spring.55 2 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.04 2 Complete Equipment Set.00 2 Support rod -PASS-. l = 60 cm l = 90 cm Amplitude curves of the vibrations of coupled pendula in the beat case for three different coupling lengths l as a function of time.

93 02010.00 02204. The amplitudes of both pendula are recorded as a function of time for various vibrational modes and different coupling factors using a y/t recorder. 3 N/m Rod with hook Weight holder for slotted weights Slotted weights.55 09936. KG · D . 3. l = 2 m Connecting cable. Laboratory Experiments Physics 41 . red. 10 g. To determine the spring constant of the coupling spring.37070 Göttingen 4. 2. 32 A. Tasks: 1. 60 cm and 90 cm) as a function of time. What you need: Pendulum with recorder connection Helical springs.01 07363.00 02051. square.04 2 1 1 1 5 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 4 4 Complete Equipment Set.61 13505. 4 mm plug.99 14504. To check the linear relation between the square of the couplinglengths and a) the particular frequencies of the beat mode b) the square of the frequency for “in opposite phase” vibration. Windows® 95 or higher l = 30 cm 02816.3. l = 100 cm Connecting cable.55 02040. USB Power supply 12V/2A Software Cobra3 Universal recorder Power supply 0-12 V DC/ 6 V. Manual on CD-ROM included Coupled Pendula with Cobra3 P2132511 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.08.25-11 What you can learn about …  Spiral spring  Gravity pendulum  Spring constant  Torsional vibration  Torque  Beat  Angular velocity  Angular acceleration  Characteristic frequency Principle: Two equal gravity pendula with a particular characteristic frequency are coupled by a “soft” spiral spring.LEP_1_1 09. To determine and to adjust the characteristic frequencies of the uncoupled pendula. 12 V AC Bench clamp -PASSSupport rod -PASS-.50 12151.28 12150. coated black Electrolyte capacitors G1. blue. 4 mm plug.00 07363.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 41 Mechanics Dynamics Coupled Pendula with Cobra3 1. The coupling factors are determined by different methods.00 02220.01 39105. l = 100 cm PC.00 02205. l = 90 cm Amplitude curves of the vibrations of coupled pendula in the beat case for three different coupling lengths l (30 cm. To determine the pendulum’s characteristic frequency from the vibrational modes with coupling and to compare this with the characteristic frequency of the uncoupled pendula. To determine the coupling factors for various coupling-lengths using a) the apparatus constants b) the angular frequencies for “inphase” and “in opposite phase” vibration c) the angular frequencies of the beat mode. l = 60 cm 5. 10 µF Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.00 02027. 32 A. l = 630 mm Right angle clamp -PASSMeasuring tape.

02 1 Typical measurement result PC. USB 12150. Determination of the spring constant for springs linked in parallel.99 1 Software Cobra3. Determination of the spring constant D for different springs.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 42 Mechanics Dynamics 1. l = 200 mm 02412. 4 mm plug.3. 4 mm plug. 2. 10 g. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.00 1 Connecting cable. 20 N/m 02222. square. yellow.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. l = 1000 mm 02028. 32 A. 3. 4 mm plug. Translation/ Rotation 14512.00 1 Slotted weights.61 1 Light barrier.26-11 Harmonic oscillations of spiral springs – Springs linked in parallel and series What you can learn about …  Spring constant  Hooke’s law oscillations  Limit of elasticity  Parallel springs  Serial springs  Use of an interface Principle: The spring constant D is determined for different experimental set-ups from the oscillation period and the suspended mass. 3 N/m 02220.LEP_1_1 09. coated black 02205. KG · D . l = 100 cm 07363. l = 100 cm 07363. coated black 02206.55 1 Support rod -PASS-.00 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.37070 Göttingen . 32 A.01 1 Connecting cable. l = 100 cm 07363.55 1 Stand tube 02060.00 2 Helical springs. 32 A.00 1 Rod with hook 02051.20 1 Silk thread on spool. blue.01 4 Slotted weight.01 7 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. Manual on CD-ROM included Harmonic oscillations of spiral springs – Springs linked in parallel and series P2132611 42 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.55 2 Helical springs. red.08. Tasks: 1. 50 g.00 1 Weight holder for slotted weights 02204. compact 11207. Determination of the spring constant for springs linked in series.04 1 Connecting cable.

To determine the oscillating periods and the corresponding characteristic frequencies for different damping values. The corresponding ratios of attenuation. digital. KG · D . 2. 4 mm plug. The characteristic frequencies of the free oscillation as well as the resonance curves of the forced oscillation for different damping values are to be determined.93 1 Bridge rectifier. The resonance frequencies are to be determined and are to be compared with the resonance frequency values found beforehand. The phase shifting between the torsion pendulum and the stimulating external torque is to be observed for a small damping value assuming that in one case the stimulating frequency is far below the resonance frequency and in the other case it is far above it. If the oscillating system is stimulated to swing by an What you need: Torsion pendulum after Pohl 11214.08. Laboratory Experiments Physics 43 . yellow.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 43 Mechanics Dynamics Forced Oscillations – Pohl’s pendulum 1.3. 30 VAC/1 ADC 06031.00 1 Connecting cable. Forced oscillation A. l = 25 cm 07360. The resonance curves are to be determined and to be represented graphically using the damping values of A. 32 A. Manual on CD-ROM included Forced Oscillations – Pohl’s pendulum P2132701 Resonance curves for different dampings. l = 75 cm 07362.LEP_1_1 09. 2. the damping constants and the logarithmic decrements are to be calculated.01 2 Connecting cable. universal 13500.02 2 Connecting cable. red. To realize the aperiodic case and the creeping.01 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128.00 1 Power supply. we observe that in the steady state the amplitude is a function of the frequency and the amplitude of the external periodic torque and of the damping. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 32 A. blue. Free oscillation 1. l = 75 cm 07362.27-01 What you can learn about …  Angular frequency  Characteristic frequency  Resonance frequency  Torsion pendulum  Torsional vibration  Torque and Restoring torque  Damped/undamped free oscillation  Forced oscillation  Ratio of attenuation/ decrement  Damping constant  Logarithmic decrement  Aperiodic case  Creeping Principle: If an oscillating system is allowed to swing freely it is observed that the decrease of successive maximum amplitudes is highly dependent on the damping. To determine the oscillating period and the characteristic frequency of the undamped case. 32 A.37070 Göttingen external periodic torque. 3. 1/100 s 03071. Successive. 1. 4 mm plug. unidirectional maximum amplitudes are to be plotted as a function of time. Tasks: B. 3.10 1 Stopwatch.04 3 Complete Equipment Set. 4 mm plug.

04 3 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. To determine the oscillating periods and the corresponding characteristic frequencies for different damping values. 2.20 1 Silk thread on spool. 1. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. l = 400 mm 02026. 4 mm plug. The curves of the different oscillations are displayed and the necessary quantities for the determination of the characteristic values can easily becalculated. 3. l = 75 cm 07362. The resonance curves are to be determined and to be represented graphically using the damping values of A. 32 A. Translation/ Rotation 14512. l = 25 cm 07360. 32 A. Tasks: A. l = 250 mm 02025.08. universal 13500. 4 mm plug.93 1 Bridge rectifier.LEP_1_1 09.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. KG · D . BNC socket . square. unidi44 Laboratory Experiments Physics B. silver bronzing 02407. If the oscillating system is stimulated to swing by an external periodic torque.00 1 Weight holder. The characteristic frequencies of the free oscillation as well as the resonance curves of the forced oscillation for different damping values are to be determined.00 1 Power supply.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 44 Mechanics Dynamics 1. blue.55 1 Support rod -PASS-. 32 A. we observe that in the steady state the amplitude is a function of the frequency and the amplitude of the external periodic torque and of the damping. 30 VAC/1 ADC 06031. l = 75 cm 07362.10 1 Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair 07542. yellow. the oscillations are recorded with the Cobra3 systemin connection with the movement sensor. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. the damping constants and the logarithmic decrements are to be calculated. Forced oscillation rectional maximum amplitudes are to be plotted as a function of time.02 2 Connecting cable. 4 mm plug. PC.01 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128.37070 Göttingen . The phase shifting between the torsion pendulum and the stimulating external torque is to be observed for a small damping value assuming that in one case the stimulating frequency is far below the resonance frequency and in the other case it is far above it. red. Manual on CD-ROM included Forced Oscillations – Pohl’s pendulum Determination of resonance frequencies by Fourier analysis P2132711 Recorded curve of the damped oscillation.27-11 Forced Oscillations – Pohl’s pendulum Determination of resonance frequencies by Fourier analysis What you can learn about …  Angular frequency  Characteristic frequency  Resonance frequency  Torsion pendulum  Torsional vibration  Torque  Testoring torque  Damped /undamped free oscillation  Forced oscillation  Ratio of attenuation / decrement  Damping constant  Logarithmic decrement  Aperiodic case  Creeping  Chaotic behaviour Principle: What you need: Torsion pendulum after Pohl 11214. l = 200 mm 02412. square.00 1 Connecting cable. 1/100 s 03071.4 mm plug 07542. To determine the oscillating period and the characteristic frequency of the undamped case. Free oscillation 1.10 1 Stopwatch. To realize the aperiodic case and the creeping.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.55 2 If an oscillating system is allowed to swing freely it is observed that the decrease of successive maximum amplitudes is highly dependent on the damping. The resonance frequencies are to be determined and are to be compared with the resonance frequency values found beforehand.00 1 Support base -PASS- 02005. 1g.3. Successive. The corresponding ratios of attenuation.01 2 Connecting cable. digital.99 1 Software Cobra3. USB 12150. 2. 3.61 1 Movement sensor with cable 12004.55 1 Support rod -PASS-.27 1 Adapter. Therefore.

55 1 Rule. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.01 1 Complete Equipment Set.55 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006.28-01 What you can learn about …  Rigid body  Moment of inertia  Centre of gravity  Axis of rotation  Torsional vibration  Spring constant  Angular restoring force Principle: The period of vibration of a circular disc which performs torsional vibrations about various parallel axes.03 1 Light barrier with counter 11207.30 1 Power supply 5 V DC/2.LEP_1_1 09. Determination of the moment of inertia of a circular disc as a function of the perpendicular distance of the axis of rotation from the centre of gravity.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 45 . is measured.01 1 Disk with diametrical holes 02415.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 45 Mechanics Dynamics Moment of inertia / Steiner’s theorem 1. Determination of the angular restoring constant of the spiral spring.99 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. 2. KG · D . Manual on CD-ROM included Moment of inertia / Steiner’s theorem P2132801 Tasks: 1. 200 mm 09937. plastic.4 A with 4 mm plugs 11076.08. Moment (torque) of a spiral spring as a function of the angle of rotation. The moment of inertia of the disc is determined as a function of the perpendicular distance of the axis of rotation from the centre of gravity.07 1 Transparent spring balances. 2 N 03065.3. What you need: Rotation axle 02415.

4 mm plug. compact 11207. blue. polished 03916.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151.08.00 1 Connecting cable.99 1 Software Cobra3.00 1 Weight holder.10 1 Silk thread on spool. 9 V 07496.37070 Göttingen . l = 200 mm 02412.00 1 Bench clamp -PASS- 02010. yellow. KG · D . l = 100 cm 07363. 32 A. 1g.02 1 PC.01 1 Connecting cable. 4 mm plug. silver bronzing 02407.00 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002.61 1 Light barrier. l = 100 cm 07363.LEP_1_1 09. Windows® 95 or higher Typical measuring result Tasks: The moments of inertia of different bodies are determined by oscillation measurements. l = 100 cm 07363. Steiner’s theorem is verified. USB 12150. What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.20 1 Angular oscillation apparatus 02415. Manual on CD-ROM included Moments of inertia of different bodies / Steiner’s theorem with Cobra3 P2132811 46 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Steiner’s theorem elucidates this relationship.55 1 Stand tube 02060. 32 A. 1 g.88 1 Portable Blance.00 3 Slotted weights. OHAUS CS2000 48892.28-11 Moments of inertia of different bodies / Steiner’s theorem with Cobra3 What you can learn about …  Rigid body  Moment of inertia  Centre of gravity  Axis of rotation  Torsional vibration  Spring constant  Angular restoring force Principle: The moment of inertia of a solid body depends on its mass distribution and the axis of rotation. l = 2 m 09936. 4 mm plug.00 1 Measuring tape. Translation/ Rotation 14512.04 1 Connecting cable.00 1 Flat cell battery.2007 11:15 Uhr Seite 46 Mechanics Dynamics 1. red.3. 32 A. Complete Equipment Set.

01 03060. What you need: Torsion apparatus Torsion rod.01 03929. Determination of the shear modulus of steel. d = 2 mm. l = 500 mm Torsion rod.05 02421.02 02421. square. l = 500 mm Torsion rod.00 02005.04 02421. Al. Al.3. l = 500 mm Torsion rod.37070 Göttingen Torque and deflection of a torsion bar.LEP_1_2 09. d = 4 mm. l = 300 mm Torsion rod. d = 2 mm.06 02421. digital.08.08 03060. The relationship between the vibration period and the geometrical dimensions of the bars will be derived and the specific shear modulus for the material determined.02 03071. 2.03 02421.30-00 What you can learn about …  Shear modulus  Angular velocity  Torque  Moment of inertia  Angular restoring torque  G-modulus  Modulus of elasticity Principle: Bars of various materials will be exciting into torsional vibration. l = 500 mm Torsion rod. l = 400 mm Torsion rod. d = 2 mm. Determination of the dependence of the vibration period on the length and thickness of the bars. Static determination of the torsion modulus of a bar. aluminium and brass. d = 2 mm. 2. Al. Manual on CD-ROM included Torsional vibrations and torsion modulus P2133000 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.5 N Stopwatch.00 02421. d = 3 mm. 1/100 s Sliding weight Support base -PASSSupport rod -PASS-. Tasks: 1. Al. 4. Laboratory Experiments Physics 47 .55 02040.55 02025. KG · D . steel. d = 2 mm. copper. square. Al. l = 500 mm Precision spring balance 1 N Precision spring balances. l = 500 mm Torsion rod. from the vibration period.07 02421. l = 250 mm Support rod -PASS-.55 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 Complete Equipment Set. Determination of the moment of inertia of the rod and weights fixed to the bar. 3. brass.01 02421.2007 11:35 Uhr Seite 47 Mechanics Dynamics Torsional vibrations and torsion modulus 1.55 02027. d = 2 mm. copper. l = 630 mm Right angle clamp -PASS- 02421.

01 1 Sphere 02415. 2.04 1 Solid cylinder 02415. KG · D .37070 Göttingen . a sphere and a bar. The angular restoring moment of the spiral spring. The moment of inertia a) of a disc.3.2007 11:35 Uhr Seite 48 Mechanics Dynamics 1. Manual on CD-ROM included Moment of inertia and torsional vibrations P2133100 Tasks: The following will be determined: 1.55 1 Complete Equipment Set.06 1 Precision spring balances. of 0. 2.4 A with 4 mm plugs 11076.30 1 Power supply 5 V DC/2.02 1 Light barrier with counter 11207. The vibration period is measured and the moment of inertia determined from this. The centre of gravity lies in the axis of rotation.LEP_1_2 09.55 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006.99 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. b) of two point masses. as a function of the distance between them.05 1 Rod with movable masses 02415.03 1 Hollow cylinder 02415. two cylinder. 48 Laboratory Experiments Physics Moment of inertia of two equal masses.08. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.214 kg each. as a function of the perpendicular distance to the axis of rotation.02 1 Disk 02415.31-00 Moment of inertia and torsional vibrations What you can learn about …  Rigid body  Moment of inertia  Axis of rotation  Torsional vibration  Spring constant  Angular restoring moment  Moment of inertia of a sphere  Moment of inertia of a disc  Moment of inertia of a cylinder  Moment of inertia of a long bar  Moment of inertia of 2 point masses Principle: Various bodies perform torsional vibrations about axes through their centres of gravity.5 N 03060. What you need: Rotation axle 02415.

compact 11207. 10. Laboratory Experiments Physics 49 .00 1 Stopwatch. The four lowest natural frequencies with one end of the oscillator system fixed and the other one free are to be detected.02 1 Adapter.12 1 The resonance frequencies measured with increasing speed of rotation. 4 mm plug. A relation between frequency.26 1 1.00 3 Meter Scale. 32 A. 30 and 40 is to be determined with the electronic counter of the light barrier and the stopwatch for a particular frequency of excitation.LEP_1_2 09. l = 200 cm 07365. blue.93 1 Light barrier with counter 11207. 32 A.30 1 Light barrier. The frequency of the oscillators 1. 3.20 Laboratory motor. square.93 1 Gearing 30:1 11029. 4 mm plug. The formation of standing waves is demonstrated and studied. blue. The four lowest natural frequencies with two ends of the oscillator system fixed are to be detected. For three different frequencies the corresponding wavelengths are to be measured and it is to be shown that the product of frequency and wavelength is a constant.04 2 Connecting cable. 4 mm plug. What you need: fk Hz k fk k  0.27 1 Complete Equipment Set. 220 VAC 11030. red. l = 150 cm 07364. l = 200 cm 07365. Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair 07542.2007 11:35 Uhr Seite 49 Mechanics Dynamics The propagation of a periodically excited continuous transverse wave 1. The number of oscillations carried out by different oscillators within a certain time is determined and the velocity of propagation is measured. 4. l = 1000 x 27 mm 03001.00 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. Manual on CD-ROM included The propagation of a periodically excited continuous transverse wave P2133200 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. By means of a path-time measurement the phase velocity of a transverse wave is to be determined. yellow.94 3 0. KG · D .55 2 Tasks: Connecting cable. Bench clamp -PASS- 02010. BNC. harmonic transverse wave generated by a wave machine. 5.01 1 Screened cable.04 1 Connecting cable.37 2L/2 0. 32 A. wavelength and phase velocity is established.00 1 Dual power supply 2 x 15 V-/ 2 A 13520. 20.00 1 Gearing 100:1 11027.08.01 2 Connecting cable.37070 Göttingen 2.36 2L/4 Wave machine 11211. BNC plug/4 mm socket 07542. l = 1500 mm 07542.55 2 Support rod -PASS-.38 1 0. 32 A. l = 150 cm 07364. 15 minutes 03076.38 2L/1 1 0.3.31 2L/3 1. l = 400 mm 02026.32-00 What you can learn about …  Periodic motion  Frequency  Wavelength  Phase velocity  Standing waves  Natural frequency  Free and fixed end  Damping of waves Principle: The periodicity of connected stationary oscillators is demonstrated on the example of a continuous.43 4 0. 4 mm plug.74 2 0.

93 1 Complete Equipment Set.03 1 Bench clamp -PASS- 02010. 2. From this graph. d = 10 mm 02260. fixed. The phase velocity c of the rope waves.08. 50 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. l = 10 m 03989. on rod.00 1 Digital stroboscopes 21809.00 1 Precision spring balances. l = 2 m 09936.00 1 Silk thread on spool. With the help of a stroboscope.00 1 Laboratory motor.00 1 Cotton cord. The quadrant of the phase velocity is plotted as a function of tensile stress.33-00 Phase velocity of rope waves What you can learn about …  Wavelength  Phase velocity  Group velocity  Wave equation  Harmonic wave Principle: A quadrangular rubber rope is inserted through the demonstration motor and a linear polarised fixed wave is generated. l = 250 mm 02025. KG · D . l = 10 mm 02091.55 1 Support rod -PASS-. square.LEP_1_2 09. 220 VAC 11030. Then the phase velocity of rope waves with a fixed tensile stress is ascertained.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.3. which depends on the wavelength  of the wave that propagates itself along the rope. which depends on the tensile stress on the rope is to be measured. The frequency is plotted as a function of 1/. square.55 1 Support rod -PASS-.00 1 Measuring tape. l = 1000 mm 02028.37070 Göttingen . 10. What you need: Grooved wheel after Hoffmann 02860. the phase velocity c is determined.00 2 Pulleys.00 1 Square section rubber strip. Tasks: 1.55 3 Rod with hook 02051.2007 11:35 Uhr Seite 50 Mechanics Dynamics 1. the mathematical relationship between the phase velocity of the rope and the tensile on the rope is examined. the frequency and the wave length are determined. With constant tensile stress. d = 2. Manual on CD-ROM included Phase velocity of rope waves P2133300 The square of phase velocity depending upon the force F applied on the rope.00 1 Support base -PASS- 02005. l = 200 mm 02412. the frequency f. Subsequently.0 N 03060.93 1 Gearing 10:1 11028.5 mm.

Moreover. complete 11260. 5. convex lenses. The measurement is made for different frequencies. It is shown.34-00 What you can learn about …  Generation of surface waves  Propagation of surface waves  Dependency of wave velocity  Reflection of waves  Refraction of waves  Concave. Use the single dipper to generate circular waves.3. With the aid of plane waves the dependency of the velocity of the waves' propagation on the depth of the water can be determined. Fixing unit) PC. KG · D .37070 Göttingen 3.LEP_1_2 09. prism. 4. Plane waves are generated with the integrated wave generator. By moving the external wave generator the Doppler Effect is investigated. By using a ruler the wave length can be determined.08. a prism. Use a plate to simulate a zone of lower water depth and measure the wave length before and above the plate. a concave lens and at a convex lens can be clearly demonstrated. concave and convex lens).30 1 Optional equipment for demonstration purposes in classes or lectures: Demo set for ripple tank (USB-Camera.2007 11:35 Uhr Seite 51 Mechanics Dynamics Wave phenomena in a ripple tank 1. By using two barriers show the reflection of waves. mirrors Principle: In the ripple tank water waves are generated by a vibration generator. the reflection of waves as well as the refraction of waves at a plate. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Manual on CD-ROM included Wave phenomena in a ripple tank P2133400 Examination of the behaviour of a concave lens with the ripple tank. Tasks: 1.20 1 11260. The external wave generator is connected to the water ripple tank and circular waves are generated.99 1 11260. Laboratory Experiments Physics 51 . What you need: Ripple tank with LED-light source . 2. Windows® 95 or higher or Demo set with mirror for ripple tank Complete Equipment Set. that water waves are a proved method to demonstrate the behaviour of waves in general. Observe the refraction of water waves at several objects (plate. Circular waves are then used to investigate the dependency of the vibration frequency on the wave length.

The external wave generator is connected to the water ripple tank and circular waves are generated. The resulting interference is observed.99 1 External vibration generator for ripple tank 11260. By increasing the number of circular waves which interfere Huygens' Principle can be verified. double-slit etc.) can be investigated. Windows® 95 or higher or Demo set with mirror for ripple tank Complete Equipment Set. red 07361. Generate two circular waves and observe the resulting interference.10 1 Connecting cable. 4.35-00 Interference and diffraction of water waves with the ripple tank What you can learn about …  Diffraction of water waves  Interference of waves  Huygens' principle  Principle of “phased arrays antennas”  Doppler effect Principle: Different types of circular water waves are generated simultaneously. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.01 1 Connecting cable. 32 A. Fixing unit) PC. Recognize Huygens' Principle by investigating the resulting interference for each case. Increase the number of circular waves that interfere up to ten by using all plugs of the “comb”. What you need: Ripple Tank with LED-light source . diffraction phenomena of waves at different obstacles (slit. By moving the external wave generator the Doppler Effect is visualized.37070 Göttingen . With the aid of plane water waves.2007 11:35 Uhr Seite 52 Mechanics Dynamics 1. Generate plane water waves and use a barrier to demonstrate interference and diffraction at an edge. In another experiment the principle of “phased arrays antennas” can be analysed by generating two circular waves that interfere and by observing the resulting interference on varying the phase of one of the circular waves. l = 50 cm. complete 11260.20 1 11260.LEP_1_2 09. 32 A. edge. Manual on CD-ROM included Interference and diffraction of water waves with the ripple tank P2133500 Interference with the double slit. Then form a slit and observe interference and diffraction behind the slit. KG · D .3. Tasks: 1.04 1 11260. blue 07361. generate two circular waves and observe the interference. l = 50 cm.08. By using the integrated vibration generator as well as the external vibration generator. Vary the phase of the external wave generator with respect to the internal one and observe the resulting interference to understand the principle of “phased arrays antennas”. Repeat this experiment for a double-slit. 2.30 1 Optional equipment for demonstration purposes in classes or lectures: Demo set for Ripple Tank (USB-Camera. 52 Laboratory Experiments Physics 3.

LEP_1_2 09. distilled 5 l 31246. 500 g 30155.01 1 Bath for thermostat. KG · D . Makrolon 08487. Tasks: The density of water and glycerol is measured in 1 to 2° steps over a temperature range from 0 to 20°C.4. Manual on CD-ROM included Density of liquids P2140100 Density of water as a function of temperature.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 53 .08.01-00 What you can learn about …  Hydrogen bond  H2O anomaly  Volume expansion  Melting  Evaporation  Mohr balance Principle: The density of water and glycerol is determined as a function of temperature using the Mohr balance.50 1 Complete Equipment Set.02 1 Glycerol.2007 11:35 Uhr Seite 53 Mechanics Mechanics of Liquids and Gaseous Bodies Density of liquids 1. then in larger steps up to 50°C. What you need: Westphal/Mohr density balance 45016.81 1 Sodium chloride. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.25 2 Water.00 1 Immersion thermostat TC10 08492.93 1 Accessory set for TC10 08492. 250 ml 30084.

4 A with 4 mm plugs 11076. the parameters of which will be determined as a function of the angular velocity.37070 Göttingen .2007 11:35 Uhr Seite 54 Mechanics Mechanics of Liquids and Gaseous Bodies 1. the shape.00 2 Barrel base -PASS- 02006.00 1 Driving belt 03981.01 1 Bearing unit 02845.30 1 Power supply 5 V DC/2.00 1 Power supply 0-12 V DC/ 6 V. 3. the curvature.55 1 Methylene blue sol. 2.99 1 Bench clamp -PASS- 02010.00 1 Motor with gearing.02-00 Surface of rotating liquids What you can learn about …  Angular velocity  Centrifugal force  Rotary motion  Paraboloid of rotation  Equilibrium Principle: A vessel containing liquid is rotated about an axis. the following are determined: 1. 12 V AC 13505.08.93 1 Light barrier with counter 11207. The liquid surface forms a paraboloid of rotation. 12 VDC 11610.LEP_1_2 09. the location of the lowest point as a function of the angular velocity.4. Location of the lowest point  c  of the liquid as a function of the angular velocity. What you need: Rotating liquid cell 02536. 250 ml 31568. 54 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D . Manual on CD-ROM included Surface of rotating liquids P2140200 Tasks: On the rotating liquid surface. alkal..25 1 Complete Equipment Set.

BORO 3.93 02005. Determine the gradient of the rotational velocity as a function of the torsional shearing stress for two Newtonian liquids (glycerine. l = 500 mm Right angle clamp Magnetic stirrer MR 3001 K Magnetic stirring rod. 3. d = 5 mm Digital thermometer. NiCr-Ni Immersion probe NiCr-Ni.03 07050. 250 ml Stirring rods.37070 Göttingen Temperature dependence of the viscosity of castor oil. Determine the flow curve for a non-Newtonian liquid (chocolate). 250 ml 18221. l = 200 mm.55 02032. PTFE Beaker. 600 ml Beaker. KG · D .LEP_1_2 09. The viscosity of the liquid generates a moment of rotation at the cylinder which can be measured with the aid of the torsion of the spiral spring and read on a scale.03 30084. What you need: Rotary viscosimeter Support base -PASSSupport rod. DURAN®. l = 30 mm Separator for magnetic bars.93 46299.25 30180. 250 ml Acetone. 250 ml Castor oil.00 40485. in which a motor with variable rotation speed drives a cylinder immersed in the liquid to be investigated with a spiral spring. Tasks: 1.3.-50/1000°C Glycerol.4.00 37697. tall form.25 31799.00 35720.2007 11:35 Uhr Seite 55 Mechanics Mechanics of Liquids and Gaseous Bodies Viscosity of Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids (rotary viscometer) 1. 250 ml Liquid Paraffin. Manual on CD-ROM included Viscosity of Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids (rotary viscometer) P2140300 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. liquid paraffin).08.27 30004.02 35680.03-00 What you can learn about …  Shear stress  Velocity gradient  Internal friction  Viscosity  Plasticity Principle: The viscosity of liquids can be determined with a rotation viscometer. 2. Investigate the temperature dependence of the viscosity of Castor oil and glycerine.00 13615. stainless steel 18/8. short form.03 36015.25 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 Complete Equipment Set.00 36004. Laboratory Experiments Physics 55 . DURAN®. chemical pure. cylindrical.

37070 Göttingen .93 1 Accessory set for TC10 08492. liquids and gases have different viscosities. What you need: Falling ball viscosimeter 18220. di = 6 mm. can be experimentally determined. calibrated 03023.LEP_1_2 09. DURAN®. BORO 3.00 2 Methanol 500 ml 30142. 25 ml. d = 8-12 mm 40996. l = 145 ml 36590.00 1 Pyknometer.81 1 Complete Equipment Set.08. 500 ml 33931. KG · D .04-00 Viscosity measurements with the falling ball viscometer What you can learn about …  Liquid  Newtonian liquid  Stokes law  Fluidity  Dynamic and kinematic viscosity  Viscosity measurements Principle: Due to internal friction among their particles.4.02 1 Retort stand.00 1 Volumetric flasks with standard joint and PP stopper.2007 11:35 Uhr Seite 56 Mechanics Mechanics of Liquids and Gaseous Bodies 1.03 1 Hose clip. 100 ml 36548.01 6 Rubber tubing. h = 750 mm 37694. Manual on CD-ROM included Viscosity measurements with the falling ball viscometer P2140400 Temperature dependence of the dynamic viscosity  of water (o) and methanol (+). Makrolon 08487. respectively. calculate the energy barriers for the displaceability of water and methanol. 250 ml 36013. digital. 1/100 s 03071.00 6 Stopwatch. tall form. The viscosity. for example.93 1 Wash bottle.50 2 Water.01 1 Bath for thermostat. 150 ml 36003.00 1 Right angle clamp 37697.00 11 Beaker. 10 pcs 39275. plastic. by measuring the rate of fall of a ball in a tube filled with the liquid to be investigated. of methanol as a function of temperature. 120/240/620 g 48852. of water as a function of the temperature and 56 Laboratory Experiments Physics 3. Tasks: Measure the viscosity 1. 2. From the temperature dependence of the viscosity. DURAN®. distilled 5 l 31246. short form. of methanol-water mixtures of various composition at a constant temperature.00 1 Rubber caps.00 1 Pasteur pipettes. a function of the substance’s structure and its temperature. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 9 Beaker.01 1 Laboratory balance.00 1 Immersion thermostat C10 08492.3.00 1 Universal clamp with joint 37716. l = 1 m 39282.

Determine the surface tension of water/methanol mixtures as functions of the mixture ratio.55 46245..50 30177. 10 pcs. 20 ml Safety pipettor Flip Pipette dish Graduated cylinder.3. cylindrical.00 36579. 560 ml Laboratory thermometers. BORO 3.00 36629.20 46299.2007 11:35 Uhr Seite 57 Mechanics Mechanics of Liquids and Gaseous Bodies Surface tension by the ring method (Du Nouy method) 1.00 39282.00 36592.81 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.64 36705.05-00 What you can learn about …  Surface energy  Interface  Surface tension  Adhesion  Critical point  Eötvös equation Principle: The force is measured on a ring shortly before a liquid film tears using a torsion meter. l = 50 cm.01 N Surface tension measuring ring Retort stand.00 38065. l = 200 mm Glass tube. Complete Equipment Set. h = 500 mm Magnetic stirrer MR 3001 K Support rod with hole. Manual on CD-ROM included Surface tension by the ring method (Du Nouy method) P2140500 Laboratory Experiments Physics 57 . 2.00 36701. straight.00 46244. -10.00 36589. BORO 3.00 36578.. pure. M10 thread Magnetic stirring rod. Determine the surface tension of olive oil as a function of temperature. Tasks: 1.00 02412. The surface tension is calculated from the diameter of the ring and the tear-off force. KG · D . 210 mm x 130 mm. plastic Ethyl alcohol. 100 ml Water. 1 way.00 30008. stainless steel.. l = 150 mm.LEP_1_2 09.+250°C Silk thread on spool.4. AR-glass. l = 1 m Volumetric pipettes.08. 0.3.00 02040.00 35720.3.01 37718. 1000 ml Crystallizing dishes. BORO 3. d = 8 mm.00 37692.00 37697.93 02022. What you need: Torsion dynamometer.10 31246..00 17547. l = 15 mm Universal clamp Right angle clamp Right angle clamp -PASSCrystallizing dishes. 10 ml Volumetric pipettes.37070 Göttingen Temperature dependency of surtace tension of olive oil. Glass stopcocks. 100 ml Water jet pump. 500 ml Olive oil. straight Rubber tubing. di = 6 mm.00 02728. absolute. distilled 5 l 02416.

square.37070 Göttingen .00 1 Petri dishes.06-11 Surface tension by the pull-out method with Cobra3 What you can learn about …  Surface energy  Surface tension  Surface adhesion  Bounding surface Principle: The force exerted on a measuring ring shortly before the liquid film is torn away is determined with a force meter.2007 11:35 Uhr Seite 58 Mechanics Mechanics of Liquids and Gaseous Bodies 1.55 1 Support rod -PASS-.08. KG · D .55 1 Lab jack.61 1 Newton measuring module 12110. d = 200 mm 64796. l = 250 mm 02025.01 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. The surface tension is calculated from the diameter of the ring and the tearing force.55 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. 160 x 130 mm 02074.00 1 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.00 1 PC. Manual on CD-ROM included Surface tension by the pull-out method with Cobra3 P2140611 Tasks: Determination of the surface tension of water and other liquids.LEP_1_2 09.4.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. Windows® 95 or higher Typical measurement values Complete Equipment Set. USB 12150. What you need: Surface tension measuring ring 17547.00 1 Newton Sensor 12110.99 1 Software Cobra3 Force/Tesla 14515. 58 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.

l = 400 mm 02026.99 1 Digital stroboscopes 21809.2007 11:35 Uhr Seite 59 Mechanics Mechanics of Liquids and Gaseous Bodies Barometric height formula 1. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.08. l = 75 cm 07362.00 1 Variable transformer with rectifier 15 V~/12 V-.01 1 Connecting cable. Manual on CD-ROM included Barometric height formula P2140700 Number of steel balls (m = 0.4 A with 4 mm plugs 11076.LEP_1_2 09.04 1 Complete Equipment Set. and thereby attain different velocities (temperature model). Tasks: Measurement of the particle density as a function of: 1. 5 A 13530. 4 mm plug. 32 A.93 1 Light barrier with counter 11207.4. at fixed height.01 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002.07-00 What you can learn about …  Kinetic gas theory  Pressure  Equation of state  Temperature  Gas constant Principle: Glass or steel balls are accelerated by means of a vibrating plate. The particle density of the balls is measured as a function of the height and the vibrational frequency of the plate. red. 1/100 s 03071.93 1 Stopwatch. as a function of the height h. 32 A.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 59 .55 2 Support rod -PASS-. square. l = 75 cm 07362. at fixed frequency 2. 4 mm plug. KG · D .30 1 Power supply 5 V DC/2. What you need: Kinetic gas theory apparatus 09060. the height.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.55 1 Connecting cable. which pass through the volume element V in 30 seconds (vibrational frequency 50 Hz). blue. digital. the vibrational frequency of the exciting plate.034 g).

08-00 Lift and drag (resistance to flow) What you can learn about …  Resistance to pressure  Frictional resistance  Drag coefficient  Turbulent flow  Laminar flow  Reynolds number  Dynamic pressure  Bernoulli equation  Aerofoil  Induced resistance  Circulation  Angle of incidence  Polar diagram A) Objects of different cross-section and shape are placed in a laminar air stream. 3. 200 mm 09937.01 1 Rubber tubing. di = 6 mm. the dynamic pressure 4. B) A rectangular plate or an aerofoil in a stream of air experiences a buoyant force (lift) and a resistance force (drag). The drag is examined as a function of the flow velocity and the geometry of the objects. Prandtl type 03094. set of 14 02787.55 4 Rod with hook 02051.02 1 Transparent spring balances.LEP_1_2 09.00 1 A) Determination of the drag as a function of: B) Determination of the lift and the drag of flat plates as a function of: 1. stainless steel 03010.00 2 Pointed rod 02302.00 1 Support base -PASS- 02005. the angle of incidence (polar diagram) Complete Equipment Set.2007 11:35 Uhr Seite 60 Mechanics Mechanics of Liquids and Gaseous Bodies 1. l = 1 m 39282.55 Barrel base -PASS- 02006.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. What you need: Aerodynamic bodies. These forces are determined in relation to area.93 1 Pipe probe 02705. determination of the drag coefficients cw for objects of various shape. KG · D . l = 1000 mm 02028. Determination of the pressure distribution over the aerofoil for various angles of incidence.00 1 Blower.00 1 Tasks: Rule.00 1 Double shaft holder 02780. 3. 1. plastic.08.00 1 Precision manometer 03091. l = 200 mm 02412.2 N 03065.37070 Göttingen . the plate area 2.00 1 Holder with bearing points 02411. rate of flow and angle of incidence. the flow velocity.85 hPa).00 1 Pitot tube. square.00 1 Universal clamp with joint 37716.01 1 Vernier calipers.00 1 Silk thread on spool.4.00 1 Aerofoil model 02788. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.93 1 Power regulator 32288.55 1 1 Support rod -PASS-.00 1 Precision pulley 11201. the cross-section of different bodies. mains voltage 220 V 02742.00 2 Stand tube 02060. 60 Laboratory Experiments Physics 2. 0. Manual on CD-ROM included Lift and drag (resistance to flow) P2140800 Drag of an object as a function of its cross-sectional area A (q = 0.

3 mm Constantan wire.93 07542.3 mm Kanthal wire.98 Ω/m. 0. l = 750 mm Screened cable.00 02025.55 02040.93 13600. BNC plug/4 mm socket T type connector. What you need: String tensioning device with rod Nickel wire.2007 11:35 Uhr Seite 61 Mechanics Mechanical Vibration.95 13625.00 17049. The vibrations of the string are optically scanned.04 03429.4 mm Copper wire. at a fixed tension and string length.11 07542.00 03001.00 02090. 19. 6 V/0. Manual on CD-ROM included Vibrations of strings P2150100 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.20 07542.5 mm. d = 0.00 35673. 4 decades Plug with push-on sleeve Adapter. Acoustics Vibration of strings 1. 220 V Digital counter.4 mm Copper wire.55 02010. BNC. BNC. red.00 06101. 32 A. constantan. 6. l = 1000 x 27 mm Precision spring balances. 4 mm plug. 100.00 03060.4 mm dia.00 11459.) as a function of the tensioning force and the length of the string.02 06106.03 02006.03 06024. l = 30 cm Connecting cable. d = 0. Laboratory Experiments Physics 61 . d = 0. socket. socket.9 Ω/m.37070 Göttingen Fundamental frequency f as a function of string length l at a given tensioning force F = 30 N.55 02051.26 07542.00 08734.00 06092. square.00 02066. 0.00 06106.00 06102.3 mm. d = 0.01-00 What you can learn about …  Natural vibration  Mass-spring system  Harmonic sound intervals Principle: A tensioned metal string is made to vibrate.04 07542. d = 0.g.5 A Distributor Oscilloscope 30 MHz. l = 250 mm Right angle clamp -PASSRod with hook Sign holder Fishing line on spool. BNC. the vibration process observed on the oscilloscope and the dependence of the frequency on the string tension and string length and the density of the material are investigated.01 06090.1 Ω/m.01 07362.10 07362. To measure the frequency for various types and cross-sections of string. G1 Filament lamps.27 07542. 2.5. l = 100 mm Meter Scale. Tasks: 1.LEP_1_2 09.21 07542.4 mm plug Adapter.04 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Complete Equipment Set. blue.08. l = 75 cm Connecting cable.0 N Striking hammer Photoelement for optical base plate Lamp socket E 10. plug Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair Screened cable.5 mm Barrel base -PASSBench clamp -PASSSupport rod -PASS-. 2 channels LF amplifier. 32 A. KG · D . 4 mm plug. l = 100 m Constantan wire. d = 0. BNC socket . l = 75 cm 03431. To measure the frequency of a string (e. d = 0.

LEP_1_2 09.00 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006.2007 11:35 Uhr Seite 62 Mechanics Mechanical Vibration.01 1 Connecting cable.753 Flat cell battery. 4 mm plug. l = 2 m 09936. l = 75 cm 07362. blue.230 Support rod with hole. What you need: v /(m/s) Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.04 1 Tasks: Connecting cable. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set.5. l = 75 cm 07362.01 1 Connecting cable. 4 mm plug.03-11 Velocity of sound in air with Cobra3 What you can learn about …  Linear relationship between the propagation time of sound and its respective path  Longitudinal waves  Velocity of sound Principle: The speed of sound in air is determined by measurements of sound travel times.37070 Göttingen . 32 A. 4 mm plug. red. 9 V 07496. Manual on CD-ROM included Velocity of sound in air with Cobra3 P2150311 62 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 1 Connecting cable. Acoustics 1. l = 25 cm 07360.01 2 Support 09906.448 337. stainless steel.258 Table 1 PC.99 1 Software Cobra3. 32 A. Timer/Counter 14511.04 1 Determination of the velocity of sound in air.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151.61 1 338. 32 A.55 2 Measuring tape. red. 32 A. 4 mm plug. KG · D .08.10 1 337.00 1 338. blue. l = 25 cm 07360. l = 10 cm 02036. USB 12150.438 Measuring microphone with amplifier 03543. 338.

50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151.04 2 2 Tasks: Connecting cable. 32 A. 4 mm plug. 1 MHz 13650. red.01 1 Diaphragm. l = 600 mm 02037. 32 A. l = 1500 mm. 07206.01 Connecting cable. pair red and black 07264.6 16184.2007 11:35 Uhr Seite 63 Mechanics Mechanical Vibration. USB 12150.01 1 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. 4 mm plug. l = 10 cm 07359. 1 channel 11414. 1/100 s 03071.157 v /m/s 0.157 Mean fmeasured/Hz 16199 16184 fcalculated/Hz 16199.LEP_1_2 09.01 2 2 Barrel base -PASS- 02006. l = 100 cm 07363. Manual on CD-ROM included Acoustic Doppler effect P21504 01/11 Laboratory Experiments Physics 63 .158 0. yellow.159 0. 32 A. compact 11207. Acoustics Acoustic Doppler effect 1.02 2 1 Track.157 v /m/s 0.93 1 Yt recorder.00 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 1 Support 09906. l = 900 mm 11606.156 Mean v /m/s 0.10 1 1 Loudspeaker/Sound head 03524. stainless steel 18/8.5 V.37070 Göttingen Connecting cable.03 Support rod. red.55 2 2 Stand tube 02060. l = 150 cm 07364.160 0.00 2 1 Car. blue. 32 A. type C 07922.5 Table Connecting cable. motor driven 11061. blue. l = 75 cm 07362. 32 A.00 1 Light barrier.00 1 1 Flat cell battery.01 2 Connecting cable.02 2 1 Connecting cable. Connecting cord. Set-up of experiment P2150411 with Cobra3 What you need: Movement toward the sound source Experiment P2150411 with Cobra3 Experiment P2150401 with yt recorder Power frequency generator. 32 A. the frequency of the waves that are emitted is displaced due to the Doppler effect.01 1 Measuring microphone 03542.08. l = 100 cm 07363.04-01/11 What you can learn about …  Propagation of sound waves  Doppler shift of frequency Principle: If a source of sound is in motion relative to its medium of propagation.159 0. 4 mm plug. 1. yellow. baby size.156 v /m/s 0.02 1 1 Battery cell.04 2 Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair 07542. KG · D . 4 mm plug. red 07364. 32 A.95 1 Meter Scale.00 1 Spring balance holder 03065. l = 100 mm 11202. l = 1000 x 27 mm 03001. l = 100 cm 07363. 9 V 07496.00 1 Stopwatch.93 1 Plug with socket and crosshole. 4 mm plug.162 0. 4 mm plug.20 1 PC. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. Timer/Counter 14511.20 1 Bosshead 02043.27 1 Double socket.5.61 1 2 Function generator 13652. digital.00 1 1 Attachment for car 11061. 2 pcs.00 1 1 The frequency changes are measured and analysed for different relative velocities of source and observer.00 1 1 Movement away from the sound source v /m/s 0.99 1 Software Cobra3.

blue. d = 10 mm 02031.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. The sound head drives a Chaldni plate.5.02 64 Laboratory Experiments Physics Tasks: A frequency generator is connected to a sound head.00 1 Sound pattern plates 03478. You can find more experiments in Handbook “Physics Experiments with Cobra3” Order No. 4 mm plug.2 to 2 kHz frequency range and watch for the pattern to emerge when a harmonic is tuned. Acoustics 1. BNC.27 1 Screened cable. A well defined standing wave pattern can be clearly seen in the first photo. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.LEP_1_2 09. 4 mm plug.05-15 Chladni figures with FG-Module What you can learn about …  Wavelength  Stationary waves  Natural vibrations  Two-dimensional standing waves Principle: To show the two-dimensional standing waves on the surface of a square or circular plate. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set.99 2 Data cable 2 x SUB-D. stainless steel 18/8. Manual on CD-ROM included Chladni figures with FG-Module P2150515 Two dimensional oscillation of quadratic plates. 9 pole 14602. 220 V 13625.00 1 Support rod.00 1 LF amplifier.01 1 Connecting cable. What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.00 1 Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair 07542.08.2007 11:35 Uhr Seite 64 Mechanics Mechanical Vibration.00 1 Support base. The circular and square Chladni plates will create characteristic patterns. variable 02001.61 1 Measuring module Function Generator 12111. l = 50 cm 07361. l = 250 mm. White sand is sprinkled randomly to cover the entire black surface of the plate.37070 Göttingen . plug/socket.11 1 Connecting cable.04 1 PC.93 1 Loudspeaker/Sound head 03524. 01310. l = 50 cm 07361. Drive the plate at a predetermined harmonic frequency and the sand will migrate into the nodal regions.00 1 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525. 32 A. Adjust the oscillator slowly in the 0. l = 750 mm 07542.00 1 Stand tube 02060.00 1 Bosshead 02043. red. 32 A. USB 12150. KG · D .

blue. Rubber stopper.00 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Complete Equipment Set.00 05949.04 03918. P2150601 with vibration generator Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. The longitudinal velocity of sound in the material of the vibration generator is determined.50 12151.5.00 03001. carbon dioxide. USB Power supply 12V/2A Software Cobra3 PowerGraph Measuring module Function Generator LF amplifier. through the radiation of sound from a disc attached to the end of the rod.. d = 38 mm. Tasks: 1. given the velocity of sound in air. -10.61 12111. 10 l Wrench for steel cylinders Glass tube. di = 6 mm. 2. Set-up of experiment P2150615 with FG-Module What you need: Experiment P2150615 with FG-Module Exp. variable Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair Screened cable.01 03476.11 07361. 3 g Universal clamp Charging strip Tuning piston Vibration generator. 4 mm plug.00 37718. 32 A. Acoustics Velocity of sound using Kundt’s tube 1. above.00 13625.2007 11:36 Uhr Seite 65 Mechanics Mechanical Vibration. AR-glass.00 41761. d = 38/31 mm. KG · D . To measure the wavelength for CO2. l = 750 mm Connecting cable.00 33481.08. l = 50 cm Glass tubes. The gas column in a glass tube is caused to vibrate naturally as a result of resonance. d = 8 mm. Manual on CD-ROM included Velocity of sound using Kundt’s tube P21506 01/15 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. straight. l = 1000 x 27 mm Pressure-reducing valves.01 03474. 220 V Loudspeaker/Sound head Support base. Laboratory Experiments Physics 65 . l = 1 m PC. l = 80 mm.99 14525. 10 g Laboratory thermometers. red.01 39282. 4 mm plug.06-01/15 What you can learn about …  Longitudinal waves  Sound velocity in gases and solids  Frequency  Wavelength  Stationary waves  Natural vibrations Principle: A metal rod is made to vibrate longitudinally by rubbing it with a cloth.02 02715.00 03477.65 39260. brass Vibration generator. The ratio of the velocities of sound in the gas and in the vibration generator is determined by measuring the wavelength. CO2 / He Steel cylinders. To measure the wavelength of stationary waves using a steel or a brass rod as the vibration generator. 32 A.00 02010.27 07542.LEP_1_2 09.02 03476.93 03524. AR-glass. steel Lycopodium powder.00 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 36701.01 07361.37070 Göttingen Positions of the vibration nodes as a function of the number of nodes. l = 640 mm Cork powder.+ 30°C Bench clamp -PASSMeter Scale. l = 50 cm Connecting cable.. d = 7 mm Rubber tubing.00 02001. 1 hole.00 40322. and to determine the sound velocity in CO2 from the ratios of the wavelengths in air determined in 1. BNC. 10 pcs. Windows® 95 or higher 12150.00 03474.00 07542.

27 1 Loudspeaker/Sound head 03524. blue. 4 mm plug. PC. 4 mm plug. 32 A. 1 MHz 13650.01 1 1 Support base -PASS- 02005. 4 mm plug.37070 Göttingen . l = 630 mm 02027.00 1 Power frequency generator.00 1 Connecting cable.55 2 2 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151.07-01/15 Mechanical Vibration. Sound amplitude as a function of the displacement d. l = 150 cm 07364. Acoustics Wavelengths and frequencies with a Quincke tube What you can learn about …  Transverse and longitudinal waves  Wavelength  Amplitude  Frequency  Phase shift  Interference  Velocity of sound in air  Loudness  Weber-Fechner law Principle: If a sound wave of a particular frequency is divided into two coherent components (like. Measuring microphone with amplifier 03543.04 2 1 Connecting cable.93 1 Connection box 06030. 32 A. square. Manual on CD-ROM included Wavelengths and frequencies with a Quincke tube P21507 01/15 66 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.55 1 1 Support rod -PASS-.01 1 2.99 2 Measuring module Function Generator 12111.00 1 1 1 Vernier calipers. Set-up of experiment P2150715 with FG-Module What you need: Experiment P2150715 with FG-Module Experiment P2150701 with multimeter Interference tube. 32 A. stainless steel 03010. red.04 1 Connecting cable. Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. light waves in an interferometer experiment). G1 39104. comparison with the given frequencies. 220 V 13625. 4 mm plug. 4 mm plug. Calculation of the frequencies from the wavelengths determined. red. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. it is possible to calculate the wavelength of the sound wave and its frequency from the interference phenomena recorded with a microphone.93 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128.00 1 1 Connecting cable. USB 12150.23 1 Carbon resistor 10 Ω.61 1 LF amplifier.2007 11:36 Uhr Seite 66 Mechanics 1.55 5 5 Interference of sound waves in a Quincke tube.00 1 Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair 07542. blue.01 1 1.01 1 Connecting cable.00 1 Tasks: Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525. l = 10 cm 07359.00 1 Measuring microphone 03542. 32 A. and if the path of one of the component waves is altered. KG · D .08. 1W. Record of the extension of a Quincke tube for given frequencies in the range 2000 Hz to 6000 Hz.5. l = 150 cm 07364.LEP_1_2 09. l = 50 cm 07361.00 1 Support 09906. Quincke type 03482. red. l = 50 cm 07361. for example. 32 A.

99 1 Software Cobra3 Fourier Analysis 14514. 1000 ml 36046. d = 12 mm. 4 mm plug.01 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. red.10 1 Glass tubes. AR-glass.00 1 Universal clamp 37718.01 1 Time signal.08-11 What you can learn about …  Cavity resonator  Resonance frequency  Acoustic resonant circuit Principle: Acoustic cavity resonators posses a characteristic frequency which is determined by their geometrical form.00 1 Long-neck round-bottom flask.04 1 Connecting cable. spectrum and parameter settings for measurements on the empty 1000 ml round-bottomed flask.08. 1000 ml 36050. l = 50 cm 07361.00 2 Bosshead 02043. stainless steel 18/8. USB 12150. l = 300 mm 45126. blue. Laboratory Experiments Physics 67 . 4 mm plug.37070 Göttingen Tasks: Determination of different resonance frequencies of a resonator depending on the volume. l = 50 cm 07361.00 1 Connecting cable. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. PC.2007 11:36 Uhr Seite 67 Mechanics Mechanical Vibration.61 1 Measuring microphone with amplifier 03543.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. 9 V 07496.00 2 Measuring tape.5. KG · D .00 1 Flat cell battery. l = 500 mm 02032. Manual on CD-ROM included Resonance frequencies of Helmholtz resonators with Cobra3 P2150811 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 1 Long-neck round-bottom flask. 32 A. In this case the resonator is excited to vibrations in its resonance frequency by background noise. l = 2 m 09936. Acoustics Resonance frequencies of Helmholtz resonators with Cobra3 1. 32 A. What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.LEP_1_2 09.55 1 Support rod.

– An acoustic wave impinges perpendicularly onto a reflector.. l = 50 cm 07361. 1 g.00 1 Flat cell battery. What you need: Loudspeaker/Sound head 03524.00 2 Measuring microphone 03542. l = 200 mm 02412. The diffraction and the interference pattern occurring behind the slot can be explained by means of the Huygens-Fresnel principle and confirm the wave characteristics of sound. PC. 32 A. 4 mm plug.00 1 Weight holder.10 1 Screen.37070 Göttingen .01 1 Connecting cable.00 1 Silk thread on spool.99 1 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. USB 12150.93 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. red.10 1 Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair 07542.08.00 1 Plate holder. Manual on CD-ROM included Interference of acoustic waves.27 2 Adapter. it is diffracted into the geometrical shadow spaces. blue. Acoustics 1. red. opening width 0. Tasks: 1.50 1 Software Cobra3 Force/Tesla 14515. In case of reflection.5.55 1 Stand tube 02060. l = 100 cm 07363. l = 50 cm 07361. a pressure antinode will always occur at the point of reflection. BNC socket . l = 100 cm 07363. To measure the diffraction at a slot of acoustic waves.00 2 Function generator 13652. 32 A.09-11 Interference of acoustic waves. 32 A.10 mm 02062. 9 V 07496. l = 1000 x 27 mm 03001.00 1 Connecting cable. an interference structure becomes apparent in the space where the waves are superimposed.04 1 Movement sensor with cable 12004.00 1 Meter Scale. 2. 4 mm plug. stationary waves. stationary waves and diffraction at a slot with PC interface What you can learn about …  Interference  Reflection  Diffraction  Acoustic waves  Stationary waves  Huygens-Fresnel principle  Use of an interface Principle: – Two acoustic sources emit waves of the same frequency and if their distance is a multiple of the wavelength.LEP_1_2 09. silver bronzing 02407. blue. stationary waves and diffraction at a slot with PC interface P2150911 68 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 4 mm plug. KG · D .04 1 Measurement example.61 1 Connecting cable.4 mm plug 07542..2007 11:36 Uhr Seite 68 Mechanics Mechanical Vibration. To analyze the reflection of acoustic waves – stationary waves. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set.00 4 Barrel base -PASS- 02006. 32 A. metal. the incident and the reflected wave are superimposed to a stationary wave. To measure the interference of acoustic waves. 300 mm x 300 mm 08062. 3. – An acoustic wave impinges on a sufficiently narrow slot.20 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. 4 mm plug.01 1 Connecting cable.55 4 Bench clamp -PASS- 02010.

10-00 What you can learn about …  Ultrasonics  Sound velocity  Frequency  Wavelength  Sound pressure  Stationary waves Principle: A stationary ultrasonic wave in a glass cell full of liquid is traversed by a divergent beam of light..2007 11:36 Uhr Seite 69 Mechanics Mechanical Vibration. l = 250 mm. Manual on CD-ROM included Optical determination of velocity of sound in liquids P2151000 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.25 3 Water.99 1 Laser. stainless steel 18/8.00 1 Optical profile bench. 300 mm x 300 mm 08062.00 1 Universal clamp 37718. distilled 5 l 31246. The sound wavelength can be determined from the central projection of the sound field on the basis of the refractive index which canges with the sound pressure.00 1 Lens holder 08012. l = 1000 mm 08282.01 3 Swinging arm 08256. metal.37070 Göttingen Image of a screen. He-Ne 1. What you need: Ultrasonic generator 13920.08.01 1 Screen.55 1 Support rod.5. from the structure of the centrally projected image. mounted.LEP_1_2 09. h = 30 mm 08286.00 1 Table top on rod 08060.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench. Tasks: To determine the wavelength of sound in liquids.00 1 Base for optical profile bench.. 230 VAC 08181.0 mW. adjustable 08284. 250 ml 30084.02 1 Slide mount for optical profil bench.81 1 Complete Equipment Set.00 1 Laboratory thermometers. and from this calucate the sound velocity. d = 10 mm 02031. h = 80 mm 08286. 150 x 55 x 100 mm 03504.00 1 Lens. Laboratory Experiments Physics 69 . KG · D .00 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. f = +20 mm 08018. -10.93 1 Glass cell.+ 30°C 05949. Acoustics Optical determination of velocity of sound in liquids 1.00 1 Glycerol.

l = 600 mm 08283. to record the delay time of the sound pulses as a function of the distance between a generator and the pick-up.LEP_1_2 09.02 1 Table top on rod 08060.01 1 Screened cable. BNC.. 2 channels 11459. What you need: Ultrasonic pickup 13920.00 1 Swinging arm 08256.00 1 Insulating support 07924. 4 mm plug.00 1 Glycerol. With the generator in the pulsed mode..37070 Göttingen . 1. To determine the oscilloscope’s coefficient of sweep with the aid of the ultrasonic frequency. Tasks: The signals from the ultrasonic generator and the ultrasonic pick-up are recorded on the oscilloscope.00 1 Ultrasonic generator 13920.95 1 Connecting cable.5.99 1 Glass cell.1. 32 A. adjustable 08284. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 1 Universal clamp 37718. l = 10 cm 07359.01 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench. glycerol and sodium chloride solution (temperature  = 25 °C). 2. 2.00 Base for optical profile bench.81 1 Complete Equipment Set.11-00 Phase and group velocity of ultrasonics in liquids What you can learn about …  Longitudinal waves  Velocity of sound in liquids  Wavelength  Frequency  Piezoelectric effect  Piezoelectric ultrasonics transformer Principle: The sound waves transmitted to a liquid by the ultrasonic generator are picked up by a piezoelectric ultrasonic pick-up and the signal from transmitter and receiver compared on an oscilloscope. l = 750 mm 07542. 150 x 55 x 100 mm 03504.2. 500 g 30155. 250 ml 30084. for water. KG · D . and to determine the ultrasonic wavelength and the phase velocity when the frequency is known. To measure the relative phase position of the signal from the ultrasonic pick-up as a function of its distance from the ultrasonic generator (which is in the sine mode). h = 30 mm 08286.50 1 Water. red. and to determine the group velocity.11 2 Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair 07542. Acoustics 1. h = 80 mm 08286.08. l = 500 mm 02032. The group velocity is determined from measurements of the sound pulse delay time.2007 11:36 Uhr Seite 70 Mechanics Mechanical Vibration. -10.00 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. stainless steel 18/8.00 1 Oscilloscope 30 MHz. The wavelength is determined and the phase velocity calculated from the relative phase position of the signals.+ 30°C 05949.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench. Manual on CD-ROM included Phase and group velocity of ultrasonics in liquids P2151100 70 Laboratory Experiments Physics Detector displacement l as a function of the number n of wavelengths covered.27 1 Laboratory thermometers.55 1 Support rod. distilled 5 l 31246.00 1 1 Optical profile bench.25 3 Sodium chloride.

32 A. adjustable 08284.00 1 Insulating support 07924.00 1 Immersion thermostat TC10 08492.00 1 Optical profile bench.00 1 Base for optical profile bench.01 1 Slide mount 08286..00 1 Ultrasonic generator 13920.00 1 Screened cable.2007 11:36 Uhr Seite 71 Mechanics Mechanical Vibration. What you need: Ultrasonic pickup 13920.. stainless steel 18/8. Makrolon 08487.55 2 Universal clamp with joint 37716.27 1 Glycerol.00 1 Velocity of sound in water as a function of the temperature.12-00 What you can learn about …  Wavelength  Frequency  Velocity of sound in liquids  Compressibility  Density  Ultrasonics  Piezoelectric effect  Piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer Principle: Sound waves are radiated into a liquid by an ultrasonic transmitter and detected with a piezoelectric transducer. h = 30 mm 08286.00 2 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.01 1 Bath for thermostat.01 1 Swinging arm 08256.99 1 Sliding device.93 1 Accessory set for TC10 08492.LEP_1_2 09. 4 mm plug. 250 ml 30084. red. 2 channels 11459.25 1 Water. KG · D .37070 Göttingen termined when the ultrasonic frequency is known.00 1 Oscilloscope 30 MHz.11 2 Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair 07542. l = 10 cm 07359.95 1 Support rod. horizontal 08713.02 1 Laboratory thermometers. l = 100 mm 02030. distilled 5 l 31246. when the frequency is known. Manual on CD-ROM included Temperature dependence of the Velocity of sound in liquids P2151200 Tasks: The wavelength is found from the phase position of the sound pickup signal relative to the generator signal as a function of the sound path and the velocity of the sound is de- PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. The measurement is made for water and glycerol as the temperatures of the liquids are changed step-by-step. The wavelength of the sound is found by comparing the phase of the detector signal for different sound paths and. Acoustics Temperature dependence of the Velocity of sound in liquids 1. -10.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench. l = 600 mm 08283.5.+100°C 38056. Laboratory Experiments Physics 71 . the velocity of sound as a function of the temperature of the liquid is determined.81 1 Connecting cable.08. l = 750 mm 07542. Complete Equipment Set. BNC.

metal. Acoustics 1.00 1 Power supply 5 VDC/2.1 mm 13900. l = 50 cm 07361.00 1 Swinging arm 08256.4 A with DC-socket 2. l = 600 mm 08283.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench. 4 mm plug.00 1 Ultrasonic receiver on stem 13902.04 1 Complete Equipment Set.01 1 Connecting cable.01 2 Sliding device. l = 50 cm 07361. KG · D .08. 32 A.00 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. adjustable 08284. Determine the wavelength of the ultrasonic wave. Tasks: 1. determination of wavelength P2151300 The change in the sound pressure intensity in the direction of propagation as a function of the distance.99 1 Ultrasonic transmitter 13901. Determine the intensity of a standing ultrasonic wave by moving an ultrasonic receiver along the direction of propagation. 72 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. to form a standing wave. 2. horizontal 08713.13-00 Stationary ultrasonic waves. What you need: Ultrasound operation unit 13900. 32 A.2007 11:36 Uhr Seite 72 Mechanics Mechanical Vibration. red.00 1 Connecting cable.00 1 Base for optical profile bench. determination of wavelength What you can learn about …  Longitudinal waves  Superposition of waves  Reflection of longitudinal waves  Stationary longitudinal waves Principle: An ultrasonic wave is subjected to surface reflection from a metal plate. h = 30 mm 08286.LEP_1_2 09. 3.02 1 Slide mount for optical profil bench. The reflected wave superimposes on the incident wave. Plot a graph of the measured values as a function of the distance. 300 mm x 300 mm 08062.37070 Göttingen .00 1 Screen. h = 80 mm 08286. The intensity of this wave along the direction of propagation is measured using a movable ultrasonic receiver. blue. coincident in phase and amplitude. Manual on CD-ROM included Stationary ultrasonic waves.5. 4 mm plug.00 1 Optical profile bench.

and so also the intensity. blue. l = 50 cm 07361.LEP_1_2 09. Tasks: 1.4 A with DC-socket 2.99 1 Ultrasonic transmitter 13901. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 4.02 2 Connecting cable.14-00 What you can learn about …  Longitudinal waves  Plane waves  Spherical waves  Propagation of sound waves  Sound pressure  Alternating sound pressure  Sound intensity  Absorption coefficient of ultrasonic waves  Law of absorption Principle: Sound needs a material medium with which it can enter into reciprocal action for its propagation. The amplitude. red. 2. l = 50 cm 07361. Manual on CD-ROM included Absorption of ultrasonic in air P2151400 The change in sound pressure intensity as a function of the distance from the source of sound. Acoustics Absorption of ultrasonic in air 1.5.00 1 Base for optical profile bench. 32 A. 4 mm plug. KG · D . Move an ultrasonic receiver along the direction of propagation of a sound wave to measure the sound intensity as a function of the distance from the source of the sound. l = 1500 mm 08281.00 1 Optical profile bench.04 1 Complete Equipment Set.1 mm 13900.01 1 Connecting cable.00 1 Ultrasonic receiver on stem 13902. h = 80 mm 08286.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 73 . adjustable 08284. decreases along the propagation path. 32 A. Plot linear and logarithmic graphs of the values of the sound intensity as a function of the distance.2007 11:36 Uhr Seite 73 Mechanics Mechanical Vibration. 3.08. whereby a loss of energy occurs. Confirm the law of absorption and determine the absorption coefficient.00 1 Power supply 5 VDC/2.00 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. Verify that the emitted wave is a spherical wave near to the transmitter. What you need: Ultrasound operation unit 13900. 4 mm plug.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench.

1 mm 13900.00 1 Goniometer Operation Unit 13903. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set.00 1 Measuring tape.08. plug/socket. Acoustics 1.4 A with DC-socket 2.99 1 Ultrasound operation unit 13900. 74 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.37070 Göttingen .00 1 Power supply 5 VDC/2. Tasks: 1. Determine the angular positions of the maximum and minimum values and compare them with the theoretical results. KG · D . Record the intensity of an ultrasonic wave diffracted by various slits and double slits as a function of diffraction angle.27 1 Software Goniometer 14523. BNC.61 1 PC. l = 750 mm 07542.00 1 Object holder for goniometer 13904.LEP_1_2 09.00 1 Ultrasonic receiver on stem 13902.2007 11:36 Uhr Seite 74 Mechanics Mechanical Vibration.11 1 Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair 07542.00 1 Screened cable.00 1 Data cable 2 x SUB-D.99 1 Ultrasonic transmitter 13901. l = 2 m 09936.15-15 Ultrasonic diffraction at different single and double slit systems What you can learn about …  Longitudinal waves  Huygens’ principle  Interference  Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction Principle: A plane ultrasonic wave is subjected to diffraction at single slits of various widths and at various double slits. The intensity of the diffracted and interfering partial waves are automatically recorded using a motordriven. Manual on CD-ROM included Ultrasonic diffraction at different single and double slit systems P2151515 The angular distribution of the intensity of a plane ultrasonic wave diffracted at a slit. 2.00 1 Diffraction objects for ultrasonic 13905. swivel ultrasound detector and a PC. 9 pole 14602. What you need: Goniometer with reflecting mirror 13903.5.

LEP_1_2

09.08.2007

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Seite 75

Mechanics

Mechanical Vibration, Acoustics

Ultrasonic diffraction at different multiple slit systems 1.5.16-15
What you can learn about … 
Longitudinal waves 
Huygens’ principle 
Interference 
Fraunhofer and Fresnel
diffraction

Principle:
An ultrasonic plane wave is subjected to diffraction at various multiple
slits. The intensity of the diffracted
and interfering partial waves are automatically recorded using a motordriven, swivel ultrasound detector
and a PC.

What you need:
Goniometer with reflecting mirror

13903.00

1

Goniometer Operation Unit

13903.99

1

Ultrasound operation unit

13900.00

1

Power supply 5 VDC/2.4 A with DC-socket 2.1 mm

13900.99

1

Ultrasonic transmitter

13901.00

1

Ultrasonic receiver on stem

13902.00

1

Object holder for goniometer

13904.00

1

Diffraction objects for ultrasonic

13905.00

1

Data cable 2 x SUB-D, plug/socket, 9 pole

14602.00

1

Measuring tape, l = 2 m

09936.00

1

Vernier calipers, stainless steel

03010.00

1

Screened cable, BNC, l = 750 mm

07542.11

1

Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair

07542.27

1

Software Goniometer

14523.61

1

PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Complete Equipment Set, Manual on CD-ROM included
Ultrasonic diffraction at different multiple
slit systems
P2151615

The angular distribution of the intensity of a plane ultrasonic wave diffracted by a fourfold slit.

Tasks:
1. Determine the angular distribution of a plane ultrasonic wave
diffracted by various multiple slits.
2. Determine the angular positions
of the maximum and mininum
values and compare them with the
theoretical values.

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments Physics 75

LEP_1_2

09.08.2007

11:36 Uhr

Seite 76

Mechanics

Mechanical Vibration, Acoustics

1.5.17-15 Diffraction of ultrasonic waves at a pin hole and a circular obstacle
What you can learn about … 
Longitudinal waves 
Huygens’ principle 
Interference 
Fraunhofer and Fresnel
diffraction 
Fresnel’s zone construction 
Poisson’s spot 
Babinet’s theorem 
Bessel function

Principle:
An ultrasonic plane wave is subjected to diffraction by a pin-hole obstacle and a complementary circular
obstacle. The intensity distribution of
the diffracted and interfering partial
waves are automatically recorded
using a motor-driven, swivel ultrasound detector and a PC.

What you need:
Goniometer with reflecting mirror

13903.00

1

Goniometer Operation Unit

13903.99

1

Ultrasound operation unit

13900.00

1

Power supply 5 VDC/2.4 A with DC-socket 2.1 mm

13900.99

1

Ultrasonic transmitter

13901.00

1

Ultrasonic receiver on stem

13902.00

1

Object holder for goniometer

13904.00

1

Pin hole and circular obstacle for ultrasonic

13906.00

1

Data cable 2 x SUB-D, plug/socket, 9 pole

14602.00

1

Measuring tape, l = 2 m

09936.00

1

Screened cable, BNC, l = 750 mm

07542.11

1

Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair

07542.27

1

Software Goniometer

14523.61

1

PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Complete Equipment Set, Manual on CD-ROM included
Diffraction of ultrasonic waves at a pin hole
and a circular obstacle
P2151715

The angular distribution of the intensity of a plane ultrasonic wave diffracted by a pin-hole obstacle.

Tasks:
1. Determine the angular distribution of an ultrasonic wave
diffracted by a pin-hole and circular obstacle.
2. Compare the angular positions of
the minimum intensities with the
theoretical values.

76 Laboratory Experiments Physics

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

LEP_1_2

09.08.2007

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Seite 77

Mechanics

Mechanical Vibration, Acoustics

Ultrasonic diffraction at Fresnel lenses / Fresnel’s zone contruction 1.5.18-00
What you can learn about … 
Longitudinal waves 
Huygens’ principle 
Interference 
Fraunhofer and Fresnel
diffraction 
Fresnel’s zone construction 
Zone plates

Principle:
An ultrasonic plane wave strikes a
Fresnel zone plate. The ultrasonic intensity is determined as a function of
the distance behind the plate, using
an ultrasonic detector that can be
moved in the direction of the zone
plate axis.

What you need:
Ultrasound operation unit

13900.00

1

Power supply 5 VDC/2.4 A with DC-socket 2.1 mm

13900.99

1

Ultrasonic transmitter

13901.00

1

Ultrasonic receiver on stem

13902.00

1

Fresnel zone plates for ultrasonic

13907.00

1

Digital multimeter 2010

07128.00

1

Optical profile bench, l = 1500 mm

08281.00

1

Base for optical profile bench, adjustable

08284.00

2

Slide mount

08286.00

3

Stand tube

02060.00

3

Plate holder, opening width 0...10 mm

02062.00

1

Connecting cable, 4 mm plug, 32 A, red, l = 50 cm

07361.01

1

Connecting cable, 4 mm plug, 32 A, blue, l = 50 cm

07361.04

1

Complete Equipment Set, Manual on CD-ROM included
Ultrasonic diffraction at Fresnel lenses /
Fresnel’s zone contruction
P2151800

Graph of the intensity of the ultrasound as a function of the distance from a
Fresnel zone plate( curve a ); curve b without zone plate.

Tasks:
1. Determine and plot graphs of the
intensity of the ultrasonic behind
different Fresnel zone plates as a
function of the distance behind
the plates.
2. Carry out the same measurement
series without a plate.
3. Determine the image width at
each distance of the transmitter
from the zone plate and compare
the values obtained with those
theoretically expected.

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments Physics 77

LEP_1_2

09.08.2007

11:36 Uhr

Seite 78

Mechanics

Mechanical Vibration, Acoustics

1.5.19-15 Interference of two identical ultrasonic transmitters
What you can learn about … 
Longitudinal waves 
Sound pressure 
Huygens’ principle 
Interference 
Fraunhofer and Fresnel
diffraction

Principle:
Ultrasonic waves of the same frequence, amplitude and direction of
propagation are generated by two
sources positioned parallel to each
other. The sources can vibrate both
in-phase and out-of phase. The angular distribution of the intensity of
the waves, which interfere with each
other, is automatically recorded
using a motor-driven ultrasonic detector and a PC.

What you need:
Goniometer with reflecting mirror

13903.00

1

Goniometer Operation Unit

13903.99

1

Ultrasound operation unit

13900.00

1

Power supply 5 VDC/2.4 A with DC-socket 2.1 mm

13900.99

1

Ultrasonic transmitter

13901.00

2

Ultrasonic receiver on stem

13902.00

1

Barrel base -PASS-

02006.55

2

Data cable 2 x SUB-D, plug/socket, 9 pole

14602.00

1

Measuring tape, l = 2 m

09936.00

1

Screened cable, BNC, l = 750 mm

07542.11

1

Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair

07542.27

1

Software Goniometer

14523.61

1

PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Complete Equipment Set, Manual on CD-ROM included
Interference of two indentical ultrasonic
transmitters
P2151915

Angular distribution of the intensity of two interfering ultrasonic waves having the same phase, amplitude, frequency and direction of propagation.

Tasks:
1. Determine the angular distribution of the sound pressure of two
ultrasonic transmitters vibrating
in-phase.
2. Determine the angular positions
of the interference minima and
compare the values found with
those theoretically expected.
3. Repeat the measurements with
the two ultrasonic transmitters vibrating out-of-phase.
4. Repeat the first measurement and
additionally determine with the
angular distribution of the sound
pressure of each single transmitter.
78 Laboratory Experiments Physics

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

LEP_1_2

09.08.2007

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Seite 79

Mechanics

Mechanical Vibration, Acoustics

Interference of ultrasonic waves by a Lloyd mirror 1.5.20-00
What you can learn about … 
Longitudinal waves 
Superposition of waves 
Reflection of longitudinal
waves 
Interference

Principle:
A partial packet of radiation passes
directly from a fixed ultrasonic
transmitter to a fixed ultrasonic receiver. A further partial packet hits
against a metal screen that is positioned parallel to the connecting line
between the transmitter and receiver, and is reflected in the direction of
the receiver. The two packets of radiation interfere with each other at
the receiver. When the reflector is
moved parallel to itself, the difference in the path lengths of the two
packets changes. According to this
difference, either constructive or destructive interference occurs.

What you need:
Ultrasound operation unit

13900.00

1

Power supply 5 VDC/2.4 A with DC-socket 2.1 mm

13900.99

1

Ultrasonic transmitter

13901.00

1

Ultrasonic receiver on stem

13902.00

1

Digital multimeter 2010

07128.00

1

Optical profile bench, l = 600 mm

08283.00

1

Base for optical profile bench, adjustable

08284.00

2

Slide mount for optical profil bench, h = 80 mm

08286.02

2

Slide mount

08286.00

1

Sliding device, horizontal

08713.00

1

Swinging arm

08256.00

1

Screen, metal, 300 mm x 300 mm

08062.00

1

Measuring tape, l = 2 m

09936.00

1

Connecting cable, 4 mm plug, 32 A, red, l = 50 cm

07361.01

1

Connecting cable, 4 mm plug, 32 A, blue, l = 50 cm

07361.04

1

Complete Equipment Set, Manual on CD-ROM included
Interference of ultrasonic waves
by a Lloyd mirror
P2152000

The received signal as a function of the reflector distance d.

Tasks:
1. The sliding device is to be used to
move the reflector screen positioned parallel to the connecting
line between the transmitter and
receiver parallel to itself in steps
of d = (0.5-1) mm. The reflector
voltage U is to be recorded at each
step.
2. The d values of the various maxima and minima are to be determined from the U = U(d) graph
and compared with the theoretically expected values.
PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments Physics 79

LEP_1_2

09.08.2007

11:36 Uhr

Seite 80

Mechanics

Mechanical Vibration, Acoustics

1.5.21-15 Determination of the velocity of sound (sonar principle)
What you can learn about … 
Longitudinal waves 
Sound pressure 
Phase- and group velocity 
Sonar principle

Principle:
An ultrasonic transmitter emits
sound pulses onto a reflector, from
which recording of them by a receiver shows a time delay. The velocity of
sound is calculated from the path
length and transmission time of the
sound pulses.

What you need:
Ultrasound operation unit

13900.00

1

Power supply 5 VDC/2.4 A with DC-socket 2.1 mm

13900.99

1

Ultrasonic transmitter

13901.00

1

Ultrasonic receiver on stem

13902.00

1

Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

1

Power supply 12V/2A

12151.99

1

Barrel base -PASS-

02006.55

3

Screen, metal, 300 mm x 300 mm

08062.00

1

Measuring tape, l = 2 m

09936.00

1

Meter Scale, l = 1000 x 27 mm

03001.00

1

Screened cable, BNC, l = 750 mm

07542.11

2

Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair

07542.27

2

Software Cobra3 Universal recorder

14504.61

1

PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Complete Equipment Set, Manual on CD-ROM included
Determination of the velocity of sound
(sonar principle)
P2152115

Measured time between the transmitted and the received reflected ultrasonic
waves.

Tasks:
1. Determine transmission times for
different distances apart of the
transmitter and the receiver.
2. Plot a graph of the path lengths of
the sound pulses against their
transmission time.
3. Determine the velocity of sound
from the graph.

80 Laboratory Experiments Physics

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

LEP_1_2

09.08.2007

11:36 Uhr

Seite 81

Mechanics

Mechanical Vibration, Acoustics

Ultrasonic Michelson-Interferometer 1.5.22-00
What you can learn about … 
Longitudinal waves 
Reflection of longitudinal
waves 
Superposition of waves 
Interference 
Interferometer

Principle:
A “semi-permeable“ membrane divides an ultrasonic wave into two
partial packets which travel at right
angles to each other. They are subsequently reflected at different hard
metal reflectors, one of which is fixed
in position, and the other of which
can be displaced in the direction of
the beam, before being reunited.
Shifting the displaceable reflector
changes the path length of the corresponding packet, so that superpositioning of the reunited partial packets gives maxima and minima of the
alternating sound pressure according
to the differenc in the distance travelled. The wavelength of the ultrasound can be determined from these.

What you need:
Ultrasound operation unit

13900.00

1

Power supply 5 VDC/2.4 A with DC-socket 2.1 mm

13900.99

1

Ultrasonic transmitter

13901.00

1

Ultrasonic receiver on stem

13902.00

1

Multi range meter, analogue

07028.01

1

Optical profile bench, l = 600 mm

08283.00

1

Base for optical profile bench, adjustable

08284.00

2

Slide mount for optical profil bench, h = 80 mm

08286.02

2

Slide mount for optical profil bench, h = 30 mm

08286.01

1

Sliding device, horizontal

08713.00

1

Screen, metal, 300 mm x 300 mm

08062.00

2

Screen, translucent, 250 mm x 250 mm

08064.00

1

Barrel base -PASS-

02006.55

2

Stand tube

02060.00

2

Measuring tape, l = 2 m

09936.00

1

Connecting cable, 4 mm plug, 32 A, red, l = 50 cm

07361.01

1

Connecting cable, 4 mm plug, 32 A, blue, l = 50 cm

07361.04

1

Complete Equipment Set, Manual on CD-ROM included
Ultrasonic Michelson-Interferometer
P2152200
Intensity of the alternating sound pressure as a function of the displacement 
d of reflector screen Sc2.

Tasks:
1. Determine the intensity of the
alternating sound pressure in dependence on the displacement of
one of the reflectors.
2. Calculate the wavelength of the
ultrasound from the measurement
curve.
PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments Physics 81

32 A. l = 400 mm 02026.00 1 Connecting cable.1 mm 13900.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.4 A with DC-socket 2.2007 11:36 Uhr Seite 82 Mechanics Mechanical Vibration. 2.04 1 Complete Equipment Set.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench.00 1 Measuring tape. 4 mm plug. blue. Determine the intensity distribution of an ultrasonic wave diffracted at a straight edge as a function of the transverse distance from the edge.08.55 1 Stand tube 02060.5. l = 50 cm 07361. l = 2 m 09936. What you need: Ultrasound operation unit 13900. secondary waves interfere with the primary waves. KG · D . 82 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Repeat the measurement of the intensity distribution of the ultrasonic wave without the straight edge.00 1 Power supply 5 VDC/2. According to Huygens’ principle. so that a succession of maxima and minima of the alternating sound pressure are created transverse to the edge.55 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. In the transmission range.00 2 Barrel base -PASS- 02006. Manual on CD-ROM included Ultrasonic diffraction by a straight edge P2152300 Diffraction at an edge: Course of intensity of the alternating sound pressure as function of position coordinate x.99 1 Ultrasonic transmitter 13901. red. Acoustics 1. analogue 07028. 32 A. adjustable 08284.00 1 Multi range meter. the edge is a point source for secondary waves. h = 80 mm 08286. 300 mm x 300 mm 08062. and these penetrate also into the shaded area of the edge.23-00 Ultrasonic diffraction by a straight edge What you can learn about …  Longitudinal waves  Superposition of waves  Huygens’ principle  Interference  Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction  Fresnel zones  Fresnel integrals  Cornu’s spiral Principle: An ultrasonic wave hits a straight edge which limits the wave field to one side.00 1 Ultrasonic receiver on stem 13902. 4 mm plug.00 1 Base for optical profile bench.37070 Göttingen . l = 50 cm 07361. 3.LEP_1_2 09. metal.02 1 Screen. Tasks: 1.55 2 Support rod -PASS-. Compare the positions of the maxima and minima found in the experiment to those theoretically expected. l = 600 mm 08283.01 1 Optical profile bench. square.01 1 Connecting cable.

03 1 Support rod. 32 A. BNC.99 1 Tasks: Data cable. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. l = 900 mm 11606. stainless steel.11 1 Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair 07542.55 2 Stand tube 02060. 1. USB 12150.08. l = 1000 mm. plug/socket.01 2 Barrel base -PASS- 02006. type C 07922. blue 07363. Manual on CD-ROM included Ultrasonic Doppler effect P2152415 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Acoustics Ultrasonic Doppler effect 1.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 83 .01 1 Connecting cable. 32 A.20 1 Bosshead 02043.00 1 Ultrasonic receiver on stem 13902.02 1 Screened cable. l = 100 mm 11202.24-15 What you can learn about …  Propagation of sound waves  Superimposition of sound waves  Doppler shift of frequency  Longitudinal waves Principle: If a source of sound is in motion relative to its medium of propagation.00 1 Power supply 5 VDC/2.02 1 Connecting cable. 32 A.00 1 Doppler shift of frequency. 32 A.4 A with DC-socket 2.00 1 Spring balance holder 03065. l = 1000 mm.5 V. l = 600 mm 02037. KG · D . Double socket.5. compact 11207.00 1 Light barrier. the frequency of the waves that are emitted is displaced due to the Doppler effect. baby size. red 07363. Timer/Counter 14511. PC. red and black 07264.00 1 Car. l = 100 mm.LEP_1_2 09. 1 pair.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151.61 1 The frequency changes are measured and analysed for different relative velocities of source and observer.00 1 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. motor driven 11061.02 1 Battery cell.00 1 Connecting cord. What you need: Ultrasound operation unit 13900.1 mm 13900.99 1 Ultrasonic transmitter 13901.04 1 Connecting cable.2007 11:36 Uhr Seite 83 Mechanics Mechanical Vibration.00 1 Software Cobra3.27 1 Track. yellow 07359. l = 750 mm 07542.00 1 Attachment for car 11061. l = 1000 mm. yellow 07363. 9 pole 14602.20 1 Screen with plug.

2 P1198702 Uniformly accelerated motion with a jet glider 2.37070 Göttingen .5 P1199902 Conservation of momentum in multiple inelastic collisions Newton’s second law with Cobra3 and demonstration track.4 P1199801 Conservation of momentum in multiple elastic collisions 4.02 • 15 Experiments described 1.2007 11:36 Uhr Seite 84 Mechanics Handbooks Physics Experiments – Linear Motion In the experimental literature “Linear Motion” you will find detailed descriptions of experiments regarding the following concepts: ● Uniform acceleration and deceleration ● Momentum (elastic and inelastic collision) ● Newton’s laws ● Potential and kinetic energy ● Grade resistance/inclined plane Almost all experiments can be performed either with the 2 m long air track 11202.1 P1198615 Uniformly accelerated motion with an accelerating mass 2. the 4-4 Timer 13605.2 P1199605 Conservation of momentum in elastic collisions 4.5 P1198115 Velocity-independent and velocitydependent friction with Demo-Track and Cobra3 3. 16001.6 P1198215 The inertial force F = m · a with Demo-Track and Cobra3 84 Laboratory Experiments Physics Conservation of momentum in multiple inelastic collisions with 4-4 Timer and air track. 3.99 or the 6-decade digital counter 13603. KG · D .00. For the measurements and data recording you can use the Cobra3 interface 12150.3 P1198805 Uniformly accelerated motion with an inclined track 2.5 m long demonstration track 11305.93.00.1 P1199115 Law of inertia (Newton's 1st law) 3.4 P1198906 Uniformly decelerated motion 2.4 P1199405 Equivalence of inert mass and heavy mass 3.3 P1199711 Conservation of momentum in inelastic collisions 4.17 or with the 1.2 P1199201 Fundamental law of dynamics (Newton's 2nd Law) 3. Physics Experiments – Linear Motion • No.LEP_1_2 09.08.1 P1199502 Impulse and momentum 4. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.1 P1198511 The linear uniform motion 2.3 P1199306 Law of reciprocal actions (Newton's 3rd Law) 3.5 The free fall P1199000 4.

8) PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.13 Belt drives (12543) MT 1.3 (12533) Double-sided lever and more than two forces MT 1. 21701 2 Simple machines 1 Forces MT 1.2 (12517) Extension of a rubber band and helical spring MT 2.5 Bending a leaf spring (12520) MT 2.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 85 .12 (12527) Restoring force on a displaced pendulum MT 1.11 (12526) Resolution of forces on a crane MT 1. linear and angular scales ● Stable storage box ● Both sides of board can be used for mechanics and optics ● Galvanised sheet steel board in aluminium profile frame ● Mechanics side: lacquered ● Optic side: white foil with lined grid 01152.13 (12528) Determination of the centre of gravity of an irregular plate MT 1.10) 3 Oscillations MT 3.9 Free pulley (12539) MT 2.15 (12530) Determination of the coefficient of friction on an inclined plane MT 2.10 Block and tackle (12540) MT 2.1 Double-sided lever (12531) MT 2.09.6 Force and counterforce MT 2.1 Mass and weight (12516) MT 1.5 (12535) Moment of rotation (torque) (12521) MT 2.3 Hooke’s law (12518) MT 1.1 Thread pendulum (12544) MT 3.02 LEP_1_2 Physics Demonstration Experiments – Magnet Board Mechanics 1 • No.9 (12524) Resolution of a force into two non-parallel forces MT 1.08.8 (12523) Composition of non-parallel forces MT 1. No.11 Step wheel (12541) MT 2.2 Spring pendulum (12545) MT 3.7 Sliding weight balance (12537) MT 2.3 Physical pendulum (reversible pendulum) (12546) Fixed pulley (MT 2.7 (12522) Composition of forces having the same line of application MT 1.6 Beam balance (12536) MT 1.10 (12525) Resolution of forces on an inclined plane MT 1.4 Reaction at the supports (12534) Resolution of forces on an inclined plane (MT 1.4 Making and calibrating a dynamometer (12519) MT 1.14 Frictional force (12529) MT 1.2 One-sided lever (12532) MT 2.2007 11:36 Uhr Seite 85 Mechanics Handbooks Physics Demonstration Experiments – Magnet Board Mechanics 1 The use of the demonstration board for physics offers the following advantages for the lecturer: ● Minimal preparation time DEMONSTRATION EXPERIMENTS PHYSICS Winfried Rössler Georg Schollmeyer Magnet Board Mechanics 1 ● Lucid and simple set-up ● Labelling of the experiment directly on the board ● Magnet-held arrows. 01152. KG · D .8 Fixed pulley (12538) MT 2.02 • 31 described Experiments Please ask for a complete equipment list Ref.12 Toothed-gearing (12542) MT 2.

2 Kinetic energy MT 5. 01153.02 ● Optic side: white foil with lined grid Physics Demonstration Experiments – Magnet Board Mechanics 2 • No. 21702 4 Movement MT 4.4 Hydraulic press (12970) MT 6.37070 Göttingen .7 (12973) Density determination by measuring buoyancy Energy transformation during upward and downward runs (MT 5.LEP_1_2 09.3) 86 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.3 Energy of refraction (12965) (12966) MT 6.4 Newton’s basic principle MT 6.3 Communicating vessels (12969) MT 4.10 Pressure in gases (12976) MT 6.1 (12960) Uniform rectilinear movement 6 Mechanics of Fluids and Gases MT 6.8 (12974) Discharge velocity of a vessel MT 6.08.2 Hydrostatic pressure (12968) MT 4.1 (12964) Energy transformation during upward and downward runs MT 5.2 (12961) Uniform accelerated rectilinear movement (12963) 5 Forms of Mechanical Energy MT 5. No. linear and angular scales ● Stable storage box ● Both sides of board can be used for mechanics and optics ● Galvanised sheet steel board in aluminium profile frame ● Mechanics side: lacquered 01152.1) MT 6.1 U-tube manometer (12967) MT 6. KG · D .5 Artesian well (12971) MT 6.2007 11:36 Uhr Seite 86 Mechanics Handbooks Physics Demonstration Experiments – Magnet Board Mechanics 2 The use of the demonstration board for physics offers the following advantages for the lecturer: ● Minimal preparation time DEMONSTRATION EXPERIMENTS PHYSICS Winfried Rössler Georg Schollmeyer Magnet Board Mechanics 2 ● Lucid and simple set-up ● Labelling of the experiment directly on the board ● Magnet-held arrows.11 Boyle and Mariotte’s law (12977) Horizontal and sloping trajectories (MT 4.9 Pressure in flowing fluids (12975) MT 6.02 • 18 described Experiments Please ask for a complete equipment list Ref.6 Archimedes principle (12972) MT 4.3 (12962) Horizontal and sloping trajectories MT 5.

LEP_2 09.08.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 87 2 Optics .

4.2.5.6.2.02-00 Newton’s rings 2.6.3.06-00 Coherence and width of spectral lines with Michelson interferometer 2.05-11 LDA – Laser Doppler Anemometry with Cobra3 2.6. KG · D .04-00 CO2-laser 2.02-00 Polarimetry 2.6.03-00 Fresnel’s equations – theory of reflection 2.37070 Göttingen .12-00 Fourier optics – 4f Arrangement – Filtering and reconstruction 2.3.1.4.6 Applied Optics 2.08.3.5.1.04-00 Diffraction intensity of multiple slits and grids 2.04-00 Malus’ law 2.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 88 2 Optics Contents 2.07-00 Refraction index of air and CO2 with Michelson interferometer 2.01-00 Diffraction at a slit and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle 2.5.3 Diffraction 2.01-00 Measuring the velocity of light 2.4.1 Geometrical Optics 2.07-01 Helium Neon Laser 2.6.04-00 Lambert’s law 88 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.3.2.11-00 Fourier optics – 2f Arrangement 2.02-00 Kerr effect 2.2.2.3.03-00 Intensity of diffractions due to pin hole diaphragms and circular obstacles 2.02-00 Diffraction of light at a slit and an edge 2.6.05-00 Michelson interferometer 2.2.3.7 Handbooks Advanced Optics and Laser Physics Physics Demonstration Experiments – Magnet Board Optics 2.2 Interference 2.4 Photometry 2.6.02-01 Photometric law of distance 2.5.02-11 Photometric law of distance with Cobra3 2.01-00 Interference of light 2.04-00 Fresnel’s zone construction / zone plate 2.6.6.03-00 Dispersion and resolving power of the prism and grating spectroscope 2.05-00 Determination of the diffraction intensity at slit and double slit systems 2.01-00 Polarisation by quarterwave plates 2.5 Polarisation 2.09-00 Nd-YAG laser 2.2.LEP_2 09.03-00 Recording and reconstruction of holograms 2.03-00 Interference at a mica plate according to Pohl 2.6.06-00 Diffraction intensity through a slit and a wire – Babinet’s theorem 2.6.1.10-00 Fibre optics 2.01-00 Faraday effect 2.02-00 Laws of lenses and optical instruments 2.08-00 Optical pumping 2.

Manual on CD-ROM included Measuring the velocity of light P2210100 Measuring the velocity of light in other media.08. synthetic resin 06870.00 1 Complete Equipment Set.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 89 . The velocity of light is calculated from the relationship between the changes in the phase and the light path.01-00 What you can learn about …  Refractive index  Wavelength  Frequency  Phase  Modulation  Electric field constant  Magnetic field constant Principle: The intensity of the light is modulated and the phase relationship of the transmitter and receiver signal compared. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 2. To determine the velocity of light in water and synthetic resin and to calculate the refractive indices. What you need: Light velocity measuring apparatus 11224. To determine the velocity of light in air.95 1 Block. BNC.1.LEP_2 09.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 89 Optics Geometrical Optics Measuring the velocity of light 2.12 2 Oscilloscope 30 MHz. KG · D . l = 1500 mm 07542.93 1 Screened cable. 2 channels 11459. Tasks: 1.

translucent.01 1 Screen. What you need: Lens.01 1 Lens.04 2 Rule. msl 87337. Diaphragm holder for optical base plate 08040. 50 mm d = 50 mm 08136.00 1 Swinging arm 08256. Slide projector. Simple optical instruments are then constructed with these lenses. mounted. mounted.01 1 Complete Equipment Set.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 90 Optics Geometrical Optics 2.93 1 Connecting cable. l = 1000 mm 08282. KG · D . image scale to be determined 2. 4 mm plug. l = 50 cm 07361.00 1 Tasks: Base for optical profile bench. 200 mm 09937.10 1 Slide -Emperor Maximilian- 82140. To determine the focal length of two unknown convex lenses by measuring the distances of image and object. f = -50 mm 08026. mounted.01 1 Lens.00 1 Experimenting lamp 5. f = +20 mm 08018.19 1 Ctenocephalus. Microscope. To construct the following optical instruments: 1. 32 A.00 1 Optical profile bench.LEP_2 09.10 1 Power supply 0-12 V DC/ 6 V. To determine the focal length of a convex lens and of a combination of a convex and a concave lens using Bessel’s method.01 1 Lens.100 parts 62171. h = 80 mm 08286. f = +300 mm 08023. adjustable 08284. f = -200 mm 08028. mounted.01 1 Lens.02-00 Laws of lenses and optical instruments What you can learn about …  Law of lenses  Magnification  Focal length  Object distance  Telescope  Microscope  Path of a ray  Convex lens  Concave lens  Real image  Virtual image Principle: The focal lengths of unknown lenses are determined by measuring the distances of image and object and by Bessel’s method. 12 V AC 13505. 250 mm x 250 mm 08064. f = 60 mm 08137.01 1 Lens.00 2 Condenser holder 08015.02 1 1. mounted. f = +50 mm 08020. Galileo’s telescope (opera glasses). PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.01 5 Slide mount for optical profil bench.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench.01 1 Double condenser. mounted.1.00 1 Screen with arrow slit 08133. Manual on CD-ROM included Laws of lenses and optical instruments P2210200 90 Laboratory Experiments Physics Path of a ray in Galileo telescope. plastic.00 2 Lens holder 08012. h = 30 mm 08286. blue.08. 2. f = +100 mm 08021.01 1 Ground glass screen. magnification to be determined 3. with stem 11601. 3.00 1 Object micrometer 1mm i. Kepler-type telescope 4.37070 Göttingen .

6. pico 9 base 08120.00 1 Diffraction grating. Determination of the grating constant of a Rowland grating based on the diffraction angle (up to the third order) of the high intensity spectral lines of mercury. To determine the refractive index of various liquids in a hollow prism. 60°.LEP_2 09. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. h = 60 mm 08240. To demonstrate the relationship between refractive index and wavelength (dispersion curve).55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. Comparison with theory. To calculate the resolving power of the glass prisms from the slope of the dispersion curves. Crownglass. plastic. Determination of the angular dispersion of a grating.1.14 1 Power supply for spectral lamps 13662. To determine the refractive index of various glass prism. The resolving power of the glass prisms is determined from the dispersion curve. pico 9.55 1 1 Support rod -PASS-. 9.00 1 Hollow prism 60°.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 91 Optics Geometrical Optics Dispersion and resolving power of the prism and grating spectroscope 2.03-00 What you can learn about …  Maxwell relationship  Dispersion  Polarizability  Refractive index  Prism  Rowland grating  Spectrometer-goniometer Principle: The refractive indices of liquids. Manual on CD-ROM included Dispersion and resolving power of the prism and grating spectroscope P2210300 Dispersion curves of various substances. 4 lines/mm 08532.37070 Göttingen 7.00 1 Vernier calipers. stainless steel 03010. h = 30 mm 08231.00 1 Glycerol. Tasks: 1.00 1 Spectral lamp Hg 100. 8.25 1 Methanol 500 ml 30142. 5. 4. 250 ml 30084. To determine the wavelengths of the mercury spectral lines.02 1 Lamp holder. What you need: Spectrometer/goniometer with verniers 35635.50 1 Cyclohexane for synthesis. 50 lines/mm 08543. Determination of the resolving power required to separate the different Hg-Lines. l = 60 mm. 8 lines/mm 08534. To adjust the spectrometer-goniometer.00 1 Diffraction grating. 250 ml 33930. crown glass and flint glass are determined as a function of the wavelength by refraction of light through the prism at minimum deviation.00 1 Stand tube 02060.10 lines/mm 08540. square.00 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006. 3.55 Bench clamp -PASS- 02010.08.00 1 Diffraction grating.00 1 Wash bottle. KG · D . 100 ml 31236. Laboratory Experiments Physics 91 . 600 lines/mm 08546.00 1 Diffraction grating. 2.97 1 Prism. for spectral lamps 08119.10 1 Complete Equipment Set.00 1 Diffraction grating. l = 250 mm 02025.

adjustable 08284.00 1 Prism table with holder 08254. mounted. 2.00 1 Base for optical profile bench.01-00 Interference of light What you can learn about …  Wavelength  Phase  Fresnel biprism  Fresnel mirror  Virtual light source Principle: By dividing up the wave-front of a beam of light at the Fresnel mirror and the Fresnel biprism. 92 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. He-Ne 1.00 1 Lens.01 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench. interference is produced.00 2 Laser. with Fresnel mirror. l = 2 m 09936. mounted.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 92 Optics Interference 2. f = +20 mm 08018.LEP_2 09.00 1 Slide mount for optical profil bench. h = 30 mm 08286. l = 1000 mm 08282. Tasks: Determination of the wavelength of light by interference 1.08.01 1 Lens. f = +300 mm.0 mW.93 1 Measuring tape. with Fresnel biprism. 230 VAC 08181. KG · D . Manual on CD-ROM included Interference of light P2220100 Geometrical arrangement.01 1 Lens holder 08012. achromatic 08025.00 1 Fresnel mirror 08560. using the Fresnel mirror.02 2 Optical profile bench.37070 Göttingen . What you need: Fresnel biprisms 08556. The wavelength is determined from the interference patterns.00 1 Complete Equipment Set.00 2 Swinging arm 08256. h = 80 mm 08286.2.

monochromatic light interferes in the thin film of air between the slightly convex lens and a plane glass plate.02-00 What you can learn about …  Coherent light  Phase relationship  Path difference  Interference in thin films  Newton’s ring apparatus Principle: In a Newton’s rings apparatus.02 1 Optical profile bench. to measure the diameter of the rings at different wavelengths and: 1.2. Tasks: Using the Newton’s rings apparatus. mounted. h = 30 mm 08286.00 1 Mercury vapour high pressure lamp.00 1 Lens. What you need: Newton rings apparatus 08550. plastic.00 2 Rule.01 1 Interference filters.97 1 Double condenser. f = 60 mm 08137. f = + 50 mm 08020. KG · D .37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 93 . PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. l = 1000 mm 08282. 200 mm 09937.01 4 Slide mount for optical profil bench. translucent.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 93 Optics Interference Newton’s rings 2. h = 80 mm 08286.LEP_2 09. to determine the wavelengths for a given radius of curvature of the lens 2.00 1 Power supply 230V/50 Hz for 50 W Hg-lamp 13661.00 1 Base for optical profile bench. The wavelengths are determined from the radii of the interference rings. to determine the radius of curvature at given wavelengths. adjustable 08284. set of 3 08461. 250 mm x 250 mm 08064.01 1 Condenser holder 08015.00 1 Complete Equipment Set. 50 W 08144.08.00 1 Lens holder 08012.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench.00 1 Screen. Manual on CD-ROM included Newton’s rings P2220200 Radius of the interference rings as a function of the order number for various wavelengths.

00 1 Spectral lamp Hg 100. pico 9 base 08120.03-00 Interference at a mica plate according to Pohl What you can learn about …  Interference of equal inclination  Interference of thin layers  Plane parallel plate  Refraction  Reflection  Optical path difference Principle: Monochromatic light falls on a plane parallel mica plate. 2.00 2 Plate holder with tension spring 08288. 300 mm x 300 mm 08062.08. What you need: Mica plate 08558. reflected at the front surface as well as at the rear surface.00 1 Power supply for spectral lamps 13662. The radii of the rings depend on the geometry of the experimental setup. 1.00 2 Measuring tape. 580 nm 08415.97 1 Complete Equipment Set.LEP_2 09. metal. will interfere to form a pattern of concentric rings. 94 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. l = 2 m 09936.00 1 Colour filter.00 1 Base for optical profile bench.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 94 Optics Interference 2.00 1 Colour filter. KG · D .14 1 Spectral lamp Na.00 2 Stand tube 02060. l = 600 mm 08283.2. h = 80 mm 08286. 440 nm 08411. The light rays.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench.00 1 Swinging arm 08256. adjustable 08284. The thickness of the mica plate is determined from the radii of the interference rings and the wavelength of the Na-lamp. the thickness of the mica plate and the wavelength of the light.37070 Göttingen . The different wavelengths of the Hg-vapour tube are determined from the radii of the interference rings and the thickness of the mica plate.00 1 Colour filter.02 2 Bench clamp -PASS- 02010. pico 9 base 08120. for spectral lamps 08119.07 1 Lamp holder. pico 9. 525 nm 08414.00 2 Screen. Manual on CD-ROM included Interference at a mica plate according to Pohl P2220300 Interference order m as a function of sin2 for Na-light. Tasks: The experiment will be performed with the light of a Na-lamp and with the light of different wavelengths of a Hg-vapour tube.00 2 Optical profile bench.

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. The focal lengths to be determined are plotted against the reciprocal value of their order. f = -50 mm 08026. d = 50 mm 08613. 50 mm.01 1 Object holder 50 mm x 50 mm 08041. f = +20 mm 08018.01 1 Lens. What you need: Laser.00 1 Base for optical profile bench.01 1 Lens. The focal points of several orders of the zone plate are projected on a ground glass screen. Tasks: 1. Manual on CD-ROM included Fresnel’s zone construction / zone plate P2220400 Geometry of the zone plate. The focal points of several orders of the zone plate are projected on a ground glass screen.04-00 What you can learn about …  Huygens-Fresnel principle  Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction  Interference  Coherence  Fresnel’s zone construction  Zone plates Principle: A zone plate is illuminated with parallel laser light. It must be assured that the laser light beam runs parallel over several meters. 230 VAC 08181. l = 1000 mm 08282.01 1 Lens.03 1 Lens holder 08012. f = +50 mm 08020. He-Ne 1. 3. The radii of the zone plate are calculated.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 95 Optics Interference Fresnel’s zone construction / zone plate 2.00 2 Ground glass screen.01 1 Polarisation filter.00 1 Optical profile bench. after Fresnel 08577.0 mW.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 95 .93 1 Fresnel zone plate.00 4 Lens. mounted.08.2. adjustable 08284. f = +100 mm 08021. mounted.LEP_2 09. The laser beam must be widened so that the zone plate is well illuminated.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench. h = 30 mm 08286. 2.01 7 Complete Equipment Set. mounted. KG · D . mounted. 50 mm d = 50 mm 08136.

adjustable 08284. Tasks: You can find more Determination of the wavelength of the light of the used laser. mounted.00 3 Slide mount for optical profil bench.37070 Göttingen .00 Base for optical profile bench. The wavelength is determined by displacing one mirror using the micrometer screw. 230 VAC 08181.00 1 Screen.93 1 Swinging arm 08256. He-Ne 1.0 mW. metal.05-00 Michelson interferometer What you can learn about …  Interference  Wavelength  Refractive index  Velocity of light  Phase  Virtual light source Principle: In the Michelson arrangement interference will occur by the use of 2 mirrors. advanced optics in this brochure Order No.2.02 (see page 123) ADVANCED OPTICS AND LASER PHYSICS 96 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006.01 1 2 Optical profile bench. l = 600 mm 08283. f = +20 mm 08018. 300 mm x 300 mm 08062.00 1 Laser. KG · D . f = +5 mm 08017.08. What you need: Michelson interferometer 08557. h = 30 mm 08286.LEP_2 09. Manual on CD-ROM included Michelson interferometer P2220500 Formation of circles on interference.01 1 Lens mounted.55 1 Complete Equipment Set.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 96 Optics Interference 2.01 1 Lens holder 08012. 00117.00 1 Lens.

525 nm 08414. Verification of the coherence condition for non punctual light sources.08. An illuminated auxiliary adjustable slit acts as a non punctual light source.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 97 .07 1 Diaphragm with 4 double slits 08523. green.01 1 Mounted lens f = 200 mm 08024. attachable 11604.55 2 Stand tube 02060.09 1 Measuring magnifier 09831. h = 30 mm 08286. 2.LEP_2 09. Determination of the wavelength of the green Hg spectral line as well as of its coherence length.00 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006. Different double slit combinations are illuminated to verify the coherence conditions of non punctual light sources. Manual on CD-ROM included Coherence and width of spectral lines with Michelson interferometer P2220600 Beam path in Michelson’s interferometer.00 1 Complete Equipment Set. KG · D .2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 97 Optics Interference Coherence and width of spectral lines with Michelson interferometer 2. l = 100 cm 08282. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.2.00 2 Slide mount.01 1 Iris diaphragm 08045.00 1 Base for optical profile bench 08284.00 1 Swingin arm 08256.97 1 Optical profile bench. adjustable up to 1 mm 11604.00 1 High pressure mercury vapour lamp CS 50 W 08144. The values determined in 1.00 1 Power supply for Hg-CS/50 W Lamp 13661.00 3 Object holder 50 x 50 mm 08041.01 5 Lens holder 08012. are used to calculate the coherence time and the half width value of the spectral line. What you need: Michelson Interferometer 08557.06-00 What you can learn about …  Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction  Interference  Spatial and time coherence  Coherence conditions  Coherence length for non punctual light sources  Coherence time  Spectral lines (shape and half width value)  Broadening of lines due to Doppler effect and pressure broadening  Michelson interferometer  Magnification Principle: The wavelengths and the corresponding lengths of coherence of the green spectral lines of an extreme high pressure Hg vapour lamp are determined by means of a Michelson interferometer. Tasks: 1.01 1 Diaphragm holder.00 1 Ground-glass screen 50 x 50 mm 08136. 3.00 1 Coloured filter.00 1 Slit.00 2 Mounted lens f = 20 mm 08018.

00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench. f = +5 mm 08017. l = 600 mm 08283. He-Ne 1.03 1 PVC tubing. 21. 00117.5 mm 08625.00 Base for optical profile bench.55 1 Screen. d = 8-9 mm 47518.LEP_2 09. adjustable 08284.0 mW. 21 g 41772.93 1 Glass cell. Y-shape.55 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006.01 1 Compressed gas.00 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.02 1 Swinging arm 08256.2.07-00 Refraction index of air and CO2 with Michelson interferometer What you can learn about …  Interference  Wavelength  Phase  Refraction index  Light velocity  Virtual light source Principle: A measurement cuvette set in the beam path of a Michelson interferometer can be evacuated or filled with CO2. d = 7 mm 03985. metal. The refraction indexes of air or CO2 are determined through the assessed modification of the interference pattern.00 1 1 Optical profile bench.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 98 Optics Interference 2.00 1 Lens holder 08012.00 1 Tubing connect. h = 30 mm 08286. You can find more advanced optics in this brochure Order No.00 1 Complete Equipment Set.37070 Göttingen .08. 300 mm x 300 mm 08062.06 1 Fine control valve for pressure bottles 33499.00 1 Lens mounted.00 1 Manual vacuum pump with manometer 08745. CO2.00 1 Laser. h = 80 mm 08286. What you need: Michelson interferometer 08557. diam. 230 VAC 08181.02 (see page 123) ADVANCED OPTICS AND LASER PHYSICS 98 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D .01 3 Slide mount for optical profil bench. Manual on CD-ROM included Refraction index of air and CO2 with Michelson interferometer P2220700 Number N of minima changes as a function of air pressure in the measuring cuvette..

00 1 Universal measuring amplifier 13626. 4 mm plug. 4 mm plug. l = 50 cm 07361. He-Ne 1. blue.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench. l = 1500 mm 08281.0 mW.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 99 Optics Diffraction Diffraction at a slit and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle 2.93 1 Diaphragm with 3 single slits 08522.00 1 Photoelement for optical base plate 08734.04 1 Complete Equipment Set.1 mm wide slit at a distance of 1140 mm. 0. Tasks: 1. adjustable 08284.93 1 1 Optical profile bench. 32 A. h = 30 mm 08286.01 3 Connecting cable. What you need: Laser. Manual on CD-ROM included Diffraction at a slit and Heisenberg’s uncertainly principle P2230100 Intensity in the diffraction pattern of a 0. The heights of the maxima and the positions of the maxima and minima are calculated according to Kirchhoff’s diffraction formula and compared with the measured values.00 Base for optical profile bench. The results are evaluated both from the wave pattern viewpoint. and from the quantum mechanics standpoint to confirm Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. KG · D .00 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. l = 50 cm 07361.00 1 Sliding device. g.3.01 1 Connecting cable.1 mm).01-00 What you can learn about …  Diffraction  Diffraction uncertainty  Kirchhoff’s diffraction formula  Measurement accuracy  Uncertainty of location  Uncertainty of momentum  Wave-particle dualism  De Broglie relationship Principle: The distribution of intensity in the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of a slit is measured.00 1 Diaphragm holder for optical base plate 08040. red. 32 A.00 1 Diaphragm with 4 multiple slits 08526. To calculate the uncertainty of momentum from the diffraction patterns of single slits of differing widths and to confirm Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.LEP_2 09.08.37070 Göttingen 2.00 1 Diaphragm with 4 double slits 08523. horizontal 08713. The photocurrent is plotted as a function of the position. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. To measure the intensity distribution of the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of a single slit (e. by comparison with Kirchhoff’s diffraction formula. Laboratory Experiments Physics 99 . 230 VAC 08181.

Measurement of the width of a given slit.08.93 07128. l = 75 cm. red Connecting cord. Manual on CD-ROM included Diffraction of light at a slit and an edge P2230200 Intensity distribution on diffraction at the slit.01 07362. l = 2 m Multi-range meter with amplifier 08181. 300 mm x 300 mm Barrel base -PASSMeter Scale.00 08026. of the edge.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 100 Optics Diffraction 2. standardised on the intensity without the slit.00 02014. The intensity distribution of the diffraction pattern is determined. advanced optics 2. l = 1000 x 27 mm G-clamp Measuring tape. 230 VAC Photoelement for optical base plate Lens holder Lens.00 07034. mounted.02 3.55 03001. as a function of the position along a straight line parallel to the plane of the slit. Measurement of the intensity distribution of the diffraction pattern of the slit and in this brochure Order No.3.LEP_2 09. What you need: Laser.00 08012.37070 Göttingen . Tasks: You can find more 1.00 02006. KG · D . blue 13625. 00117.00 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 *Alternative: Universal measuring amplifier Digital multimeter 2010 Connecting cord.00 09936. f = -50 mm Slit. (see page 123) ADVANCED OPTICS AND LASER PHYSICS 100 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 07362. He-Ne 1. adjustable Screen.01 08049. l = 75 cm.00 08062.04 1 1 1 1 Complete Equipment Set.02-00 Diffraction of light at a slit and an edge What you can learn about …  Intensity  Fresnel integrals  Fraunhofer diffraction Principle: Monochromatic light is incident on a slit or an edge.0 mW.93 08734. metal.

5 mm) are determined. The positions of minima and peaks of the diffraction patterns of two complementary circular obstacles (D*1 = 0. h = 80 mm 08286.93 1 1 Optical profile bench. 4 mm plug.00 1 Screen.00 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128.37070 Göttingen determined. What you need: Laser. blue.93 1 Universal measuring amplifier 13626. The resulting intensity distributions due to diffraction are measured by means of a photo diode. The complete intensity distribution of the diffraction pattern of a pin hole diaphragm (D1 = 0.08. 230 VAC 08181. 300 mm x 300 mm 08062. using a diaphragm with D1 = 0. 32 A.04 1 Complete Equipment Set.25 mm and D*2 = 0. l = 1500 mm 08281. red. The diameter of the pin hole diaphragm is determined. The positions and intensities of minima and peaks of a second pin hole diaphragm (D2 = 0.00 1 Screen with diffracting elements 08577. 3.02 4 Sliding device. 4 mm plug. l = 75 cm 07362.LEP_2 09. The diameter of the pin hole diaphragm is determined from the diffraction angles of peaks and minima. He-Ne 1.00 1 Object holder 50 mm x 50 mm 08041. l = 75 cm 07362. horizontal 08713.01 1 Connecting cable. Laboratory Experiments Physics 101 .02 1 Photoelement for optical base plate 08734. The diffraction peak intensities are compared with the theoretical values. Manual on CD-ROM included Intensity of diffractions due to pin hole diaphragms and circular obstacles P2230300 Diffracted intensity I vs position x of the photodiode. The diffraction peak intensities are compared with the theoretical values.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 101 Optics Diffraction Intensity of diffractions due to pin hole diaphragms and circular obstacles 2. Tasks: 1.03-00 What you can learn about …  Huygens principle  Interference  Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction  Fresnel’s zone construction  Coherence  Laser  Airy disk  Airy ring  Poisson’s spot  Babinet’s theorem  Bessel function  Resolution of optical instruments Principle: Pin hole diaphragms and circular obstacles are illuminated with laser light. Results are discussed in terms of Babinet’s Theorem. adjustable 08284.0 mW.25 mm.3.00 1 Connecting cable. KG · D . metal. 32 A.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench.25 mm) is determined by means of a sliding photo diode. 2.00 Base for optical profile bench.5 mm) are PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.

93 1 Universal measuring amplifier 13626. 3.1 mm. Distance between threefold slit and photocell: L = 107 cm. mounted. is to be 102 Laboratory Experiments Physics determined. is entered as a dotted line. 4 mm plug.00 1 Diffraction grating.93 1 1 Optical profile bench. 32 A.00 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128.01 5 Sliding device. He-Ne 1.04 1 Complete Equipment Set. 50 lines/mm 08543.00 1 Lens holder 08012. 4 lines/mm 08532.00 1 Diffraction grating.00 1 Diaphragm with 3 single slits 08522. Manual on CD-ROM included Diffraction intensity of multiple slits and grids P2230400 Diffraction intensity I as a function of the position x for a threefold slit.1 mm and g = 0. Tasks: 1. 230 VAC 08181.01 1 Lens. and the value is used to calculate the width of the slit. f = +20 mm 08018. The intensity distribution of the diffraction patterns of a threefold.00 1 Connecting cable.00 1 Diffraction grating. f = +100 mm 08021. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. l = 75 cm 07362. red.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 102 Optics Diffraction 2. 4 mm plug. the intensity distribution of a single slit. blue. l = 1500 mm 08281. the position of the peaks of several orders of diffraction is to be determined.00 1 Diffraction grating.01 1 Connecting cable. b1 = 0. by means of a photo diode which can be shifted.25 mm. h = 30 mm 08286.3. b = 0.00 1 Lens. fourfold and even a fivefold slit.08. For comparison. The position of the first intensity minimum due to a single slit is determined. KG · D . 32 A. are submitted to laser light.00 1 Diaphragm with 4 multiple slits 08526. where the slits all have the same widths and the same distance among each other. mounted.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench.04-00 Diffraction intensity of multiple slits and grids What you can learn about …  Huygens principle  Interference  Fraunhofer und Fresnel diffraction  Coherence  Laser Principle: Multiple slits which all have the same width and the same distance among each other. adjustable 08284. and the found value used to calculate the wavelength of the laser light. What you need: Laser.0 mW. 8 lines/mm 08534.01 1 Photoelement for optical base plate 08734.LEP_2 09. 2.37070 Göttingen . The corresponding diffraction patterns are measured according to their position and intensity. as well as transmission grids with different grid constants. The intensity relations of the central peaks are to be assessed.10 lines/mm 08540.00 Base for optical profile bench. horizontal 08713. l = 75 cm 07362. For transmission grids with different lattice constants.00 2 Object holder 50 mm x 50 mm 08041.

08. horizontal 08713. mounted.37070 Göttingen in this brochure Order No.  = 632.02 (see page 123) ADVANCED OPTICS AND LASER PHYSICS Laboratory Experiments Physics 103 . l = 75 cm 07362. 4 mm plug. KG · D . 230 VAC 08181.00 1 Lens.8 nm). The x axis of the graph for b1 = 0.00 1 Diaphragm with 4 double slits 08523. h = 30 mm 08286.01 1 Lens. but different distances between the slits. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.LEP_2 09.3. What you need: Laser. Furthermore. l = 1500 mm 08281. Widths of slits and distances between the slits must be determined as well as the intensity relations of the peaks. red. blue.0 mW. The intensity of the areas next to the central peak is represented enlarged by a factor of 10.93 1 1 Optical profile bench. adjustable 08284.05-00 What you can learn about …  Huygens principle  Interference  Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction  Coherence  Laser Principle: Slit and double slit systems are illuminated with laser light. intensity relations of the peaks are evaluated. 32 A. 2. f = +100 mm 08021. Manual on CD-ROM included Determination of diffraction intensity at slit and double slit systems P2230500 You can find more advanced optics Tasks: 1.00 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128.1 mm is shifted upwards. He-Ne 1.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench.93 1 Universal measuring amplifier 13626.01 1 Photoelement for optical base plate 08734. Determination of location and intensity of the extreme values of the diffraction patterns due to two double slits with the same widths. f = +20 mm 08018. l = 75 cm 07362. The corresponding diffraction patterns are measured by means of a photodiode which can be shifted.00 1 Connecting cable.00 2 Object holder 50 mm x 50 mm 08041. (Distance between slit and photodiode L = 107 cm.00 1 Diaphragm with 3 single slits 08522.01 1 Connecting cable. Complete Equipment Set. Determination of the intensity distribution of the diffraction patterns due to two slits of different widths. 32 A.01 5 Sliding device. mounted.04 1 Diffraction intensity I as a function of location x for the single slit b1 = 0.2 mm. as a function of location and intensity. The corresponding width of the slit is determined by means of the relative positions of intensity values of the extremes. 00117.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 103 Optics Diffraction Determination of the diffraction intensity at slit and double slit systems 2.1 mm and b2 = 0.00 Base for optical profile bench.00 1 Lens holder 08012. 4 mm plug.

with diffracting elements 08577. The intensities in the areas next to the central peak are represented extended by a factor of 10. profile-bench.93 1 Optical profile bench l = 150 cm 08281. adjust.00 1 Object holder.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 104 Optics Diffraction 2. He-Ne 1. (Distance between diffracting object and photocell L = 120 cm. The corresponding diffraction patterns are measured according to position and intensity with a photocell which can be shifted. 08284. opt. Determination of the intensity distribution of the diffraction patterns due to a slit and complementary strip (wire). Manual on CD-ROM included Diffraction intensity through a slit and a wire – Babinet’s theorem P2230600 You can find more advanced optics in this brochure Order No. l = 750 mm.00 1 Base f. red 07362.00 1 Connecting cable. 3.37070 Göttingen . l = 750 mm. opt. horizontal 08713.01 3 Slide device.LEP_2 09. Wavelength of the laser light  = 632.00 1 Screen. blue 07362. base plt.04 1 Complete Equipment Set.0 mW.3.93 1 Universal measuring amplifier 13626. Babinet’s theorem is discussed using the diffraction patterns of the slit and the complimentary strip.02 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. 00117.06-00 Diffraction intensity through a slit and a wire – Babinet’s theorem What you can learn about …  Huygens’ principle  Interference  Fraunhofer und Fresnel diffraction  Babinet’s theorem  Poissons’ spot  Coherence  Laser Principle: An aperture consisting of a single slit and a complementary strip (wire) is illuminated with a laser beam.8 nm) Tasks: 1.00 2 Slide mount f.00 1 Photoelement f. opt. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.08. Determination of the intensity relations of the diffraction pattern peaks for the single slit. 5 x 5 cm 08041. h = 30 mm 08286. 08734. What you need: Laser.02 (see page 123) ADVANCED OPTICS AND LASER PHYSICS 104 Laboratory Experiments Physics Diffraction intensity I as a function of the position x for single slit a) and strip b). pr. KG · D . Width of the diffracting object b = 0. 2.2 mm. 220 V AC 08181.01 1 Connecting cable.-bench.

00 Base for optical profile bench. 6 V/5 A 06158. Tasks: 1.00 1 Filament lamps. The photometric law of distance is verified by plotting illuminance as a function of the reciprocal value of the square of the distance. adjustable 08284.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench. What you need: Hand held measuring instrument Lux.02-01 What you can learn about …  Luminous flux  Quantity of light  Luminous intensity  Illuminance  Luminance Principle: The luminous intensity emitted by a punctual source is determined as a function of distance.01 1 Slide mount for optical profil bench.LEP_2 09.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 105 .00 1 Complete Equipment Set.4. The luminous intensity emitted by a punctual source is determined as a function of distance from the source. h = 30 mm 08286. h = 80 mm 08286. RS 232 07137. 2. l = 600 mm 08283. on stem 06175.01 1 1 Optical profile bench.00 1 Power supply 0-12 V DC/ 6 V.93 1 Universal clamp 37718. 12 V AC 13505.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 105 Optics Photometry Photometric law of distance 2. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 1 Luxmeter probe 12107. KG · D . Manual on CD-ROM included Photometric law of distance P2240201 Illuminance as a function of the reciprocal values of the square of the distances.02 1 Lamp socket E 14.08.

BNC socket . The photometric law of distance is verified by plotting illuminance as a function of the reciprocal value of the square of the distance.55 1 Plate holder.10 mm 02062.93 1 Stand tube 02060.37070 Göttingen . The luminous intensity emitted by a punctual source is determined as a function of distance from the source.10 1 Tasks: Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair 07542.01 1 Connecting cable. 12 V AC 13505.00 2 Distributor 06024.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 106 Optics Photometry 2.04 1 Carbon resistor 470 Ω. l = 75 cm 07362. The law for point light sources on which this is based should be determined.00 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006. 32 A. 6 V/5 A 06158. 1W. opening width 0.27 1 Adapter.02-11 Photometric law of distance with Cobra3 What you can learn about …  Luminous flux  Quantity of light  Luminous intensity  Illuminance  Luminance Principle: The luminous intensity emitted by a punctual source is determined as a function of distance. G1 39104.00 1 Photo diode. USB 12150.08.61 1 Lamp socket E 14.00 1 PC.. l = 75 cm 07362.LEP_2 09. l = 1000 x 27 mm 03001. Windows® 95 or higher Luminous intensity as a function of the square of the reciprocal of the distance (lamp – diode) 2.4 mm plug 07542. G1 39119. 1g.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151.20 1 1. on stem 06175. Experimental objective: The luminous intensity is a function of the distance of the light sensor from the light source.00 1 Filament lamps. 4 mm plug. KG · D . Complete Equipment Set. Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. red.00 1 Weight holder..01 1 Connecting cable.99 1 Software Cobra3 Force/Tesla 14515.15 1 Movement sensor with cable 12004. silver bronzing 02407. 32 A. What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. 4 mm plug.00 1 Silk thread on spool. blue.00 1 Meter Scale. Manual on CD-ROM included Photometric law of distance with Cobra3 P2240211 106 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. l = 200 mm 02412.4.55 2 Bench clamp -PASS- 02010.00 1 Power supply 0-12 V DC/ 6 V.

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.LEP_2 09. l = 100 mm 02030.35 for 50/100 W halogen lamp 08129.55 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006.00 1 Lens holder 08012.00 1 Lens. 90 mm x 120 mm 08450. f = 60 mm 08137.00 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.04-00 What you can learn about …  Luminous flux  Light quantity  Light intensity  Illuminance  Luminance Principle: Visible light impinges on a diffusely reflecting surface.04 1 Double condenser. The luminous flux emitted reflected by a diffusely reflecting surface is to be determined as a function of the angle of observation.06 1 Holder G 6. RS 232 07137. l = 1000 mm 02028. Tasks: 1.00 1 Support rod.93 1 Luxmeter probe 12107. 2.55 1 Articulated radial holder 02053.08. mounted. stainless steel 18/8. Manual on CD-ROM included Lambert’s law P2240400 Illuminance as a function of cos .55 4 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. Lambert’s law (cos-law) is to be verified using the graph of the measurement values.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 107 . f = +200 mm 08024. square.55 1 Stand tube 02060. 12 V/50 W 08129.00 1 Support rod -PASS-.00 1 Power supply 0-12 V DC/ 6 V.01 1 Hand held measuring instrument Lux.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 107 Optics Photometry Lambert’s law 2.01 1 Halogen lamp.4.01 1 Graduated disk.01 1 Zinc sulphide screen. The luminance of this surface is determined as a function of the angle of observation. l = 250 mm 02025. KG · D .55 1 Support rod -PASS-. for demonstration 02053. 12 V AC 13505. square. What you need: Housing for experiment lamp 08129.00 1 Complete Equipment Set.02 1 Universal clamp with joint 37716.

02 1 Polarisation specimen.01 1 Diaphragm holder for optical base plate 08040. 578 nm 08461. 32 A. 2. mica 08664. red. The polarisation of the emergent light is investigated at different angles between the optic axis of the /4 plate and the direction of polarisation of the incident light. 3.00 1 Power supply 230V/50 Hz for 50 W Hg-lamp 13661.00 2 Iris diaphragm 08045.97 1 Interference filter yellow. 108 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.01 8 Slide mount for optical profil bench.93 1 Connecting cable.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench.00 1 Base for optical profile bench. To measure the intensity of planepolarised light as a function of the position of the analyser. l = 1000 mm 08282.00 1 Universal measuring amplifier 13626. What you need: Photoelement for optical base plate 08734.00 1 Double condenser.08. h = 30 mm 08286. 4 mm plug. l = 75 cm 07362.00 3 Lens. adjustable 08284. KG · D . At the appropriate plate thickness (/4. 50 W 08144. h = 80 mm 08286. f = 60 mm 08137. 4 mm plug.01 1 Connecting cable.00 1 Lens holder 08012. mounted.01 1 Polarisation filter on stem 08610. f = +100 mm 08021.LEP_2 09. blue.04 1 Complete Equipment Set. 32 A. l = 75 cm 07362.00 1 Condenser holder 08015. or quarter-wave plate) there is a 90 ° phase shift between the ordinary and the extraordinary ray when the light emerges from the crystal.00 1 Mercury vapour high pressure lamp. with two /4 plates one behind the other.5. To measure the light intensity behind the analyser as a function of the angle between the optic axis of the /4 plate and that of the analyser.01-00 Polarisation by quarterwave plates What you can learn about …  Plane  Circularly and elliptically polarised light  Polariser  Analyzer  Plane of polarisation  Double refraction  Optic axis  Ordinary and extraordinary ray Principle: Monochromatic light falls on a mica plate perpendicular to its optic axis.37070 Göttingen .2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 108 Optics Photometry 2.00 2 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. Tasks: 1. To perform experiment 2.00 2 Optical profile bench. Manual on CD-ROM included Polarisation by quarterwave plates P2250100 Intensity distribution of polarised light as a function of the direction of transmission of the analyser: with /4 plate at various angular settings.

100 ml. Tasks: 1. distilled 5 l 31246.01 1 Crucible tongs.00 1 Stirring rods. Makrolon 08487. powder 100 g 31577.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 109 .01 1 Bath for thermostat. long 64821. To determine the reaction rate constant when cane sugar is transformed into invert sugar.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 109 Optics Polarisation Polarimetry 2.00 1 Spoon with spatula end.00 1 Funnel. 1000 ml 30214. plastic 36629.02 1 Stopwatch.01 2 Graduated cylinder. plastic. BORO 3. 1 l. wide 38833. KG · D . l = 200 mm.01 2 Graduated vessel.5. 230 V AC 35906.02-00 What you can learn about …  Half-shade principle  Optical rotatory power  Optical activity  Saccharimetry  Specific rotation  Reaction rate  Weber-Fechner law Principle: The rotation of the plane of polarisation through a sugar solution measured with a half-shade penumbra polarimeter and the reaction rate constant for the inversion of cane sugar determined.70 1 Water. 100 g 30210. plastic 36013. with rubber bulb. 1/100 s 03071. 2. Manual on CD-ROM included Polarimetry P2250200 Semi-logarithmic plot of the measured values from cane sugar inversion. To determine the specific rotation of cane sugar (sucrose) and lactose by measuring the rotation of various solutions of known concentration. d = 8 mm 40485.08. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. with handle 36640.10 1 Hydrochloric acid 37 %. digital. d = 100 mm 36891. 250 ml. 4 beams 44007. What you need: Half-shade polarimeter. l = 180 mm.10 1 Balance LG 311. l = 300 mm. PA.3.31 1 Complete Equipment Set.LEP_2 09.81 1 D(+)-Lactose. low form.93 1 Immersion thermostat TC10 08492. stainless steel 33600.06 1 Pipette.00 1 Beaker.93 1 Accessory set for TC10 08492.00 1 D (+)-Sucrose.

03-00 Fresnel’s equations – theory of reflection What you can learn about …  Electromagnetic theory of light  Reflection coefficient  Reflection factor  Brewster’s law  Law of refraction  Polarization  Polarization level Principle: Plane-polarized light is reflected at a glas surface. flint 08237. 5.4   0.2 '' Complete Equipment Set. It is then to be compared with values calculated using Fresnel’s formulae.00 1 Articulated radial holder 02053. He-Ne 1. l = 250 mm 02025.55 2 Multi-range meter with amplifier 07034.8 EXP.93 1 Polarisation filter on stem 08610.0 mW. The rotation of the polarization plane for plane polarized light when reflected is to be determined as a function of the angle of incidence and presented graphically.55 4 Support rod -PASS-.55 2 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. Manual on CD-ROM included Fresnel’s equations – theory of reflection P2250300 20°  40° p 60° 80° Measured and calculated curves for"r and r as a function of the angle of incidence. h = 36 mm. The reflection coefficients for light polarized perpendicular and parallel to the plane of incidence are to be determined as a function of the angle of incidence and poltted graphically. The reflection factor for the flint glass prism is to be calculated.00 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. What you need: Laser. 60 degrees. You can find more Tasks: Order No.00 1 Prism table with holder 08254.00 1 Photoelement for optical base plate 08734. The refractive index of the flint glass prism is to be found.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 110 Optics Polarisation 2. 4. l = 630 mm 02027.55 1 Support rod -PASS-.02 1. square. 00117.08.5.55 1 H-base -PASS- 02009.  0.00 1 0.01 1 Stand tube 02060.00 2 Prism.6 THEOR. (see page 123) 2. 0. Both the rotation of the plane of polarization and the intensity of the reflected light are to be determined and compared with Frewsnel’s formulae for reflection.37070 Göttingen . KG · D . PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. The reflection coefficients are to be calculated using Fresnel’s formulae and compared with the measured curves. 230 VAC 08181. square.LEP_2 09. advanced optics in this brochure ADVANCED OPTICS AND LASER PHYSICS 110 Laboratory Experiments Physics 3.00 1 Protractor scale with pointer 08218.

You can find more advanced optics in this brochure Order No. 230 VAC 08181.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench.LEP_2 09.0 mW. ADVANCED OPTICS AND LASER PHYSICS PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. He-Ne 1.01 3 Polarisation filter on stem 08610. l = 600 mm 08283.08.02 (see page 123) Tasks: 1.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 111 .00 1 Base for optical profile bench.00 1 Complete Equipment Set. adjustable 08284. 2. The plane of polarization of a linear polarized laser beam is to be determined. KG · D . Manual on CD-ROM included Malu’s law P2250400 Corrected photo cell current as a function of the angular position  of the polarization plane of the analyzer. Malus’ law must be verified. Transmitted light intensity is determined as a function of the angular position of the polarization filter. 3.00 1 Photoelement for optical base plate 08734. 00117.5. h = 30 mm 08286. What you need: Laser.00 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. The intensity of the light transmitted by the polarization filter is to be determined as a function of the angular position of the filter.04-00 What you can learn about …  Electric theory of light  Polarization  Polarizer  Analyzer  Brewster's law  Malus' law Principle: Linear polarized light passes through a polarization filter.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 111 Optics Polarisation Malus’ law 2.93 1 Optical profile bench.

93 13610.00 07362.01 08286. axial Lens.03 13610. What you need: Glass rod for Faraday effect Coil.00 08414. 505 nm Colour filter. blue. translucent.93 07036.00 08284...00 06034.00 08411. 440 nm Colour filter. 32 A.00 08041.01-00 Faraday effect What you can learn about …  Electromagnetic field interaction  Electron oscillation  Electromagnetism  Polarization  Verdet’s constant  Hall effect Principle: The angle of rotation of the polarisation-plane of plane polarized light through a flint glass rod is found to be a linear function of the product of the mean flux-densitiy and the length of the optical medium. f = 60 mm Variable transformer 25 V~/20 V-. l = 75 cm 06496. 32 A.00 08415.01 06495.02 37718.01 08022. U-shaped. KG · D . To calculate the corresponding Verdet’s constant in each case. 250 mm x 250 mm Optical profile bench. To evaluate Verdet’s constant as a function of the wavelength.01 07362. 4 mm plug.35 for 50/100 W halogen lamp Double condenser. To determine the angle of rotation as a function of the mean fluxdensity using different colour filters.01 08129. h = 30 mm Slide mount for optical profil bench. digital Hall probe. 1 mA. The mean flux-density is calculated by numerical integration and the ratio maximum fluxdensity over mean flux-density established. h = 80 mm Universal clamp Connecting cable.06 08129. The factor of proportionally. 4.00 08282. 595 nm Polarisation filter with vernier Screen. 2. adjustable Slide mount for optical profil bench.00 08416. red.04 08137. 525 nm Colour filter. 3.LEP_2 09.01 08012. l = 75 cm Connecting cable.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 112 Optics Applied Optics 2. 580 nm Colour filter.00 06501. mounted.00 08611. To measure the maximum fluxdensity as a function of the coil current and to establish the relationship between mean flux-density and coil current anticipating that the ratio found under 1.08.theoretical values. 4 mm plug. 600 turns Pole pieces. 12 V/50 W Holder G 6. Manual on CD-ROM included Faraday effect P2260100 112 Laboratory Experiments Physics Verdet’s constant as a function of the wavelength + measured values --. f = +150 mm Lens holder Table top on rod Object holder 50 mm x 50 mm Colour filter. l = 1000 mm Base for optical profile bench.3 A DC/AC Commutator switch Teslameter. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.04 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 5 1 3 3 Complete Equipment Set.00 08286.6.00 08129. is investigated as a function of the wavelength and the optical medium.37070 Göttingen .00 08413. called Verdet’s constant. To determine the magnetic fluxdensitiy between the pole pieces using the axial Hall probe of the teslameter for different coil currents. remains constant. 12 A Ampermeter.00 08060. laminated Housing for experiment lamp Halogen lamp.00 06514.00 13531. Tasks: 1.00 08064. drilled Iron core.

01 4 Slide mount for optical profil bench.11 1 Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair 07542.00 1 High voltage supply 0.02 (see page 123) ADVANCED OPTICS AND LASER PHYSICS PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D . An electric field is applied to the PLZT element and causes it to become birefractive. portionality the Kerr constant is calculated for the PLZT element. Since nitrobenzene is very toxic and needs high voltages of some kV the PLZT element which only needs some hundred volts represents an attractive alternative.08.93 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128.6. The Kerr effect has usually been demonstrated with nitrobenzene in the past. 2. From the slope of the straight line the Kerr constant is to be calculated.04 3 Complete Equipment Set.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 113 Optics Applied Optics Kerr effect 2. BNC.. 32 A. 230 VAC 08181. Tasks: 1. adjustable 08284. By plotting the square of the applied voltage versus the phase shift between normal and extraordinary beam it is to be shown that the relation between the two quantities is approximately linear. h = 80 mm 08286. The phase-shift between the normal and the extraordinary light beam behind the PLZT element is recorded as a function of the applied voltage and it is shown that the phase-shift is proportional to the square of the electric field strength respectively of the voltage applied.01 2 Connecting cable.02 1 Photoelement for optical base plate 08734.LEP_2 09. h = 30 mm 08286. red.00 1 Universal measuring amplifier 13626. 4 mm plug. PLZT element 08641. Manual on CD-ROM included Kerr effect P2260200 You can find more advanced optics in this brochure Order No.00 Base for optical profile bench. 4 mm plug.93 1 Laser. Laboratory Experiments Physics 113 .00 2 Screened cable. The phase-shift between the normal and the extra-ordinary light beam is to be recorded for different voltages applied to the PLZTelement respectively for different electric field strengs. From the constant of pro- What you need: Kerr cell. l = 1000 mm 08282. l = 750 mm 07542. blue.02-00 What you can learn about …  Polarization of light  Birefraction  Optical anisotropy  Modulation of light  Electro-optical modulator  PLZT-element Principle: Monochromatic.10 kV 13670. l = 75 cm 07362. l = 75 cm 07362.00 2 1 Optical profile bench. 00117.93 1 Polarisation filter on stem 08610. 32 A.27 1 Connecting cable. He-Ne 1. The halfwave voltage U ( l2 ) is to be determined..0 mW. vertically polarized light impinges on a PLZT element (lead-lanthanum-zirconium-titanium compount) which is set in its holder at 45 ° to the vertical.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench.37070 Göttingen I Relative luminous intensity I0 behind the analyser as a function of the voltage U applied to the PLZT element and the phase-shift  between normal and extraordinary beam.

2 pcs.08. What you need: Base plate in experimental case He/Ne Laser.6.LEP_2 09.00 08747. d = 80 mm Beam plitter 1/1.00 08702. a coherent light beam (laser light) is split into an object and a reference beam by being passed through a beam splitter. To achieve this.20 08743.0. 20 pcs. offset.00 08741.00 08711. Complete Equipment Set. • Darkroom lamp with green filter • Light bulb 230 V/15 W • Funnel • Narrow-necked bottles. Paint Bleaching chemicals: Potassium dichromate. consisting of: Plastic trays.88 1 1 1 6 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 Setup for recording and reconstruction of a transmission hologram. Reconstruct the transmission hologram (reconstruction beam is the reference beam during image capture).4 Pin hole 30 micron Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm Surface mirror. • Film tongs.00 08749. 120 x 120 x 2 mm 08746. Set of photographic chemicals 08746. 250 g Sulphuric acid.00 08719.00 08714. non polarizing Object for holography Holographic plates. • Laboratory gloves. 2. The hologram is reconstructed with the reference beam which was also used to record the hologram.00 08711. 2 pcs. To capture the three-dimensionality of an object. the film stores not only the amplitude but also the phase of the light rays.01 08701.93 08710.00 08746.01 62174. Manual on CD-ROM included Recording and reconstruction of holograms P2260300 114 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.01 64819. KG · D . Capture the holographic image of an object.88 1 Consisting of: Holographic developer • Stop bath • Wetting agent • Laminate. +40°C • Roller squeegee • Clamps. horizontal XY-shifting device Adapter ring device Achromatic objective 20 x N. 4 pcs.large. 3. 500 ml 30102.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 114 Optics Applied Optics 2. 100 pcs. • Tray thermometer. 95-98%. These beams interfere in the plane of the holographic film.00 08714. 5mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Magnetic foot for optical base plate Holder for diaphragm/ beam plitter Sliding device.00 08713.25 30219.50 1 1 *Alternative: Holographic sheet film Glass plate. 4 pcs. Perform the development and bleaching of this phase hologram.00 1 2 Tasks: 1.03-00 Recording and reconstruction of holograms What you can learn about …  Object beam  Reference beam  Real and virtual image  Phase holograms  Amplitude holograms  Interference  Diffraction  Coherence  Developing of film Principle: In contrast to normal photography a hologram can store information about the three-dimensionality of an object.01 08712. medium.37070 Göttingen .A.* Darkroom equipment for holography 08700.

55 08579.3 m HV-power supply 5 kV/50 mA DC Ballast resistor unit incl. CO2/He* Laser gas in bottle.37070 Göttingen Laser power as a function of the angle of inclination of the brewster window normal N. 250 mm x 250 mm Right angle clamp -PASSPowermeter 30 mW/10 Watt Support for power probe Protection glasses.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 115 Optics Applied Optics CO2-laser 2. the CO2-laser is of greatest practical importance. One very primary and essential target in learning is the alignment of the CO2-laser by means of a He-Ne-laser. Determine the power output as a function of the electric power input and gasflow. 3 gases 08606. 2.00 08598.93 08605. typically 5 W Module box for CO2-laser tube Set of laser mirrors.93 08580. l = 1. If the gas-mixing unit is supplied the influence of the different components of the laser gas (CO2.00 02040. 1 gas* Pressure control valve 200/3 bar. Laboratory Experiments Physics 115 .01 08584. Check the influence of the Brewster windows position on the power output.00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 *Alternative to: Laser gas mixing unit.00 08600. all components of the system can be handled individually and the influence of each procedure on the output power can be studied. 6. 4.08. The high level of efficiency with which laser radiation can be generated in continuous wave (cw) and pulse operation is its most fascinating feature. d = 24 mm.00 08602. N2) to the output efficiency of the CO2-laser are analyzed. The experimental equipment set is an open CO2-didactic laser system of max. Evaluate the efficiency as a function of the electric power input and gasflow.93 08601.00 08604. Since it is an “open” system. portable Rotatory vane vacuum pump. translucent.10 1 08611. Estimation of wavelength by diffraction grating and 2. 3. Tasks: 1. ZnSe and Si Optical bench on steel rail. Distribution of power by diaphragm IR conversion plate for observation of CO2-laser infrared radiation Complete Equipment Set. Align the CO2-laser and optimize its power output.00 1 Option: Experiment set for laser beam analysis 1. What you need: CO2-laser tube. Manual on CD-ROM included CO2-laser P2260400 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 08606.88 1 08610.00 08581.00 08609.04-00 What you can learn about …  Molecular vibration  Exitation of molecular vibration  Electric discharge  Spontaneous emission  Vibration niveau  Rotation niveau  Inversion  Induced emission  Spectrum of emission  Polarization  Brewster angle  Optical resonator Principle: Among molecular laser. 8 W power output. 5. 3 HV cables Cooling water unit. f = 150 mm Digital Thermometer.00 08599.00 08582.00 08597.6 micro-m Cleaning set for laser ZnSe biconvex lens.00 08064.93 02751.6. He. detachable.LEP_2 09.93 08608. Measurement of temperatures differences for the laser gas (imput / output) for study of conversion efficiency.01 08603. two stages Gas filter/buffer unit He/Ne-laser/adjusting device Diaphragm for adjusting CO2 Laser Screen. KG · D .00 07050. 50 l/200 bar* 08596. 2 x NiCr-Ni HV-isolated temperature probe Control panel with support. 10.00 08607.

27 07542. l = 750 mm Prism table with holder for optical base plate Lens holder for optical base plate Screen. AR-glass. 5 mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm Magnetic foot for optical base plate Holder for diaphragm/ beam plitter Lens.00 08714. What you need: Optical base plate with rubberfeet He/Ne Laser.65 39258. double bladed. short form. d = 32/26 mm.00 12150.93 08711. horizontal PC.00 02027.LEP_2 09. Manual on CD-ROM included LDA – Laser Doppler Anemometry with Cobra3 P2260511 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.6.00 08741.00 08701. l = 630 mm Right angle clamp -PASSUniversal clamp Support base -PASSAspirator bottle. KG · D .00 08719. d = 22/17 mm. white. l = 2 m Spatulas. l = 150 mm. straight.00 08735.55 02040. 10 pcs.01 08045. Power supply 12V/2A Software Cobra3 Fourier Analysis Sliding device.50 1 1 1 2 2 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 4 3 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 Measurement of the signal spectrum with a signal peak Tasks: 1. BNC.00 43631.00 08723. d = 7 mm Pinchcock.00 39296.01 39255. 2. DURAN®. mounted. The frequency change of the scattered light is detected and converted into a particle or flow velocity.00 36012.00 08743.00 09826. f = +100 mm Lens.99 14514.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 116 Optics Applied Optics 2.10 36701. 150 x 150 mm XY-shifting device Pin hole 30 micron LDA-Accessory-Set Support rod -PASS-.05-11 LDA – Laser Doppler Anemometry with Cobra3 What you can learn about …  Interference  Doppler effect  Scattering of light by small particles (Mie scattering)  High. l = 80 mm. Windows® 95 or higher 12151. 150 ml Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.00 08711. 1 hole Rubber stopper.11 08725. mounted. wide Beaker. 1000 ml Silicone tubing.00 02005.01 08020.01 08710. d = 8 mm. square. 1 hole Measuring tape.00 08702.00 1 1 1 Complete Equipment Set. mounted.00 08735. Rubber stopper.55 37718.55 34175.37070 Göttingen . Measurement of the light-frequency change of individual light beams which are reflected by moving particles.01 08018. USB 116 Laboratory Experiments Physics 08700.01 09936. f = +50 mm Lens.00 08740.61 08713. Determination of the flow velocities.00 08021. clear glass.and low-pass filters  Sampling theorem  Spectral power density  Turbulence Principle: Small particles in a current pass through the LDA measuring volume and scatter the light whose frequency is shifted by the Doppler effect due to the particle movement.08. non polarizing Si-Photodetector with Amplifier Control Unit for Si-Photodetector Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair Screened cable.99 07542. f = +20 mm Iris diaphragm Beam plitter 1/1. width 10 mm Glass tube.00 33460.

stainless steel 03010.00 1 Protection glasses HeNe laser 08581. HR.00 1 Screen.10 1 Cleaning set for laser 08582. Measure the integral relative output power as a function of the tube current. What you need: HeNe laser.LEP_2 09.93 1 Photoelement. Measure the integral relative output power as a function of the laser tube’s position within the hemispherical resonator. 6. Remark: These points can only be covered quantitatively if a monochromator and an analysing Fabry Perot system are available.00 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. The beam propagation within the resonator cavity of a HeNe laser and its divergence are determined. Manual on CD-ROM included Helium Neon Laser P2260701 Option: Experimentation set Helium-Neon laser.02 1 Helium Neon Laser. basic set 08656.02. in this brochure Order No. 3. The following items can be realized with advanced set 08656.07-01 What you can learn about …  Spontaneous and stimulated light emission  Inversion  Collision of second type  Gas discharge tube  Resonator cavity  Transverse and longitudinal resonator modes  Birefringence  Brewster angle  Littrow prism  Fabry Perot Etalon Principle: The difference between spontaneous and stimulated emission of light is demonstrated. silicon 08734.55 1 Vernier calipers.02 (see page 123) ADVANCED OPTICS AND LASER PHYSICS PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. right mirror: VIS. Laboratory Experiments Physics 117 . 00117. Finally you can demonstrate the existence of longitudinal modes and the gain profile of the He-Ne laser provided an analysing Fabry Perot system is at your disposal. Tasks: The He-Ne laser can be tuned using a BFT or a LTP. Longitudinal modes can be observed by use of a Fabry Perot Etalon of low finesse.6. Check on the stability condition of a hemispherical resonator. Determine the divergence of the laser beam.00 1 Measuring tape. l = 2 m 09936. HR.00 1 Danger sign “Laser” 06542.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 117 Optics Applied Optics Helium Neon Laser 2.00 1 Complete Equipment Set. Set up the He-Ne laser. advanced set P2260705 You can find more advanced optics Relative output power as a function of mirror spacing. Measure the beam diameter within the hemispherical resonator right and left of the laser tube. 5. advanced set 08656. white. 150 x 150 mm 09826. KG · D . Adjust the resonator mirrors by use of the pilot laser.08.37070 Göttingen 1. its stability criterion is checked and the relative output power of the laser is measured as a function of the tube’s position inside the resonator and of the tube current. By means of a birefringent tuner and a Littrow prism different wavelengths can be selected and quantitatively determined if a monochromator is available. R = 700 mm) 2.00 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006. (left mirror: VIS. plane . 4.

09 “Nd-YAG laser”.6. Manual on CD-ROM included Optical pumping P2260800 20 30 40 50 60 T °C Relative fluorescent power of the Nd-YAG rod as a function of the diode temperature (wavelength) for I = 450 mA.3 nm 0.2 817. the mean life-time of the 4F3/2-level of the Nd-atoms is measured in appoximation. To measure the mean life-time of the 4F3/2-level of the Nd-atoms.00 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. 3. l = 750 mm 07542. 2. 118 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.3 Optional: Optical base plate in exp. To trace the fluorescent spectrum of the Nd-YAG rod pumped by the diode laser and to verify the main absorption lines of neodymium.08-00 Optical pumping What you can learn about …  Spontaneous emission  Induced emission  Mean lifetime of a metastable state  Relaxation  Inversion  Diode laser Principle: The visible light of a semiconductor diode laser is used to excite the neodymium atoms within a Nd-YAG (Neodymium-Yttrium Aluminium Garnet) rod.95 1 Screened cable. 2 channels 11459.20 1 0. The power output of the semiconductor diode laser is first recorded as a function of the injection current.08.9 nm 0. KG · D .7 804. 4. BNC.37070 Göttingen .93 1 Sensor for measurement of beam power 08595.LEP_2 09.5 Prel 1.01 1 10 Complete Equipment Set.2007 11:42 Uhr Seite 118 Optics Applied Optics 2. case 812.6.8 0. Conclusively. For further applications see experiment 2.4 808.4 nm 0.1 08700.0 0. What you need: Basic set optical pumping 08590. Tasks: 1.4 nm 0.9 0.00 1 Oscilloscope 30 MHz.11 3 0. The fluorescent spectrum of the Nd-YAG rod is then determined and the maon absorption lines of the Nd-atoms are verified. To determine the power output of the semiconductor diode laser as a function of the injection current.6 Protection glasses for Nd-YAG laser 08581.

01 1 Complete Equipment Set. The IR-power output of the Nd-YAG laser is measured as a function of the optical power input and the slope efficiency as well as the threshold power are determined. l = 750 mm 07542.2007 11:46 Uhr Seite 119 Optics Applied Optics Nd-YAG laser 2.00 1 Optional: mW 25 20 From graphic: Threshold power = 57 mW 15 From graphic: Slope efficiency: 30% 10 Optical base plate in exp. short pass type 08594. BNC.00 1 Oscilloscope 30 MHz. The slope efficiency and the threshold power are to be determined. case 08700. What you need: PNd-YAG Basic set optical pumping 08590. KG · D .08.09-00 What you can learn about …  Optical pumping  Spontaneous emission  Induced emission  Inversion  Relaxation  Optical resonator  Resonator modes  Polarization  Frequency doubling Principle: The rate equation model for an optically pumped four-level laser system is determined. with  = 1064 nm. Manual on CD-ROM included Nd-YAG laser P2260900 5 Pump power mW Tasks: 1.20 1 Cleaning set for laser 08582.4 nm.93 1 Sensor for measurement of beam power 08595. Finally.01 1 Laser cavity mirror frequency doubling 08591.37070 Göttingen 50 100 150 Nd-YAG laser power output as a function of the pump power  = 808. Laboratory Experiments Physics 119 . a Nd-YAG (Neodymium-Yttrium Aluminium Garnet) rod has been selected which is pumped by means of a semiconductor diode laser.95 1 Screened cable. 3. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Verify the quadratic relationship betweenthe power of the fundamental wave.00 1 Nd-YAG laser cavity mirror/holder 08591.02 1 Frequency doubling crystal in holder 08593. a KTP-crystal is inserted into the laser cavity and frequency doubling is demonstrated. 2 channels 11459.LEP_2 09. and the beam power of the second harmonic with  = 532 nm. 2. The IR-power output of the NdYAG laser is to be measured as a function of the pump power. As lasing medium.6. Set up the Nd-YAG laser and optimize its power output.00 1 Filter plate.00 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. The quadratic relationship between the power of the fundamental wave and the beam power for the second harmonic is then evident.11 3 Protection glasses for Nd-YAG laser 08581.

Couple the laser beam into the fibre and adjust the setting-up in a way that a maximum of output 120 Laboratory Experiments Physics power is achieved at the exit of the fibre. 5.10-00 Fibre optics What you can learn about …  Total reflection  Diode laser  Gaussian beam  Monomode and multimode fibre  Numerical aperture  Transverse and longitudinal modes  Transit time  Threshold energy  Slope efficiency  Velocity of light Principle: The beam of a laser diode is treated in a way that it can be coupled into a monomode fibre. 3. Manual on CD-ROM included Fibre optics P2261000 Relative output power at the fibre end versus angle readout. The numerical aperture of the fibre is recorded.6. Finally the measurement of the relative output power of the diodelaser as a function of the supply current leads to the characteristics of the diodelaser such as “threshold energy” and “slope efficiency”.11 2 Oscilloscope 100 MHz. through the fibre is measured and the velocity of light within the fibre is determined. Tasks: 1.2007 13:42 Uhr Seite 120 Optics Applied Optics 2. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D . Determine the relative output power of the diodelaser as a function of the supply current. BNC.08. Measure the transit time of light through the fibre and determine the velocity of light within the fibre.37070 Göttingen . The transit time of light What you need: Experimentation Set Fibre Optics 08662. 2.99 1 Complete Equipment Set. l = 750 mm 07542. 2-channel 11451. Demonstrate the transmission of a LF – signal through the fibre. Measure the numerical aperture of the fibre. 4. In consequence a low frequency signal is transmitted through the fibre.LEP_2 09.93 1 Screened cable. The problems related to coupling the beam into the fibre are evaluated and verified.

01 1 Lens.2007 11:48 Uhr Seite 121 Optics Applied Optics Fourier optics – 2f Arrangement 2.01 1 Complete Equipment Set. plastic.00 1 XY-shifting device 08714.6.37070 Göttingen Experimental set-up for the fundamental principles of Fourier optic (2f setup).20 1 Sliding device. Laboratory Experiments Physics 121 .00 7 Holder for diaphragm/ beam plitter 08719.00 2 Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm 08711.00 1 Screen with diffracting elements 08577.00 1 Rule.02 1 Achromatic objective 20 x N.00 1 He/Ne Laser. f = +150 mm 08022. f = +100 mm 08021. horizontal 08713.93 1 Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm 08711. 5mW with holder 08701.00 1 Diffraction grating.LEP_2 09.08.01 1 Lens holder for optical base plate 08723.11-00 What you can learn about …  Fourier transform  Lenses  Fraunhofer diffraction  Index of refraction  Huygens’ principle Principle: The electric field distribution of light in a specific plane (object plane) is Fourier transformed into the 2 f configuration.0. mounted. 200 mm 09937. Manual on CD-ROM included Fourier optics– 2 f Arrangement P2261100 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 50 lines/mm 08543.A. white.00 2 Adapter ring device 08714.4 62174.00 2 Screen. KG · D .01 1 Pin hole 30 micron 08743. What you need: Optical base plate with rubberfeet 08700.00 1 Lens.01 2 Magnetic foot for optical base plate 08710.00 1 Power supply for laser head 5 mW 08702. *only required for the 5 mW laser! Tasks: Investigation of the Fourier transform by a convex lens for different diffraction objects in a 2 f set-up. mounted. 150 x 150 mm 09826.

01 08723.08.12-00 Fourier optics – 4f Arrangement – Filtering and reconstruction What you can learn about …  Fourier transform  Lenses  Fraunhofer diffraction  Index of refraction  Huygens’ principle  Debye-Sears-effect Principle: The electric field distribution of light in a specific plane (object plane) is Fourier transformed into the 4f configuration by 2 lenses and optically filtered with appropriate diaphragms.A.00 02031.00 09826. Tasks: 1.02 08713.LEP_2 09.01 08743. KG · D .6. d = 10 mm Bosshead Universal clamp 08700.01 13920.00 02043.00 08133.00 82140. Manual on CD-ROM included Fourier optics – 4 f Arrangement – Filtering and reconstruction P2261200 122 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 08577.93 08711.20 08714.00 09815. 2. Optical filtration of diffraction objects in 4 f set-up.00 1 1 1 2 2 9 2 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 Principle of the set-up for coherent optical filtration. 200 mm Ultrasonic generator Glass cell.00 08021. d = 1. white. stainless steel 18/8.2007 11:48 Uhr Seite 122 Optics Applied Optics 2.4 Adapter ring device Pin hole 30 micron Rule.00 08543. 150 x 150 mm Slide -Emperor MaximilianScreen with arrow slit Diffraction grating.01 08710.01 08532. 4 lines/mm Diffraction grating.37070 Göttingen .00 08714.00 08701. What you need: Optical base plate with rubberfeet He/Ne Laser. 3 and 5 mm Screen with diffracting elements Sliding device. f = +100 mm Lens holder for optical base plate Screen.00 08711.00 09824. 5mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm Magnetic foot for optical base plate Holder for diaphragm/beam plitter Lens. Reconstruction of a filtered image.00 09937. 50 lines/mm Diaphragms. plastic.0.00 08719. 2.00 37718.00 08702. 150 x 55 x 100 mm Table with stem Support rod.99 03504. l = 250 mm. horizontal XY-shifting device Achromatic objective 20 x N. mounted. Complete Equipment Set.00 62174.

KG · D . No. LP 1. No.4 (12169) Diffraction of light through a slit and stripes. filtering and reconstruction LI 16 (13079) Optical determination of the velocity of ultrasound in liquids – phasemodulation of laserlight by ultrasonic waves LI 17 (13080) LDA – Laser Doppler Anemometry LI 18 (13081) Twyman-Green interferometer (P2260700) (P2260400) (P2260900) Advanced Optics LP 1.1 (12178) Index of refraction n of a flint glass prism LP 4.1 (12166) Diffraction of light through a slit and at an edge.5 (P1217700) Faraday effect LP 4. 22614 16 described Experiments Please ask for a complete equipment list Ref. 01400.3 (12168) Diffraction of light through a double slit or by a grid. No.3 (P1216800) Diffraction of light through a double slit or by a grid LP 1.5 (12177) Faraday effect LH 10 Real time procedure I (bending of a plate). 12907) LH 9 Time-averaging procedure II (with loudspeaker).3 (P1217400) Polarisation through /4 plates LP 3.2 (12174) Polarisation through λ/4 plates LP 3.1 Lambert’s law of radiation (12181) LI 12 (P1307700) Fabry-Perot interferometer – Determination of the laser light’s wavelength LI 13 (P1307800) Fabry-Perot interferometer – optical resonator modes PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. LP 1.3 (12176) Kerr effect LP 3.37070 Göttingen Laser Physics III Interferometry 01401.3 (P1218000) Determination of the index of refraction of CO2 with Michelson’s interferometer LH 3 (P1290200) White light hologram with expansion system LH 5 (P1290400) Transmission hologram with expansion system LH 6 (P1290500) Transfer hologram from a master hologram LH 10 (P1290900) Real time procedure I (bending of a plate) LI 3 (P1306700) Michelson interferometer – High Resolution LI 5 (P1307000) Doppler effect with the Michelson interferometer LI 6 (P1307100) Magnetostriction with the Michelson interferometer LI 10 (P1307500) Determination of the refraction index of air with the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (12170) 3 Polarisation of light LP 3.3 (12180) Determination of the index of refraction of CO2 with Michelson’s interferometer 5 Law of radiation LP 5. 22704 Laser Physics LEP Helium Neon Laser LEP CO2-laser LEP Nd-YAG-laser 1 Diffraction of light LP 1.02 LI 15 (P2261200) Fourier optics – optical filtration – 4f Arrangement LI 17 (P1308000) LDA – Laser Doppler Anemometry Laboratory Experiments Physics 123 . theory of reflection LP 3.2 (12179) Determination of the index of refraction of air with Michelson’s interferometer LP 4. rotation of polarisation through an optically active medium LP 3.4 (P1216900) Diffraction of light through a slit and stripes. Babinet’s theorem LH 1 Fresnel zone plate (12900) LH 2 White light hologram (12901) LH 3 White light hologram with expansion system (12902) LH 4 Transmission hologram (12903) LH 5 Transmission hologram with expansion system (12904) 2 Interference of light LP 2.2007 11:48 Uhr Seite 123 Optics Handbooks Advanced Optics and Laser Physics For free ADVANCED OPTICS AND LASER PHYSICS Advanced Optics and Laser Physics 00117. LI 6 (13071) Magnetostriction with Michelson interferometer LI 7 (13072) Thermal expansion of solids with Michelson interferometer LI 8 (13073) Refraction index of CO2-gas with Michelson interferometer LI 9 (13074) Refraction index of air with Michelson interferometer LI 10 (13075) Refraction index of air with Mach-Zehnder interferometer LI 11 (13076) Refraction index of of CO2-gas with Mach-Zehnder interferometer LI 12 (13077) Fabry . LP 1. (12908) LI 1 (13066) Michelson interferometer LI 2 (13067) Michelson interferometer – high resolution LI 3 (13068) Mach .3 (P1217200) Newton’s rings LP 2.Perot interferometer – determination of the wavelength of laserlight LI 13 (13078) Fabry . Babinet’s theorem LP 2.Zehnder interferometer LI 4 (13069) Sagnac interferometer LI 5 (13070) Doppler-Effect with Michelson interferom.2 (12167) Diffraction through a slit and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.LEP_2 09. No. 22702 11 described Experiments Please ask for a complete equipment list Ref.02 12909) LH 11 (12910) Real time procedure II (oscillating plate).02 Laser Physics II Holography 23 described Experiments Please ask for a complete equipment list Ref. (12905) (12171) LH 7 Double exposure procedure (12906) (12172) LH 8 Time-averaging procedure I (with tuning fork).3 (12175) Half shadow polarimeter. 4 Refraction of light LP 4.2 Michelson interferometer LP 2. 22703 18 described Experiments Please ask for a complete equipment list Ref.2 (P1217100) Michelson interferometer LP 2.4 (P1217600) Kerr effect LP 3.Perot interferometer – optical resonator modes LI 14 (22611) Fourier optics –2 f arrangement LI 15 (22612) Fourier optics – 4 f arrangement.08.02 Laser Physics I – Experiments with coherent light 01179.1 (12173) Fresnel’s law.1 Fresnel mirror and biprism LP 2.3 Newton’s rings LH 6 Transfer hologram from a master hologram.

2 (11001) Shadow formation by a point light source OT 1. 60 experiments covering light propagation (7). No. lenses (13).3 (11009) Formation of an image point by a plane mirror OT 2.12 (11044) Spherical aberration OT 4.11 (11017) Aberrations with a concave mirror OT 2.2 (11024) Refraction at the air-water boundary OT 3.9 (11015) Law of imagery and magnification of a concave mirror OT 2.10 (11042) Lens combination consisting of two convergent lenses OT 4.6 (11038) Refraction of light at a divergent lens OT 4.5 (11027) Total reflection at the water-air boundary OT 3.15 (11021) Law of imagery and magnification of a convex mirror OT 2.LEP_2 09. diffraction (10).6 (11012) Reflection of light by a concave mirror OT 2.3 (11025) The law of refraction OT 3. eye (3).7 (11029) Refraction by a prism OT 3.7 (11013) Properties of a concave mirror OT 2.1 (11000) Rectilinear propagation of light OT 1.8 (11040) Image formation by a divergent lens OT 4.10 (11016) Virtual images with a concave mirror OT 2. 01151.4 (11003) Umbra and penumbra with an extensive light source OT 1.1 (11055) The magnifying glass OT 7.4 (11010) Image formation by a plane mirror OT 2.2 (11053) Short-sightedness and its correction OT 6. mirror (16).8 (11030) Light path through a reversing prism OT 3. KG · D .5 Additive colour mixing OT 5.02 • 60 described Experiments Please ask for a complete equipment list Ref.9 (11031) Light path through a deflection prism OT 3.13 (11045) Chromatic aberration 5 Colours OT 5.1 (11007) Reflection of light OT 2.4 (11049) Complementary colours OT 5.3 (11035) Real images with a convergent lens OT 4.1 (11033) Refraction of light by a convergent lens OT 4.6 Subtractive colour mixing (11051) 6 The human eye OT 6.08.3 (11057) The astronomical telescope OT 7.7 (11006) Solar and lunar eclipses with an extensive light source 2 Mirrors OT 2.5 (11004) Length of shadows OT 1.16 (11022) Reflection of light by a parabolic mirror 3 Refraction OT 3.02 Magnet Board Optics ● clear length of beams through 50 W halogen lamp with magnet and large model objects Physics Demonstration Experiments – Magnet Board Optics • No.3 (11054) Long-sightedness and its correction 7 Optical equipment OT 7. 22701 1 Propagation of light OT 1.6 (11028) Passage of light through a planoparallel glass plate OT 3.5 (11059) Herschel’s reflecting telescope 4 Lenses OT 4.14 (11020) Image formation by a convex mirror OT 2.1 (11056) The camera OT 7.2 (11047) Non-dispersivity of spectral colours OT 5.1 (11046) Colour dispersion with a prism OT 5.3 (11002) Umbra and penumbra with two point light sources OT 1.37070 Göttingen .9 (11041) Law of imagery and magnification of a divergent lens OT 4. colours (6).4 (11026) Total reflection at the glass-air boundary OT 3.1 (11052) Structure and function of the human eye OT 6.7 (11039) Properties of a divergent lens (11050) Light guide PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.5 (11011) Applications of reflection by plane mirrors OT 2.5 (11037) Virtual images with a convergent lens OT 4.1 (11023) Refraction at the air-glass boundary OT 3.4 (11036) Law of imagery and magnification of a convergent lens OT 4.10 (11032) Light transmission by total reflection OT 4.2 (11034) Properties of a convergent lens OT 4.3 (11048) Reunification of spectral colours OT 5.12 (11018) Reflection of light by a convex mirror 124 Laboratory Experiments Physics OT 2.4 (11058) The Newtonian reflecting telescope OT 7.13 (11019) Properties of a convex mirror OT 2.2 (11008) The law of reflection OT 2.11 (11043) Lens combination consisting of a convergent and a divergent lens OT 4.6 (11005) Solar and lunar eclipses with a point light source OT 1. optical instruments (5) 01151.2007 11:48 Uhr Seite 124 Optics Handbooks Physics Demonstration Experiments – Magnet Board Optics Geometrical optics and theory of colours on the magnetic board The demonstration system presents the following advantages: ● simple handling and minimum preparation time through components with magnets DEMONSTRATION EXPERIMENTS PHYSICS Georg Schollmeyer ● clear and dust proof storage of all components in the device shaped wooden tray ● detailed description of experiments with figures.8 (11014) Real images with a concave mirror OT 2.

08.2007 11:50 Uhr Seite 125 3 Thermodynamics .LEP_3 09.

3.04-00 Freezing point depression 3.02-00 Heat pump Heat insulation / Heat conduction Stirling engine 3.02-00 Vapour pressure of water below 100°C / Molar heat of vaporization 3.02-00 Thermal and electrical conductivity of metals 3.2.603-00 3.4.00 Joule-Thomson effect 3.01-01/15 Stefan-Boltzmann’s law of radiation 3.2.08.03-00 Maxwellian velocity distribution 3. Friction Heat 3.2.5.6.04-00 Thermal equation of state and critical point 3.01-15 Equation of state of ideal gases with Cobra3 3.4.5 3.2.2 Thermal Expansion Thermal expansion in solids and liquids Ideal and Real Gases 3.5.4 Phase Transitions 3.1 3.3.01-00 Calorimetry.6 Heat capacity of metals 3.01-01 3.4.6.37070 Göttingen .02-11 Heat capacity of gases with Cobra3 3.7 Transport and Diffusion Applied Thermodynamics Solar ray Collector Handbooks Glas jacket system Demonstration Experiments Physics – Magnetic Board Heat 126 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.06.2.3.03-00 Boiling point elevation 3.02-00 Mechanical equivalent of heat 3.2.01-00 Vapour pressure of water at high temperature 3.LEP_3 09.04-01/15 3. KG · D .2007 11:50 Uhr Seite 126 3 Thermodynamics Contents 3.1.05-00 Adiabatic coefficient of gases – Flammersfeld oscillator 3.4.02-01 Heat capacity of gases 3.6.01-01 Equation of state of ideal gases 3.01-00 3.2.3 3.01-11 Heat capacity of metals with Cobra3 3.2.

e) duran glass. tall form. KG · D . l = 300 mm. To determine the volume expansion of ethyl acetate (C4H8O2). d) steel. di = 6 mm.60 mm. olive oil. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. To determine the linear expansion of brass.07 1 Immersion thermostat TC10 08492. 250 ml 33930.06 1 Tube for dilatometer.00 1 Flat bottom flasks.00 1 Ethyl acetate. IGJ 19/26 35811. l = 1 m 39282. 100 ml. LUER.02 1 Laboratory thermometers. 100 ml 30177. aluminium.00 2 Wash bottle. IGJ 19/26 03024. using the pycnometer.03 1 Cannula.00 2 Syringe 1 ml.. copper. What you need: Dilatometer with clock gauge for practical class experiments 04233. quarz glass 04231. 20 pcs.LEP_3 09. b) brass.01-00 What you can learn about …  Linear expansion  Volume expansion of liquids  Thermal capacity  Lattice potential  Equilibrium spacing  Grüneisen equation Principle: The volume expansion of liquids and the linear expansion of various materials is determined as a function of temperature. 3. d = 0. DURAN®. for a) aluminium.10 1 Precision Balance. copper 04231.04 1 Measuring tube. c) copper.1. Sartorius CP323P 48800. Luer.08.25 1 Olive oil.2007 11:50 Uhr Seite 127 Thermodynamics Thermal Expansion Thermal expansion in solids and liquids 3. 2. plastic..00 1 Rubber tubing. methylated spirit. 250 ml 30084.93 1 Accessory set for TC10 08492. -10. Laboratory Experiments Physics 127 .00 1 Tube for dilatometer. 02599.01 1 Bath for thermostat. iron. aluminium 04231. Manual on CD-ROM included Thermal expansion in solids and liquids P2310100 Relationship between length l and temperature .05 1 Tube for dilatometer.+100°C 38056. 250 ml 30075. 100 ml 36002. Makrolon 08487.01 2 Beaker. f) quartz glass (lo = 600 mm) Tasks: 1. To investigate the relationship between change in length and overall length in the case of aluminium.37070 Göttingen duran glass and quartz glass as a function of temperature using a dilatometer. pack of 10 02593. DURAN®.93 1 Complete Equipment Set. glycerol and water as a function of temperature. pure.25 1 Glycerol.

00 1 Right angle clamp 37697.00 1 Mercury tray 02085.10 1 Laboratory thermometers.01-01 Equation of state of ideal gases What you can learn about …  Pressure and temperature  Volume  Coefficient of thermal expansion  Coefficient of thermal tension  Coefficient of cubic compressibility  General equation of state for ideal gases  Universal gas constant  Boyle and Mariotte’s law  Gay-Lussac’s law  Charles’ (Amontons’) law Principle: The state of a gas is determined by its temperature. its pressure and the amount of substance.00 1 Immersion thermostat TC10 08492.00 2 Pinchcock.2007 11:50 Uhr Seite 128 Thermodynamics Ideal and Real Gases 3.+100°C 38056. What you need: Gas law apparatus 04362. KG · D . d = 8-12 mm 40996.15 K). 1000 g 31776.02 1 Weather monitor. Tasks: For a constant amount of gas (air) investigate the correlation of 1.00 1 Support base -PASS- 02005. width 15 mm 43631. from which special correlations can be derived for specific changes of state... -10. Volume and pressure at constant temperature (Boyle and Mariotte’s law) 2.15 1 Hose clip. For the limiting case of an ideal gas these state variables are linked by the general equation of state. di = 6 mm.LEP_3 09.2.00 3 Mercury.70 1 Water. l = 1000 mm 02034. Makrolon 08487. Pressue and temperature at constant volume (Charles’ (Amontons’ law)) 128 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. l = 1 m 39282. 6 lines LCD 87997.01 6 Rubber tubing. filtered.9536 mmol) during an isothermic change of state (T = 298. 3.55 1 Support rod.81 1 Complete Equipment Set.37070 Göttingen . Manual on CD-ROM included Equation of state of ideal gases P2320101 Correlation between pressure p and volume V for a constant quantity of air (n = 0.08. distilled 5 l 31246. and the coefficient of cubic compressibility.93 1 Accessory set for TC10 08492. the coefficient of thermal tension. Volume and temperature at constant pressure (Gay-Lussac’s law) From the relationships obtained calculate the universal gas constant as well as the coefficient of thermal expansion. stainless steel 18/8.01 1 Bath for thermostat.00 2 Universal clamp 37718.

d = 50 mm 34457. d = 2 mm 39298.00 1 Gas syringes. For a change of state under isochoric conditions this equation becomes Amontons’ law.00 1 Heating apparatus 32246.00 1 Hose connector. DURAN®. Pressue and temperature at constant volume (Charles’ (Amontons’ law)) PC.00 1 For a constant amount of gas (air) investigate the correlation of Magnetic stirring rod. d = 8-12 mm 40996.08.01 2 Dependence of the pressure on the temperature under isochoric conditions. 330°C 12104. semiconductor type 12120. the coefficient of thermal tension. 250 ml 36004. For the limiting case of ideal gases. pressure and amount of substance.00 2 Tasks: Universal clamp with joint 37716. KG · D . Volume and pressure at constant temperature (Boyle and Mariotte’s law) 2.00 1 Measuring module temperature NiCr-Ni.55 1 Support rod. 9 pole 14602. and the coefficient of cubic compressibility.00 1 Software Cobra3 Gas Laws 14516. without cock. cylindrical.00 1 Silicone tubing.04 1 Temperature sensor.LEP_3 09. What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. d = 10 mm 06311. these state variables are linked via the general equation of state.01 1 Silicone tubing. reducing.01-15 What you can learn about …  Thermal tension coefficient  General equation of state for ideal gases  Universal gas constant  Amontons’ law Principle: The state of a gas is determined by temperature.02 1 Beaker. d = 10 mm 02031.00 1 Magnet rod.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. Manual on CD-ROM included Equation of state of ideal gases with Cobra3 P2320115 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.2.00 1 Funnel.01 1 Cobra3 measuring module converter 12150.00 1 Hose clip. In this experiment it is investigated whether Amontons’ law is valid for a constant amount of gas (air). tall form. 1.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 129 Thermodynamics Ideal and Real Gases Equation of state of ideal gases with Cobra3 3. USB 12150.00 1 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni.93 1 H-base -PASS- 02009. l = 250 mm.93 1 Power regulator 32288.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 129 . 100 ml 02614. sheathed 13615. l = 200 mm. plug/socket. d = 3-5/6-10 mm 47517.00 3 Universal clamp 37718.99 1 Data cable 2 x SUB-D. glass. d = 7 mm 39296. Volume and temperature at constant pressure (Gay-Lussac’s law) From the relationships obtained calculate the universal gas constant as well as the coefficient of thermal expansion.00 1 Measuring module pressure 12103. l = 30 mm 46299. 3.61 1 Glass jacket 02615.00 2 Right angle clamp 37697. stainless steel 18/8.

14 1 Rubber stopper. l = 75 cm 07362.00 1 Chrome-nickel wire. 4 mm plug. U = 4.00 1 Hand held measuring instrument Pressure.00 1 Three-way cock 36732.04 4 Tripod base -PASS- 02002.93 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. Manual on CD-ROM included Heat capacity of gases P2320201 130 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D . d = 32/2 6mm. G2 39105. What you need: Precision manometer 03091.5/50.29 1 Connecting cable. The molar heat capacities CV and Cp are calculated from the pressure or volume change.2. d = 59. di = 6 mm. which can be read from a gas syringe.01 1 Connecting cable.00 2 Right angle clamp 37697. 1 way. 32 A. l = 100 m 06109.00 2 Universal clamp 37718. round 64625. straight 36705.19 1 Tasks: Capacitor 2000 nF/ 250 V.1 mm. Connecting cable.43 A Carbon resistor 1 kΩ.01 1 Connecting cable. l = 50 cm 07361. 10 l 02629. The temperature increase results in a pressure increase. l = 1 m 39282. G1 39104. which is measured with a manometer.00 1 Digital counter. 32 A.55 1 Retort stand. stainless.00 1 Rubber stopper.00 2 Mariotte flask.08. 4 mm plug. 3 holes 39258.00 2 Complete Equipment Set.00 1 Connection box 06030.37070 Göttingen .00 1 Push button switch.23 1 Pressure change p as a function of the heat-up time t. 1 hole 39268. yellow. red.02-01 Heat capacity of gases What you can learn about …  Equation of state for ideal gases  1st law of thermodynamics  Universal gas constant  Degree of freedom  Mole volumes  Isobars  Isotherms  Isochors and adiabatic changes of slate Principle: Heat is added to a gas in a glass vessel by an electric heater which is switched on briefly. 1 W.00 2 Nickel electrode 45218. blue.00 2 Glass stopcocks. l = 50 cm 07361. I = 0.01 1 Rubber tubing.LEP_3 09. 4 mm plug. RS 232 07136.00 1 Scissors. 4 decades 13600.5 mm. Under isobaric conditions a temperature increase results in a volume dilatation. red. 100 ml 02614.02 3 Determine the molar heat capacities of air at constant volume CV and at constant pressure Cp. circuit closing 06039. l = 50 cm 07361.59 V. h = 750 mm 37694. 32 A. 4 mm plug. 32 A. without cock. l = 140 mm. d = 3 45231. d = 0.00 1 Gas syringes.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 130 Thermodynamics Ideal and Real Gases 3.00 2 Nickel electrode with socket.

00 1 Mariotte flask. 4 mm plug.00 1 Three-way cock 36732. Push button switch.61 1 Precision manometer 03091. RS 232 07136. l = 100 m 06109.LEP_3 09.00 2 Nickel electrode with socket. U = 4. h = 750 mm 37694.00 2 Complete Equipment Set. red.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 131 Thermodynamics Ideal and Real Gases Heat capacity of gases with Cobra3 3. without cock.14 1 Rubber stopper. 3 holes 39258.00 1 Volume change V as a function of the heat-up time t. What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. l = 50 cm 07361. 100 ml 02614.04 4 Tripod base -PASS- 02002.00 2 Universal clamp 37718. l = 140 mm. 32 A.01 1 Determine the molar heat capacities of air at constant volume CV and at constant pressure Cp. which is measured with a manometer. which can be read from a gas syringe.00 2 Nickel electrode 45218. I = 0.00 1 Rubber stopper. 1 way.00 1 Gas syringes.00 2 Glass stopcocks.01 1 Connecting cable. 10 l 02629.00 1 Chrome-nickel wire. Connecting cable.55 1 Retort stand. d = 0. The molar heat capacities CV and Cp are calculated from the pressure or volume change.1 mm. Manual on CD-ROM included Heat capacity of gases with Cobra3 P2320211 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. The temperature increase results in a pressure increase. stainless.00 1 Tasks: Connecting cable. l = 1 m 39282. d = 32/26 mm.00 1 Scissors. circuit closing 06039. 1 hole 39268.01 1 Rubber tubing. Under isobaric conditions a temperature increase results in a volume dilatation.08.00 2 Right angle clamp 37697. 4 mm plug.59 V. USB 12150. KG · D . d = 59. d = 3 45231.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 131 . blue. straight 36705. 32 A. l = 75 cm 07362.00 1 Cobra3 current probe 6 A 12126.99 1 Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504. 32 A. red. round 64625. l = 50 cm 07361.43 A.02-11 What you can learn about …  Equation of state for ideal gases  1st law of thermodynamics  Universal gas constant Degree of freedom  Mole volumes  Isobars  Isotherms  Isochors and adiabatic changes of slate Principle: Heat is added to a gas in a glass vessel by an electric heater which is switched on briefly. 4 mm plug. di = 6 mm.2.5/50.5 mm.00 1 Hand held measuring instrument Pressure.

Manual on CD-ROM included Maxwellian velocity distribution P2320300 Experimental and theoretical velocity distribution in the model experiment. 4 mm plug. blue. Discuss the results. d = 16 mm 37656. 2.10 1 Complete Equipment Set.08.01 1 Connecting cable. Measure the velocity distribution of the “model gas”.93 1 Digital stroboscopes 21809.55 2 Connecting cable.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 132 Thermodynamics Ideal and Real Gases 3.03-00 Maxwellian velocity distribution What you can learn about …  Kinetic theory of gases  Temperature  Gas  Molecules  Model kinetic energy  Average velocity  Velocity distribution Principle: By means of the model apparatus for kinetic theory of gases the motion of gas molecules is simulated and the velocity is determined by registration of the throw distance of the glass balls. 12 V AC 13505. digital. red. 4 mm plug. wood 37686. 1/100 s 03071. AR-glass. 132 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. This velocity distribution is compared to the theoretical MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN equation. Tasks: 1. l = 75 cm 07362. KG · D . 3.2.10 1 Test tube rack for 12 tubes. 32 A.37070 Göttingen .93 1 Stopwatch.00 1 Power supply 0-12 V DC/ 6 V.LEP_3 09. What you need: Kinetic gas theory apparatus 09060. l = 75 cm 07362. 32 A. Compare the result to theoretical behaviour as described by the MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN distribution.01 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002.00 1 Receiver with recording chamber 09061.04 1 Test tube.

d = 6 mm 39286. hole d = 8 mm. Determine the critical point and the critical quantities of ethane.04-00 What you can learn about …  Ideal gas  Real gas  Equation of state  Van der WAALS equation  BOYLE temperature  Critical point  Interaction potential  Molecule radius Principle: A substance which is gaseous under normal conditions is enclosed in a variable volume and the variation of pressure with the volume is recorded at different temperatures.08. 2 x Gl18/8. 3. 2. Tasks: 1. d = 8 mm 39283. l = 500 mm 02032.01 1 Bath for thermostat.LEP_3 09. rotary sliding-vane.00 1 Safety bottle. width 15 mm 43631. What you need: Critical point apparatus 04364. the radius of the molecules and the parameters of the interaction potential. vacuum. i. one-stage 02750. 10 pcs 41240. stainless steel 18/8. 14 g 41772..00 1 Laboratory thermometers.00 1 Right angle clamp 37697.88 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002.02 1 Gasket for GL18. Measure a number of p-V-isotherms of ethane. KG · D .d.15 1 Hose clip.00 1 Compressed gas. d = 8-12 mm 40996. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.03 1 Vacuum pump.00 1 Pinchcock.09 1 Complete Equipment Set.00 1 Rubber tubing/vacuum.00 4 Rubber tubing. -10.93 1 Accessory set for TC10 08492.00 1 Universal clamp 37718.10 1 Immersion thermostat TC10 08492. ethane.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 133 . 500 ml. Calculate the constants of the Van der WAALS equation.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 133 Thermodynamics Ideal and Real Gases Thermal equation of state and critical point 3. Makrolon 08487. Manual on CD-ROM included Thermal equation of state and critical point P2320400 p-V-isotherms of ethane. 1 x 25/12 34170.. the BOYLE-temperature.93 1 Adapter 02657.00 1 Rubber tubing.2.01 4 Hose clip for 12-20 diameter tube 40995. = 8 mm 39288. The critical point is determined graphically from a plot of the isotherms.+100°C 38056.55 1 Support rod.00 2 Mercury tray 02085.

30 1 Power supply 5 V DC/2.38 ± 0. 1 hole 39255.LEP_3 09.00 2 Sliding weight balance. d = 32/26 mm. nitrogen. The adiabatic coefficient of various gases is determined from the periodic time of the oscillation. 1000 ml 36632.55 2 Universal clamp 37718.55 1 Support rod -PASS-.93 1 Aneroid barometer 03097. gave for the adiabatic coefficients Argon  = 1. Manual on CD-ROM included Adiabatic coefficient of gases – Flammersfeld oscillator P2320500 134 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 1 Stopwatch. clear glass. right-angled.28 ± 0. CO2 / He 33481. Flammersfeld 04368.3.00 1 Ten measurements. if available) from the periodic time of the oscillation T of the mass m on the volume V of gas Complete Equipment Set. 1000 ml 34175. l = 1 m 39282.00 1 Pressure-reducing valves.4 A with 4 mm plugs 11076.2. KG · D . 230 V AC 64565.08 Air  = 1. 10 pcs. 101 g 44012. 10 l 41763.00 1 Glass tube.00 1 Pressure-reducing valves.37070 Göttingen . l = 400 mm 02026. di = 6 mm.08 Tasks: Determine the adiabatic coefficient  of air nitrogen and carbon dioxide (and also of argon. square.01 1 Rubber stopper.01 1 Aquarium pump.52 1 Rubber stopper. carbon dioxide.01 1 Rubber tubing. BORO 3. 15 minutes 03076.00 1 Steel cylinders. 36701. nitrogen 33483. l = 85 + 60 mm.00 1 Aspirator bottle.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 134 Thermodynamics Ideal and Real Gases 3. d = 22/17 mm. AR-glass. The oscillation is maintained by leading escaping gas back into the system. each of about n = 300 oscillations.07 Carbon dioxide  = 1. 1 hole 39258. What you need: Gas oscillator.09 Nitrogen  = 1.99 1 Micrometer 03012.08.00 1 Steel cylinders.05-00 Adiabatic coefficient of gases – Flammersfeld oscillator What you can learn about …  Equation of adiabatic change of slate  Polytropic equation  Rüchardt’s experiment  Thermal capacity of gases Principle: A mass oscillates on a volume of gas in a precision glass tube.00 1 Graduated cylinder.62 ± 0.39 ± 0.01 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002.00 1 Light barrier with counter 11207.00 1 Air control valve 37003. 10 l 41761.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.

10 l 41761. 10 l 41763. nitrogen 33483.00 2 Rubber tubing.d. CO2 / He 33481. 2.06.00 1 Pressure-reducing valves. where the gas (CO2 or N2) undergoes adiabatic expansion.08.2. Tasks: 1. 4-2 13617.00 1 Wrench for steel cylinders 40322. What you need: Joule-Thomson apparatus 04361.00 1 Steel cylinder.20 1 Hose clip for 12-20 diameter tube 40995.00 1 Temperature meter digital. vacuum.LEP_3 09. Determination of the Joule-Thomson coefficient of CO2.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 135 Thermodynamics Ideal and Real Gases Joule-Thomson effect 3. Determination of the Joule-Thomson coefficient of N2. KG · D .00 What you can learn about …  Real gas  Intrinsic energy  Gay-Lussac theory  Throttling  Van der Waals equation  Van der Waals force  Inverse Joule-Thomson effect  Inversion temperature Principle: A stream of gas is fed to a throttling point. Pt100 11759. The differences in temperature established between the two sides of the throttle point are measured at various pressures and the Joule-Thomson coefficients of the gases in question are calculated. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 1 Gas-cylinder Trolley for 2 Cylinder 41790.01 2 Pressure-reducing valves. Manual on CD-ROM included Joule-Thomson effect P2320600 Temperature differences measured at various ram pressures.00 2 Complete Equipment Set. = 8 mm 39288. CO2.93 1 Temperature probe.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 135 . i.00 1 Steel cylinder. nitrogen.

iron and brass..LEP_3 09.00 1 Precision mercury thermometers. ring d = 140 mm. 850 pieces. DURAN®. What you need: Calorimeter.5 mm.00 1 Beaker.37070 Göttingen . 1/100 s 03071. short form. KG · D . set of 3 04406.01 1 Portable Balance. l = 100 mm 02090.00 1 Aneroid barometer 03097.00 1 Fishing line on spool. 600 ml 36015. d = 6 mm 36756. c) aluminium. To verify Dulong Petit’s law with the results of these experiments. Tasks: 1. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 1 Beaker. short form. DURAN®. The heat capacity of the specimen is determined from the rise in the temperature of the water.00 1 Tripod. Manual on CD-ROM included Heat capacity of metals P2330101 Temperature as a function of time in the method of mixtures experiment a) steel. digital.01-01 Heat capacity of metals What you can learn about …  Mixture temperature  Boiling point  Dulong Petit’s law  Lattice vibration  Internal energy  Debye temperature Principle: Heated specimens are placed in a calorimeter filled with water at low temperature. b) brass. To determine the heat capacity of the calorimeter by filling it with hot water and determining the rise in temperature.00 1 Metal bodies.. OHAUS JR300 48891. 1 l 05933. -10.00 1 Wire triangle (clay triangle). l = 60 mm 33278.00 1 Butane burner Labogaz 206 32178.08.00 4 Steel pot. 136 Laboratory Experiments Physics 2. d = 0.+ 50°C 38033. 500 ml 04401.25 1 Complete Equipment Set. h = 240 mm 33302. To determine the specific heat capacity of aluminium.00 1 Glass beads. Friction Heat 3.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 136 Thermodynamics Calorimetry.00 1 Butane cartridge C 206 without valve 47535.00 1 Stopwatch.3. 250 ml 36013. 3.

stainless steel 18/8.01 1 Metal bodies.01 1 Wire nets.00 3 Butane burner Labogaz 206 32178.00 1 Stopwatch.08. DURAN®. DURAN®.00 1 Immersion probe NiCr-Ni.01-11 What you can learn about …  Mixture temperature  Boiling point  Dulong Petit’s law  Lattice vibration  Internal energy  Debye temperature Principle: Heated specimens are placed in a calorimeter filled with water at low temperature.61 1 Measuring module temperature NiCr-Ni.5 mm.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 137 . 200 g 36937.55 1 Support rod. set of 3 04406. digital. l = 100 mm 02090. 400 ml 36014. The heat capacity of the specimen is determined from the rise in the temperature of the water. To verify Dulong Petit’s law with the results of these experiments. = 10 cm 37701.d. Beaker.LEP_3 09. 160 x 160 mm 33287.00 1 Beads.00 1 Tasks: Fishing line on spool.-50/1000°C 13615. l = 600 mm 02037. 330°C 12104.01 1 Course of temperature in the calorimeter. USB 12150.00 1 Stirring rod 04404. What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. Portable Balance.10 1 Beaker. Windows® 95 or higher Paper tissues Complete Equipment Set. To determine the specific heat capacity of aluminium.00 2 Ring with Bosshead. PC. 1/100 s 03071.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151.00 1 1.10 1 Pipette. with rubber bulb 64701.20 1 2. 600 ml 36015.00 2 Universal clamp 37718.00 1 Butane cartridge C 206 without valve 47535.99 1 Software Cobra3 Temperature 14503. Manual on CD-ROM included Heat capacity of metals with Cobra3 P2330111 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. d = 0. KG · D .00 2 Bosshead 02043. short form.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 137 Thermodynamics Calorimetry. 500 ml 04401.00 1 Calorimeter vessel. i.03 1 H-base -PASS- 02009. OHAUS JR300 48891. short form. Friction Heat Heat capacity of metals with Cobra3 3. iron and brass.3. For 180 g Iron (100 °C) and 200 g water (room-temperature).

the specific thermal capacity of aluminum and brass is determined.08. Determination of the mechanical equivalent of heat.LEP_3 09.28 kg 04441. Determination of the specific thermal capacity of aluminum and brass.0 N 03060. What you need: Mechanical equivalence of heat apparatus 04440. l = 250 mm 02025.70 1 Commercial weight.00 1 Friction cylinder CuZn. Manual on CD-ROM included Mechanical equivalent of heat P2330200 T2 T °C X X X X X X X X 0 120 X 240 T1 360 480 600 Temperature-time diagram for a measurement example.37070 Göttingen 720 t s .03 1 Precision spring balances.3. 2.39 kg 04441.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. digital.00 1 Commercial weight.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 138 Thermodynamics Calorimetry. Tasks: 1.02 1 Friction cylinder Al.00 1 Universal clamp with joint 37716.01 1 Bench clamp -PASS- 02010. 1.0 N 03060. 100.03 1 Support rod -PASS-. 1000 g 44096. Friction Heat 3.55 1 Precision spring balances. KG · D . 1/100 s 03071. a metal test body is rotated and heated by the friction due to a tensed band of synthetic material. 5000 g 44096. 138 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. square. 10. 0. Assuming the equivalence of mechanical work and heat.04 1 Stopwatch. The mechanical equivalent of heat for problem 1 is determined from the defined mechanical work and from the thermal energy increase deduced from the increase of temperature.81 1 X X 28 X X X A2 X X X X X X X X X 27 T 26 A1 25 24 Complete Equipment Set.02-00 Mechanical equivalent of heat What you can learn about …  Mechanical equivalent of heat  Mechanical work  Thermal energy  Thermal capacity  First law of thermodynamics  Specific thermal capacity Principle: In this experiment.

. 3.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 139 . The heat of vaporisation is determined at various temperatures from the measurement of vapour pressure as a function of temperature.4.01-00 What you can learn about …  Boiling point  Heat of vaporisation  Clausius-Clapeyron equation  Van’t Hoff law  Carnot cycle Principle: Water is heated in a closed pressure chamber. stainless steel 18/8. as much water vaporises as to make the pressure in the chamber correspond to the vapour pressure at the temperature at any time. KG · D .00 1 Support rod. Tasks: 1. d = 10 mm 02031.93 1 Pipette. 50 g 03747.10 Heat conductive paste.00 1 Laboratory thermometer.+250°C 38065. with rubber bulb. l = 250 mm.00 1 Complete Equipment Set. To calculate the heat of vaporisation at various temperatures from the values measured. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co..LEP_3 09.55 1 Bosshead 02043. -10. What you need: High pressure vapour unit 02622.08. long 64821. To measure the vapour pressure of water as a function of temperature.00 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. To determine boiling point at normal pressure by extrapolation.00 1 1 Heating apparatus 32246. 2. Manual on CD-ROM included Vapour pressure of water at high temperature P2340100 Natural logarithm of vapour pressure p as a function of the reciprocal of the temperature (1/T): Tb = boiling point at normal pressure.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 139 Thermodynamics Phase Transitions Vapour pressure of water at high temperature 3.

At 35°C the space above the water within the round flask is evacuated.37070 Göttingen . 600 ml 36015.15 1 Glass stopcocks.55 1 Support rod -PASS-. l = 30 mm 46299.. 3 necks.00 2 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. = 8 mm 39288.6 bar 03105. Temperature-connection. right-angled 36705.00 1 Rubber tubing. GL25. About 250 ml of de-mineralized water are allowed to boil for about 10 minutes to eliminate all traces of dissolved gas. distilled 5 l 31246. d = 8 mm 64807.00 1 Water.d.02 2 Glass tube 200 mm ext.08.00 1 Thermometer. 2 x GL18 35677.20 1 Universal clamp with joint 37716. Manual on CD-ROM included Vapour pressure of water below 100°C – Molar heat of vaporization P2340200 Semilogarithmic representation of vapour pressure p as a function of 1/T. d = 12 mm 39285.93 1 Magnetic stirrer.01 1 Vacuum pump.+110 °C 38005. Further heating causes an increase in pressure p and temperature t of water within the round flask. l = 50 cm. short form. 8 mm hole. p and t are read in steps of 5 °C up to a maximum of t = 85°C. The 3-neck round flask is filled about three-quarters full with 140 Laboratory Experiments Physics gas-free water and heated.00 1 Gasket for GL 18. short form. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. -10.81 1 Complete Equipment Set. square.55 2 Beaker. one-stage 02750.02 2 Round flask. Tasks: 1.55 1 Support rod with hole.4. It is shown that the ClausiusClapeyron equation describes the relation between temperature and pressure in an adequate manner. 400 ml 36014. 2.0.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 140 Thermodynamics Phase Transitions 3. M10 thread 02022. 10 pcs 41242. 100 ml. 1 way. vacuum.. Heating. DURAN®. The water is then cooled down to room temperature. DURAN®.00 1 Beaker.02-00 Vapour pressure of water below 100°C – Molar heat of vaporization What you can learn about …  Pressure  Temperature  Volume  Vaporization  Vapour pressure  Clausius-Clapeyron equation Principle: The vapour pressure of water in the range of 40°C to 85°C is investigated. rotary sliding-vane.03 1 Rubber tubing. l = 630 mm 02027.. An average value for the heat of vaporization of water is determined. What you need: Manometer -1.. 10 l 35731.00 1 Support base -PASS- 02005. KG · D . cylindrical.LEP_3 09.93 1 Magnetic stirring rod. i.0. stainless steel.

15 36004.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 141 Thermodynamics Phase Transitions Boiling point elevation 3.01 11762. 250 g Glycerol.08.03 39296.05 37694. Determine the molar mass of the solute from the relationship between the increase in boiling point and the concentration.00 37697. Investigate the relationship between the increase in boiling point and the number of particles.93 48852.00 35812. GL25/14 Beaker.25 13617. square shape. 500 ml Pellet press for calorimeter Funnel.93 45019. tall form. 250 ml. d = 80 mm Pasteur pipettes. The dependence of the temperature difference (elevated boiling point) on the concentration of the solute can be determined using a suitable apparatus. 2 pcs. round. l = 145 ml Rubber caps.00 43631. porcelain Pinchcock. 25 pcs. 250 ml Gasket for GL 18.00 37718. Sartorius LE 623P Weighing dishes.00 33931.00 36590.25 30089. h = 750 mm Right angle clamp Universal clamp Flask. glass. d = 7 mm Mortar with pestle.04 34459. distilled 5 l 36820.00 39275. 200 g Sodium chloride.50 30086.93 11759. 150 ml.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 141 . Manual on CD-ROM included Boiling point elevation P2340300 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 3.4.00 04403.20 30155.03 36937. 10 pcs Beads. plastic.03-00 What you can learn about …  Raoult’s law  Henry’s law  Ebullioscopic constants  Chemical potential  Gibbs-Helmholtz equation  Concentration ratio  Degree of dissociation Principle: The boiling point of a solution is always higher than that of the pure solvent. Complete Equipment Set. width 15 mm Spoon with spatula end. 250 g Hydroquinone. 4-2 Temperature probe. KG · D .LEP_3 09. 250 ml Water.25 31246. DURAN®. Temperature meter digital. steel.00 41242. 250 ml Clamp for heating mantle Power regulator Precision Balance.01 32288. 2.93 49557. Tasks: 1.00 49550.25 30084. 500 g Urea. 8 mm hole. 1 neck. What you need: Appartus for elevation of boiling point Heating mantle for roundbottom flask.81 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Example of a measurement: boiling point increase as function of concentration of table salt in an aqueous solution.15 33393. 10 pcs Silicone tubing. micro Wash bottle. Retort stand.00 32604. Pt100 Protective sleeves for temperature probe. urea and hydroquinone. 84 x 84 x 24 mm. l = 150 mm. Measure the increase in boiling point of water as a function of the concentration of table salt.

25 pcs.00 1 Rubber caps. plastic (ABS) 47334.25 1 Pasteur pipettes.00 1 Volumetric pipettes. 4-2 13617. plastic. 500 g 30155.4.00 1 Funnel.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 142 Thermodynamics Phase Transitions 3.50 1 Hydroquinone. Tasks: 1. 2 pcs.25 1 Denatured alcohol (Spirit forburning).00 2 Spoon with spatula end.03 1 Stirring rods. DURAN®.00 1 Weighing dishes. 84 x 84 x 24 mm. 50 ml 36581.93 1 Temperature probe. 1/100 s 03071. short form. steel.01 1 Precision Balance.00 1 Spoon with spatula end. micro 33393. l = 150 mm.08.00 1 Wash bottle.06 1 Sodium chloride.LEP_3 09. cylindrical. If the cryoscopic constants of the solvent are known.00 2 Universal clamp 37718. 500 ml 33931.70 1 Complete Equipment Set. 1000 ml 36017.37070 Göttingen .01 1 Mortar with pestle. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Sartorius TE 153S 48832. GL 25 41243. 250 g 30089. 11762. BORO 3. Determine the size of freezing point depression after dissolving a strong electrolyte (NaCI) in water.01 2 Protective sleeves for temperature probe.04-00 Freezing point depression What you can learn about …  Raoult’s law  Cryoscopic constants  Chemical potential  Gibbs-Helmholtz equation  Concentration ratio  Degree of dissociation  Van’t Hoff factor  Cryoscopy Principle: The freezing point of a solution is lower than that of the pure solvent. the molecular mass of the dissolved substances can be determined. l = 300 mm. l = 15 mm 46299.93 1 Stopwatch. 70 ml. d = 8 mm 40485. 2. wide 33398.3. porcelain 32603. The depression of the freezing point can be determined experimentally using a suitable apparatus (cryoscopy). steel.00 1 Magnetic stirring rod. 45019. What you need: Apparatus for freezing point depression 36821.00 1 Gaskets for connecting caps. Manual on CD-ROM included Freezing point depression P2340400 142 Laboratory Experiments Physics Cooling curve of water/table salt (NaCI) mixture. By comparing the experimental value with the theoretical one predicted for this concentration. d = 50 mm 36890.00 1 Safety pipettor Flip 36592.05 1 Pellet press for calorimeter 04403.00 2 Beaker.00 1 Retort stand. digital. KG · D . determine the number of ions into which the electrolyte dissociates. 1000 ml 31150. plastic.03 1 Temperature meter digital. Determine the apparent molar mass of a non-electrolyte (hydroquinone) from the value of freezing point depression. l = 150 mm. l = 145 ml 36590. 10 pcs 39275. Pt100 11759.04 1 Magnetic stirrer mini. h = 1000 mm 37695. square shape.93 1 Right angle clamp 37697.

00 3 1 Connecting cable.00 1 1 Shielding tube for thermopile 08479. f. l = 50 cm 07361.  Temperature dependence of resistances Principle: According of Stefan-Boltzmann’s law. m.01 2 Universal measuring amplifier 13626.23 1 1 Resistor 100 Ω 2%. of thermopile as a function of the filament’s absolute temperature.37070 Göttingen 2. Manual on CD-ROM included Stefan-Boltzmann’s law of radiation P23501 01/15 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench..04 4 3 Connecting cable. The corresponding heating currents read off for each heating voltage and the corresponding filament resistance calculated.00 1 1 Filament lamps. KG · D .LEP_3 09. h = 30 mm 08286. USB 12150. G1 06057.93 1 1 Lamp socket E 14.10 1 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. adjustable 08284. the “grey” body is represented by the filament of an incandescent lamp whose energy emission is investigated as a function of the temperature. 1W.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. 4 mm plug.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 143 Thermodynamics Transport and Diffusion Stefan-Boltzmann’s law of radiation 3. Anticipating a temperature-dependency of the second order of the filament-resistance. In the experiment. Moll type 08479.08. l = 50 cm 07361.00 1 Base for optical profile bench. 5 A 13530. 32 A. on stem 06175.5. l = 600 mm 08283. 2 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. Set-up of experiment P2350115 with Cobra3 What you need: Experiment P2350115 with Cobra3 Experiment P2350101 with amplifier Optical profile bench. Stefan-Boltzmann’s law is also valid for a so-called “grey” body whose surface shows a wavelengthindependent absorption-coefficient of less than one. To measure the energy flux density of the lamp at different heating voltages.01 4 Barrel base -PASS- 02006.01 1 1 Variable transformer with rectifier 15 V~/12 V. the temperature can be calculated from the measured resistances. 4 mm plug. m. To measure the resistance of the filament of the incandescent lamp at room temperature and to ascertain the filament’s resistance R0 at zero degrees centrigrade. red. 32 A. l = 1000 x 27 mm 03001. the energy emitted by a black body per unit area and unit time is proportional to the power “four” of the absolute temperature of the body.99 1 Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504. blue.61 1 PC.93 1 Thermopile.01-01/15 What you can learn about …  Black body radiation  Thermoelectric e. f.55 2 Tasks: Meter Scale.00 1 1.00 3 3 Connection box 06030. Thermoelectric e. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. 6 V/5 A 06158. Laboratory Experiments Physics 143 .

2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 144 Thermodynamics Transport and Diffusion 3.7 A Immersion heater. square. plastic (ABS) Heat conductive paste. Determine the heat capacity of the calorimeter in a mixture experiment as a preliminary test. For the electrical conductivity you need: Multi-tap transformer with rectifier 14 VAC/12 VDC.55 02073. measure the calefaction of the cold water as a function of time and determine the thermal conductivity of the metal rod. short form.01 02002.11 04518.55 37718. l = 50 cm 13533. The electrical conductivity of copper and aluminium is determined.02 03071.00 02040.93 07128. l = 630 mm Support rod -PASS-. digital. establish a constant temperature gradient in a metal rod with the use of two heat reservoirs (boiling water and ice water) After removing the pieces of ice. Tasks: 1. Measure the calefaction of water at a temperature of 0 °C in a calorimeter due to the action of the ambient temperature as a function of time.00 36014. To begin with.55 02028. Al Magnetic stirrer mini. 32 A.5. 32 A.02-00 Thermal and electrical conductivity of metals What you can learn about …  Electrical conductivity  Wiedmann-Franz law  Lorenz number  Diffusion  Temperature gradient  Heat transport  Specific heat  Four-point measurement Principle: The thermal conductivity of copper and aluminium is determined in a constant temperature gradient from the calorimetrically measured heat flow. 1/100 s Tripod base -PASSBench clamp -PASSSupport rod -PASS-. l = 1000 mm Universal clamp Right angle clamp -PASSSupporting block 105 x 105 x 57 mm Beaker. DURAN®. 2. square. and the Wiedmann-Franz law is tested. Test of the Wiedmann-Franz law.01 07361.01 11759. 5 A Digital multimeter 2010 Universal measuring amplifier Connecting cable. 4 mm plug. 50 g Gauze bag Rheostats.08. 3. 500 ml Calorimeter vessel with heat conductivity connection Heat conductivity rod.00 02027.00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 1 1 4. 4-2 Temperature probe. Pt100 Temperature surface probe Pt 100 Stopwatch.02 05947. KG · D .00 06110.04 1 2 1 4 4 Complete Equipment Set.37070 Göttingen . l = 50 cm Connecting cable. red. Determine the electrical conductivity of copper and aluminium by recording a current-voltage characteristic line.93 03747.12 47334. blue.10 04518. 300 W. 4 mm plug. 5.10 04518. What you need: Calorimeter vessel. Manual on CD-ROM included Thermal and electrical conductivity of metals P2350200 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.LEP_3 09.93 13617.55 02010.00 04408. Cu Heat conductivity rod.93 07361.00 13626.93 11759. Diagram: Heat of surroundings over time. 10 Ω. 400 ml 144 Laboratory Experiments Physics 04401. 220-250 VDC/AC Temperature meter digital.

3 Collector without glass plate Laboratory Experiments. Illumination with halogen lamp. red. flowmeter 06754. m· = 100 cm3/min. The measurement is made with various collector arrangements and at various absorber temperatures. 4 mm plug. Illumination with halogen lamp. short form.01 Power supply 0-12 V DC/ 6 V.55 2 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. l = 250 mm 02025. Manual on CD-ROM included Solar ray Collector P2360100 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.2 Collector without glass plate 3.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 145 Thermodynamics Applied Thermodynamics Solar ray Collector 3. 220-250 V 04020.08.01 1 Connecting cable.2 –* – – 1 2. Complete Equipment Set.37070 Göttingen 0 1. Measuring tape.0 29 ≈ 20 11. 32 A. 12 V AC 13505.1 + + – 06755.00 1 Beaker.00 1 Safety gas tubing. l = 75 cm 07362.04 1 To determine the efficiency of the solar ray collector under various experimental conditions. The efficiency of the collector is determined from this. digital. 1/100 s 03071.4 – + + ≈ 50 3.LEP_3 09. DVGW. l = 75 cm 07362.93 1 3.00 No.+100°C 38056. cold jet of air impinges.2 Complete collector.1 Absorber with insulation and glass plate (complete collector) 3.4 Collector without glass plate.0 17 Tripod base -PASS- 02002.00 2 Laboratory thermometer -10. 5000 ml 36272.93 1 3.93 Heat exchanger Cold air a – e Light 06753.2 – + + ≈ 50 8.1 Complete collector 2. tall form. square. The heat energy absorbed by the collector can be calculated from the volume flow and the difference in the water temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the absorber.1 Complete collector 1. e Glass plate Solar collector * This series of measurements without rear insulation Water Temperatures and Collector Efficiency under Various Experimental Conditions. 4 mm plug. water temperature at the absorber inlet e ≈ 5°C. 1700 W 04030. qi = 1 kW/m2.2 – + – ≈ 20 Stand for solar collector 06757.3 + + – ≈ 50 6. 2000 ml 36010. Water temperature qe ≈ 50°C. 32 A.00 1 2. 3.0 47 Immersion heater. A = 0 · 12 m2. 2.01 1 Connecting cable.0 35 Hot/cold air blower.00 1 3.00 1 Tasks: Stopwatch.00 1 Beaker.93 1 3. Physics 145 .01-00 What you can learn about …  Absorption  Heat radiation  Greenhouse effect  Convection  Conduction of heat  Collector equations  Efficiency  Energy ceiling Principle: The solar ray collector is illuminated with a halogen lamp of known light intensity. 1000 W.1 +* – – 1 1.1 + + – ≈ 50 8..0 47 Halogen lamp 1000 W 08125. KG · D . l = 2 m 09936. DURAN®.00 1 Circulating pump w. Absorption of energy from the environment (20°C) without illumination by sun or halogen lamp.2 Absorber alone (energy ceiling) 3. if the inlet temperature stays almost constant by releasing energy to a reservoir. blue.+110 °C 38060. 3.5 15 ≈ 5 5. -10. DURAN®. cold jet of air impinges 1.55 2 Universal clamp 37718. l = 1000 mm 39281.6.5 73 1.55 2 Support rod -PASS-. Water temperature qe≈ 20°C.0 64 12.10 3 1 Laboratory thermometers.. 2.. What you need: C K  % ≈ 5 2..

2. Co () as a function of the operating time.02-00 Heat pump What you can learn about …  Refrigerator  Compressor  Restrictor valve  Cycle  Vaporization  Condensation  Vapour pressure  Vaporisation enthalpy Principle: Pressures and temperatures in the circulation of the heat electrical compression heat pump are measured as a function of time when it is operated as a water-water heat pump.00 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.. To calculate energy taken up and released.. l = 300 mm. d = 7 mm 40485. Manual on CD-ROM included Heat pump P2360200 20 Temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the vaporiser Vi (). l = 250 mm 02025. BORO 3. If a power meter is available.1 with stream of cold air 2.3. 50 g 03747.93 1 Stopwatch. also the volume concentration in the circuit and the volumetric efficiency of the compressor.01 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002.55 1 Beaker.08..00 1 Stirring rods. Vo () and condenser Ci ().6.00 4 Laboratory thermometer -10. -10.+100°C 38056.55 1 Universal clamp with joint 37716. What you need:  °C Heat pump.3 without blower. KG · D . tall form. the electric power consumed by the compressor can be determined with it and the coefficient of performance calculated. 2000 ml 36010..88 1 Laboratory thermometers. 1/100 s 03071.00 1 Hot/cold air blower. The energy taken up and released is calculated from the heating and cooling of the two water baths.93 t 30  Vi min -10 1 Complete Equipment Set. Air-water heat pump: To measure vaporiser temperature and water bath temperature on 146 Laboratory Experiments Physics the condenser side under different operating conditions on the vaporiser side.LEP_3 09.05 2 60 ci 50 c0 1 40 30 20 V0 10 2 0 10 Option: Work and power meter 13715.37070 Göttingen . Tasks: 1. DURAN®. 2.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 146 Thermodynamics Applied Thermodynamics 3.55 1 Support rod -PASS-.2 with stream of hot air 2. square. Water heat pump: To measure pressure and temperature in the circuit and in the water reservoirs on the condenser side and the vaporiser side alternately. 1700 W 04030. When it is operated as an air-water heat pump. continuous curves: temperature in water reservoirs. the coefficient of performance at different vaporiser temperatures is determined.+110 °C 38060. digital. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. compressor principle 04370.00 2 Heat conductive paste.

safety plug 06751. Determination of the heat conductivities of wood and Styropor. Determination of the k values of ordinary glass and insulating glass windows and of wooden walls of different thicknesses. Measurement and interpretation of water temperatures during the heating up and during temporary external illumination of the walls. simple 13615.LEP_3 09.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 147 . l = 250 mm 02025.02 4 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. KG · D . Manual on CD-ROM included Heat insulation / Heat conduction P2360300 Heat transition resistance 1/k as a function of the wall thickness d.01 1 Filament lamp with reflector.03-00 What you can learn about …  Heat transition  Heat transfer  Heat conductivity  Thermal radiation  Hothouse effect  Thermal capacity  Temperature amplitude attenuation Principle: A model house with replaceable side walls is used for determining the heat transition coefficients (k values) of various walls and windows and for establishing the heat conductivities of different materials. digital. 5 off 44536. mal transmission resistance. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.55 1 Stopwatch.6.02 1 Ceramic lamp socket E27 with reflector. Styropor or cavity layers.55 1 Support rod -PASS-.00 2 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni. RS 232 07140. 2.08.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 147 Thermodynamics Applied Thermodynamics Heat insulation / Heat conduction 3. square. Tasks: 1. With a multilayer wall structure the temperature difference over a layer is proportional to the particular ther- What you need: High insulation house 04507. and of walls with wood. 1/100 s 03071.55 1 Complete Equipment Set. For this purpose the temperatures on the inside and outside of the walls are measured at a constant interior and outer air temperature (in the steady state).93 1 Thermal regulation for high insulation house 04506.93 Hand held instrument 2 x NiCr-Ni.93 1 Partitions. The thermal capacity of the wall material affects the wall temperatures during heating up and temporary exposure to solar radiation. max. 230 V/120 W 1 06759. 3. 500°C. switch. plastic foam.01 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.

0 A Digital multimeter 2010 Connecting cable.70 07542.00 04372.11 13615. hinged Support rod.00 02032. transparent Motor/Generator unit Torque meter Chimney for Stirling engine Meter for Stirling engine. Efficiency assessment. USB Power supply 12V/2A Software Cobra3 Universal recorder PC.00 02591.55 02045.08. l = 50 cm Oscilloscope 30 MHz. Tasks: 04372.LEP_3 09. KG · D . PP.27 12150. l = 750 mm Thermocouple NiCr-Ni.97 04371.00 1 1 1 1 13505.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 148 Thermodynamics 3. l = 500 mm Optional accessories for heat pump work Power supply 04372. 32 A.01 31150. Rotation frequency and temperature changes of the Stirling engine are observed. 32 A. and calculation of the mechanical power output as a function of the rotation frequency.01 07361.04 04371. 2 channels Screened cable. sheathed Cylinder. or by a coupled generator.95 07542. Calculation of the total energy produced by the engine through determination of the cycle area on the oscilloscope screen. 4 mm plug. red.00 07361.04-01/15 Applied Thermodynamics Stirling engine  First and second law of thermodynamics  Reversible cycles  Isochoric and isothermal changes  Gas laws  Efficiency  Stirling engine  Conversion of heat  Thermal pump Principle: The Stirling engine is submitted to a load by means of an adjustable torque meter. as well as effective electrical power.99 14504.6.02 04372. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.61 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 determined with the assistance of the pV diagram. blue. 330 Ω. with the assistance of the torque meter. using transparent paper and coordinate paper. Luer. Assessment of the mechanical work per revolution.02 07128. 4. Calibration of the sensor unit 3. 1. 10 pcs Rheostats.93 1 Complete Equipment Set. Determination of the burner’s thermal efficiency 2. The efficiency of the Stirling engine can be estimated. 50 ml Denatured alcohol (Spirit forburning). pVnT Sensor unit pVn for Stirling engine Syringe 20 ml. solar motor work Support base -PASSExtension coupling. Assessment of the electric power output as a function of the rotation frequency. BNC. Manual on CD-ROM included Stirling engine P23604 01/15 148 Laboratory Experiments Physics Pressure as a function of Volume for the Stirling process. 4 mm plug. steel.01 04372. Effective mechanical energy and power. l = 50 cm Connecting cable. 1000 ml Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. stainl. 1. 6.37070 Göttingen .04 11459. Windows® 95 or higher Optional accessories for solar motor work Accessories f.01 36628. 5. are assessed as a function of rotation frequency.03 02005. The amount of energy converted to work per cycle can be Set-up of experiment P2360415 with Cobra3 What you need: Experiment P2360415 with Cobra3 Experiment P2360401 with oscilloscope Stirling motor.03 06116.50 12151.

No. chemistry and biology. It was mainly developed for experiments with gases and can be used at school for teaching physics.12 • 17 described Experiments Please ask for a complete equipment list Ref. ethane and propane GL 10 (12238) Determination of the heat of formation of water GL 11 (12239) Determination of the heat of formation of CO2 and CO and Hess’s law GL 12 (12240) Determination of heating value (fuel value) of solid and gaseous fuels in a horizontal calorimeter GL 13 (12241) Determination of the calorific value of some foods Amonton’s law (GL 2) PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Gay-Lussac and Amontons GL 5 (12233) Determination of molar masses by means of vapour density method GL 14 (12242) Determination of the heating value (fuel value) of liquids in the vertical calorimeter GL 15 (12243) Determination of the fuel value of heating oil and diesel fuel and the calorific value of olive oil GL 16 (12244) Chromatographic separation techniques: gas chromatography GL 17 Distillation with steam (12245) GL6 (12234) The law of integral volumes GL 7 (12235) Gay-Lussac’s law of gaseous combustion GL 8 Avogadro’s law (12236) GL 9 (12237) The chemical formula for methane. 01196. ● Demonstrative and transparent ● Versatile and easily assembled ● Water bath for accurate measurements Glass jacket system Fields of application: ● Working out the laws of gases ● Determination of molar masses ● Determination of combustion enthalpies.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 149 Thermodynamics Handbooks Glass jacket system HANDBOOK CHEMISTRY F.09.12 LEP_3 Glass jacket system • No. Jung Glass jacket equipment system This system consists of a glass jacket. 01196. KG · D .08. 23701 GL 1 Gay-Lussac’s law (12229) GL 2 Amonton’s law (12230) GL 3 The Boyle-Mariotte law (12231) GL 4 (12232) The gas laws of Boyle-Marriotte.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 149 . special inserts and accessories. Lindenblatt / W.

Experimentation on the board has the following advantages in the range of thermodynamics: ● Quantity of liquids and convection currents in liquids can easily be seen in glass vessels placed in front of the single-color background ● Observations are supported by use of colored marking arrows and points ● Description of the experiments and explanatory sketches and tables can be made directly on the board ● Individual positioning and simple movement of the holders ● Secure positioning through strong magnets 01154.2 (12919) Heat conduction in solid bodies 2.3) 150 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Demonstration Experiments Physics – Magnetic Board Heat • No. KG · D .4 (12921) Absorption of thermal radiation Volume expansion of gases at constant pressure (1.4) Linear expansion of solid bodies (1.37070 Göttingen . simple and clear method of experimentation on the demonstration board.5 (12917) Pressure elevation on heating gases at constant volume 2 Heat transport 2.LEP_3 09.3 (12915) Linear expansion of solid bodies 1.02 • 15 described Experiments Please ask for a complete equipment list Ref.4 (12927) Molar volume and universal gas constant – Determination of the relative molar mass 2.1 (12913) Volume expansion of water 1. No.1 Gay-Lussac’s law (12924) 3.5 (12922) Utilisation of radiated energy with a solar collector 2.4 (12916) Volume expansion of gases at constant pressure 1.02 Special holders and equipment allow a secure.1 Charles’ law (12925) 3. The distance of the experimental equipment to the board are correlative and optimised for the specified application.2 (12914) Preparing a thermometer scale 1.08.2007 11:51 Uhr Seite 150 Thermodynamics Handbooks Demonstration Experiments Physics– Magnetic Board Heat DEMONSTRATION EXPERIMENTS PHYSICS Regina Butt Magnetic Board Heat The demonstration board with support stand finds application in all fields of physics.6 (12923) Utilisation of radiated energy with a solar cell 3 Refraction 3.3 Boyle and Mariotte’s law (12926) 3. 23703 1 Thermal expansion 1.3 (12920) Heat conduction in water 2.1 (12918) Heat flux in liquids and gases 2. 01154.

2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 151 4 Electricity .LEP_4 09.08.

1.1.2.3.03-00 Capacitance of metal spheres and of a spherical capacitor 4.1.3.09-15 Characteristic curves of semiconductors with FG-Module 4.5.5.01-00 4.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 152 4 Electricity Contents Stationary Currents 4.1.3.03-01/15 Magnetic field of paired coils in Helmholtz arrangement 152 Laboratory Experiments Physics 4.01-15 4.37070 Göttingen .02-00 4.1.08-00 RC Filters Electric Field 4.1.1.2.04-01/15 Temperature dependence of different resistors and diodes 4.2.4.13-15 Second order conductors.2.4.10-00 RLC measuring bridge Charging curve of a capacitor 4.5. phase shift and power in AC circuits 4.2.4.08-00 Peltier heat pump 4.09-01/15 High-pass and low-pass filters Electrical fields and potentials in the plate capacitor 4.4.07-00 Rectifier circuits 4.09-01 Characteristic curves of a solar cell 4.1.01-01 4.03-01/11 Inductance of solenoids 4.04-15 Coulomb’s law with Cobra3 4.1.1.2.08.6 Electrodynamics Electromagnetic Oscilations and Waves Handbooks Demonstration Experiments Physics – Electricity/Electronics on the Magnetic Board 1 + 2 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Electrolysis with FG-Module 4.05-00 Diffraction of microwaves 4.08-00 Magnetostriction with the Michelson interferometer 4.11-00 Resistance.2.3.2 4.3.5 4.07-00 Semiconductor thermogenerator 4.4. KG · D .02-01/15 Magnetic induction 4.05-01/15 Capacitor in the AC circuit 4.1.07-11 Ferromagnetic hysteresis with PC interface system 4.3 4.11-00 Characteristic and efficiency of PEM fuel cell and PEM electrolyser 4.06-01/11 RLC Circuit 4.05-00 Coulomb potential and Coulomb field of metal spheres 4.5.3.4.4.4.1.01-00 Earth’s magnetic field 4.4 4.5.06-00 Magnetic field inside a conductor Wheatstone Bridge 4.08-00 Radiation field of a horn antenna / Microwaves Magnetic Field 4.09-00 Frustrated total reflection / Microwaves 4.03-00 Internal resistance and matching in voltage source 4.02-01 4.5.02-00 Coupled oscillating circuits 4.05-00 Magnetic field outside a straight conductor Ohm’s Law with FG-Module 4.02-01/15 Magnetic field of single coils / Biot-Savart’s law 4.06-00 Diffraction and polarization of microwaves 4.04-01/11 Coil in the AC circuit 4.04-01 Coulomb’s law / Image charge 4.06-01/15 Current balance / Force acting on a current-carrying conductor 4.LEP_4 09.12-00 Faraday’s law 4.4.06-00 Dielectric constant of different materials 4.02-15 Switch-on behaviour of a capacitor and an inductivity with FG-Module 4.04-00 Interference of microwaves 4.4.1 4.3.01-00 Transformer 4.4.04-00 Magnetic moment in the magnetic field Measurement of small resistance 4.4.12-11 Induction impulse 4.1.3.2.

Cu 04518.02 2 Complete Equipment Set.04 1 Connecting cable. Manual on CD-ROM included Measurement of small resistance P2410101 Current/voltage characteristics of a copper rod and an aluminium rod. 32 A.00 2 Power supply 0-12 V DC/ 6 V.02 2 Connecting cable. l = 75 cm 07362. 4 mm plug.93 1 Connection box 06030.11 1 Heat conductivity rod. l = 25 cm 07360. yellow.01-01 What you can learn about …  Ohm’s law  Resistivity  Contact resistance  Conductivity  Four-wire method of measurement Principle: The resistances of various DC conductors are determined by recording the current/voltage characteristic. 2.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 153 . 32 A. yellow.12 1 Universal measuring amplifier 13626. 4 mm plug. l = 50 cm 07361. 4 mm plug. 32 A. blue. 32 A. 12 V AC 13505. Al 04518. l = 10 cm 07359. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.1. blue. 32 A. 4 mm plug. l = 50 cm 07361. red. 32 A. 4 mm plug. 4 mm plug. 4 mm plug. To determine the resistance of various connecting cords by plotting their current/voltage characteristics and calculating the contact resistances. yellow.01 2 Connecting cable.04 1 Connecting cable.LEP_4 09. The resistivity of metal rods and the contact resistance of connecting cords are calculated.08. 32 A.01 1 Connecting cable. l = 25 cm 07360.93 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. KG · D .2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 153 Electricity Stationary currents Measurement of small resistance 4.02 2 Connecting cable.04 1 Connecting cable. red. l = 75 cm 07362. 4 mm plug. l = 200 cm 07365. To plot the current/voltage characteristics of metal rods (copper and aluminium) and to calculate their resistivity. 32 A.23 1 Connecting cable. What you need: Heat conductivity rod. blue. Tasks: 1.

The correlation between voltage and current is to be measured using temperature-in. KG · D .03 1 Connecting cable.64 1 Carbon resistor 330 Ω. 4 mm plug.13 1 Lamp socket E 10.00 1 Connection box 06030.23 1 Carbon resistor 100 Ω. red. To plot the current/voltage characteristics of Ohm’s resistors and of pure metals and to calculate their resistivity. Power and Work of an incandescent bulb. 32 A. To determine the work and power of an incandescent bulb as a function of the applied voltage. 3. USB 12150.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151.02 154 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Complete Equipment Set.01-15 Ohm’s Law with FG-Module What you can learn about …  Ohm’s law  Resistivity  Contact resistance  Conductivity  Power and Work Principle: The electrical resistance of pure metals increases with increasing temperature. G1 39104. G1 17049. with Cobra3” Order No. blue. 1W.37070 Göttingen .00 1 Filament lamps. 12 V/0.LEP_4 09.08. 1W. 4 mm plug.63 1 Carbon resistor 220 Ω. G1 39104. l = 50 cm 07361. l = 50 cm 07361.04 2 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525. G1 39104. Determine the work and power of an incandescent bulb. 01310. Windows® 95 or higher Current.and dependent resistors.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 154 Electricity Stationary currents 4. 1W.1 A 07505. Manual on CD-ROM included Ohm‘s Law with FG-Module P2410115 Tasks: 1. What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. 32 A. You can find more experiments in Handbook “Physics Experiments 2.1. To determine the resistance of various connecting cords by plotting their current/characteristics and calculating the contact resistances.01 2 Connecting cable.61 1 PC.99 2 Measuring module Function Generator 12111.

Manual on CD-ROM included Wheatstone Bridge P2410200 Resistance of a conductor wire as a function of its radius r.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 155 . 1W. 1W.7 kΩ. Tasks: 1. l = 50 cm 07361. G1 39104.40 1 Carbon resistor 100 kΩ. G1 39104. 4 mm plug. G1 39104.02-00 What you can learn about …  Kirchhoff’s laws  Conductor  Circuit  Voltage  Resistance  Parallel connection  Series connection Principle: The Wheatstone bridge circuit is used to determine unknown resistances.02 2 Connecting cable. 4.10 1 Carbon resistor 330 Ω. of resistors in series. G1 39104. KG · D . 1W. +/. l = 50 cm 07361. metal 06108. G1 39104. red. 32 A.23 1 Carbon resistor 10 Ω. 2. 1W.00 1 Connection box 06030.19 1 Carbon resistor 4.27 1 Carbon resistor 10 kΩ. 1W. G1 39104.93 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128.08. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 155 Electricity Stationary currents Wheatstone Bridge 4.00 1 Simple slide wire measuring bridge 07182.01 2 Connecting cable.1. G1 39104.17 1 Carbon resistor 1 kΩ.15 V 13502. 1 W 39104.63 1 Carbon resistor 150 Ω. blue.04 2 Complete Equipment Set. 1W. 1W. 4 mm plug. l = 50 cm 07361. yellow. Determination of the resistance of a wire as a function of its crosssection. 1W. Determination of the total resistance 3. 1 W 39104. of resistors in parallel. G1 39104.30 1 Carbon resistor 15 kΩ.00 1 Connecting cable. 32 A. What you need: Resistance board. 82 kΩ. The total resistance of resistors connected in parallel and in series is measured.LEP_4 09.32 1 Carbon resistor G1.41 1 Power supply 5 V-/1 A. G1 39104. 32 A. 4 mm plug.01 1 Carbon resistor 100 Ω. 680 Ω. 1W. Determination of unknown resistances.13 1 Carbon resistor G1.

)  Terminal voltage  No-load operation  Short circuit  Ohm’s law  Kirchhoff’s laws  Power matching Principle: Both the terminal voltage of a voltage source and the current depend on the load.4 A with 4 mm plugs 11076. as illustrated by the slimline battery. Manual on CD-ROM included Internal resistance and matching in voltage source P2410300 Power diagram of a voltage source. l = 50 cm 07361. What you need: Battery box 06030. 4 mm plug. 5.01 3 Connecting cable. red. 1. varying the external resistance Re. 32 A. 1. Tasks: 1.37070 Göttingen . 100 Ω. l = 50 cm 07361.08.00 2 Double socket. pair red and black 07264.1 1. 4 mm plug. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.21 1 Flat cell battery. and to calculate the no-load voltage U0 and the internal resistance Ri.1 1.m.LEP_4 09. To measure directly the no-load voltage of the slimline battery (with no external resistance) and its internal resistance (by power matching.5 V 07496. 10 Ω. i.2 1. To measure the terminal voltage Ut of a number of voltage source as a function of the current. 4. 9 V 07496.8 A 06114.10 1 Flat cell battery.2 156 Laboratory Experiments Physics Slimline battery Power supply Alternating voltage output Direct voltage output 2.f.02 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128.04 2 Complete Equipment Set.2. 3.00 1 Connecting cable. blue.7 A 06110. Ri = Re).01 1 Power supply 5 V DC/2.2. To determine the power diagram from the relationship between terminal voltage and current. 32 A.1. KG · D . e.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 156 Electricity Stationary currents 4.02 1 Rheostats.99 1 Rheostats. The terminal voltage is measured as a function of the current and from it the internal resistance and no-load voltage of the voltage source are determined and the power graph plotted.03-00 Internal resistance and matching in voltage source What you can learn about …  Voltage source  Electromotive force (e. on the external resistance.

blocking voltage) of different components is determined.27 1 1 Connection box 06030.08. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.1. 1W.01 2 2 Connecting cable. 4 mm plug. USB 12150. 32 A.01 1 1 Bath for thermostat.04-01/15 What you can learn about …  Carbon film resistor  Metallic film resistor  PTC  NTC  Z diode  Avalanche effect  Zener effect  Charge carrier generation  Free path  Mathie’s rule Principle: The temperature dependence of an electrical parameter (e. 3.23 1 1 Connecting cable.02 1 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128.00 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. Measurement of the temperature dependence of the conducting state voltage of semiconducting diodes.7 kΩ. red. Tasks: 1.99 2 PC.61 1 Measuring module Function Generator 12111. Manual on CD-ROM included Temperature dependence of different resistors and diodes P24104 01/15 Diagram of resistances. resistance. 32 A. 4 mm plug. blue. Measurement of the temperature dependence of the resistance of different electrical components.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 157 Electricity Stationary currents Temperature dependence of different resistors and diodes 4. G1 39104.04 1 1 Connecting cable. KG · D . 12 V AC 13505. 32 A. Measurement of the temperature dependence of the voltage in the Zener and the avalanche effects.LEP_4 09. 4 mm plug. conducting-state voltage. the immersion probe set is immersed in a water bath and the resistance is measured at regular temperature intervals. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. Set-up of experiment P2410401 with multimeter What you need: Experiment P2410415 with FG-Module Experiment P2410401 with multimeter Immersion probes for determining ct 07163.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 157 .93 1 Carbon resistor 4. To do this. blue.00 1 Power supply 0-12 V DC/6 V. l = 75 cm 07362. 2. Makrolon 08487.50 1 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525.g.00 1 1 Immersion thermostat TC10 08492.04 2 2 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. l = 75 cm 07362.93 1 1 Accessory set for TC10 08492. l = 50 cm 07361.

4 mm plug. 3. 32 A. 32 A. universal Connecting cable. The force F is to be measured.00 02043. l = 25 cm Connecting cable. 32 A. l = 1000 mm Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. In the range being considered. Set-up of experiment P2410615 with Cobra3 Conductor loops of various sizes are suspended in turn from the balance. n = 1 Wire Loop. 32 A.5 mm.01 06410. red. as a function of the current IL in the conductor loop. blue.01 07360.01 07361.00 14525. KG · D .37070 Göttingen .50 12110.00 06512.06-01/15 Stationary currents Current balance / Force acting on a current-carrying conductor What you can learn about …  Uniform magnetic field  Magnetic induction (formerly magnetic-flux densitiy)  Lorentz force  Moving charges  Current Principle: The force acting on a current-carrying conductor loop in a uniform magnetic field (Lorentz force) is measured with a balance. The magnetic induction is to be calculated.00 02034.55 02040. n = 2 Wire Loop. l = 1000 mm Right angle clamp -PASSBalance LGN 310.00 06031. The uniform magnetic field is generated by an electromagnet. l = 50 cm Connecting cable.99 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 Complete Equipment Set. red. l = 50 mm.1. red. stainless steel 18/8. Physics Lorentz force F as a function of the current IL in the conductor loop. 32 A. Manual on CD-ROM included Current balance / Force acting on a currentcarrying conductor P24106 01/15 158 Laboratory Experiments. 1 pair Wire Loop. The direction of the force is to be determined as a function of the current and the direction of the magnetic field. square.00 06508. rectangular. U-shaped. variable Bosshead Support rod.LEP_4 09. 32 A.55 02028. blue.00 12110.01 07360. laminated Base for iron cores Coil.00 12150. l = 12.05 11081. for a conductor loop.10 06034.07 11081. USB Newton measuring module Newton Sensor Cobra3 current probe 6 A Software Cobra3 PowerGraph Power supply 12V/2A PC. l = 100 cm Connecting cable.93 07359. 32 A. 4 mm plug. on rod Pole pieces.01 07363.00 06024. Windows® 95 or higher 07038. and the Lorentz force is determined as a function of the current and magnetic induction. 900 turns Metal strip with plugs Distributor Bridge rectifier. 4 mm plug.61 12151.08. 4 mm plug. l = 50 mm.01 11081. l = 25 mm.08 06501.02 11081. as a function of the coil current IM.55 11081. n = 1 Iron core. 4 mm plug.01 13500. 4 mm plug. blue. proportional to the coil current IM. l = 100 cm Support base.04 07363. with a constant magnetic induction B and for conductor loops of various sizes. The magnetic induction can be varied with the coil current. Tasks: 1. l = 25 cm Connecting cable.00 02002.04 07361. with sufficient accuray.01 12126. 4 mm plug. l = 10 cm Connecting cable. What you need: Experiment P2410615 with Cobra3 Experiment P2410601 with amperemeter Ammeter 1/5 A DC Tripod base -PASSSupport rod -PASS-. l = 50 cm Connecting cable. The force F is to be measured.04 02001. the magnetic induction B is. 30 VAC/1 ADC On/Off switch Power supply. 2.06 11081.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 158 Electricity 4. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. red. n = 1 Wire loop.

.00 1 Ammeter 1/5 A DC 07038. l = 1 m 39282..1 A 06112. Makrolon 08487.07-00 What you can learn about …  Seebeck effect (thermoelectric effect)  Thermoelectric e. 33 Ω. 4 mm plug.02 1 Voltmeter 0.00 1 Connection box 06030. Physics 159 . the no-load voltage and the short-circuit current are measured as a function of the temperature difference.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 159 Electricity Stationary currents Semiconductor thermogenerator 4. 3. Tasks: 1. l = 50 cm 07361.. KG · D . 4 mm plug. To measure no-load voltage Uo and short-circuit current Is at different temperature differences and to determine the Seebeck coefficient.00 4 Connecting cable.3.. blue. 3. What you need: Thermogenerator 04366.08.04 2 Complete Equipment Set.01 1 Immersion thermostat TC10 08492. Manual on CD-ROM included Semiconductor thermogenerator P2410700 Electrical power generated as a function of the temperature difference.93 1 Accessory set for TC10 08492.m. 32 A. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 32 A.1. Laboratory Experiments. 1/100 s 03071. l = 50 cm 07361. 2W.LEP_4 09.00 1 Resistor 2 Ω 2%.00 1 Precision mercury thermometers.01 3 Connecting cable.02 1 Laboratory thermometers...00 1 Flow-through heat exchanger 04366. digital.300 V~ 07035. 50 g 03747. di = 6 mm.300 V-. To determine the efficiency of energy conversion.20 1 Rubber tubing. from the quantity of heat consumed and the electrical energy produced per unit time. To measure current and voltage at a constant temperature difference but with different load resistors.+ 50°C 38033. 10.00 1 Stopwatch.23 1 Rheostats. The internal resistance.01 1 Bath for thermostat. -10.+100°C 38056. red.f. 2. G1 06055.  Efficiency  Peltier coefficient  Thomson coefficient  Seebeck coefficient  Direct energy conversion  Thomson equations Principle: In a semi-conductor thermogenerator.37070 Göttingen and to determine the internal resistance Ri from the measured values.01 2 Heat conductive paste... the Seebeck coefficient and the efficiency are determined. -10.

01 3 Connecting cable.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 160 Electricity Stationary currents 4.00 1 Distributor 06024. red.  Peltier coefficient  Cooling capacity  Heating capacity  Efficiency rating  Thomson coefficient  Seebeck coefficient  Thomson equations  Heat conduction  Convection  Forced cooling  Joule effect Principle: The cooling capacity heating capacity and efficiency rating of a Peltier heat pump are determined under different operating conditions. To determine the heating capacity Pw of the pump and its efficiency rating hw at constant current and constant temperature on the cold side. What you need: Thermogenerator 04366. universal 13500.01 1 Air cooler 04366. 50 g 03747.. 32 A. with the hot side aircooled. l = 250 mm 02025.00 4 Stopwatch. 4.LEP_4 09. Manual on CD-ROM included Peltier heat pump P2410800 160 Laboratory Experiments Physics Pump cooling capacity as a function of the operating current. l = 50 cm 07361.01 1 Hot/cold air blower.55 1 Connecting cable.04 2 Connecting cable. blue. -10. square.1. 1700 W 04030. 32 A. 4 mm plug.55 1 Support rod -PASS-. di = 6 mm.00 1 Precision mercury thermometers. digital. To determine the cooling capacity Pc the pump as a function of the current and to calculate the efficiency rating hc at maximum output. To investigate the temperature behaviour when the pump is used for cooling. 32 A.00 1 Universal clamp 37718.05 1 Power supply.37070 Göttingen . w and Pc . blue.00 1 Flow-through heat exchanger 04366. pack of 2 07278. 1/100 s 03071. 4 mm plug. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 4 mm plug.. 3.+100°C 38056. red. 2.00 1 Rheostats. l = 75 cm 07362. l = 75 cm 07362. 32 A. 32 A.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.04 2 Connecting cable. red. 3. l = 25 cm 07360. 4 mm plug.00 1 Complete Equipment Set. m.01 3 Connecting cable. f.+ 50°C 38033.02 1 Connecting plug. To determine Pw . c from the relationship between temperature and time on the hot and cold sides.08.08-00 Peltier heat pump What you can learn about …  Peltier effect  Heat pipe  Termoelectric e. 33 Ω.00 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002.. Tasks: 1..01 1 Heat conductive paste. -10.93 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. l = 1 m 39282.00 2 Rubber tubing.93 1 Laboratory thermometers. l = 50 cm 07361.02 1 Heating coil with sockets 04450.1 A 06112. KG · D . 4 mm plug.

00 2 Laboratory thermometers.1. l = 1000 x 27 mm 03001..00 2 Glass pane.09-01 What you can learn about …  Semiconductor  p-n junction  Energy-band diagram  Fermi characteristic energy level  Diffusion potential  Internal resistance  Efficiency  Photo-conductive effect  Acceptors  Donors  Valence band  Conduction band Principle: The current-voltage characteristics of a solar cell are measured at different light intensities. the distance between the light source and the solar cell being varied.10 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128..93 1 Rheostats.55 2 Plate holder... 4 mm plug. l = 50 cm 07361. 2. 230 V/120 W 06759. 4 cells. 1. red.04 2 1. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Complete Equipment Set.93 1 Hot/cold air blower.55 2 Support rod -PASS-. l = 50 cm 07361.LEP_4 09.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 161 Electricity Stationary currents Characteristic curves of a solar cell 4. opening width 0.00 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. 330 Ω.0 A 06116.00 1 Tasks: Connecting cable.04 1 Thermopile. 2 off 35010.00 1 G-clamp 02014.01 1 Filament lamp with reflector.00 1 Universal measuring amplifier 13626. KG · D . What you need: Solar battery. 6.00 1 Universal clamp 37718.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. square.55 2 Barrel base -PASS- 02006.01 3 Connecting cable. and short-circuit current on temperature. 2. Moll type 08479. 4 mm plug. 4. To plot the current-votlage characteristic under different operating conditions: cooling the equipment with a blower. blue. no cooling. l = 250 mm 02025. Manual on CD-ROM included Characteristic curves of a solar cell P2410901 Current-voltage characteristic at different light intensities J.93 1 Meter Scale. 3. To plot the current-voltage characteristic at different light intensities.08. The depencence of no-load voltage and short-circuit current on temperature is determined. switch. safety plug 06751.02 1 Ceramic lamp socket E27 with reflector. -10.5 x 5 cm 06752. 32 A. 150 x 100 x 4 mm. To measure the short-circuit current and no-load voltage at various distances from the light source. To determine the light intensity with the thermopile at various distances from the light source. 5. shining the light through a glass plate. To estimate the dependence of no-load voltage.10 mm 02062. 32 A. To determine the characteristic curve when illuminating by sunlight. 1700 W 04030.+100°C 38056.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 161 .

USB 12150. 32 A. 32 A. in G3 casing 39127. 32 A.4W. G1 39106.01 2 Connecting cable.00 1 Potentiometer 1 kΩ. KG · D . G1 39104. red. To determine the variations of the collector current with the collector voltage for varios values of the base current intensity.04 1 Plug-in board 4 mm plugs 06033. 162 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.38 1 Silicon diode 1 N 4007. Manual on CD-ROM included Characteristic curves of semiconductors with FG-Module P2410915 Collector current/voltage characteristic of BC337 transistor. 2.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. l = 25 cm 07360.03 1 Connecting cable. What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. G2 39103. To investigate the dependence of the current strength flowing through a semi-conducting diode. l = 50 cm 07361.01 2 Connecting cable. red. l = 25 cm 07360. blue.61 1 Measuring module Function Generator 12111.20 1 Carbon resistor 47 kΩ. 1W.04 3 Complete Equipment Set. 4 mm plug.37070 Göttingen . 4 mm plug. 4 mm plug.04 2 Connecting cable.08. 32 A.00 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 162 Electricity Stationary currents 4.1.99 2 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525. 4 mm plug.02 1 Silicon diode 1 N 4148. 0. Determine the collector current with the collector voltage for various values of the base current intensity.00 1 Transistors BC-337/40.09-15 Characteristic curves of semiconductors with FG-Module What you can learn about …  Semiconductor  P-n junction  Energy-band diagram  Acceptors  Donors  Valence band  Conduction band  Transistor  Operating point Principle: Determine the current strength flowing through a semi-conducting diode. l = 50 cm 07361.LEP_4 09. Tasks: 1. blue. G1 39106.

KG · D . 3.08. 2W.LEP_4 09. red.00 1 Laboratory thermometers. plastic 36629. Determination of the efficiency of the PEM electrolysis unit. G1 06055.81 1 Volume of the hydrogen generated by the PEM electrolyser as a function of time at different current I.11-00 What you can learn about …  Electrolysis  Electrode polarisation  Decomposition voltage  Galvanic elements  Faraday’s law Principle: In a PEM electrolyser. To determine the efficiency. blue. 100 ml.01 1 Connecting cable. distilled 5 l 31246. l = 75 cm 07362. 500 ml 33931. black 06027. Manual on CD-ROM included Characteristic and efficiency of PEM fuel cell and PEM electrolyser P2411100 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. universal 13500. Determination of the efficiency of the PEM fuel cell.00 1 Connection box 06030.. digital. the electrolyte consists of a proton-conducting membrane and water (PEM = Proton-Exchange-Membrane). Recording the characteristic line of the PEM fuel cell. 2. 32 A. G1 06056. d = 3-5/6-10 mm 47517. Recording the characteristic line of the PEM electrolyser.00 1 Rubber tubing.00 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. 4 mm plug.00 1 Pinchcock.10 4 Hose connector.. 2W. The PEM fuel cell generates electrical energy from hydrogen and oxygen. 32 A. 4 mm plug. d = 4 mm 39280.10 2 Resistor 5 Ω 2%.04 2 Connecting cable. l = 75 cm 07362.01 1 Stopwatch. the gases are stored in small gasometers in order to be able to measure the quantities of the gases generated or consumed. 4.23 1 Resistor 10 Ω 2%. 1/100 s 03071. hydrogen and oxygen are formed. 2W. blue.10 2 Short-circuit plug.00 1 PEM electrolyser 06748. 250 ml. low form. 32 A.1. l = 1 m 39282.01 1 Hand held measuring instrument Pressure. 2W. width 10 mm 43631.+100°C 38056.50 1 Resistor 2 Ω 2%. 4 mm plug. Complete Equipment Set. plastic. The electrical properties of the electrolyser and the fuel cell are investigated by recording a current-voltage characteristic line. -10. 4 mm plug.00 2 Power supply.04 1 Water. G1 06055. When an electric voltage is applied. What you need: PEM fuel cell 06747.01 3 Connecting cable. G1 06055.01 1 Rubber tubing. reducing. red.00 1 Beaker.01 2 Wash bottle. 32 A.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 163 . l = 50 cm 07361. plastic 36013. di = 6 mm.05 2 Gas bar 40466. Tasks: 1. l = 50 cm 07361. RS 232 07136.00 1 Graduated cylinder.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 163 Electricity Stationary currents Characteristic and efficiency of PEM fuel cell and PEM electrolyser 4.93 1 Connecting cable.20 1 Resistor 1 Ω 2%.

04 07361. l = 75 cm Connecting cable.37070 Göttingen . d = 8 mm On/Off switch Connecting cable.93 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Complete Equipment Set. short form. d = 80 mm Wash bottle.01 07360.01 07362. h = 750 mm Right angle clamp Universal clamp Stopwatch.00 44518.1. Sartorius LE 623P 13500.00 37718. 32 A. glass. red. KG · D .4 kPa) Tasks: Determine Faraday´s constant from the dependence of the volumes of hydrogen and oxygen evolved on the applied charge in the hydrolysis of diluted sulphuric acid.05 K and p = 100. 95-98%.01 37694. l = 50 cm Connecting cable.00 45206. 32 A. red. 500 ml Sulphuric acid. 4 mm plug.10 48852. NiCr-Ni Beaker. 10 pcs Funnel. l = 145 ml Rubber caps.03 34459. 6 lines LCD Precision Balance. 4 mm plug. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. DURAN®. plastic. Faraday´s constant.81 87997. universal Digital multimeter 2010 Electrolysis apparatus .00 06034. hand-held Digital thermometer. Manual on CD-ROM included Faraday’s law P2411200 164 Laboratory Experiments Physics Correlations between the transferred charge and the evolved volumes of hydrogen and oxygen in the electrolysis of diluted sulphuric acid (T = 296. l = 25 cm Retort stand.00 36015. which appears as a proportionality factor. 500 ml Water.00 37697.93 07128.00 07050.00 39275.93 36590.Hofmann Platinum electrode in protective tube.00 33931.12-00 Faraday’s law What you can learn about …  Electrolysis  Coulometry  Charge  Amount of substance  Faraday´s law  Faraday´s contant  Avogadro´s number  General equation of state for ideal gases Principle: The correlation between the amounts of substances transformed in the electrode reaction and the applied charge (amount of electricity) is described by Faraday´s law. 32 A.LEP_4 09. can be determined experimentally from this dependence. 4 mm plug.50 31246. blue.08.00 30219. What you need: Power supply. digital. Sartorius LE 623P Pasteur pipettes.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 164 Electricity Stationary currents 4.01 07136. distilled 5 l Weather monitor. 1/100 s Barometer/Manometer.00 45023. 600 ml Precision Balance.00 03071.

wide 33398. 6 pcs. 4 mm plug. Tasks: Measure the correlation between voltage and current on second order conductors (copper (II) sulphate solution using two different materials graphite electrodes and copper wires.01 2 Connecting cable.05 1 Wash bottle.25 1 Water. 500 ml 33931. What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.81 1 Connecting cable.00 1 Precision Balance. 32 A. 100 ml 36629.13-15 What you can learn about …  Electrolysis  Electrode polarisation  Conductivity  Ohm’s law Principle: In this experiment a copper(II) sulphate solution is to be electrolysed using two different materials graphite electrodes and copper wires.00 1 Copper wire.5 mm 06106.01 1 Graphite electrodes.00 1 Retort stand. BORO 3.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. Electrolysis with FG-Module 4. Sartorius TE 412 48835. Laboratory Experiments Physics 165 .08. BORO 3. d = 0. 150 ml 36003.93 1 Spoon with spatula end. l = 50 cm 07361.3. USB 12150.37070 Göttingen Current/voltage characteristics of an aqueous copper sulphate solution conducted with graphite electrodes and copper wires. d = 5 mm. l = 50 cm 07361. l = 300 mm.03 1 Beaker.00 1 Support for two electrodes 45284. 210 mm x 130 mm. l = 150 mm. Electrolysis with FG-Module P2411315 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. distilled 5 l 31246. During the electrolyses the current/voltage curves are recorded.00 1 Graduated cylinder. 44510..61 1 Measuring module Function Generator 12111. 250 g 30126. plastic. red. d = 7 mm 40485. tall form.99 2 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525.3. blue.00 1 Stirring rods. Manual on CD-ROM included Second order conductors. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. 4 mm plug. DURAN®. h = 500 mm 37692. cryst.04 2 PC.00 1 Right angle clamp 37697.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 165 Electricity Stationary currents Second order conductors. 32 A.LEP_4 09. steel. l = 150 mm.00 1 Copper-II sulphate. KG · D .1.

What you need: Capacitor plate 283 mm x 283 mm 06233. Manual on CD-ROM included Electrical fields and potentials in the plate capacitor P2420100 166 Laboratory Experiments Physics Electric field strength as a function of the plate voltage. 200 mm 09937. l = 600 mm 08283.00 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128.. red.00 1 Base for optical profile bench.04 5 Optical profile bench. 4 mm plug. l = 75 cm 5 07362. blue..01 1 Spacer plates. 10 MΩ 07160. butan cartridge.00 1 Power supply.08.01 Connecting cable.2.37070 Göttingen .00 2 Connecting cable.00 1 Complete Equipment Set. 2.00 1 Rubber tubing. l = 10 cm 07359. square. 3. l = 1 m 39282. 4 mm plug. The relationship between electric field strength and plate spacing is investigated. The strength of the field is determined with the electric field strength meter.02 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench.01 1 Electric field meter 11500. 0. l = 75 cm 07362.00 2 Support rod -PASS-. di = 6 mm. The potential  within the field is measured with a potential measuring probe. stainless steel 18/8. l = 250 mm. 32 A.00 1 Rule. KG · D .55 4 Stand tube 02060.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 166 Electricity Electric field 4. The relationship between voltage and electric field strength is investigated. 1 set 06228. with constant voltage. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 4 mm plug.02 2 Capacitor plate with hole. l = 250 mm 02025.01 1 Support rod.93 1 Blow lamp. d = 55 mm 11500. the potential is measured with a probe.01 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006. regulated.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench. plastic.00 1 Butane cartridge C 206 without valve 47535. h = 80 mm 08286. as a function of position.15 1 Connecting cable. d = 10 mm 02031. Tasks: 1. as a function of the plate spacing d and the voltage U. h = 30 mm 08286.55 1 High value resistors. adjustable 08284.LEP_4 09.600 V- 13672. 32 A.01-00 Electrical fields and potentials in the plate capacitor What you can learn about …  Capacitor  Electric field  Potential  Voltage  Equipotential lines Principle:  A uniform electric field E is produced between the charged plates of a plate capacitor. 32 A. green-yellow. with constant plate spacing.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.10 1 Potential probe 11501. X2000 46930. In the plate capacitor.

04 4 Complete Equipment Set. 1. G2 39113. 4 mm plug. 12 V AC 13505. digital. 1W. 1W.2. l = 25 cm 07360. 2 using different resistance values (C and U constant) PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.01 3 Connecting cable.01 1 Capacitor 4.01 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 167 Electricity Electric field Charging curve of a capacitor 4. G2 39113. from the values measured.LEP_4 09.00 1 Capacitor 2 x 30 µF 06219.7 microF/ 250 V. using different voltages (R and C constant). voltage and resistance are constant (U = 9 V. 4 mm plug. 1/100 s 03071. 32 A. using different capacitance values C.00 1 Connecting cable. G1 39104. KG · D .37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 167 . with constant voltage U and constant resistance R To determine the equation representing the current when a capacitor is being charged.02-01 What you can learn about …  Charging  Discharging  Time constant  Exponential function  Half life Principle: A capacitor is charged by way of a resistor.03 1 Power supply 0-12 V DC/ 6 V. Tasks: To measure the charging current over time: 3.00 2 Capacitor 1 microF/ 250 V. What you need: Connection box 06030. The current is measured as a function of time and the effects of capacitance.08. blue.93 1 Stopwatch. resistance and the voltage applied are determined.23 2 Two way switch.2 M). l = 25 cm 07360.63 1 Carbon resistor 1 MΩ. 32 A. G1 39104.32 1 Carbon resistor 100 Ω. single pole 06030. red. Manual on CD-ROM included Charging curve of a capacitor P2420201 Course of current with time at different capacitance values.52 4 Connecting plug white 19 mm pitch 39170. R = 2.

The capacitance is determined from the measurement curve.08.04 2 The course of the voltage and the current intensity during a switching on process in a coil. blue. blue. red. 900 turns 06512. To measure the course of current strength and voltage in a capacitance in the instant of switching on. 32 A. To measure the course of current strength and voltage in inductivity in the instant of switching on. 4 mm plug.99 2 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525. 47 µF 39105. 32 A.01 1 Carbon resistor 220 Ω. 4 mm plug.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 168 Electricity Electric field 4. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. l = 25 cm 07360. l = 25 cm 07360. 4 mm plug. 2. 32 A.23 1 On/Off switch 06034.64 1 Carbon resistor 470 Ω. G1 39104.LEP_4 09.02-15 Switch-on behaviour of a capacitor and an inductivity with FG-Module What you can learn about …  Charging  Discharging  Time constant  Exponential function  Half life Principle: To measure the course of current strength and voltage ina capacitance/inductivity in the instant of switching on. red. G1. 168 Laboratory Experiments Physics The course of the voltage and the current intensity during a switching on process in a capacitance.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. 1W. USB 12150.01 1 Connecting cable. The capacitance/inductivity is determined from the measurement curve. The inductivity is determined from the measurement curve. l = 50 cm 07361. G1 39104. l = 50 cm 07361. Manual on CD-ROM included Switch-on behaviour of a capacitor and an inductivity with FG-Module P2420215 Tasks: 1. KG · D .01 1 Connecting cable. 4 mm plug.61 1 Measuring module Function Generator 12111. 32 A.37070 Göttingen .45 1 Coil.01 3 Connecting cable.04 1 Connecting cable. 1W. What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.00 1 Connection box 06030.15 1 Electrolyte capacitors non-polarised.2. Complete Equipment Set.

socket. l = 630 mm 02027. pack of 10 29426.03 Insulating stem 06021. l = 400 mm 02026.55 Support rod -PASS-.08. Determination of the diameters of each test body and calculation of their capacitance values. 32 A.LEP_4 09. analogue 07028. 2. 4 mm plug.26 Vernier caliper. l = 50 cm 07361. 3.11 Adapter.00 Screened cable.04 Connecting cable. strong version. The induced charges are determined with a measuring amplifier. square.55 Support rod -PASS-.15 Connecting cable. green-yellow. Laboratory Experiments Physics 169 . l = 250 mm 36709.15 Connecting cable. l = 10 cm 07359. 32 A. 32 A. BNC. What you need: Conducting ball.01 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. plug 07542.00 Barrel base -PASS02006.00 Crocodile clips. 10 MΩ 07160.00 Connecting cable. Tasks: 1..20 T type connector.55 Support base -PASS02005. BNC plug/4 mm socket 07542.00 Conducting ball.37070 Göttingen U1 (measured voltage) as a function of U2 (charging voltage) measured on conducting spheres with three different diameters.21 Adapter.10 kV 13670. straight.. G1 39105.93 Capacitor 10 nF/ 250 V.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 169 Electricity Electric field Capacitance of metal spheres and of a spherical capacitor 4. d = 120 mm 06238.55 Universal clamp with joint 37716. 32 A. AR-glass.01 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 Complete Equipment Set. 4 mm plug. socket. Determination of the capacitance of three metal spheres with different diameters. d = 0.14 Universal measuring amplifier 13626.4 mm plug 07542.00 Hollow plastic ball with eyelet 06245. Determination of the capacitance of a spherical capacitor. Manual on CD-ROM included Capacitance of metal spheres and of spherical capacitor P2420300 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. red.03-00 What you can learn about …  Voltage  Potential  Charge  Electric field  Electrostatic induction  Electrostatic induction constant  Capacitance  Capacitor  Dielectrics Principle: Metal spheres with different radii and a spherical capacitor are charged by means of a variable voltage. l = 50 cm 07361. 4 mm plug. square. KG · D . d = 40 mm 06237.00 Conducting ball. l = 1000 mm 07367. BNC socket . l = 75 cm 07362. blue. plastic 03011.93 Multi range meter. BNC.00 Copper wire. 30 kV. d = 20 mm 06236.00 High voltage supply 0. Cavendish type 06273.00 Hemispheres. 4 mm plug.2. l = 750 mm 07542.55 Right angle clamp -PASS02040.00 Capillary tube. green-yellow.5 mm 06106.03 Connecting cable. black. The corresponding capacitances are deduced from voltage and charge values.00 High value resistors.

green-yellow.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. red. Establishment of the relation between the active force and the charge on the ball.02 1 Insulating stem 06021. 0. l = 100 cm 07363. d = 40 mm 06237.08.00 1 Weight holder for slotted weights 02204.93 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. high voltage. l = 75 cm 07362. 3.01 1 Torsion dynamometer. Tasks: 1.00 2 Conducting spheres with suspension 02416. Manual on CD-ROM included Coulomb’s law / Image charge P2420401 Relationship between electrostatic force F and the square of the charge Q for various distances (a) between ball and plate. l = 1000 mm 02028. BNC. 4 mm plug. l = 75 cm 07362.00 1 Screened cable.37070 Göttingen .55 1 Support rod -PASS-. 4 mm plug.01 1 Connecting cable. 32 A. 30 kV.00 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006. blue. 4 mm plug.4 mm plug 07542.01 N 02416.00 4 Direct current measuring amplifier 13620.55 2 Complete Equipment Set.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 170 Electricity Electric field 4. The surface charge on the plate due to electrostatic induction together with the charged ball forms an electric field analogous to that which exists between two oppositely charged point garges. square. Establishment of the relation between force and distance. 32 A. ball to metal plate. 32 A. 32 A. KG · D .20 1 Connecting cable.55 1 Holder for U-magnet 06509. 4 mm plug.LEP_4 09.93 1 Power supply. 2.00 1 Connecting cable. l = 1500 mm 07542. Determination of the electric constant. What you need: Capacitor plate 283 mm x 283 mm 06233. The electrostatic force acting on the ball can be measured with a sensitive torsion dynamometer.04 1 Connecting cable. red. polished 03916. l = 1000 mm 07367.2.15 2 Support base -PASS- 02005.00 1 Slotted weights.12 1 Adapter. 1 g.00 2 Conducting ball. BNC socket .04-01 Coulomb’s law / Image charge What you can learn about …  Electric field  Electric field strenght  Electric flux  Electrostatic induction  Electric constant  Surface charge density  Dielectric displacement  Electrostatic potential Principle: A small electrically charged ball is positioned at a certain distance in front of a metal plate lying at earth potential. 170 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.01 3 Connecting cable. 0-25 kV 13671. l = 50 cm 07361.

93 1 Complete Equipment Set.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 171 Electricity Electric field Coulomb’s law with Cobra3 4. The force between these balls is measured as a function of their charge and distance (Coulomb’s law). 2 pcs.00 1 Electrometer Amplifier 13621.99 1 High voltage supply 0. l = 10 cm 07359. l = 25 cm 07360.61 1 Newton measuring module 12110.01 1 Conducting ball. 32 A.15 1 Connecting cable. Measure the force between two small electrically charged balls as a function of their charge if both balls are positively charged (+ +).04 1 1 Optical profile bench.10 kV 13670.2. l = 600 mm 08283.00 Base for optical profile bench.00 2 Connecting cable. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 4 mm plug.01 1 Slide mount for optical profil bench.LEP_4 09. For the measurements a sensitive force sensor and an electrometer amplifier are used. h = 80 mm 08286.93 1 Connecting cable.07 1 Connecting plug white 19 mm pitch 39170.14 1 Power supply 12V AC/500 mA 11074.-) or one positive one negative (+ -). USB 12150. 30 kV. both negatively (. 3. Manual on CD-ROM included Coulomb’s law with Cobra3 P2420415 The force as a function of 1/r2.00 1 Data cable for Cobra probes 12150. 07206. KG · D . l = 1000 mm 07367.. What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. Tasks: 1.04-15 What you can learn about …  Electric field strength  Electrostatic induction  Surface charge density  Dielectric displacement  Electrostatic potential  Law of distance Principle: A small electrically charged ball is positioned at a certain distance in front of a second charged ball. Compare the measured results with theoretical values. Measure the force between the charged balls as a function of the distance.01 1 Insulating bar for Force Sensor 12110.08. 4 mm plug.. adjustable 08284.00 2 Slide mount for optical profil bench. where r is the distance between the balls.00 2 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. 32 A.00 1 Newton Sensor 12110. horizontal 08713. 2. G1 39105.50 1 Software Cobra3 Force/Tesla 14515.00 1 Capacitor 10 nF/ 250 V.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 171 . blue. d = 40 mm 06237.02 1 Sliding device.02 1 Plug with socket and crosshole. green-yellow. h = 30 mm 08286.

LEP_4

09.08.2007

11:55 Uhr

Seite 172

Electricity

Electric field

4.2.05-00 Coulomb potential and Coulomb field of metal spheres
What you can learn about … 
Electric field 
Field intensity 
Electric flow 
Electric charge 
Gaussian rule 
Surface charge density 
Induction 
Induction constant 
Capacitance 
Gradient 
Image charge 
Electrostatic potential 
Potential difference

Principle:
Conducting spheres with different
diameters are charged electrically.
The static potentials and the accompanying electric field intensities are
determined by means of an electric
field meter with a potential measuring probe, as a function of position
and voltage.

What you need:
Electric field meter

11500.10

1

Potential probe

11501.00

1

Tasks:

Capacitor plate with hole, d = 55 mm

11500.01

1

High voltage supply 0...10 kV

13670.93

1

Conducting ball, d = 20 mm

06236.00

1

Conducting ball, d = 40 mm

06237.00

1

1. For a conducting sphere of diameter 2R = 12 cm, electrostatic potential is determined as a function
of voltage at a constant distance
from the surface of the sphere.

Conducting ball, d = 120 mm

06238.00

1

High value resistors, 10 MΩ

07160.00

1

Insulating stem

06021.00

2

Power supply 0-12 V DC/ 6 V, 12 V AC

13505.93

1

Multi range meter, analogue

07028.01

1

Barrel base -PASS-

02006.55

3

Stand tube

02060.00

1

Tripod base -PASS-

02002.55

1

Meter Scale, l = 1000 x 27 mm

03001.00

1

Rubber tubing, di = 6 mm, l = 1 m

39282.00

1

Butane burner Labogaz 206

32178.00

1

Butane cartridge C 206 without valve

47535.00

2

Connecting cable, 30 kV, l = 500 mm

07366.00

1

Connecting cable, 4 mm plug, 32 A, red, l = 75 cm

07362.01

3

Connecting cable, 4 mm plug, 32 A, blue, l = 75 cm

07362.04

2

Connecting cable, 4 mm plug, 32 A, green-yellow, l = 75 cm 07362.15

2

Connecting cable, 4 mm plug, 32 A, green-yellow, l = 25 cm 07360.15

2

2. For the conducting spheres of diameters 2R = 12 cm and 2R = 4 cm,
electrostatic potential at constant
voltage is determined as a function of the distance from the surface of the sphere.
3. For both conducting spheres, electric field strenght is determined as
a function of charging voltage at
three different distances from the
surface of the sphere.

Field strenght as a function of
voltage.

4. For the conducting sphere of diameter 2R = 12 cm, electric field
strenght is determined as a function of the distance from the surface of the sphere at constant
charging voltage.

Graphs 1-3: sphere with 2R = 12 cm;
r1 = 25 cm, r2 = 50 cm, r3 = 75 cm;
graph 4: sphere with 2R = 4 cm;
r1 = 25 cm.

Complete Equipment Set, Manual on CD-ROM included
Coulomb potential and Coulomb field
of metal spheres
P2420500

172 Laboratory Experiments Physics

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

LEP_4

09.08.2007

11:55 Uhr

Seite 173

Electricity

Electric field

Dielectric constant of different materials 4.2.06-00
What you can learn about … 
Maxwell’s equations 
Electric constant 
Capacitance of a plate
capacitor 
Real charges 
Free charges 
Dielectric displacement 
Dielectric polarisation 
Dielectric constant

Principle:
The electric constant 0 is determined by measuring the charge of a
plate capacitor to which a voltage is
applied. The dielectric constant  is
determined in the same way, with
plastic or glass filling the space
between the plates.

What you need:
Plate capacitor, d = 260 mm

06220.00

1

Plastic plate 283 x 283 mm

06233.01

1

Glass plate for current conductors

06406.00

1

High value resistors, 10 MΩ

07160.00

1

Universal measuring amplifier

13626.93

1

High voltage supply 0...10 kV

13670.93

1

Capacitor 220 nF/250 V, G2

39105.19

1

Voltmeter 0.3...300 V-, 10...300 V~

07035.00

1

Connecting cable, 4 mm plug, 32 A, green-yellow, l = 10 cm 07359.15

1

Connecting cable, 4 mm plug, 32 A, red, l = 50 cm

1

07361.01

Connecting cable, 4 mm plug, 32 A, blue, l = 50 cm

07361.04

1

Connecting cable, 30 kV, l = 500 mm

07366.00

1

Screened cable, BNC, l = 750 mm

07542.11

1

Adapter, BNC socket - 4 mm plug

07542.20

1

T type connector, BNC, socket, socket, plug

07542.21

1

Adapter, BNC plug/4 mm socket

07542.26

1

Complete Equipment Set, Manual on CD-ROM included
Dielectric constant of different materials
P2420600

1000

Q
nAs

X

800

plastic

X
X

600
1,0

2,0

X

3,0

4,0

X

400
X
X

200
X

0

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

air

Uc
kV

Electrostatic charge Q of a plate capacitor as a function of the applied voltage Uc, with and without dielectric (plastic) between the plates (d = 0.98 cm)

Tasks:
1. The relation between charge Q
and voltage U is to be measured
using a plate capacitor.
2. The electric constant 0 is to be
determined from the relation
measured under point 1.
3. The charge of a plate capacitor is
to be measured as a function of
the inverse of the distance
between the plates, under constant voltage.

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

4. The relation between charge Q
and voltage U is to be measured
by means of a plate capacitor,
between the plates of which different solid dielectric media are
introduced. The corresponding
dielectric constants are determined by comparison with measurements performed with air
between the capacitor plates.

Laboratory Experiments Physics 173

LEP_4

09.08.2007

11:55 Uhr

Seite 174

Electricity

Magnetic field

4.3.01-00 Earth’s magnetic field
What you can learn about … 
Magnetic inclination and
declination 
Isoclinic lines 
Isogenic lines 
Inclinometer 
Magnetic flow density 
Helmholtz coils

Principle:
A constant magnetic field, its magnitude and direction known, is superimposed on the unknown earthmagnetic field. The earth-magnetic
field can then be calculated from the
magnitude and direction of the resulting flux density.

What you need:
Helmholtz coils, one pair

06960.00

1

Power supply, universal

13500.93

1

Rheostats, 100 Ω, 1.8 A

06114.02

1

Teslameter, digital

13610.93

1

Hall probe, axial

13610.01

1

Digital multimeter 2010

07128.00

1

Magnetometer

06355.00

1

Barrel base -PASS-

02006.55

1

Right angle clamp -PASS-

02040.55

1

Support rod -PASS-, square, l = 250 mm

02025.55

1

Stand tube

02060.00

1

Connecting cable, 4 mm plug, 32 A, red, l = 100 cm

07363.01

1

Connecting cable, 4 mm plug, 32 A, blue, l = 100 cm

07363.04

4

Complete Equipment Set, Manual on CD-ROM included
Earth’s magnetic field
P2430100

Linear function to determine the horizontal component hBE of the magnetic
flux density of the earth-magnetic field.

Tasks:
1. The magnetic flux of a pair of
Helmholtz coils is to be determined and plotted graphically as
a function of the coil current. The
Helmholtz system calibration factor is calculated from the slope of
the line.
2. The horizontal component of the
earth-magnetic field is determined through superimposition of
the Helmholtz field.
3. The angle of inclination must be
determined in order to calculate
the vertical component of the
earth-magnetic field.
174 Laboratory Experiments Physics

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

LEP_4

09.08.2007

11:55 Uhr

Seite 175

Electricity

Magnetic field

Magnetic field of single coils / Biot-Savart’s law

4.3.02-01/15

What you can learn about … 
Wire loop 
Biot-Savart’s law 
Hall effect 
Magnetic field 
Induction 
Magnetic flux density

Principle:
The magnetic field along the axis of
wire loops and coils of different dimensions is measured with a teslameter (Hall probe). The relationship
between the maximum field strength
and the dimensions is investigated
and a comparison is made between
the measured and the theoretical effects of position.

Set-up of experiment P2430215 with Cobra3

What you need:
Experiment P2430215 with Cobra3
Experiment P2430201 with teslameter
Teslameter, digital
Digital multimeter 2010
Induction coil, 300 turns, d = 40 mm
Induction coil, 300 turns, d = 32 mm
Induction coil, 300 turns, d = 25 mm
Induction coil, 200 turns, d = 40 mm
Induction coil, 100 turns, d = 40 mm
Induction coil, 150 turns, d = 25 mm
Induction coil, 75 turns, d = 25 mm
Conductors, circular, set
Hall probe, axial
Power supply, universal
Distributor
Meter Scale, l = 1000 x 27 mm
Barrel base -PASSSupport rod -PASS-, square, l = 250 mm
Right angle clamp -PASSG-clamp
Lab jack, 200 x 230 mm
Reducing plug 4 mm/2 mm socket, 1 pair
Connecting cable, 4 mm plug, 32 A, blue, l = 50 cm
Connecting cable, 4 mm plug, 32 A, red, l = 50 cm
Bench clamp -PASSPlate holder, opening width 0...10 mm
Silk thread on spool, l = 200 mm
Weight holder, 1g, silver bronzing
Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB
Software Cobra3 Force/Tesla
Cobra3 measuring module Tesla
Cobra3 current probe 6 A
Movement sensor with cable
Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair

13610.93
07128.00
11006.01
11006.02
11006.03
11006.04
11006.05
11006.06
11006.07
06404.00
13610.01
13500.93
06024.00
03001.00
02006.55
02025.55
02040.55
02014.00
02074.01
11620.27
07361.04
07361.01
02010.00
02062.00
02412.00
02407.00
12150.50
14515.61
12109.00
12126.00
12004.10
07542.27

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
2

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Curve of magnetic flux density (measured values) for coils with a constant
density of turns n/l, coils radius R = 20 mm, lengths l1 = 53 mm, l2 = 105 mm
and l3 = 160 mm.

Tasks:
1. To measure the magnetic flux
density in the middle of various
wire loops with the Hall probe and
to investigate its dependence on
the radius and number of turns.

Adapter, BNC socket - 4 mm plug
Power supply 12V/2A
PC, Windows® 95 or higher

2. To determine the magnetic field
constant 0.
3. To measure the magnetic flux
density along the axis of long coils
and compare it with theoretical
values.
07542.20
12151.99

1
1

Complete Equipment Set, Manual on CD-ROM included
Magnetic field of a single coils /
Biot-Savart’s law
P24302 01/15
Laboratory Experiments Physics 175

LEP_4

09.08.2007

11:55 Uhr

Seite 176

Electricity
4.3.03-01/15

Magnetic field

Magnetic field of paired coils in Helmholtz arrangement
What you can learn about … 
Maxwell’s equations 
Wire loop 
Flat coils 
Biot-Savart’s law 
Hall effect

Principle:
The spatial distribution of the field
strength between a pair of coils in
the Helmholtz arrangement is measured. The spacing at which a uniform magnetic field is produced is
investigated and the superposition of
the two individual fields to form the
combined field of the pair of coils is
demonstrated.

Set-up of experiment P2430315 with Cobra3

What you need:
Experiment P2430315 with Cobra3
Experiment P2430301 with teslameter
Teslameter, digital

13610.93

1

Digital multimeter 2010

07128.00

1

Helmholtz coils, one pair

06960.00

1

1

Power supply, universal

13500.93

1

1

Hall probe, axial

13610.01

1

1

Meter Scale, l = 1000 x 27 mm

03001.00

2

2

Barrel base -PASS-

02006.55

1

1

Support rod -PASS-, square, l = 250 mm

02025.55

1

1

Right angle clamp -PASS-

02040.55

1

2

G-clamp

02014.00

3

3

Connecting cable, 4 mm plug, 32 A, blue, l = 50 cm

07361.04

2

2

Connecting cable, 4 mm plug, 32 A, red, l = 50 cm

07361.01

2

2

Bench clamp -PASS-

02010.00

1

B (r = 0; r is the distance perpendicular to the axis of the coils) as a function
of z (z is the distance from the center of the coils in the direction of the axis
of the coils) with the parameter .

Plate holder, opening width 0...10 mm

02062.00

1

Silk thread on spool, l = 200 mm

02412.00

1

Weight holder, 1g, silver bronzing

02407.00

1

Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

1

Tasks:

Software Cobra3 Force/Tesla

14515.61

1

Cobra3 measuring module Tesla

12109.00

1

Cobra3 current probe 6 A

12126.00

1

1. To measure the magnetic flux
density along the z-axis of the flat
coils when the distance between
them a = R (R = radius of the
coils) and when it is larger and
smaller than this.

Movement sensor with cable

12004.10

1

Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair

07542.27

2

Adapter, BNC socket - 4 mm plug

07542.20

1

Power supply 12V/2A

12151.99

1

PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Complete Equipment Set, Manual on CD-ROM included
Magnetic field of paired coils
in Helmholtz arrangement
P24303 01/15
176 Laboratory Experiments Physics

2. To measure the spatial distribution
of the magnetic flux density when
the distance between coils a = R,
using the rotational symmetry of
the set-up:

b) measurement of radial component Br.
3. To measure the radial components
Br and Br of the two individual
coils in the plane midway between
them and to demonstrate the
overlapping of the two fields at
Br = 0.

a) measurement of the axial component Bz
PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

circular.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 177 Electricity Magnetic field Magnetic moment in the magnetic field 4.04-00 What you can learn about …  Torque  Magnetic flux  Uniform magnetic field  Helmholtz coils Principle: A conductor loop carrying a current in a uniform magnetic field experiences a torque.00 1 Power supply. 32 A.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. What you need: Helmholtz coils. l = 75 cm 07362. of the strength of the magnetic moment. Tasks: PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.93 1 Variable transformer with rectifier 15 V~/12 V.37070 Göttingen Determination of the torque due to a magnetic moment in a uniform magnetic field. 3.00 1 Torsion dynamometer.01 N 02416. Laboratory Experiments Physics 177 .00 1 Conductors..01 5 Connecting cable. 5 A 13530.00 1 Coil carrier for torsion dynamometer 02416.3. l = 630 mm 02027.LEP_4 09.55 1 Support rod -PASS-. This is determined as a function of the radius.93 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. 4 mm plug. 4 mm plug. set 06404. of the angle between the magnetic field in the magnetic moment. of the strength of the magnetic field. one pair 06960. Manual on CD-ROM included Magnetic moment in the magnetic field P2430400 Torque due to a magnetic moment in a uniform magnetic field as a function of the angle between the magnetic field and magnetic moment. KG · D . square.04 5 Complete Equipment Set. blue.55 2 Connecting cable. red. as a function 2. of the number of turns and the current in the conductor loop and of the strength of the external field.02 1 Distributor 06024. l = 75 cm 07362.08. universal 13500. 32 A. 1. 0.00 2 Support base -PASS- 02005.

square. 6 tappings 06526. of a straight conductor as a function of the distance from the conductor.93 1 Teslameter.93 1 Hall probe. Tasks: Determination of the magnetic field 1. 32 A. set of 4 06400. KG · D .55 1 Support rod -PASS-.00 2 Connecting cable. l = 50 cm 07361.02 2 Complete Equipment Set. in which the current is flowing in opposite directions.00 1 Meter Scale. yellow. U-shaped.01 1 Clamping device 06506. of two parallel conductors.01 1 Current transformer/Clamp Ampermeter adaptor 07091.08.00 1 Variable transformer with rectifier 15 V~/12 V. 4 mm plug. as a function of the distance from one conductor on the line joining the two conductors. rod shaped.37070 Göttingen . digital 13610.00 1 Coil. of two parallel conductors.00 1 Coil. axial 13610. of a straight conductor as a function of the current. The dependences of these magnetic fields on the distance from the conductor and on the current are determined. laminated 06501. 140 turns.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 178 Electricity Magnetic field 4.55 1 G-clamp 02014.3.00 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006.LEP_4 09. What you need: Electric conductors.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 4. if the current in both conductors is in the same direction. in which the current is flowing in the same direction.00 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. Manual on CD-ROM included Magnetic field outside a straight conductor P2430500 Magnetic field component By of two parallel conductors on the x-axis as a function of the distance from one conductor. as a function 178 Laboratory Experiments Physics of the distance from one conductor on the line joining the two conductors. l = 1000 x 27 mm 03001. l = 400 mm 02026..00 1 Iron core.05-00 Magnetic field outside a straight conductor What you can learn about …  Maxwell’s equations  Magnetic flux  Induction  Superimposition of magnetic fields Principle: A current which flows through one or two neighbouring straight conductors produces a magnetic field around them. laminated 06500. 3. 5 A 13530.00 1 Iron core. 2. 6 turns 06510.

32 A. What you need: Hollow cylinder.00 1 1 Meter Scale. l = 1500 mm 07542. 1 MHz 13650.08.10 1 Search coil. of the distance from the axis of the conductor. plane 11004.12 1 3 Connecting cable.00 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002.70 1 Complete Equipment Set. 2.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 179 . PLEXIGLAS 11003.02 Connecting cable. l = 400 mm 02026.27 1 Distributor 06024.00 1 Power frequency generator. This magnetic field inside the conductor is determined as a function of position and current. l = 50 cm 07361.55 1 Screened cable. 1000 ml 30214.LEP_4 09. l = 50 cm 07361. yellow. plastic.93 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. of the current in the conductor.3.06-00 What you can learn about …  Maxwell’s equations  Magnetic flux  Induction  Current density  Field strength Principle: A current which produces a magnetic field is passed through an electrolyte.55 1 Support rod -PASS-. Manual on CD-ROM included Magnetic field inside a conductor P2430600 Magnetic field inside a conductor as a function of the position x (x = height of the probe perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder). PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 220 V 13625.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 179 Electricity Magnetic field Magnetic field inside a conductor 4.93 1 LF amplifier. BNC.55 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006. red 02201.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. 32 A.00 Cursor for scale. l = 1000 x 27 mm 03001. square. KG · D . blue. 4 mm plug.04 3 Hydrochloric acid 37 %. 4 mm plug.00 2 Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair 07542. Tasks: Determination of the magnetic field inside a conductor as a function 1. 2 pieces.

What you need: Coil.03 1 Power supply. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. rod shaped. PC.55 1 Support rod with hole.37070 Göttingen .93 1 Rheostats. rod shaped. 10 Ω. solid 06491.08. stainless steel.00 1 Iron core.01 2 Iron core.04 4 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. 4 mm plug. l = 75 cm 07362. red. USB 12150. tangential.99 1 Cobra3 measuring module Tesla 12109.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 180 Electricity Magnetic field 4. l = 150 mm 02030.15 1 Connecting cable. solid 06490. coil  Magnetic field strength  Magnetic field of coils  Remanence  Coercive field strength Principle: A magnetic field is generated in a ring-shaped iron core by a continuous adjustable direct current applied to two coils. Manual on CD-ROM included Ferromagnetic hysteresis with PC interface system P2430711 180 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. U-shaped.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. U-shaped. blue. universal. 600 turns 06514. with analog display 13501. Power supply 12V/2A 12151. with protective cap 13610. 32 A. KG · D .3. The remanence and the coercive field strength of two different iron cores can be compared. The field strength H and the flux density B are measured and the hysteresis recorded.07-11 Ferromagnetic hysteresis with PC interface system What you can learn about …  Induction  Magnetic flux.01 4 Connecting cable.00 1 Tasks: Software Cobra3 Force/Tesla 14515.00 1 Commutator switch 06034. l = 75 cm 07362. 4 mm plug. 5.00 1 Iron core.00 1 Iron core.61 1 Record the hysteresis curve for a massive iron core and for a laminated one. 32 A.LEP_4 09. laminated 06500.7 A 06110.50 1 Hysteresis for a massive iron core.02 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006.02 1 Hall probe. laminated 06501.

f = +20 mm 08018.93 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. 4 mm plug. light is brought to interference.00 1 Beam plitter 1/1. white. Construction of a Michelson interferometer using separate optical components.93 1 Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm 08711.00 1 Lens.00 1 Flat cell battery. with regard to their magnetostrictive properties. What you need: Optical base plate with rubberfeet 08700. 150 x 150 mm 09826. one of the mirrors is shifted by variation in the magnetic field applied to a sample.37070 Göttingen 2.10 1 Connecting cable. Manual on CD-ROM included Magnetostriction with the Michelson interferometer P2430800 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 7 Holder for diaphragm/ beam plitter 08719.01 1 Lens holder for optical base plate 08723. *Alternative: He/Ne Laser.08.2/1. He-Ne 0.0 mW. and the change in the interference pattern is observed.3.93 1 1. l = 50 cm 07361. blue.00 1 Faraday modulator for optical base plate 08733.08-00 What you can learn about …  Interference  Wavelength  Diffraction index  Speed of light  Phase  Virtual light source  Ferromagnetic material  Weiss molecular magnetic fields  Spin-orbit coupling Principle: With the aid of two mirrors in a Michelson arrangement. Testing various ferromagnetic materials (iron and nickel) as well as a non-ferromagnetic material (copper). universal 13500.01 1 Power supply. 220 V AC* 08180.01 4 Magnetic foot for optical base plate 08710.00 1 Rods for magnetotriction.00 1 Laser.00 3 Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm 08711. 32 A.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 181 Electricity Magnetic field Magnetostriction with the Michelson interferometer 4.04 1 Measuring results of the magnetostriction of nickel with the relative change in length l/l plotted against applied field strength H. mounted. Complete Equipment Set.00 1 Tasks: Power supply for laser head 5 mW 08702. non polarizing 08741. Laboratory Experiments Physics 181 . 9 V 07496. Due to the magnetostrictive effect.00 1 Screen. KG · D . set of 3 08733.LEP_4 09. 5mW with holder 08701.

l = 50 cm 07361.00 1 Iron core. Tasks: The secondary voltage on the open circuited transformer is determined as a function 1. of the number of turns in the primary coil. With the transformer loaded. U-shaped. 2. 3. l = 50 cm 07361. of the number of turns in the secondary coil.01 6 Connecting cable. double pole 06032. 2. 32 A.37070 Göttingen .00 1 Iron core. 140 turns. 4 mm plug.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 182 Electricity Electrodynamics 4.93 1 Two-way switch. of the primary voltage. 9. The voltage induced in the second coil (secondary coil) and the current flowing in it are investigated as functions of the number of turns in the coils and of the current flowing in the primary coil. of the number of turns in the secondary coil. of the primary current. 5 A 13533. of the number of turns in the primary coil. of the number of turns in the primary coil.00 1 Multi-tap transformer with rectifier 14 VAC/12 VDC. 8. of the number of turns in the primary coil. What you need: Coil. 32 A. of the number of turns in the secondary coil. laminated 06501. 4 mm plug. blue. laminated 06500.08.01-00 Transformer What you can learn about …  Induction  Magnetic flux  Loaded transformer  Unloaded transformer  Coil Principle: An alternating voltage is applied to one of two coils (primary coil) which are located on a common iron core. The short-circuit current on the secondary side is determined as a function 4. of the secondary current.LEP_4 09.7 A 06110. 10 Ω. red. the primary current is determined as a function 7. KG · D . 6.4. 5. of the number of turns in the secondary coil.01 2 Clamping device 06506.02 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. 6 tappings 06526. 182 Laboratory Experiments Physics 5.04 6 Complete Equipment Set. Manual on CD-ROM included Transformer P2440100 Secondary short-circuit current of the transformer as a function 1. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 3 Connecting cable. rod shaped.00 1 Rheostats.

The voltages induced across thin coils which are pushed into the long coil are determined as a function of frequency. of the number of turns of the induction coil. d = 25 mm 11006. d = 32 mm 11006. 4 mm plug. 32 A. number of turns.00 2 Field coil 750 mm. 300 turns. 4 decades 13600. USB 12150.03 1 1 Induction coil. 100 turns. PC.01 1 1 Induction coil.4. 4 mm plug.00 1 1 Induction coil. 300 turns. d = 40 mm 11006. 32 A. of the frequency of the magnetic field. of the strength of the magnetic field. Windows® 95 or higher 2.01 4 2 Connecting cable. 200 turns.04 2 1 Connecting cable.07 1 1 Connecting cable.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151.04 1 1 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.61 1 Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504.LEP_4 09.00 1 Induced voltage as a function of current for different coils. Manual on CD-ROM included Magnetic Induction P24402 01/15 3.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 183 Electricity Electrodynamics Magnetic Induction 4. blue. l = 75 cm 07362. 4 mm plug. diameter and field strength.06 1 1 Induction coil.61 1 Measuring module Function Generator 12111.02-01/15 What you can learn about …  Maxwell’s equations  Electrical eddy field  Magnetic field of coils  Coil  Magnetic flux  Induced voltage Principle: A magnetic field of variable frequency and varying strength is produced in a long coil.05 1 1 Induction coil. l = 75 cm 07362.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 183 . red. 4. Complete Equipment Set.93 1 Digital counter. 32 A. KG · D .04 1 1 Induction coil. l = 200 cm 07365. 75 turns. d = 25 mm 11006. 150 turns. d = 40 mm 11006. d = 40 mm 11006. Set-up of experiment P2440215 with FG-Module What you need: Experiment P2440215 with FG-Module Experiment P2440201 with counter Function generator 13652.99 2 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525.08. 485 turns/m 11001. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.93 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. Tasks: Determination of the induction voltage as a function 1. blue. of the cross-section of the induction coil.02 1 1 Induction coil. 300 turns. d = 25 mm 11006.

l = 50 cm Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. red. USB Power supply 12V/2A Software Cobra3 Universal recorder Software Cobra3 PowerGraph Measuring module Function Generator PC.26 11006. 4 mm plug.06 11006. 300 turns. d = 25 mm Induction coil. blue.03 11006. 32 A. d = 32 mm Induction coil. radius. 32 A. d = 40 mm Induction coil. d = 40 mm Induction coil. 300 turns.01 39105.61 14525.50 12151.LEP_4 09.4. to calculate the induc184 Laboratory Experiments Physics tances of the coils and determine the relationships between: 1.03-01/11 Electrodynamics Inductance of solenoids What you can learn about …  Lenz’s law  Self-inductance  Solenoids  Transformer  Oscillatory circuit  Resonance  Damped oscillation  Logarithmic decrement  Q factor Principle: A square wave voltage of low frequency is applied to oscillatory circuits comprising coils and capacitors to produce free. red. From the measurements of the natural frequencies. Complete Equipment Set.01 11006. Windows® 95 or higher 13652.93 11459. BNC plug/4 mm socket Induction coil. 75 turns. blue.00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 Inductance per turn as a function of the length of the coil at constant radius. d = 25 mm Induction coil.37070 Göttingen . inductance and length Measurement of the oscillation period with the “Survey Function”. 4 mm plug. 3. Manual on CD-ROM included Inductance of solenoids with Cobra3 P24403 01/11 Tasks: To connect coils of different dimensions (length. 150 turns. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.20 06030.99 14504. inductance and radius. 4 mm plug.01 07360. l = 25 cm Connecting cable. 300 turns. 32 A. KG · D . 100 turns. 4 mm plug. damped oscillations.08. number of turns) with a known capacitance C to form an oscillatory circuit. l = 50 cm Connecting cable. the capacitance being known. Set-up of experiment P2440311 with FG-Module What you need: Experiment P2440311 with FG-Module Experiment P2440301 with oscilloscope Function generator Oscilloscope 30 MHz. d = 25 mm Coil. inductance and number of turns 2.02 11006.04 07361.04 12150. The values of inductance are calculated from the natural frequencies measured.95 07542.61 12111. l = 25 cm Connecting cable. G1 Connection box Connecting cable. 32 A.01 07361. 200 turns.07 06515. 2 channels Adapter.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 184 Electricity 4. d = 40 mm Induction coil. 1200 turns Capacitor 470 nF/250 V.05 11006.23 07360.04 11006.

2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 185 Electricity Electrodynamics Coil in the AC circuit 4. blue. l = 10 cm 07359.93 1 Oscilloscope 30 MHz. Parallel and series impedances are measured. 3. 2. G1 39104. G1 39104. 4.95 1 Difference amplifier 11444. G1 39104.99 2 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525.37070 Göttingen Tangent of the current-voltage phase displacement as a function of the frequency used for calculation of the total inductance of coils connected in parallel and in series.93 1 Digital counter.00 1 Tasks: Connecting cable.61 1 Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504. red. Determination of the impedance of a coil as a function of frequency.LEP_4 09. red. 32 A. Determination of the total impedance of coils connected in parallel and in series.01 2 1. 4 decades 13600. Manual on CD-ROM included Coil in the AC circuit P24404 01/11 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.64 1 1 2 PC.62 1 1 Carbon resistor 100 Ω. 32 A.01 3 Coil. 600 turns 06514. 1W. Connecting cable.93 1 Screened cable. red. 4 mm plug. Laboratory Experiments Physics 185 .01 1 1 Coil. KG · D . 32 A. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. Determination of the phase displacement between the terminal voltage and total current as a function of the frequency in the circuit.04 Carbon resistor 47 Ω. l = 50 cm 07361.08.04 4 2 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151.23 1 1 Connecting cable.04-01/11 What you can learn about …  Inductance  Kirchhoff’s laws  Maxwell’s equations  AC impedance  Phase displacement Principle: The coil is connected in a circuit with a voltage source of variable frequency. 300 turns 06513. 4 mm plug.4. 2 channels 11459. 1W. l = 50 cm 07361. 4 mm plug. The impedance and phase displacements are determined as functions of frequency. USB 12150. 1W. 4 mm plug.63 1 1 Carbon resistor 220 Ω. BNC. l = 25 cm 07360. 32 A. Determination of the inductance of the coil.61 1 Measuring module Function Generator 12111.01 1 1 Connection box 06030.11 2 Connecting cable. Set-up of experiment P2440411 with FG-Module What you need: Experiment P2440411 with FG-Module Experiment P2440401 with oscilloscope Function generator 13652. 32 A.01 5 2 Connecting cable. blue. l = 750 mm 07542. l = 25 cm 07360. 4 mm plug.

63 1 1 Carbon resistor 220 Ω. red. Manual on CD-ROM included Capacitor in the AC circuit P24405 01/15 186 Laboratory Experiments Physics Impedance of various capacitors as a function of the frequency.4. G1 39104.01 1 1 Capacitor 4. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. l = 10 cm 07359.01 2 Carbon resistor 47 Ω. 2. USB 12150.64 1 1 Capacitor 1 microF/ 250 V.LEP_4 09.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 186 Electricity 4.7microF/ 250 V. 4 mm plug. 2 channels 11459. BNC.61 1 Measuring module Function Generator 12111. G2 39113.93 1 Oscilloscope 30 MHz.61 1 Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504. l = 750 mm 07542.11 2 Connecting cable. 1W.05-01/15 Electrodynamics Capacitor in the AC circuit What you can learn about …  Capacitance  Kirchhoff’s laws  Maxwell’s equations  AC impedance  Phase displacement Principle: A capacitor is connected in a circuit with a variable-frequency voltage source. Set-up of experiment P2440515 with FG-Module What you need: Experiment P2440515 with FG-Module Experiment P2440501 with oscilloscope Function generator 13652. Determination of the impedance of a capacitor as a function of frequency. Determination of the phase displacement between the terminal voltage and total current as a function of the frequency in the circuit. Tasks: 1.99 2 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525.01 4 2 Connecting cable. Determination of the total impedance of capacitors connected in parallel and in series.23 1 1 Connecting cable.02 1 1 Capacitor 4. l = 50 cm 07361. blue.62 1 1 Carbon resistor 100 Ω. 32 A. G2 39113.37070 Göttingen .08.04 2 2 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. 32 A. 4 decades 13600. 4 mm plug. The impedance and phase displacement are determined as a function of frequency and of capacitance. 32 A. G1 39104.7microF/ 250 V.93 1 Screened cable.95 1 Difference amplifier 11444. KG · D .00 1 PC. 1W. red.93 1 Digital counter.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. G2 39113. l = 50 cm 07361. 4 mm plug.03 1 1 Connection box 06030. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 1W. G1 39104. Parallel and series impedances are measured. 3.

LEP_4 09.62 1 1 Carbon resistor 470 Ω. 300 turns 06513. Series-tuned circuit for Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525. blue.01 1 1 1 Carbon resistor 47 Ω. 1W.04 2 2 Connection box 06030.61 1 a) voltage resonance damping resistor. Tasks: 2.00 2 2 Carbon resistor 10 Ω. 32 A. 1W. c) current resonance with damping resistor.00 1 b) current resonance damping resistor. KG · D . 4 decades 13600. 4 mm plug.01 3 2 Connecting cable.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 187 Electricity Electrodynamics RLC Circuit 4.37070 Göttingen Total voltage as a function of frequency in the parallel tuned circuit. red. 32 A. red. G1 39105.93 1 Digital counter. without Software Cobra3 Universal recorder b) voltage resonance without parallel resistor Measuring module Function Generator 12111. Set-up of experiment P2440611 with FG-Module What you need: Experiment P2440611 with FG-Module Experiment P2440601 with multimeter Function generator 13652.08.00 1 Coil. 470 Ω. G1 39104. 4 mm plug.61 1 14504. Manual on CD-ROM included RLC Circuit P24406 01/11 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.04 2 1 Connecting cable. 4 mm plug. G2 39113. 1W. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set.01 2 2 Connecting cable. 4 mm plug. Curves recorded for different resistors(top down): R = ∞ Ω. 32 A.01 1 1 Capacitor 100 nF/250 V. G1 39104.18 1 1 Connecting cable. l = 25 cm 07360.01 1 Connecting plug white 19 mm pitch 39170. 32 A. blue. l = 25 cm 07360.19 2 2 Capacitor 1 microF/ 250 V.50 1 Determination of the frequency performance of a Power supply 12V/2A 12151. Laboratory Experiments Physics 187 . PC. l = 50 cm 07361. Parallel-tuned circuit for a) current resonance without parallel resistor. 1W. Q-factor and bandwidth are determined. 1000 Ω. G1 39104. G1 39104. USB 12150.99 2 1. l = 50 cm 07361.93 1 Multi-range meter with amplifier 07034. without c) voltage resonance with parallel resistor.06-01/11 What you can learn about …  Series-tuned circuit  Parallel-tuned circuit  Resistance  Capacitance  Inductance  Capacitor  Coil  Phase displacement  Q factor  Band-width  Loss resistance  Damping Principle: The current and voltage of parallel and series-tuned circuits are investigated as a function of frequency.4.15 1 1 Carbon resistor 1kΩ.23 1 1 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.

red.01 4 Connecting cable.s.26 1 Electrolyte capacitors G1. 3. 470 µF 39105. 1000 µF 06049. 1. value  Internal resistance  Smoothing factor  Ripple voltage  Voltage stabilisation  Voltage doubling Principle: The ripple of the output voltage of various rectifier circuits is measured as a function of the load current strength and the charging capacitance. 32 A.00 3 Rheostats. 32 A. Using the bridge rectifier: a) to display the output voltage (without charging capacitor) on the oscilloscope Complete Equipment Set. l = 25 cm 07360.m. 5 A 13533. The characteristics of a voltage stabilizer and of a multiplier are investigated. 4 mm plug. Manual on CD-ROM included Rectifier circuits P2440700 188 Laboratory Experiments Physics Ripple of the output voltage as a function of the charging current: a) half-wave rectifier. 32 A. 2200 µF 39113. red.00 3 Connecting cable. 4 mm plug. Using the half-wave rectifier: a) to display the output voltage (without charging capacitor) on the oscilloscope b) to measure the diode current ID as a function of the output current strength Io (with the charging capacitor) c) to measure the ripple component UACpp of the output voltage as a function of the output current (C = constant) d) to measure the ripple as a function of the capacitance (Io = constant) e) to measure the output voltage Uo as a function of the input voltage Ui (Io = 0). BNC plug/4 mm socket 07542.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 188 Electricity Electrodynamics 4.02 4 Electrolyte capacitors.01 1 Multi-tap transformer with rectifier 14 VAC/12 VDC. G1 39104. l = 50 cm 07361.LEP_4 09. G2.07-00 Rectifier circuits What you can learn about …  Half-wave rectifier  Full-wave rectifier  Graetz rectifier  Diode and Zener diode  Avalanche effect  Charging capacitor  Ripple  r.95 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. l = 25 cm 07360. ID. l = 50 cm 07361.09 1 Carbon resistor 470 Ω. G1 39132.28 4 Electrolyte capacitors. 4 mm plug. 1W.37070 Göttingen . 1W. blue. 2 channels 11459. To measure the voltage at the charging capacitor. b) to measure the current through one diode.02 1 Adapter.04 2 Connecting cable.0 A 06116.04 4 1. as a function of the output current Io (with the charging capacitor) c) to measure the ripple of the output voltage as a function of the output current (C = constant) d) to measure the ripple as a function of the capacitance (Io = constant) e) to measure the output voltage as a function of the input voltage.4.26 1 Tasks: Connecting plug white 19 mm pitch 39170. b) bridge rectifier. 330 Ω. 2. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.01 2 Connecting cable.00 1 Silicon diode 1 N 4007.08.93 1 Oscilloscope 30 MHz. G1 39104. G1 39106. KG · D .62 1 Siliziumdiode ZF 4. 4 mm plug. Uc. G1. 32 A. and the output voltage of a stabilized voltage source as a function of the input voltage Ui.7. 10 µF 39105.08 1 Electrolyte capacitors G1. To measure the output voltage of a voltage multiplier circuit as a function of the input voltage. blue. What you need: Plug-in board 4 mm plugs 06033. 4.15 1 Carbon resistor 47 Ω.

4 mm plug.4. 32 A.00 5 Difference amplifier 11444.08. l = 10 cm 07359. blue. G1 39105. a high-pass filter 7. Manual on CD-ROM included RC Filters P2440800 Frequency response of high-pass and low pass filter.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 189 Electricity Electrodynamics RC Filters 4. 4 mm plug. BNC. a parallel-T filter. G1 39104. a Wien-Robinson bridge 5. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 1W. 4 mm plug.95 1 Adapter.19 5 Connecting plug white 19 mm pitch 39170. 1W. a low-pass filter 3.01 2 Connecting cable.02 1 Connecting cable. a band-pass filter 4. a differentiating network 2.12 1 Complete Equipment Set. BNC plug/4 mm socket 07542. 32 A. point by point and to display the sweep on the oscilloscope.00 1 Resistor 500 Ω 2%. l = 30 cm 07542. 32 A. KG · D .26 2 Connecting cable.50 1 Capacitor 10 nF/ 250 V. l = 1500 mm 07542.95 1 Oscilloscope 30 MHz. yellow.08-00 What you can learn about …  High-pass  Low-pass  Wien-Robinson bridge  Parallel-T filters  Differentiating network  Integrating network  Step response  Square wave  Transfer function Principle: The frequency response of simple RC filters is recorded by point-by-point measurements and the sweep displayed on the oscilloscope. G1 06057. an integrating network 6.LEP_4 09.10 1 Screened cable. BNC.93 1 Wobble-functiongenerator 1 Hz-10 MHz 11766. Tasks: To record the frequency response of the output voltage of To investigate the step response of 1.14 4 Carbon resistor 1kΩ.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 189 . l = 50 cm 07361. What you need: Plug-in board 4 mm plugs 06033. 2 channels 11459. l = 50 cm 07361.04 3 Screened cable. red.

19 2 2 Capacitor 1 microF/ 250 V. 2 channels 11459.01 1 2.09-01/15 Electrodynamics High-pass and low-pass filters What you can learn about …  Circuit  Resistance  Capacitance  Inductance  Capacitor  Coil  Phase displacement  Filter  Kirchhoff’s laws  Bode diagram Principle: A coil.00 1 1. red.08. PC. G2 39113. RC/CR network.99 2 Tasks: Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525. G1 39104. l = 10 cm 07359.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 190 Electricity 4. an ohmic resistance and combinations of these components are investigated for their filter characteristics as a function of frequency. 4. 1W.95 1 Digital counter. 4 mm plug. blue. l = 25 cm 07360. CL/LC network.LEP_4 09. l = 50 cm 07361. 32 A. 4 mm plug.93 1 Oscilloscope 30 MHz.37070 Göttingen .04 4 2 Connection box 06030. G2 39113.7microF/ 250 V. blue. Determination of the phase displacement with the RC/CR network. 1W.93 1 Difference amplifier 11444. 4 mm plug. blue. Connecting cable. a capacitor.62 1 1 Carbon resistor 1 kΩ. 32 A.93 1 Screened cable.4. 4 mm plug. KG · D . Set-up of experiment P2440915 with FG-Module What you need: Experiment P2440915 with FG-Module Experiment P2440901 with oscilloscope Function generator 13652. 32 A.04 1 Coil. l = 50 cm 07361.02 1 1 Connecting cable. Two CR networks connected in series.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. USB 12150.01 4 2 Connecting cable. l = 25 cm 07360. Complete Equipment Set. 4 decades 13600.61 1 Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504. 32 A.61 1 Determination of the ratio of output voltage to input voltage with the Measuring module Function Generator 12111. 300 turns 06513. l = 750 mm 07542. 6.01 1 1 Capacitor 4. Windows® 95 or higher U/U1 as a function of the frequency with the LC and CL network. G1 39104. Connecting cable. red.01 1 1 Carbon resistor 47 Ω. 4 mm plug.11 2 Connecting cable. The phase displacement of the filters is determined also as a function of frequency. 32 A. Determination of the phase displacement with two CR networks connected in series.04 1 3.23 1 1 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. 5. BNC. Manual on CD-ROM included High-pass and low-pass filters P24409 01/15 190 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. RL/LR network.

G1 Carbon resistor 2. inductances and capacitances are determined in a Wheatstone bridge circuit operated on AC. l = 75 cm Headphone Adapter jack plug/2 x 4 mm plug 07182.01 06522.5 kΩ.LEP_4 09. 4 mm plug.00 13652. G2 Capacitor 10 nF/ 250 V.01 06514.10-00 What you can learn about …  Wheatstone bridge  Inductive and capacitive reactance  Ohmic resistance  Impedance  Kirchhoff’s laws Principle: Ohmic resistances. 680 Ω. 1 W Carbon resistor 1 kΩ. G1 Carbon resistor 3. blue.04 65974. 32 A. 1W. 6 turns Coil.2 kΩ. G1 Carbon resistor 470 Ω.01 39104. G1 Capacitor 47 nF/ 250 V.00 06513. Complete Equipment Set. 0. G2 Capacitor 100 nF/250 V.04 07362.4W. Manual on CD-ROM included RLC measuring bridge P2441000 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Tasks: To determine 1.23 07360. 1W.01 39104.19 39105. using bridge balancing.01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 1 Wheatstone bridge.15 39104. G1 Carbon resistor G1. capacitances with the Wheatstone bridge. short Induction coil.3 kΩ.00 65974.25 39103. inductances 3. 300 turns. G1 Potentiometer 100 Ω.01 06515. stereo Function generator Coil. G1 Capacitor 1 nF/ 100 V. 4 mm plug. 600 turns Coil. 1W.23 39104. 1W.13 39104.08.04 39105.93 06510.18 06030. 32 A.07 39105. 1W. using the high sensitivity of the human ear.04 07361. l = 50 cm Connecting cable.17 39105. 300 turns Coil. l = 25 cm Connecting cable. G1 Connection box Connecting cable.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 191 . 32 A.21 39104.4. Balancing is done aurally through headphones. 1200 turns Coil. What you need: Simple slide wire measuring bridge Head phones. 1W. KG · D . blue. ohmic resistances 2. 600 turns.10 39105. G2 Capacitor 470 pF/100 V. G1 Capacitor 100 pF/100 V. d = 40 mm Carbon resistor 330 Ω. 1W.19 39104. 4 mm plug.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 191 Electricity Electrodynamics RLC measuring bridge 4. blue.14 39105. G1 Carbon resistor 1.01 11006.17 39104. G2 Carbon resistor 1 kΩ.

Tasks: 192 Laboratory Experiments Physics 1. Measuring the electrical magnitudes with a work or power measurement instrument.08. 4 mm plug. Series circuit of self-inductance and resistor (real coil) – Determination of self-inductance and ohmic resistance – Investigation of impedance and phase shift as a function of frequency 2. phase shift and power in AC circuits What you can learn about …  Impedance  Phase shift  Phasor diagram  Capacitance  Self-inductance Principle: Series circuits containing self-inductances or capacitances and ohmic resistances are investigated as a function of frequency. 32 A.11-00 Resistance. 300 turns 06513.37070 Göttingen .01 1 Connection box 06030. KG · D . real power or apparent power can be displayed directly.LEP_4 09.45 1 Carbon resistor 10 Ohm. Series circuit of capacitor and resistor – Investigation of the relation between real power and current intensity phase shift as a function of frequency – Investigation of impedance and – Investigation of the relation between real power and current intensity – Determination of capacitance and ohmic resistance PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.93 1 Power frequency generator. G1 39104. black.93 1 Coil. Manual on CD-ROM included Resistance. What you need: Work and power meter 13715. 1W.01 1 Connecting cable.05 4 Z2 2 X 1100 1000 900 X 800 700 X 600 Complete Equipment Set.23 1 Electrolyte capacitors non-polarised. 47 µF 39105.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 192 Electricity Electrodynamics 4. G1. Z2 as a function of 1/f2.4. l = 50 cm 07361. phase shift and power in AC circuits P2441100 X 500 X 400 X 300 X 200 X X X 100 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1/f 2 10-6 Hz2 Capacitor and resistor in series. 1 MHz 13650.

32 A.00 1 Connecting cable. l = 50 cm 07361. 32 A. 32 A.00 1 Glass tubes. l = 50 cm 07361. USB 12150. l = 300 mm 45126. 4 mm plug. Manual on CD-ROM included Induction impulse P2441211 Measured induction voltage USS versus time. 2.4. AR-glass.04 2 Connecting cable.00 1 Coil. Evaluation of the induced voltage impulse USS as a function of the magnet’s velocity.61 1 Light barrier. l = 50 cm 07361.55 1 Universal clamp 37718. What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. stainless steel 18/8.01 1 Magnet.08.00 1 Bosshead 02043.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 193 . 3. d = 8 mm.766 V is shown. Tasks: 1. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.12-11 What you can learn about …  Law of induction  Magnetic flux  Maxwell’s equations Principle: A permanent magnet falls with different velocities through a coil. 600 turns. blue.61 1 Software Cobra3 PowerGraph 14525.01 1 Coil holder 06528. l = 60 mm 06317.20 1 Support rod. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set.LEP_4 09.99 1 Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504. KG · D . l = 600 mm 02037. 4 mm plug.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 193 Electricity Electrodynamics Induction impulse 4. yellow. Depending on the polarity of the permanent magnet the induced voltage impulse is negative or positive. Calculation of the magnetic flux induced by the falling magnet as a function of the magnet’s velocity. The induced voltage impulse USS is recorded with a computer interface system. Measurement of the induced voltage impulse USS and the falling magnet’s velocity.02 2 PC.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. 4 mm plug. Additionally the evaluation of the peak-to-peak voltage USS = 2.00 3 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. compact 11207. short 06522. red. The change in the magnetic flux  generates an induced voltage impulse. d = 12 mm.01 2 Connecting cable.

02-00 Coupled oscillating circuits What you can learn about …  Resonance  Q factor  Dissipation factor  Bandwidth  Critical or optimum coupling  Characteristic impedance  Pauli method  Parallel conductance  Band-pass filter  Sweep Principle: The Q factor of oscillating circuits is determined from the bandwidth and by the Pauli method. 3. 75 turns. 2. l = 1500 mm 07542.00 2 Meter Scale. 1 W 39104.11 2 Screened cable. 1W. G1 39104. Casing G3 06049. 2 channels 11459.12 1 Complete Equipment Set.00 7 Connection box 06030.00 2 HF coils. 1W. and the parallel conductance Gp determined by the Pauli method.01 1 Variable capacitor.34 1 Carbon resistor 47 kΩ.95 1 HF coils.40 1 Capacitor 470 pF/100 V.00 2 HF coils. the capacitance Ctot.5.27 2 Connecting cable. 150 turns. short 06520. KG · D .41 Carbon resistor 1 MΩ. 50 turns. 350 µH 06917. BNC. Tasks: 1. 75 µH 06915. 1W. Manual on CD-ROM included Coupled oscillating circuits P2450200 Coupling constant k as a function of the distance s between the coils when the coupling is supercritical. G1 39104. G1 39104. 1W. 150 µH 06916. 32 A. l = 1000 x 27 mm 03001. yellow.07 1 Connecting plug white 19 mm pitch 39170. G2 39105.02 2 Screened cable.52 2 Carbon resistor G1.37070 Göttingen . 4 mm plug.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 194 Electricity Electromagnetic Oscillations and Waves 4. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.23 2 G-clamp 02014. To determine the dissipation factor tan k and the quality factor Q from the bandwidth of oscillating circuits. What you need: Wobble-functiongenerator 1 Hz-10 MHz 11766. G1 39104.08.95 1 Oscilloscope 30 MHz.38 1 1 Carbon resistor 100 kΩ. l = 25 cm 07360.LEP_4 09.00 2 Coil.00 1 Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair 07542. BNC. To determine the dissipation factor and Q factor of oscillating circuits from the resonant frequency 194 Laboratory Experiments Physics (0). To determine the coupling factor k and the bandwidth f of a band-pass filter as a function of the coil spacing s. In inductively coupled circuits (band-pass filters) the coupling factor is determined as a function of the coil spacing. l = 750 mm 07542. 82 kΩ.10 2 Carbon resistor 22 kΩ. 35 turns.

square. 200 x 300 x 4 mm 08204. reflection at the metal screen.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. Manual on CD-ROM included Interference of microwaves P2450400 Intensity distribution during interference of microwaves in the Michelson arrangement. l = 1000 x 27 mm 03001. BNC plug/4 mm socket 07542.00 2 Meter Scale. 220 VAC 11740. KG · D . as a function of the position of the reflection screens. red. 3.00 1 Adapter. 32 A.. clear glass. 300 mm x 300 mm 08062. the Michelson interferometer. blue.55 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006. l = 75 cm 07362.55 4 Support rod -PASS-.01 1 Microwave receiver 11740.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 195 Electricity Electromagnetic Oscillations and Waves Interference of microwaves 4. opening width 0. interferes with the primary waves.00 2 Plate holder. plane-parallel plate.LEP_4 09.00 2 Screen.00 3 G-clamp 02014.04 1 Complete Equipment Set. after reflection from a metal screen or glass plate.01 1 Connecting cable.10 mm 02062.03 1 Microwave power supply.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 195 . metal.02 1 Microwave receiving dipole 11740. l = 250 mm 02025. 4 mm plug. 32 A. Tasks: Measurement of the wavelength of microwaves through the production of standing waves with 1.26 1 Connecting cable.93 1 Protractor scale with pointer 08218. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. l = 75 cm 07362. The wavelength is determined from the resultant standing waves.55 1 Multi-range meter with amplifier 07034..08.5.00 1 Glass plate. What you need: Microwave transmitter with clystron 11740. 4 mm plug.04-00 What you can learn about …  Wavelength  Standing wave  Reflection  Transmission  Michelson interferometer Principle: A microwave beam. 2.00 2 Tripod base -PASS- 02002.

behind a slit of variable width. blue. 4 mm plug. 2.05-00 Diffraction of microwaves What you can learn about …  Fresnel zones  Huygens’ principle  Fraunhofer diffraction  Diffraction at the slit Principle: Microwaves impinge on a slit and the edge of a screen. l = 2 m 09936.00 2 Multi-range meter with amplifier 07034. 32 A. KG · D .03 1 Microwave power supply.00 1 Meter Scale.00 2 Tripod base -PASS- 02002.93 1 Screen. metal. Manual on CD-ROM included Diffraction of microwaves P2450500 Intensity distribution in the diffraction of the microwaves at the edge of a screen. 4 mm plug.26 1 Connecting cable.55 1 Support rod -PASS-.00 1 Measuring tape. square.01 1 Microwave receiving dipole 11740. l = 250 mm 02025. parallel to the plane of the screen. Tasks: Determination of the diffraction pattern of the microwave intensity 1. with a fixed receiving point.55 3 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.55 1 G-clamp 02014. l = 50 cm 07361.04 1 Complete Equipment Set.01 1 Connecting cable.5. 220 VAC 11740. behind the edge of a screen.55 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006. 32 A.08. What you need: Microwave transmitter with clystron 11740.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 196 Electricity Electromagnetic Oscillations and Waves 4. l = 50 cm 07361. red. 300 mm x 300 mm 08062. The diffraction pattern is determined on the basis of diffraction at these obstacles. 3.LEP_4 09. 196 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.37070 Göttingen . after passing through a slit.00 2 Adapter. l = 1000 x 27 mm 03001. BNC plug/4 mm socket 07542.

00 1 Voltmeter 0. Manual on CD-ROM included Diffraction and polarization of microwaves P2450600 X X X l = 40 cm X X l = 20 cm without lens X X X 50 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 l = W-So in cm Profile of the intensity of radiation. Measurement of the irradiance transmitted through a metal grating as a function of the angle between the direction of polarization and the grating bars.55 4 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. l = 1000 x 27 mm 03001.04 1 Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair 07542.5. 4 mm plug. polarizability of microwaves is demonstrated by means of a metallic grating. l = 50 cm 07361.01 1 Connecting cable. The focusing of microwaves through a plane convex convergent lens is observed and the focal distance of the lens is determined.00 1 Convergent lens. l = 200 cm 07365.3.55 1 Support rod -PASS-.01 1 Connecting cable. square. l = 50 cm 07361.00 1 Protractor scale with pointer 08218. l = 200 cm 07365.37070 Göttingen with lens 100 distribution of irradiance when no lens is used.01 1 Microwave receiving dipole 11740. synthetic resin 06872.08.300 V-. 32 A.12 1 Connecting cable. BNC. red.55 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006.00 1 Complete Equipment Set. 32 A. blue.03 1 Microwave power supply.. KG · D . l = 250 mm 02025.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 197 Electricity Electromagnetic Oscillations and Waves Diffraction and polarization of microwaves 4. blue.93 1 Universal measuring amplifier 13626. square. 220 VAC 11740.00 2 Support rod -PASS-. Determination of the focal length of a synthetic resin converging lens and comparison of the results with the PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. l = 1500 mm 07542.55 1 Bench clamp -PASS- 02010. l = 630 mm 02027.93 1 Polarisation grid 06866. 32 A. What you need: U in mV Microwave transmitter with clystron 11740.. 10.06-00 What you can learn about …  Diffraction  Focal point  Linearity  Circularly and elliptically polarized waves  Transverse waves  Polarizer and Analyzer  Constructive and destructive interference Principle: The equivalence between visible light and microwaves as special cases of the total spectrum of electromagnetic waves can be demonstrated using diffraction and polarization of microwaves as an example..300 V~ 07035. After that. 4 mm plug.55 1 H-base -PASS- 02009. 32 A.00 1 Meter Scale. Tasks: 1.55 4 Stand tube 02060.04 1 Connecting cable. red.27 1 l = 30 cm 150 X X X X Tripod base -PASS- 02002. 4 mm plug. Laboratory Experiments Physics 197 .00 1 Screened cable.LEP_4 09. 4 mm plug. 2.. Measuring the irradiance of the microwave field behind a converging lens – along the optical axis – transversally to the optical axis.

93 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002.5. square.01 1 Graduated disk.12 1 Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair Measuring tape. 198 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.27 09936. Tasks: 1. The law of distance for the antenna is verified.55 1 Support rod -PASS-.02 1 Microwave power supply.5 r = 20 cm x x r = 60 cm x  1 = 45° --4 x x x x x x – 60 x x x x – 30 0 x x xx x 30 60 = 0 in 0 Directional characteristic Cu( . BNC. Measurement of the directional characteristic of the horn antenna in two perpendicular planes and evaluation of the corresponding directivity from the directional characteristic. KG · D . Determination of the microwave irradiance I as a function of the distance r between the receiving dipole and the horn antenna.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.37070 Göttingen . l = 250 mm 02025.08-00 Radiation field of a horn antenna / Microwaves What you can learn about …  Horn antenna  Directional characteristic pattern  Directivity  Law of distance  Phase center Principle: The directional characteristic of a horn antenna is received in two perpendicular planes by means of a receiving dipole. 220 VAC 11740.55 5 Articulated radial holder 02053.00 1 Screened cable.55 3 Support rod -PASS-.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 198 Electricity Electromagnetic Oscillations and Waves 4.55 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006. l = 2 m 07542.LEP_4 09. square.08. l = 1000 mm 02028. 2. l = 400 mm 02026.02 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. What you need: Microwave transmitter with clystron 11740. square. l = 1500 mm 07542. which verifies the validity of the law. for demonstration 02053. Manual on CD-ROM included Radiation field of a horn antenna / Microwaves P2450800 U – Umax 1x x x x x x x 0.00 1 1 Complete Equipment Set. = 0) of the horn antenna in the polarization plane for different distances.55 1 Support rod -PASS-.01 1 Microwave receiver 11740.

300 mm x 300 mm 08062.11 1 Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair 07542. l = 750 mm 07542.10 mm 02062. Determination of the reflecting and transmitting characteristics of glass. 2. acrylic glass and metal are studied with a microwave transmitterreceiver pair and are compared to each other. 220 VAC 11740..00 1 Screened cable. In the second part.00 2 Prism. BNC.00 2 Digital multimeter 2010 07128.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 199 .2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 199 Electricity Electromagnetic Oscillations and Waves Frustrated total reflection / Microwaves 4.08. synthetic resin 06873. opening width 0.01 1 Microwave receiver 11740.00 1 Plexiglas plate 200 x 200 x 4 mm 11613. acrylic glass and metal.27 1 Vernier caliper.93 1 Screen. clear glass.09-00 What you can learn about …  Transmission  Reflection  Absorption  Refraction  Phase velocity  Total reflection  Surface waves  Frustrated total reflection  Tunnel effect Principle: In the first part. metal.00 1 Complete Equipment Set. Observation of the effect of frustrated total reflection and determination of the transmitted irradiance as a function of distance d to the prismatic surface.00 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006. plastic 03011. What you need: Microwave transmitter with clystron 11740. KG · D .02 1 Microwave power supply.LEP_4 09.55 4 Plate holder. Tasks: 1. The refractive index of the prism material can be calculated by determining the attenuation coefficient . 200 x 300 x 4 mm 08204. total reflection of microwaves on a prismatic surface is suppressed by bringing a second prism with the same refractive index close to the first one..00 1 Supporting block 105 x 10 5x 57 mm 02073. Manual on CD-ROM included Frustrated total reflection / Microwaves P2450900 n1  k1 y  k2 n2 x n1  k1  kr Frustrated total internal reflection.5. the transmission and reflection characteristics of glass. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 2 Glass plate.

2 (13990) Induction voltage with an electromagnet 11.1 (13967) The transformation of electrical energy into heat energy 7.4 The transistor as a switch (13834) 6.1 The simple circuit (13801) 1.LEP_4 09.3 (13991) The alternating current generator 11.5 (13973) Galvanic cells 8.4 (13980) A model of an electromagnetic relay 9.3 The shunt motor 10.1 (14006) The NTC resistor 15.6 (14014) The filter network 17 Transistors.9 AND and OR Circuits (13809) 5.9 (13818) The internal resistance of a voltage source 200 Laboratory Experiments Physics 6.2007 11:55 Uhr Seite 200 Electricity Handbooks Demonstration Experiments Physics – Electricity / Electronics on the Magnetic Board 1 + 2 Electricity/Electronics on the Magnetic Board 2 • No.7 (13829) Series and parallel connections of solar cells – characteristic current-voltage curves and power 5.5 (13827) The characteristic current-voltage curves of a solar cell (13810) 5.6 (13982) The twilight switch 9.08.3 (13997) Forces between primary and secondary coils 12.4 (13826) Properties of solar cells – the dependence on the illuminating intensity 5.1 The npn transistor (13831) 6.2 The charging and discharging of a capacitor (13821) 4. field 9.7 (13983) The galvanometer 9.3 (13833) The characteristic current-voltage curves of a transistor 6. in series 6.4 (14012) The photo diode 16.1 (14009) The characteristic curve of a Z-diode 16.7 The safety fuse (13807) 1.1 Voltage transformation 12.3 (14008) The light dependent resistor (LDR) 16 Diodes.3 (14001) Coils in alternating current circuits 13. Part 2 16.3 (13812) The resistance of wires – dependence on material and temperature 2.2 (13996) Current transformation 12. Part 2 17.1 (13969) The conductivity of electrolytes 8.1 (14015) Voltage amplification of a transistor 17. 01001.4 The synchronous motor (13985) (13986) (13987) (13988) 11 Induction 11.6 (13974) The lead accumulator 8. (14007) The PTC resistor 15.1 (13819) The Power and work of electric current 4 Capacitors 1 Electric Circuits 1.2 (14010) The Z-diode as voltage stabilizer 16.1 (13989) Induction voltage with a permanent magnet 11.8 (14022) How phototransistors function 17.8 (13984) The reed switch 10 Electric motors 10.6 (14020) Transistors in a digital circuit 17. 24510 3.1 (14003) Earthing of the power supply line 14.2 (13970) Voltage and current strength in conductive processes in liquids 8.9 (14023) Information transfer through a photoconductor 18 The operational amplifier and applications 18.1 (14024) The differential amplifier 18. 01003.4 (13804) Conductors and non-conductors 1.2 The diode as rectifier (13824) 5.5 (13981) Controlling with a relay 9.2 (14025) The digital circuit 18.5 (14013) The bridge rectifier 16.2 (13832) The transistor as direct current amplifier 2.6 (13815) Current strength and resistance with resist.1 (13999) Self-induction on switching on 13.3 Measurement of current (13803) 1.7 Voltage in a series connection (13816) 2.5 (13993) Lenzsche’s rule 11. Part 1 2.2 The main circuit motor 10.5 (13814) Current strength and resistance with resist.8 The bimetallic switch (13808) 1.2 (14000) Self-induction on switching off 13.2 Measurement of voltage (13802) 1.2.5 (13805) Changeover switches and alternate switches 1.8 (13976) The PEM Solar-hydrogen model 9 Electromagnetism 9.2 (14004) The protective conductor system 14.6 The p-n-p transistor (13836) 8 Electrochemistry 8. in parallel 6 Transistors.6 (13828) Solar cells connected in series and in parallel – characteristic current-voltage curves and performance 2 Electrical Resistance 2. 24511 7 Transformation of energy 7.4 (13992) The direct current generator 11.2 (14016) Stabilization of the operating point 17.2 (13811) The resistance of wires – dependence on length and cross-section 2.1 (13977) The magnetic effect of a current-carrying conductor 9.3 (13979) The electric bell 9.4 (14018) Temperature control of a transistor 17. KG · D .1 Ohm’s Law 2.3 (14017) Transistor control with light 17.3 (13971) Electrolysis 8.1 The permanent magnet motor 10.3 (14011) The light emitting diode 16. of electrical energy into mechanical energy Electricity/Electronics on the Magnetic Board 1 • No.3 (13822) Capacitors in alternating current circuits 5 Diodes. connec.7 (13975) The PEM Electrolyser and PEM Fuel cell 8.5 (13835) The transistor as a time-delay switch 6.4 (13972) Galvanization 8.1 (13820) Capacitors in direct current circuits 4. Part 1 5.3 (14005) The protective break transformer 15 Sensors 15.02 61 described Experiments Please ask for a complete equipment list Ref.2 (13968) The transform.02 36 described Experiments 3 Electric Power and Work Please ask for a complete equipment list Ref.37070 Göttingen .8 (13830) The characteristic curve of a germanium diode 2.3 (13825) The characteristic curve of a silicon diode 1.6 (13806) Parallel and series connection of voltage sources 4. connec. No.8 The potentiometer (13817) 2.6 (13994) The behaviour of a direct current generator under load 12 Transformers 12. No.4 (13998) The heavy current transformer 13 Self-induction 13.4 The resistivity of wires (13813) 5.2 (13978) Lorentz force: A current-carrying conductor in a mag.3 (14026) The generation of oscillations (13995) PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.7 (14021) The Darlington circuit 17.1 The diode as electrical valve (13823) 5.4 (14002) Current strength on switching coils on and off 14 Safe working with electrical energy 14.5 (14019) Undamped electromagnetic oscillations 17.

08.LEP_5_1 09.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 201 5 Physical Structure of Matter .

4.2.4.3.2.3.4.4.04-00 5.37070 Göttingen .4.2.21-01/11/15 5.01-11 5.12-00 5.26-00 5.03-11 Physics of the Electron Elementary charge and Millikan experiment Specific charge of the electron – e/m Franck-Hertz experiment with Hg-tube Franck-Hertz experiment with Ne-tube Planck’s “quantum of action” from photoelectric effect (line separation by interference filters) Planck’s “quantum of action” from the photoelectric effect (line separation by defraction grating) Fine structure.4.06-00 5.2 5.04-01 5.3. KG · D .2.32-00 5. Rydberg frequency and screening constant Absorption of X-rays K.2.2.1.4.1.4.3.4.27-00 5.20-15 5.01-00 5.18-00 5.11-00 Surface treatment / Plasma Physics Paschen curve / Plasma Physics 5.14/15-00 5.03-15 5.07-00 5.4.41-01/11 5.03-00 5.2.4.3.23-00 5.01-01 5.13-00 5.01-11 5.and L-absorption edges of X-rays / Moseley's Law and the Rydberg constant Examination of the structure of NaCl monocrystals with different orientations X-ray investigation of different crystal structures / Debye-Scherrer powder method X-ray investigation of crystal structures / Laue method Compton scattering of X-rays X-ray dosimetry Contrast medium experiment with a blood vessel model Determination of the length and position of an object which cannot be seen Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer patterns of powder samples with the three cubic Bravais lattices Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer patterns of powder samples with diamond structure (germanium and silicon) Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer patterns of powder samples with a hexagonal lattice structure Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer patterns of powder samples with a tetragonal lattice structure Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer patterns of powder samples with a cubic powder sample Diffractometric measurements to determine the intensity of Debye-Scherrer reflexes using a cubic lattice powder sample Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer measurements for the examination of the texture of rolled sheets Characteristic X-rays of tungsten Spectroscopy with the X-ray energy detector 5.4.1. Plasma Physics Hall effect in p-germanium Hall effect in p-germanium with Cobra3 Hall effect in n-germanium Hall effect in metals Band gap of germanium Band gap of germanium with Cobra3 202 Laboratory Experiments Physics 5. one-electron and two-electron spectra Balmer series / Determination of Rydberg’s constant Atomic spectra of two-electron systems: He.10-00 5.3 5.22-00 5.4.20-00 5.19-00 5.1.1 5.2.01-01 5.45-01/11/15 5.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 202 5 Physical Structure of Matter Contents 5.05-01/05 5.10-00 5.28-00 5.2.4.12-00 5.4.17-00 5.1.08-00 5.09-00 5.4.2.04-01/05 5.4.4.4.02-01/11 5.24-00 5.2.4 Handbooks X-Ray Experiments Interface-System Cobra3 Physics.22-01/11/15 5.03-11 5.4.07-00 5.08-00 5.16-00 5.25-00 5.1.05-00 5.2.02-00 5.4.4.1.13-00 5.LEP_5_1 09.11-01/11 5.2.44-01/11/15 5.23-01/11/15 5.1.1.46-01/11/15 5.02-00 5.08.2.21-00 5.10-05 5.2.04-00 X-ray Physics Characteristic X-rays of copper Characteristic X-rays of molybdenum Characteristic X-rays of iron The intensity of characteristic X-rays as a function of anode current and anode voltage Monochromatization of molybdenum X-rays Monochromatization of copper X-rays K doublet splitting of molybdenum X-rays / fine structure K doublet splitting of iron X-rays / fine structure Duane-Hunt displacement law and Planck's “quantum of action” Characteristic X-ray lines of different anode materials / Moseley's Law.1. Hg Zeeman effect Stern-Gerlach experiment Electron spin resonance Electron diffraction 5.1.3.47-01/11/15 Radioactivity Half-life and radioactive equilibrium Half-life and radioactive equilibrium with Cobra3 Poisson’s distribution and Gaussian distribution of radioactive decay with Cobra3 – Influence of the dead time of the counter tube Visualisation of radioactive particles / Diffusion cloud chamber Alpha-Energies of different sources with Multi Channel Analyzer Rutherford experiment Fine structure of the -spectrum of 241Am Study of the -energies of 226Ra Energy loss of -particles in gases Electron absorption -spectroscopy Law of distance and absorption of gamma or beta rays Energy dependence of the -absorption Coefficient Compton effect Internal conversion in 137mBa Photonuclear cross-section / Compton scattering cross-section X-ray fluorescence and Moseley’s law 5.4 5.42-01/11/15 5.3.06-00 5.4.1.24-01/11/15 5.11-00 5.4.40-00 6.2.04-11 Solid-state Physics.4. Chemistry/Biology PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.01-00 5.4.4.4.1.4.03-00 5.3.31-00 5.

safety. 32 A. What you need: 1. 750 mm. 07021.93 1 Object micrometer 1 mm i.1. safety. 50 cm. 64685.100 parts 62171. 32 A.07 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. black 07362. safety.600 VDC 13672.100 cm.100 cm.04 2 1. prot.00E-07 6.. Determination of the radii and the charge of the droplets. 18 x 18 mm. 32 A.01 1 Power supply. blue 07337. 74 kBq 09047.00E-19 0.00E-19 4.00 1 FlexCam Scientific Pro II 88030. 32 A.00E-07 r/m 8.01 1 Connecting cord.15 1 Radioactive source.93 1 1. Laboratory Experiments Physics 203 .2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 203 Physical Structure of Matter Physics of the Electron Elementary charge and Millikan experiment 5.20E-18 Millikan apparatus 09070.. Manual on CD-ROM included Elementary charge and Millikan experiment P2510100 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00E-18 8. with overl.00E+00 2.37070 Göttingen 2. 0. red 07337.5 1 1 Tasks: Circular level 02 122.00 1 Multi-range meter. KG · D . The elementary charge is determined from the velocities in the direction of gravity and in the opposite direction. pack of 50 pcs.00E-07 1.20E-07 Connecting cord.00E-19 2.00E+00 0.00E-07 1.55 1 Stand tube 02060.01 2 Connecting cord. Am-241. green-yellow 07362.08. 32 A.00 1 Connecting cord.05 2 Connecting cord.00 1 Circular level 02 122.00E-19 Q/As LEP_5_1 6.01-00 What you can learn about …  Electric field  Viscosity  Stokes’ law  Droplet method  Electron charge Principle: Charged oil droplets subjected to an electric field and to gravity between the plates of a capacitor are accelerated by application of a voltage. interruption type 03076.19 1 Stopwatch. 750 mm.00E-07 4. Measurements on various droplets for determining the elementary charge by the Millikan method. Measurement of the rise and fall times of oil droplets with various charges at different voltages.00 1 Polarity Switch for Millikan Apparatus 06034.01 2 Cover glasses. red 07336.09. Optional accessories: TV set Complete Equipment Set.

4 mm plug. l = 10 cm 07359.00 2 Connecting cable. l = 10 cm 07359. 32 A. 32 A.37070 Göttingen .LEP_5_1 09.02 3 Complete Equipment Set. 32 A. Manual on CD-ROM included Specific charge of the electron – e/m P2510200 Tasks: Determination of the specific charge of the electron (e/m0) from the path of an electron beam in crossed electric and magnetic fields of variable strength. one pair 06960.04 3 Connecting cable. l = 75 cm 07362. regulated. l = 75 cm 07362. 32 A.1. yellow. 4 mm plug.01 5 Connecting cable. the magnetic field strength and the radius of the electron orbit. What you need: Narrow beam tube with socket 06959. 4 mm plug.01 1 Connecting cable. 0.04 1 Connecting cable. KG · D .93 1 Power supply. blue.02-00 Specific charge of the electron – e/m What you can learn about …  Cathode rays  Lorentz force  Electron in crossed fields  Electron mass  Electron charge Principle: Electrons are accelerated in an electric field and enter a magnetic field at right angles to the direction of motion..00 1 Helmholtz coils. blue. 32 A.00 1 Power supply. 4 mm plug. red.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 204 Physical Structure of Matter Physics of the Electron 5. The specific charge of the electron is determined from the accelerating voltage. universal 13500.08. red. 204 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 4 mm plug. l = 75 cm 07362..600 V- 13672.93 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128.

61 1 Oscilloscope.30 1 Screened cable.10 1 Franck-Hertz oven for Hg-tube 09105. 9 pole 14602. plug/socket.99 1 Franck-Hertz Hg-tube on plate 09105. Manual on CD-ROM included Franck-Hertz experiment with Hg-tube P2510311 Tasks: 1. 2 channels 11459.08. l = 75 cm 07542.03-11 What you can learn about …  Energy quantum  Electron collision  Excitation energy Principle: Electrons are accelerated in a tube filled with mercury vapour. BNC. BNC.00 1 Software Measure Franck-Hertz experiment 14522. KG · D . The excitation energy of mercury is determined from the distance between the equidistant minima of the electron current in a variable opposing electric field. Record the counter current strength Is in a Franck-Hertz tube as a function of the anode voltage Ua.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 205 .27 2 Screened cable.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 205 Physical Structure of Matter Physics of the Electron Franck-Hertz experiment with Hg-tube 5. 2.01 1 Connecting cable for Franck-Hertz Hg-tube 09105.95 1 Adapter.1.11 1 Data cable 2 x SUB-D.11 2 PC.93 1 Thermocouple NiCr-Ni. Windows® 95 or higher Optional equipment: Example of a Franck-Hertz curve for Hg-gas recorded with T = 180°C. 30 MHz. BNC-socket/4mm plug pair 07542. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. sheathed 13615. To determine the excitation energy Ea from the positions of the current strength minima or maxima by difference formation. Complete Equipment Set. l = 750 mm 07542.LEP_5_1 09. What you need: Franck-Hertz control unit 09105.

00 1 Software Measure Franck-Hertz experiment 14522.1.99 1 Franck-Hertz Ne-tube with housing 09105. 2. BNC-socket/4mm plug pair 07542. Windows® 95 or higher Optional equipment: Complete Equipment Set.11 1 Data cable 2 x SUB-D.27 2 Screened cable. 206 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.40 1 Connecting cable for Franck-Hertz Ne-tube 09105. Tasks: 1. BNC. l = 75 cm 07542.95 1 Adapter. 2 channels 11459.50 1 Screened cable. l = 750 mm 07542. plug/socket. KG · D . What you need: Franck-Hertz control unit 09105.03-15 Franck-Hertz experiment with Ne-tube What you can learn about …  Energy quantum  Quantum leap  Electron collision  Excitation energy Principle: Electrons are accelerated in a tube filled with neon vapour. 9 pole 14602.11 2 PC. 30 MHz. To determine the excitation energy Ea from the positions of the current strength minima or maxima by difference formation.08.LEP_5_1 09.37070 Göttingen .2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 206 Physical Structure of Matter Physics of the Electron 5.61 1 Oscilloscope. The excitation energy of neon is determined from the distance between the equidistant minima of the electron current in a variable opposing electric field. Manual on CD-ROM included Franck-Hertz experiment with Ne-tube P2510315 Example of a Franck-Hertz curve for Ne-gas. BNC. Record the counter current strength Is in a Franck-Hertz tube as a function of the anode voltage Ua.

is determined from the photoelectric voltages measured. red.LEP_5_1 09. blue. BNC. Planck’s quantum of action. pico 9 base 08120. Manual on CD-ROM included Planck’s “quantum of action” from the photoelectric P25104 01/05 effect (line separation by interference filters) Voltage of the photo-cell as a function of the frequency of the irradiated light. set of 2 08463. set of 3 08461. Set-up of experiment P2510405 with electrometer What you need: Experiment P2510405 with electrometer Experiment P2510401 with amplifier Photocell. with housing 06778.00 1 1 Experiment lamp 6 11615.00 Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair 07542. 4 mm plug.00 1 1 Interference filters.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 207 .1.00 1 1 Interference filters.93 1 Complete Equipment Set.04 1 2 Electrometer Amplifier 13621.10 1 1 Connecting cable. KG · D . 4 mm plug.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 207 Physical Structure of Matter Physics of the Electron Planck’s “quantum of action” from the photoelectric effect 5. 32 A.08.01 1 1 Connecting cable.04-01/05 (line separation by interference filters) What you can learn about …  External photoelectric effect  Work function  Absorption  Photon energy  Anode  Cathode Principle: A photo-cell is illuminated with light of different wavelengths.00 1 1 Screened cable. l = 30 cm 07542. for h detection. 32 A. l = 25 cm 07360.14 1 1 Power supply for spectral lamps 13662. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. or Planck’s constant (h).97 1 1 Universal measuring amplifier 13626. l = 25 cm 07360.93 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128.27 1 1 Power supply 12V AC/500 mA 11074. Tasks: To determine Planck’s quantum of action from the photoelectric voltages measured at different wavelengths.05 1 1 Spectral lamp Hg 100.

adjustable 08284. l = 600 mm 08283.00 3 3 Turning knuckle for optical profile bench 08285. attachable 11604.93 1 Voltage of the photo-cell as a function of the frequency of the irradiated light. BNC.93 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. f = +100 mm 08021. 80 W 08147. 32 A.10 1 1 Connecting cable. 525 nm 08414.00 1 1 2 Optical profile bench. Planck’s quantum of action. 1 Complete Equipment Set. is determined from the photoelectric voltages measured.00 2 Base for optical profile bench.00 1 1 Diffraction grating. l = 30 cm 07542.00 2 2 Lens.00 Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair 07542. Set-up of experiment P2510501 with amplifier What you need: Experiment P2510505 with electrometer Experiment P2510501 with amplifier Photocell. 4 mm plug.27 1 Power supply 12V AC/500 mA 11074. h = 80 mm 08286. adjustable 08049.02 4 4 Electrometer Amplifier 13621.01 1 1 Connecting cable. 600 lines/mm 08546. l = 25 cm 07360. 580 nm 08415.08.09 2 2 Slit.04 1 1 Lamp socket E 27 on stem 06176.97 1 1 Universal measuring amplifier 13626.00 1 1 Colour filter. 32 A. 4 mm plug.00 1 1 Colour filter.1.01 1 1 Mercury vapour high pressure lamp. blue. l = 25 cm 07360.00 1 1 Screened cable. with housing 06778. mounted.00 1 1 Power supply for spectral lamps 13662.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 208 Physical Structure of Matter 5.05-01/05 Physics of the Electron Planck’s “quantum of action” from the photoelectric effect (line separation by defraction grating) What you can learn about …  External photoelectric effect  Work function  Adsorption  Photon energy Principle: A photocell is illuminated with monochromatic light of different wavelengths.00 1 1 Diaphragm holder.00 1 1 Slide mount for optical profil bench. Manual on CD-ROM included Planck’s “quantum of action” from the photoelectric effect (line separation by defraction grating) P25105 01/05 208 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 1 1 Lens holder 08012. or Planck’s constant h.37070 Göttingen . for h detection.LEP_5_1 09. red. KG · D .

2.00 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. pico 9 base 08120. Cd and Zn. one-electron and two-electron spectra P2510600 Tasks: 1. 3. pico 9 base 08120. Determination of the fine structure splitting.14 1 Spectral lamp Cd.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 209 .06-00 What you can learn about …  Diffraction spectrometer  Spin  Angular momentum  Spin-orbital angular momentum interaction  Multiplicity  Energy level  Excitation energy  Selection rules  Doublets  Parahelium  Orthohelium  Exchange energy  Angular momentum  Singlet and triplet series  Selection rules  Forbidden transition Principle: The well-known spectral lines of He are used for calibrating the diffraction spectrometer. Calibration of the spectrometer using the He spectrum.1. What you need: Spectrometer/goniometer with verniers 35635. Determination of the spectrum of Na. KG · D . pico 9 base 08120.97 1 Lamp holder. 4. Spectrum of sodium. Cd and Zn are determined using the spectrometer.07 1 Spectral lamp Hg 100. The wave-lengths of the spectral lines of Na.00 1 Spectral lamp He. Hg. pico 9. one-electron and two-electron spectra 5.08.11 1 Power supply for spectral lamps 13662. pico 9 base 08120.03 1 Spectral lamp Na.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 209 Physical Structure of Matter Physics of the Electron Fine structure.55 1 Complete Equipment Set. Determination of the most intense spectral lines of Hg. for spectral lamps 08119.01 1 Spectral lamp Zn. 600 lines/mm 08546.02 1 Diffraction grating. pico 9 base 08120. and the determination of the constant of the grating. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Manual on CD-ROM included Fine structure.LEP_5_1 09.

00 1 Measuring tape. 1 pair 06674. H2 n=1 LymanSeries Energy level diagram of the H atom. Manual on CD-ROM included Balmer series / Determination of Rydberg’s constant P2510700 n= 0 –0. l = 1000 x 27 mm 03001. 2. l = 2 m 09936.9 BrackettSeries –1. The known spectral lines of Hg are used to determine the grating constant.55 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006.55 1 Support rod -PASS-. Determination of the diffraction grating constant by means of the Hg spectrum.37070 Göttingen . Hg 06664. plastic.93 1 Insulating support 06020. 600 lines/mm 08546.00 1 Complete Equipment Set.00 1 Cursor for scale.10 kV 13670.00 energy level Spectral tube.5 H PaschenSeries H n=4 n=3 H H H – 3.. of Rydberg’s constant and of the energy levels.00 1 Cover tube for spectral tubes 06675.00 1 High voltage supply 0.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 210 Physical Structure of Matter Physics of the Electron 5. Determination of the visible lines of the Balmer series in the H spectrum.LEP_5_1 09.4 –13.00 2 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. 30 kV. 210 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. The wave lengths of the visible lines of the Balmer series of H are measured.00 1 Connecting cable.6 n=2 BalmerSeries ionization energy 13. l = 1000 mm 07367.07-00 Balmer series / Determination of Rydberg’s constant What you can learn about …  Diffraction image of a diffraction grating  Visible spectral range  Single electron atom  Atomic model according to Bohr  Lyman-. 2 pieces.1.00 2 Object holder 50 mm x 50 mm 08041. l = 400 mm 02026.55 3 Stand tube 02060. Tasks: 1. Paschen-.08.6 eV 06665. Brackettand Pfund-Series  Energy level  Planck’s constant  Binding energy Principle: The spectral lines of hydrogen and mercury are examined by means of a diffraction grating.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.. red 02201.00 1 Holders for spectral tubes. What you need: eV 1 Spectral tube. KG · D .00 1 Meter Scale.00 1 Diffraction grating. square.

l = 2 m 09936. 1 pair 06674. What you need: Spectral tube.00 1 Complete Equipment Set. l = 1000 mm 07367.00 1 Holders for spectral tubes. 30 kV.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 211 Physical Structure of Matter Physics of the Electron Atomic spectra of two-electron systems: He.93 1 Insulating support 06020.. Determination of the wavelengths of the most intense spectral lines of Hg. Manual on CD-ROM included Atomic spectra of two-electron systems: He.10 kV 13670. Hg 06664.55 1 Support rod -PASS-.00 2 Object holder 50 mm x 50 mm 08041.55 3 green 494 ± 2 8 1S1 R 6 1P1 Stand tube 02060.00 1 Connecting cable.08-00 What you can learn about …  Parahelium  Orthohelium  Exchange energy  Spin  Angular momentum  Spinorbit interaction  Singlet and triplet series  Multiplicity  Rydberg series  Selection rules  Forbidden transition  Metastable state  Energy level  Excitation energy Principle: The spectral lines of He and Hg are examined by means of a diffraction grating.. 2 pieces. Tasks: 1.1. l = 400 mm 02026. He 06668.00 1 Measuring tape.55 1 green 550 ± 1 7 3S1 R 6 3P1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. square. KG · D .00 2 Colour /nm yellow 581 ± 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. plastic.00 1 Spectral tube. 600 lines/mm 08546.00 Cursor for scale.55 1 Barrel base -PASS- 02006. Determination of the wavelengths of the most intense spectral lines of He. Hg P2510800 1 1 3 1 R 6 P1 { 66 D1 D1 R 6 P1 Measured spectral lines of He/Hg and the corresponding energy-level transitions.00 1 Diffraction grating.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 211 .LEP_5_1 09.00 1 blue 437 ± 2 7 1S R 6 1P1 1 Meter Scale.00 1 Colour /nm Transition red 665 ± 2 3 1D R 2 1P yellow-orange 586 ± 2 3 3D R 2 3P green 501 ± 2 3 1D R 2 1P blue-green 490 ± 2 4 1D R 2 1P blue 470 ± 3 4 3S R 2 3P violet 445 ± 1 4 3D R 2 3P Transition High voltage supply 0. red 02201. l = 1000 x 27 mm 03001. Hg 5. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 2.08.00 1 Cover tube for spectral tubes 06675. The wavelengths of the lines are determined from the geometrical arrangement and the diffraction grating constants.

08286. f = +50 mm Lens. blue.00 1 Sliding device.93 06211.00 08664. l = 50 cm Connecting cable.01 08023. l = 1000 mm Base for optical profile bench. a value for Bohr’s magneton is evaluated.1.01 07363. l = 100 cm CCD-camera for PC-use.01 07363. mounted.00 08286. Both effects can be studied using a cadmium lamp as a specimen.01 08045. Usualy the phenomenon is more complex and the central line splits into many more components. l = 25 cm Connecting cable. horizontal 08713. mounted. red. l = 25 cm Connecting cable. Windows 98SE/Windows Me/ Windows 2000/Windows XP *Alternative to CCD-Camera incl. The cadmium lamp is submitted to different magnetic flux densities and the splitting of the red cadmium line (normal Zeeman effect) and that of a green cadmium line What you need: Fabry-Perot interferometer Cadmium lamp for Zeeman effect Electromagnet without pole shoes Pole pieces. l = 75 cm Connecting cable.00 08340. measurement software. 22000 µF Digital multimeter 2010 Optical profile bench.97 13531. f = +300 mm Iris diaphragm Polarisation filter on stem Polarisation specimen. adjustable Slide mount for optical profil bench. 4 mm plug. The light emitted within the direction of the magnetic field is qualitatively investigated.00 1 Swinging arm 08256. 32 A. l = 50 cm Connecting cable. h = 80 mm Lens holder Lens. 4 mm plug. 32 A. l = 100 cm Connecting cable.02 09050.. 4 mm plug. PC with USB interface. This is the “anomalous Zeeman effect”. The evaluation of the results leads to a fairly precise value for Bohr’s magneton. Tasks: 1. profile-bench. 12 A Electrolyte capacitor.37070 Göttingen .04 07361.01 08286.00 08610.00 13662.02 1 1 1 Complete Equipment Set. 4 mm plug.04 07362. red. mica Connecting cable. 32 A. blue. h = 80 mm for classical version of the Zeeman Effect: Slide mount for optical profile-bench.00 08282.00 08284. 2. h = 80 mm 08288.LEP_5_1 09.01 07361. Manual on CD-ROM included Zeeman effect / normal and anomalous version P2511005 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 32 A.03 02077. with aperture and scale Slide mount for opt.00 1 212 Laboratory Experiments Physics Plate holder with tension spring Screen. drilled.01 06480. 32 A. From the results of point 1.01 06480. red. 4 mm plug. (anomalous Zeeman effect) is investigated using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. two slide mounts. 32 A.00 07128. h = 30 mm Slide mount for optical profil bench.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 212 Physical Structure of Matter Physics of the Electron 5.01 07360.00 07360.08. 3. 32 A. KG · D .10-05 Zeeman effect / normal and anomalous version What you can learn about …  Bohr’s atomic model  Quantisation of energy levels  Electron spin  Bohr’s magneton  Interference of electromagnetic waves  Fabry-Perot interferometer Principle: The “Zeeman effect” is the splitting of the spectral lines of atoms within a magnetic field. The simplest is the splitting up of one spectral line into three components called “normal Zeeman effect”. 4 mm plug. conical.02 08012.04 88037. blue. red. 1 pair Rotating table for heavy loads Power supply for spectral lamps Variable transformer 25 V~/20 V. Using the Fabry-Perot interferometer and a self made telescope the splitting up of the central lines into different lines is measured in wave numbers as a function of the magnetic flux density.00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 5 2 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Interference rings with the anomalous Zeeman effect.00 08020. 4 mm plug.00 08286. USB* 09050.

plane Commutator switch Voltmeter 0. 413 x 240 x 100 mm Crystallizing dishes. Recording the distribution of the particle beam density in the detection plane in the absence of the effective magnetic field. Because of the magnetic moment of the potassium atoms. BORO 3. and another straight line.02 07360. Determining the dependence of the particle beam density in the detection plane with different values of the non-homogeneity of the effective magnetic field. 4 mm plug. 10.01 07362.27 07542. compact Electromagnet without pole shoes Pole piece.93 13530. BNC-socket/4 mm plug pair Screened cable. 1000 ml Direct current measuring amplifier Variable transformer with rectifier 15 V~/12 V.99 14608. field. 4 mm plug.LEP_5_1 09.11-01/11 What you can learn about …  Magnetic moment  Bohr magneton  Directional quantization  g-factor  Electron spin  Atomic beam  Maxwellian velocity distribution  Two-wire field Principle: A beam of potassium atoms generated in a hot furnace travels along a specific path in a magnetic two-wire field.04 09054. l = 50 cm Connecting cable.00 30092.00 47325.. 32 A.12 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 2 3 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Complete Equipment Set. d = 6 mm Connecting cable. a parabola.8 m Software for stepping motor Adapter.01 06480. nitrogen Gas-cylinder Trolley for 10 l Step motor Stern-Gerlach appartus Step motor unit Data cable USB. 5 A Power supply 0-12 V DC/ 6 V. 32 A. mentally determined special distribution of the particle beam density. blue. BNC. cable.04 07361. nitrogen. l = 1500 mm PC.05 09059.70 13620.02 41763. 4 mm plug.99 06480.10 09054.3 A DC/AC Meter 10/30 mV. yellow.01 07361. Set-up of experiment P2511111 with PC interface By measuring the density of the beam of particles in a plane of detection lying behind the magnetic What you need: Experiment P2511111 with PC interface Experiment P2511101 classical Stern-Gerlach apparatus Matching transformer Potassium ampoules.06 08087. l = 75 cm Connecting cable.93 02076.300 V-. 32 A.00 41790.. 3. to the experiLaboratory Experiments Physics 213 .300 V~ Ammeter. plug type A/B. Manual on CD-ROM included Stern-Gerlach experiment P25111 01/11 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. l = 1. The potassium atoms are thereby deflected from their path. Windows® 95 or higher 09054.15 07362.. 4 mm plug. blue.88 09054. 1 mA.04 07361. the nonhomogeneity of the field applies a force at right angles to the direction of their motion. 200°C Storage tray. 2300 ml Isopropyl alcohol.00 33483. l = 50 cm Connect. 12 V AC Two tier platform support Rubber tubing/vacuum..61 07542.00 07036. 4 mm plug. Investigating the positions of the maxima of the particle beam density as a function of the non-homogeneity of the magnetic field.93 13505. 2. l = 50 cm Connecting cable. red.3. green-yellow. 32 A.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 213 Physical Structure of Matter Physics of the Electron Stern-Gerlach experiment 5. 4. 32 A..02 46246.. yellow. l = 25 cm Connecting cable. Fitting a curve consisting of a straight line.3. 10 l Pressure-reducing valves. KG · D .00 14451. red.08. l = 75 cm Steel cylinders.03 39286..03 07035. 4 mm plug. Tasks: 1. it is possible to draw conclusions as to the magnitude and direction of the magnetic moment of the potassium atoms. 32 A.00 07019.1..00 07360. set of 6 High vacuum pump assembly. l = 25 cm Connecting cable.02 06034. 4 mm plug.37070 Göttingen Ionization current as a function of position (u) of detector with large excitation currents in the magnetic analyser. 32 A.

and 2.08.95 1 Digital Mulitmeter 2010 07128. 4 mm plug. l = 750 mm 07542. blue. tangential.02 2 Teslameter. l = 50 cm 07361. red. 214 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. BNC.02 1 Options: Complete Equipment Set. using the ESR apparatus.37070 Göttingen .00 1 Screened cable. model experiment. KG · D . the g-factor of the free electron.11 4 Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair 07542. 32 A.93 1 Oscilloscope 30 MHz. protective cap 13610. 32 A.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 214 Physical Structure of Matter Physics of the Electron 5. l = 50 cm 07361.04 3 Connecting cable. universal 13500.LEP_5_1 09.1. Tasks: With ESR on a DPPH specimen determination of 1. 4 mm plug. yellow.00 1 ESR power supply 09050.93 1 Hall probe.12-00 Electron spin resonance What you can learn about …  Zeeman effect  Energy quantum  Quantum number  Resonance  g-factor  Landé factor Principle: The g-factor of a DPPH (Diphenylpikrylhydrazyl) and the half-width of the absorption line are determined. 4 mm plug. the half-width of the absorption line. 2 channels 11459. Manual on CD-ROM included Electron spin resonance P2511200 Electron spin resonance (ESR).93 1 Power supply. digital 13610. l = 50 cm 07361.01 2 Connecting cable.27 1 Connecting cable. 32 A. What you need: ESR resonator with field coils 09050.

red. 4 mm plug. l = 75 cm 07362. 4 mm plug. blue. 4 mm plug.10 kV 13670.00 1 High voltage supply 0. Manual on CD-ROM included Electron diffraction P2511300 Tasks: 1. To measure the diameter of the two smallest diffraction rings at different anode voltages. 32 A.. To determine the interplanar spacing of graphite from the relationship between the radius of the diffraction rings and the wavelength. l = 25 cm 07360. l = 500 mm 07366. 32 A.. 10 MΩ 07160. 32 A.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 215 . yellow.00 1 Connecting cable. 2.600 V- 13672. 3.01 2 Connecting cable. black. 32 A..LEP_5_1 09. 4 mm plug. l = 75 cm 07362.01 2 Connecting cable.00 1 Power supply.. 32 A. To calculate the wavelength of the electrons from the anode voltages. l = 25 cm 07360. plastic 03011. 30 kV.02 1 Connecting cable.1.04 2 Connecting cable. 4 mm plug. What you need: Electron diffraction tube on mounting 06721.93 1 High value resistors.05 2 Complete Equipment Set.13-00 What you can learn about …  Bragg reflection  Debye-Scherrer method  Lattice planes  Graphite structure  Material waves  De Broglie equation Principle: Fast electrons are diffracted from a polycrystalline layer of graphite: interference rings appear on a fluorescent screen.00 1 Connecting cable. regulated. The interplanar spacing in graphite is determined from the diameter of the rings and the accelerating voltage. 32 A.04 1 Connecting cable.08. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. blue. l = 75 cm 07362. l = 75 cm 07362.93 1 Vernier caliper. 0.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 215 Physical Structure of Matter Physics of the Electron Electron diffraction 5. 4 mm plug. red. KG · D .

93 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. Manual on CD-ROM included Half-line and radioactive equilibrium P2520101 Logarithmic plot of the counting rate of the eluted daughter substance as a function of time.04 1 Complete Equipment Set.01 1 Connecting cable. KG · D . type A. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. What you need: Isotope generator Cs-137/ Ba. red. 1/100 s 03071. 5 pcs. 250 ml 36013. 32 A. l = 50 cm 07361. BNC. square. 4 mm plug. To measure the activity of the isotope generator as a function of time immediately after elution. digital. DURAN®. 1 x 20 x 200 mm.2.00 2 Test tube. sheet.00 1 Counter tube. 370 kBq 09047. 32 A. short form. blue. 216 Laboratory Experiments Physics 2.08. l = 750 mm 07542. 3.00 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.01 1 Aluminium. 4 mm plug. 31074.60 1 Pulse rate meter 13622. Tasks: 1.37070 Göttingen .55 2 Universal clamp 37718.11 1 Stopwatch.55 1 Support rod -PASS-. BNC 09025.10 1 Screened cable. To measure the activity of a freshly eluted solution of Ba-137 m as a function of time. To record the counting rate as a function of the counter tube voltage (counter tube characteristic) when the isotope generator activity is constant (radioactive equilibrium). d = 16 mm 37656.LEP_5_1 09.00 2 Beaker. AR-glass.01-01 Half-life and radioactive equilibrium What you can learn about …  Parent substance  Daughter substance  Rate of decay  Disintegration or decay constant  Counting rate  Half life  Disintegration product Principle: The half-life of a Ba-137 m daughter substance eluted (washed) out of a Ca-137 isotope generator is measured directly and is also determined from the increase in activity after elution.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 216 Physical Structure of Matter Radioactivity 5.11 1 Connecting cable. l = 250 mm 02025. l = 50 cm 07361.

d = 12 mm 36307.00 1 Plate holder on fixing magnet 09203. To measure the activity of the isotope generator as a function of time immediately after elution. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. To measure the activity of a freshly eluted solution of Ba-137 m as a function of time.99 1 Software Cobra3 Radioactivity 14506.00 1 Isotope generator Cs-137/ Ba. Tasks: 1.00 1 Base plate for radioactivity 09200. What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. BNC 09025. FIOLAX®.5/10.00 1 Counter tube.60 1 PC. To record the counting rate as a function of the counter tube voltage (counter tube characteristic) when the isotope generator activity is constant (radioactive equilibrium).00 1 Counter tube holder on fixing magnet 09201. USB 12150.01-11 What you can learn about …  Parent substance  Daughter substance  Rate of decay  Disintegration or decay constant  Counting rate  Half life  Disintegration product Principle: The half-life of a Ba-137 m daughter substance eluted (washed) out of a Ca-137 isotope generator is measured directly and is also determined from the increase in activity after elution.11 1 Screened cable. 3. 2. with the regression line.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 217 . Manual on CD-ROM included Half-life and radioactive equilibrium with Cobra3 P2520111 Logarithmic plot of the counting rate of Ba-137m’s decay. without hole 39253. l = 750 mm 07542. d = 14. BNC.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151.08.00 1 Source holder on fixing magnet 09202. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 217 Physical Structure of Matter Radioactivity Half-life and radioactive equilibrium with Cobra3 5.LEP_5_1 09.10 1 Rubber stopper. counting rate as a function of time. KG · D . type A.5 mm.2.61 1 Cobra3 measuring Module GM counting tube 12106. 370 kBq 09047.11 1 Test tube.

00 1 Base plate for radioactivity 09200. i.00 1 Plate holder on fixing magnet 09203. KG · D .2. A special characteristic of the Poisson’s distribution can be observed in the case of a small number of counts n < 20: The distribution is unsymmetrical.LEP_5_1 09. 370 kBq 09090.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. 3) If the dead time of the counter tube is no longer small with regard to the average time interval between the counter tube pulses.08. l = 750 mm 07542.11 1 Screened cable. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 1 Americium-241 source. In order to demonstrate these facts the limiting value of the mean value (expected value) is compared to the limiting value of the variance by means of a sufficiently large sampling size.99 1 Software Cobra3 Radioactivity 14506. when (due to the dead time of the counter tube) counting errors occur leading to a distribution which deviates from the Poisson’s distribution. Manual on CD-ROM included Poisson’s distribution and Gaussian distribution of radioactive decay with Cobra3 – Influence of the dead time of the counter tube P2520311 smaller numbers of pulses than the mean value. but also the Guassian distribution which is always symmetrical is very suitable to approximate the pulse distribution measured by means of a long-lived radiation emitter and a 218 Laboratory Experiments Physics Pulse rate distribution for high pulse rate (248 pulses/s) with an adapted Gaussian curve (left window) and a Poisson’s curve (right window). BNC.03-11 Poisson’s distribution and Gaussian distribution of radioactive decay with Cobra3 – Influence of the dead time of the counter tube What you can learn about …  Poisson’s distribution  Gaussian distribution  Standard deviation  Expected value of pulse rate  Different symmetries of distributions  Dead time  Recovering time and resolution time of a counter tube Principle: 1) The aim of this experiment is to show that the number of pulses counted during identical time intervals by a counter tube which bears a fixed distance to a long-lived radiation emitter correspond to a Poisson’s distribution. A premise for this is a sufficiently high number of pulses and a large sampling size. BNC 09025. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. the maximum can be found among What you need: Counter tube. The purpose of the following experiment is to confirm these facts and to show that the statistical pulse distribution can even be be approximated by a Guassian distribution.11 1 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.37070 Göttingen .2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 218 Physical Structure of Matter Radioactivity 5. the fluctuation of the pulses is smaller than in the case of a Poisson’s distribution.00 1 Counter tube holder on fixing magnet 09201. type A. 2) Not only the Poisson’s distribution. In order to show this unsymmetry the experiment is carried out with a short counting period and a sufficiently large gap between the emitter and the counter tube so that the average number of pulses counted becomes sufficiently small. USB 12150.61 1 Cobra3 measuring Module GM counting tube 12106. e.11 1 PC.00 1 Source holder on fixing magnet 09202. counter tube arranged with a constant gap between each other.

08.2. -particles   deflection  Ionising particles  Mesons  Cosmic radiation  Radioactive decay  Decay series  Particle velocity  Lorentz force Principle: Radioactivity is a subject in our society which has been playing an important role throughout politics. stainless steel 18/8. tracks of cosmic and terrestrial radiation visible so that a wide range of natural radiation types can be identified. . d = 10 mm 02031.00 1 Holder for dynamometer 03068. the diffusion cloud chamber offers the opportunity to carry out physical experiments with the aid of artificial radiation sources.04-00 What you can learn about …  .00 1 Accessory set for Beta deflection 09043.93 1 Isopropyl alcohol. economy and media for many years now. The high-performance diffusion cloud chamber serves for making the What you need: Diffusion cloud chamber PJ45.52 1 Stand tube 02060.00 1 Support rod. The fact that this radiation cannot be seen or felt by the human being and that the effects of this radiation are still not fully explored yet. .70 2 Thorium-source 09043.55 1 Object holder 50 mm x 50 mm 08041. 230 V 09046. 74kBq 09047. causes emotions like no other scientific subject before.53 1 Support base -PASS- 02005.41 1 Radioactive source. -particles and mesons 3. Deflection of --particles in a magnetic field PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Furthermore. l = 250 mm.55 1 Swinging arm 08256.LEP_5_1 09. Visualisation of .00 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. Determination of the amount of background radiation 2. 1000 ml 30092. Sr-90. Visualisation of the Thorium (Radon) decay 4.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 219 . Manual on CD-ROM included Visualisation of radioactive particles / Diffusion cloud chamber P2520400 Experimental set-up: deflection of -particles. KG · D .04 1 Scale for demonstration board 02153.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 219 Physical Structure of Matter Radioactivity Visualisation of radioactive particles / Diffusion cloud chamber 5.00 1 Complete Equipment Set. Tasks: 1.

00 1 Source holder on fixing magnet 09202. a preamplifier. 220 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 1 Alpha.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 220 Physical Structure of Matter Radioactivity 5. 3. Tasks: 1. 3. Manual on CD-ROM included Alpha-Energies of different sources with Multi Channel Analyzer P2522015 Alpha-spectrum of the 226Ra.7 kBq 09090.99 1 Software Multi-Channel-Analyzer 14452.08. What you need: Multi-Channel-Analyzer 13726.10 1 Base plate for radioactivity 09200.11 2 Data cable 2 x SUB-D. 75 Ω 07542.00 1 Cable connector BNC. The calibration spectrum of the open 241Am Alpha-emitter is recorded at the same settings.2. plug/socket. a pulse height analyser and a recording device for registration of the spectra is calibrated by means of an open Alpha-emitter of known Alphaenergy (241Am). BNC. l = 750 mm 07542.00 1 Counter tube holder on fixing magnet 09201.03 1 Radioactive Source Ra-226. is recorded and evaluated. 4 kBq 09041.00 1 Pre-amplifier for alpha detector 09100.61 1 Americium-241 source.00 1 PC. The energy spectrum of a radium source which is in equilibrium with its decay products. The Alpha-spectrum of the 226Ra is recorded with Multi Channal Analyzer 2. 9 pole 14602. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. consisting of a photodetector.and Photodetector 09099.09 1 Screened cable. The Alpha-energies corresponding to the individual peaks of the Alpha-spectrum of the radium are calculated and compared to the values in the literature.20-15 Alpha-Energies of different sources with Multi Channel Analyzer What you can learn about …  Decay series  Radioactive equilibrium  Isotopic properties  Decay energy  Particle energy  Potential well model of the atomic nucleus  Tunnel effect  Geiger-Nuttal law  Semiconductor  Barrier layer Principle: An Alpha-spectrometer. KG · D . The AlphaEnergies found in this way are allocated to the corresponding nuclides of the radium decay series.LEP_5_1 09.37070 Göttingen .

370 kBq Container for nuclear physics experiments Pre-amplifier for alpha detector Pulse height analyser Digital counter. l = 750 mm Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair Connecting cable. red.1300 hPa Diaphragm pump. large Americium-241 source. It is also possible in this case to shift the foil and source in an axial direction (thus deviating from Chadwick’s original apparatus). The particle rates are measured at different angles of scattering between about 20 ° and 90 °. 4 mm plug.00 47518. d = 8-9 mm Oscilloscope 30 MHz. USB Software Cobra3 Radioactivity Power supply 12V/2A PC. 2.Y-shape. Tasks: 1.11 07542.61 09099. In addition to the annular diaphragm with gold foil. d = 6 mm Tubing connect.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 221 Physical Structure of Matter Radioactivity Rutherford experiment 5. a measurement geometry is used which dates back What you need: Experiment P2522115 with MCA Experiment P2522111 with Cobra3 Experiment P2522101 with digital counter Multi-Channel-Analyzer Software Multi-Channel-Analyzer Alpha. 32 A.37070 Göttingen Counting rate for gold as a function of to Chadwick..00 07136. so that the angle of scattering can be varied over a wide range. Manual on CD-ROM included Rutherford experiment P25221 01/11/15 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. width 20 mm Screened cable.00 12150. l = 75 cm Data cable 2 x SUB-D.93 07136.08. 32 A. 2 channels Pinchcock.00 09090. The measurements are compared with the particle rates calculated by means of the Rutherford theory for the measurement geometry used.27 07362.21-01/11/15 What you can learn about …  Scattering  Angle of scattering  Impact parameter  Central force  Coulomb field  Coulomb forces  Rutherford atomic model  Identity of atomic number and charge on the nucleus Principle: The relationship between the angle of scattering and the rate of scattering of -particles by gold foil is examined with a semiconductor detector. 220V Rubber tubing/vacuum.LEP_5_1 09. This detector has a detection probability of 1 for -particles and virtually no zero effect.03 11459.00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 4 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 4 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Complete Equipment Set. so that the number of pulses agrees exactly with the number of -particles striking the detector.99 14452. 4 decades Hand held measuring instrument Pressure.and Photodetector* Annular diaphragm with gold foil Annular diaphragm with aluminium foil U-magnet.10 13725. RS 232 Pressure sensor. The particle rates are measured in the case of scattering by aluminium and gold with identical angles of scattering in each case.00 09100.. Set-up of experiment P2522115 with MCA In order to obtain maximum possible counting rates. 9 pole Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.11 09103. KG · D .2.61 12151.00 09103. Windows® 95 or higher * Alternatively: Alpha detector 13726.02 09103.03 06320. l = 75 cm Connecting cable. plug/socket. The ratio of the two particle rates is compared with the particle rate calculated from Rutherford’s scattering equation.50 14506. a second diaphragm with aluminium foil is provided in order to study the influence of the scattering material on the scattering rate.01 07362.01 08163.99 09100. Laboratory Experiments Physics 221 . 1.04 14602.0. blue.95 43631. 4 mm plug. two stage.93 39286. 1 (2r )2 sin4(2) .93 13600.20 07542. BNC..

4 mm plug.93 39286.03 11459. Manual on CD-ROM included Fine structure of the -spectrum P25222 01/11/15 of 241Am 222 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.93 11416. The energy of the two peaks preceding the principal peak is calculated. l = 750 mm Connecting cable. 1 Complete Equipment Set. maximum use being made in this case of the resolution capacity of the pulse height analyzer.00 12150. corresponding to a particle energy of 5.00 07136.LEP_5_1 09. The resolution capacity of the measurement layout is measured from the half-life width of the principal peak.01 08163. Windows® 95 or higher * Alternatively: Alpha detector 13726. red.03 09103.99 09100. 220V Rubber tubing/vacuum.. 3. RS 232 Pressure sensor.00 47518.97 07136. Use is made for this purpose of the “Zoom” function.37070 Göttingen . 1.10 13725. USB Software Cobra3 Universal recorder Power supply 12V/2A PC. l = 75 cm Data cable 2 x SUB-D. The pulse peaks above this threshold are amplified 5 times and restricted to a maximum of 10 V..1300 hPa Diaphragm pump. The spectrum of an open 241Amemitter is recorded with the xytrecorder at the maximum resolution capacity of the measurement layout. d = 6 mm Tubing connect. 32 A. 9 pole Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.04 14602. is used for calibration purposes.61 12151.95 43631. 2 channels Pinchcock.and Photodetector* Americium-241 source. The principal peak. 32 A.01 07362. blue. two stage..00 09090. using automatic window movement.11 07362. 2.61 09099. which is an additional amplification stage having in the effect that only that proportion of the pulses exceeding the threshold voltage of 5 V undergoes further processing.20 07542.7 kBq Container for nuclear physics experiments Pre-amplifier for alpha detector Pulse height analyser XYt recorder Hand held measuring instrument Pressure.0.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 222 Physical Structure of Matter 5. l = 75 cm Connecting cable. Tasks: 1.08. 4 mm plug.50 14504.Y-shape.99 14452. plug/socket. width 20 mm Screened cable.22-01/11/15 Radioactivity Fine structure of the -spectrum of 241 Am What you can learn about …  Energy level diagram (decay diagram)  Transition probability  Excited nuclear states  -emission  Connection between the fine structure of the -spectrum and the accompanying -spectrum Principle: The -spectrum of an open 241Amemitter is measured with a semiconductor -detector. BNC. KG · D .00 09100. Set-up of experiment P2522215 with MCA What you need: Experiment P2522215 with MCA Experiment P2522211 with Cobra3 Experiment P2522201 with xyt recorder Multi-Channel-Analyzer Software Multi-Channel-Analyzer Alpha.00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 Measured Alpha-spectrum of Am-241.486 MeV.2. d = 8-9 mm Oscilloscope 30 MHz.

The calibration spectrum of the open 241Am-emitter is recorded at the same settings.10 13725.and Photodetector* Americium-241 source.LEP_5_1 09.. 32 A.93 11416. the settings of the pulse analyzer (amplification) and recorder (x and y input sensitivity) being selected so as to make best possible use of the recording width.08.11 07362. plug/socket. l = 75 cm Connecting cable.00 09103.61 12151.01 08163.50 14504.1300 hPa Diaphragm pump. 1.00 1 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.04 14602.23-01/11/15 What you can learn about …  Decay series  Radioactive equilibrium  Isotopic properties  Decay energy  Particle energy  Potential well model of the atomic nucleus  Tunnel effect  Geiger-Nuttal law  Semiconductor  Barrier layer Principle: An -spectrometer.99 14452. on the assumption of a constant energy loss in the source covering. The -energies corresponding to the individual peaks of the spectrum of the radium are calculated and. red. is recorded and What you need: Experiment P2522315 with MCA Experiment P2522311 with Cobra3 Experiment P2522301 with xyt recorder Multi-Channel-Analyzer Software Multi-Channel-Analyzer Alpha. Manual on CD-ROM included Study of the -energies of 226Ra P25223 01/11/15 2.0. l = 750 mm Connecting cable.93 39286. 9 pole Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 226 Ra pulse rate dependence of pulse height.. blue. Laboratory Experiments Physics 223 . a pulse height analyzer and a recording device for registration of the spectra is calibrated by means of an open -emitter of known -energy (241Am). l = 75 cm Data cable 2 x SUB-D. 3.20 07542. 32 A. RS 232 Pressure sensor.00 09090. USB Software Cobra3 Universal recorder Power supply 12V/2A PC. the -active nuclides of the radium decay series corresponding to the individual peaks are determined on the basis of the values in the literature.00 12150.97 07136.03 11459. 1 4 evaluated.00 07136.Y-shape. two stage.03 09043. The -energies found in this way are allocated to the corresponding nuclides of the radium decay series.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 223 Physical Structure of Matter Radioactivity Study of the -energies of 226 Set-up of experiment P2522311 with Cobra3 Ra 5.. d = 8-9 mm Oscilloscope 30 MHz. * Alternatively: Alpha detector 09100. 2 channels Pinchcock.29 09041. The energy spectrum of a radium source which is in equilibrium with its decay products. 4 mm plug.95 43631. a preamplifier. Complete Equipment Set.00 09100. 4 mm plug. width 20 mm Screened cable.7 kBq Adaptor for radioactive sources Radioactive Source Ra-226.37070 Göttingen 3. 4 kBq Container for nuclear physics experiments Pre-amplifier for alpha detector Pulse height analyser XYt recorder Hand held measuring instrument Pressure. BNC.00 47518. 220V Rubber tubing/vacuum.61 09099. Windows® 95 or higher 13726.2.01 07362. consisting of a silicon surface barrier layer detector. KG · D . The -spectrum of the 226Ra is recorded. d = 6 mm Tubing connect. 1 Tasks: 1 1.

3 way.00 12150.95 43631. 3. (This value is required for the evaluation in 1.03 41772.37070 Göttingen .04 14602.7 kBq Americium-241 source.) and plotted as a function of the distance x converted to a 1013 hPa basis.11 07362. CO2.. The mean energy with which the -particles leave the covered americium source is determined by calibration against the open americium emitter (E = 5. helium. 3.99 14452. l = 750 mm Connecting cable. The spectrum of a covered 241Am source is measured at a fixed distance s as a function of the pressure p. T-shaped Fine control valve for pressure bottles Compressed gas. 2. Manual on CD-ROM included Energy loss of -particles in gases P25224 01/11/15 224 Laboratory Experiments Physics Influence of the type of gas on the energy loss of -particles.08. Using this function.06 07542.00 07136.04 41772. 4 mm plug.00 41772.2. The energy corresponding to the central points of the individual spectra are determined (after calibration of the measurement layout with an open 241 Am-emitter.20 36731. the differential energy loss (– dE/dx) is then calculated as a function of x and again plotted on the graph. d = 6 mm Tubing connect. in each case under identical pressures. The spectrum of the source used in 1. blue.61 09099. plug/socket. 2 channels Pinchcock. 12 l Compressed gas. d = 8-9 mm Oscilloscope 30 MHz. The measurements recorded enable the differencial energy loss dE/dx to be calculated as a function of x.93 39286. 1.LEP_5_1 09. 4 mm plug.00 47518.93 11416.and Photodetector* Americium-241 source.. two stage.03 11459. l = 75 cm Connecting cable.485 MeV). 12 l Compressed gas. 220V Rubber tubing/vacuum.01 08163. see 3. 370 kBq Container for nuclear physics experiments Pre-amplifier for alpha detector Pulse height analyser XYt recorder Hand held measuring instrument Pressure. 21 g Screened cable. l = 75 cm Data cable 2 x SUB-D.61 12151. RS 232 Pressure sensor. nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The different energy loss values are compared with the electron concentration in the particluar gas. The distance s is selected in such a way as to correspond to the maximum range at the highest pressure measurable with the manometer used.00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 Complete Equipment Set.50 14504.00 33499. is measured initially under the same geometric conditions under vacuum and subsequently with the vessel filled with helium. USB Software Cobra3 Universal recorder Power supply 12V/2A 13726.0.) PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D . width 20 mm Glass stopcocks.01 07362.00 09090.Y-shape. 32 A..97 07136. BNC. Tasks: 1.03 09090. nitrogen. 32 A.11 09103. 9 pole Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.1300 hPa Diaphragm pump.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 224 Physical Structure of Matter 5. What you need: Experiment P2522415 with MCA Experiment P2522411 with Cobra3 Experiment P2522401 with xyt recorder Multi-Channel-Analyzer Software Multi-Channel-Analyzer Alpha.10 13725.99 * Alternatively: Alpha detector 09100.24-01/11/15 Radioactivity Energy loss of -particles in gases Set-up of experiment P2522401 with xyt recorder What you can learn about …  Range  Range dispersion  Mean free path length  Mean ionization energy of gas atoms  Mean energy loss of -particles per collision  Differencial energy loss  Bethe formula  Electron concentration in gases Principle: A study is made of the connection between the energy E of -particles and the path x travelled by them in air at standard pressure. red.00 09100.

00 1 Complete Equipment Set. glass (GL). and typing paper (TP). As electron source. BNC.08. hard paper (HP). resp. 1/100 s 03071. 40 x 22 mm.37070 Göttingen 2.11 1 Screened cable.11 1 Stopwatch. type A. a radioactive sample of Sr90 is used.00 1 Supports for base 09200. the “mass per unit area”. stainless steel 03010.LEP_5_1 09. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Sr-90.2.01 1 Counter tube holder on fixing magnet 09201.53 1 Geiger-Müller Counter 13606. KG · D .00 1 Vernier calipers. Tasks: 1.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 225 Physical Structure of Matter Radioactivity Electron absorption 5.00 1 Source holder on fixing magnet 09202. The attenuation coefficients are evaluated for the four absorbing materials and plotted as a function of the density. It will be shown that the particle flux consisting of electrons of a particular energy distribution decreases with the “mass per unit area”. What you need: Radioactive source.01 1 Base plate for radioactivity 09200.31-00 What you can learn about …  Density  Counter tube  Radioactive decay  Attenuation coefficient  Mass coverage Principle: The attenuation of an electron particle stream passing through a material layer depends both on the thickness of the layer and on the mass coverage. BNC 09025. Laboratory Experiments Physics 225 . l = 750 mm 07542. 09200. digital. 64688. Manual on CD-ROM included Electron absorption P2523100 Counting rate I as a function of absorber thickness.99 1 Counter tube. 50 pcs.00 1 Absorption plates for beta-rays 09024. The -counting rates are measured as a function of the absorber thickness using different absorbing materials such as aluminium (AL). 2 pcs.00 1 Cover glasses.00 1 Plate holder on fixing magnet 09203. 74kBq 09047.00.

BNC.04 2 Complete Equipment Set. 25 mm long 06490. 3.53 1 Counter tube. using a diaphragm system. Tasks: 1. Determination of the decay energy of the two isotopes. 74kBq 09047.32-00 -spectroscopy What you can learn about …  –-decay  +-decay  Electron capture  Neutrino  Positron  Decay diagram  Decay energy  Resting energy  Relativistic Lorentz equation Principle: The radiation of -unstable atomic nuclei is selected on the basis of its pulses in a magnetic transverse field.11 1 Geiger-Müller Counter 13606. 74kBq 09047.00 1 Clamping device 06506. laminated 06501.00 1 Iron core. tangential. blue. U-shaped.02 1 Screened cable. Energy calibration of the magnetic spectrometer.01 1 Connecting cable. with protective cap 13610. 2.52 1 Radioactive source.00 1 Teslameter. Measurement of the -spectra of 90 Sr and 22Na. universal 13500.37070 Göttingen . type A. 4 mm plug. What you need: Beta-spectroscope 09104.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 226 Physical Structure of Matter Radioactivity 5. BNC 09025. Sr-90.08. 226 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D .2.93 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. digital 13610. red. l = 50 cm 07361. l = 50 cm 07361.11 1 Connecting cable. solid. Na-22. laminated 06500.01 1 Iron core. Manual on CD-ROM included -spectroscopy P2523200 -spectrum of 90Sr.00 1 Iron core.LEP_5_1 09.99 1 Power supply.93 1 Hall probe. 32 A. 600 turns 06514. 32 A.00 1 Coil.01 1 Radioactive source. rod shaped. l = 750 mm 07542. 4 mm plug. The relationship between coil current and particle energy is determined for calibration of the spectrometer and the decay energy of the -transition is obtained in each case from the –-spectra.

99 1 Software Cobra3 Radioactivity 14506.00 1 1 Plate holder on fixing magnet 09204. iron.08.99 1 Absorption material.00 1 1 Geiger-Mueller-Counter 13606.50 1 1 Absorption plates for beta-rays 09024. Manual on CD-ROM included Law of distance and absorption of gamma or beta rays P25241 01/11 1.00 1 1 Base plate for radioactivity 09200.00 1 1 Counter tube holder on fixing magnet 09201. iron.61 1 Counter tube module 12106. 2.04 1 1 Absorption material.01 1 1 Absorption material. BNC.02 1 1 Absorption material. To measure the impulse counting rate as a function of the distance between the source and the counter tube. aluminium. aluminium 09029. KG · D . concrete and Plexiglas are used as absorbers.00 1 g cm Attenuation coefficient of different materials as a function of the material density (from left to right: Plexiglas®. Lead. To calculate the mass attenuation coefficient from the measured values. PC. To determine the half-value thickness d1/2 and the absorption coefficient of a number of materials by measuring the impulse count- PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.10 1 1 Vernier caliper. the half-value thickness and absorption Set-up of experiment P2524111 with Cobra3 What you need: µ cm Experiment P2524111 with Cobra3 Experiment P2524101 with GM Counter Radioactive sources. Windows® 95 or higher Tasks: Complete Equipment Set. type A. Laboratory Experiments Physics 227 .37070 Göttingen ing rate as a function of the thickness of the irradiated material.00 1 1 Counter tube. set 09047.2.05 1 1 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.41-01/11 What you can learn about …  Radioactive radiation  Beta-decay  Conservation of parity  Antineutrino  Gamma quanta  Half-value thickness  Absorption coefficient  Term diagram  Pair formation  Compton effect  Photoelectric effect  Conservation of angular momentum  Forbidden transition  Weak interaction  Dead time Principle: The inverse square law of distance is demonstrated with the gamma radiation from a 60Co preparation. iron 09029. Plexiglas 09029.00 1 1 Source holder on fixing magnet 09202.LEP_5_1 09. concrete 09029. concrete. 3.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. lead 09029. aluminium.11 1 1 Screened cable. lead).03 1 1 Absorption material. BNC 09025. l = 300 mm 07542. plastic 03011.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 227 Physical Structure of Matter Radioactivity Law of distance and absorption of gamma or beta rays 5. USB 12150. coefficient of various materials determined with the narrow beam system and the corresponding mass attenuation coefficient calculated.

00 09203. The three emitting isotopes are used successively as the source. assuming that the energy of the emitted -radiation is known. plug/socket. 2.00 09101.01 09101.42-01/11/15 Radioactivity Energy Dependence of the -absorption Coefficient Set-up of experiment P2524215 with MCA What you can learn about …  Compton scattering  Photo effect  Pair production  Absorption coefficient  Radioactive decay  -spectroscopy Principle: The intensity of -radiation decreases when it passes through solid matter.2.3 MeV is verified. stainless steel Source holder on fixing magnet Absorption material. 32 A. USB Power supply 12V/2A Software Cobra3 Universal recorder Software Cobra3 Radioactivity PC.93 09101. 9 pole Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.99 14504.08.00 09029. The energy dependence of the total absorption coefficient for aluminium in the range below 1.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 228 Physical Structure of Matter 5. the photo effect or the pair production. The attenuation can be the result of Compton scattering. Ethres. 2 channels xyt recorder Base plate for radioactivity Plate holder on fixing magnet Lab jack.LEP_5_1 09.00 09202. For each of the emitting isotopes Na22.61 14506. blue.99 14452. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.37070 Göttingen . Tasks: 1.27 07542. Manual on CD-ROM included Energy Dependence of the -absorption Coefficient 25242 01/11/15 228 Laboratory Experiments Physics Total gamma-absorption coefficient as a function of the energy.00 03010.61 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Complete Equipment Set. 4 mm plug. l = 75 cm Data cable 2 x SUB-D.03 07542.01 07362. What you need: Experiment P2524215 with MCA Experiment P2524211 with Cobra3 Experiment P2524201 with xyt recorder Multi-Channel-Analyzer Software for Multi-Channel-Analyzer Americium-241 source. An absorption coefficient can be attributed to each of the three phenomena. are highly energy-dependent. as well as the total absorption. 370 kBq Radioactive Source Cs-137.97 09200.93 11459.50 12151.00 12150. Using the scintillation counter in conjunction with the pulse height analyser as a monochromator. Cs137 and Am241 the -spectrum is traced and a treshold energy.00 02074. l = 750 mm Connecting cable. 32 A.11 07362. 160 x 130 mm Vernier calipers. aluminium Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair Screened cable.95 11416.10 13725. KG · D . 4 mm plug. These absorption coefficients. l = 75 cm Connecting cable. Windows® 95 or higher 13726.61 09090. BNC. 37kBq Gamma detector Operating unit for gamma detector High voltage connecting cable Pulse height analyser Oscilloscope 30 MHz. the -intensity is measured as a function of the thickness of different aluminium layers.04 14602.11 09096. just below the photo-peak in the high energy range determined. red.

32 A. l = 75 cm Data cable 2 x SUB-D.04 14602. BNC. 2 channels xyt recorder Shielding cylinder for gamma-detector Rod. Complete Equipment Set.27 07542.61 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Energy of known peaks as a function of the pulse height.13 09029. 4 mm plug.5 MBq Gamma detector Operating unit for gamma detector High voltage connecting cable Pulse height analyser Oscilloscope 30 MHz. 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Tasks: 1. USB Power supply 12V/2A Software Cobra3 Universal recorder PC.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 229 . 9 pole Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. iron.11 09096.2.00 09101.18.99 14504.93 09101. l = 200 mm Lead block. 370 kBq Radioactive Source Cs-137. red. Windows® 95 or higher 13726. Calibrate the measuring set-up with the aid of a Cs-137 calibrating source (37 kBq). 4 mm plug.93 11459.10 13725.00 12150.08.61 09047. 37kBq Radioactive source Cs-137.50 12151.20 09101. 74kBq Americium-241 source. KG · D . an Am-241 source (370 kBq) and a Na-22 source (74 kBq).2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 229 Physical Structure of Matter Radioactivity Compton effect Set-up of experiment P2524411 with Cobra3 5. l = 750 mm Connecting cable.01 07362. blue. l = 75 cm Connecting cable.6 keV peaks scattered at different angles and calculate the Compton wavelength from the readings taken.11 07362.00 07542. 200 x 100 x 50 mm Lead brick with hole Source holder on fixing magnet Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair Screened cable. 2. 32 A. The Compton wavelength is determined from the measured values.11 09101. plug/socket.52 09090.99 14452.LEP_5_1 09.95 11416.01 09096. Na-22.11 09021. Manual on CD-ROM included Compton effect P25244 01/11/15 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.44-01/11/15 What you can learn about …  Corpuscle  Scattering  Compton wavelength  -quanta  De Broglie wavelength  Klein-Nishina formula Principle: The energy of scattered -radiation is measured as a function of the angle of scatter. Measure the energy of the Cs-137 661.00 09202. What you need: Experiment P2524415 with MCA Experiment P2524411 with Cobra3 Experiment P2524401 with xyt recorder Multi-Channel-Analyzer Software for Multi-Channel-Analyzer Radioactive source.97 09101. d = 25 mm.

F_x corresponds to characteristic X-ray radiation caused by internal conversion in Ba-137. Measurement of the g-spectrum of 137Cs using a scintillation detector. 1 1 PC. PComplete Equipment Set. Tasks: 1.08. 2 channels 11459. 4 mm plug. square.55 1 1 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. l = 75 cm 07362. 4 mm plug.11 3 3 Connecting cable.97 1 1 Support rod -PASS-. The areas of the fractions in question are determined and the conversion factor obtained from them. l = 75 cm 07362. plug/socket. Manual on CD-ROM included Internal conversion in 137mBa P25245 01/11/15 230 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.01 2 2 Connecting cable.2007 12:13 Uhr Seite 230 Physical Structure of Matter 5.55 1 1 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002.93 1 1 Oscilloscope 30 MHz.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151.LEP_5_1 09.99 1 Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504.01 1 1 1 Gamma detector 09101. The spectrum contains fractions due to a What you need: Experiment P2524515 with MCA Experiment P2524511 with Cobra3 Experiment P2524501 with xyt recorder Multi-Channel-Analyzer 13726. blue.95 1 1 XYt recorder 11416.27 1 1 Screened cable.04 2 2 Data cable 2 x SUB-D. 9 pole 14602.61 1 Radioactive Source Cs-137. F_y1 and F_y2 corresponds to the transition radiation. red. KG · D .45-01/11/15 Radioactivity Internal conversion in 137m Ba Set-up of experiment P2524501 with xyt recorder What you can learn about …  -radiation  Nuclear transitions  Transition probability  Duration  Metastable states  Isotopic spin quantum numbers  Rules governing selection  Multipole radiation  Isomeric nuclei  Photonuclear reaction  Conversion electron  Characteristic X-ray radiation  Scintillation detectors Principle: The radiation emitted during the decay of the 137Cs isotope is measured with a scintillation detector and the energy spectrum determined with a pulse height analyzer.10 1 1 1 Pulse height analyser 13725. BNC.99 Software Multi-Channel-Analyzer 14452. l = 750 mm 07542. 32 A.2.00 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.37070 Göttingen . 32 A.00 1 1 1 Operating unit for gamma detector 09101. USB 12150. l = 400 mm 02026. 37kBq 09096.93 1 1 1 High voltage connecting cable 09101.55 1 1 1 Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair 07542. Windows® 95 or higher -transition and fractions originating from a characteristic X-ray radiation.61 1 -spectrum of 137Cs. Determination of the conversion factor of the 137mBa excited nucleus. 2.

BNC. l = 75 cm 07362.93 1 1 1 High voltage connecting cable 09101. red. square.LEP_5_2 09.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 231 . 2 channels 11459.93 1 1 Oscilloscope 30 MHz. 9 pole 1 1 -spectrum of 22Na.01 1 1 1 Gamma detector 09101.99 1 Software Cobra3 Universal recorder 14504.55 1 1 1 Universal clamp 37718.04 2 2 1. USB 12150. blue.50 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151.55 1 1 1 Adapter.27 1 Screened cable. 662 and 1275 keV.2. plug/socket.99 Software Multi-Channel-Analyzer 14452. BNC plug/4 mm socket 07542. Manual on CD-ROM included Photonuclear cross-section / Compton scattering cross-section P25246 01/11/15 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.55 2 2 2 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. Data cable 2 x SUB-D.01 2 2 Connecting cable.95 1 XYt recorder 11416. The results are used for determining the ratio of the effective cross-sections and examining its energy dependence. KG · D . 37kBq 09096. 32 A. The fractions of the spectra caused by Compton scattering and those caused by the photoelectric effect are determined on the basis of their areas.46-01/11/15 What you can learn about …  -radiation  Interaction with material  Photoelectric effect  Compton effect  Pair formation  Detection probability  Scintillation detectors Principle: The radiation of 137Cs and 22Na is measured with a scintillation detector and the energy spectrum determined with a pulse height analyzer. Tasks: 14602.97 1 Support rod -PASS-. Determination of the ratio of the specific effective cross-sections due to the Compton effect and the photoelectric effect in photons having energy values of 511. l = 75 cm 07362.10 1 1 1 Pulse height analyser 13725.61 Radioactive source. using a scintillation detector.52 1 1 1 Radioactive Source Cs-137.61 1 PC. Measurement of the g-spectra of 22Na and 137Cs. l = 750 mm 07542. 74kBq 09047. 4 mm plug.08. l = 400 mm 02026. 4 mm plug. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set.11 3 1 1 Connecting cable. 32 A.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 231 Physical structure of matter Radioactivity Photonuclear cross-section / Compton scattering cross-section 5. Set-up of experiment P2524615 with MCA What you need: Experiment P2524615 with MCA Experiment P2524611 with Cobra3 Experiment P2524601 with xyt recorder Multi-Channel-Analyzer 13726.00 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.00 1 1 1 Operating unit for gamma detector 09101.00 1 1 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. 1 2. Na-22.

04 09029. bare.11 09096.55 02036.01 46444.04 14602.61 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Complete Equipment Set. l = 75 cm Connecting cable.93 09101. 32 A. After calibration of the spectrometer.47-01/11/15 Radioactivity X-ray fluorescence and Moseley’s law What you can learn about …  Binding energy  Photoelectric eftect  Shell structure of electron shells  Characteristic X-ray radiation  -spectrometry  X-ray spectral analysis Principle: The irradiation of strontinum (sulphate). 37kBq Pulse height analyser Gamma detector Operating unit for gamma detector High voltage connecting cable Oscilloscope 30 MHz.03 02025. 3. a pulse height analyser and a recorder.95 11416. using Moseley’s law. blue. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. iodine and barium (chloride) with soft -radiations gives rise to Ka radiations characteristics of these elements.1 mm. Calibration of the -spectrometer in the low energy range.25 31839.25 30093.01 07274. USB Power supply 12V/2A Software Cobra3 Universal recorder PC. pack of 100 Crocodile clips. The X-ray spectra are recorded with a -spectrometer consisting of a scintillation counter.27 31991. 4 mm plug.LEP_5_2 09. 150 x 150 x 0. KG · D .97 07542.99 14452.55 37718. 2.01 13725.01 03065. 10 pcs Support rod -PASS-.00 09101.08. Windows® 95 or higher 13726. 2 channels XYt recorder Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair Tin-II chloride 250 g Silver foil sheet. indium. 9 pole Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. BNC.01 07362.04 07542.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 232 Physical structure of matter 5. 370 kBq Radioactive Source Cs-137. DIN A5. red.20 30033. 4 mm plug. l = 75 cm Data cable 2 x SUB-D.93 09101.00 02040. stainless steel. 25 g Screened cable. Plotting of the measured X-ray energies according to Moseley’s law against (Z-1)2 and determination of the Rydberg constant R∞ from the slope of the resulting lines.11 07362. 32 A.50 12151.99 14504. l = 10 cm Spring balance holder Barium chloride.55 02005. plug/socket. Recording of the X-ray fluorescence spectra (Ka-lines) of different elements and determination of the corresponding energies. square. Manual on CD-ROM included X-ray fluorescence and Moseley’s law P25247 01/11/15 232 Laboratory Experiments Physics Calibration lines of Cs-137 and Am-241 Tasks: 1. l = 750 mm Connecting cable.10 11459. 250 g Iodine resublimed.61 09090. 25 g Absorption material.2.37070 Göttingen . Set-up of experiment P2524711 with Cobra3 What you need: Experiment P2524715 with MCA Experiment P2524711 with Cobra3 Experiment P2524701 with xyt recorder Multi-Channel-Analyzer Software Multi-Channel-Analyzer Americium-241 source. the Rydberg constant is determined from the energies of the X-ray lines. cadmium. using the Ba-resonance line of a 137Cs emitter (32 keV) and the -line of 241Am at 59. l = 250 mm Support base -PASSUniversal clamp Right angle clamp -PASSSupport rod with hole.00 12150.6 keV. lead Plastic bags.

the specific conductivity. 30 x 30 x 48 mm.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. The band spacing of germanium is calculated from the measurements. the type of charge carrier and the mobility of the charge carriers are determined from the measurements. The sign of the charge carriers and the Hall constant RH togeth- 5. The voltage across the sample is measured at room temperature and constant control current as a function of the magnetic induction B. Plasma Physics Hall effect in p-germanium 5. 32 A. Laboratory Experiments Physics 233 . The Hall voltage UH is measured as a function of the magnetic induction B. What you need: Hall effect module 11801. l = 50 cm 07361.01 3 Connecting cable. The band spacing. Manual on CD-ROM included Hall effect in p-germanium P2530101 Hall voltage as a function of magnetic induction. square. 12 V AC 13505. carrier board 11805. The Hall voltage is measured at room temperature and constant magnetic field as a function of the control current and plotted on a graph (measurement without compensation for defect voltage).00 1 Hall probe.01 1 Coil.02 1 Power supply 0-12 V DC/ 6 V.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 233 Physical Structure of Matter Solid-state Physics.00 1 Pole pieces.37070 Göttingen perature. The Hall voltage UH is measured as a function of temperature at constant magnetic induction B and the values are plotted on a graph. 4 mm plug.3.00 1 Hall voltage as a function of current.55 1 Support rod -PASS-. digital 13610. red.04 2 Connecting cable. Tasks: 1. The voltage across the sample is measured at constant control current as a function of the tem- PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.55 1 Connecting cable. plane.01 2 Iron core. laminated 06501. U-shaped.00 1 Hall effect. 3. Complete Equipment Set. 1 pair 06489. p-Ge.93 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128. blue.08. tangential. at room temperature. black. with protective cap 13610.05 2 Teslameter. l = 75 cm 07362. KG · D . 4 mm plug. l = 250 mm 02025.01-01 What you can learn about …  Semiconductor  Band theory  Forbidden zone  Intrinsic conductivity  Extrinsic conductivity  Valence band  Conduction band  Lorentz force  Magnetic resistance  Mobility  Conductivity  Band spacing  Hall coefficient Principle: The resistivity and Hall voltage of a rectangular germanium sample are measured as a function of temperature and magnetic field. 4 mm plug. l = 50 cm 07361. 4. 2.LEP_5_2 09.93 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. 32 A. 32 A. 600 turns 06514. er with the Hall mobility mH and the carrier concentration p are calculated from the measurements.

4 mm plug. l = 250 mm 02025.02 1 Power supply 0-12 V DC/ 6 V. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. blue. 9 pole 14602. l = 50 cm 07361. with protective cap 13610. the specific conductivity. square.00 1 Software Cobra3 Hall effect 14521. l = 50 cm 07361. 5. p-Ge.01 1 Coil. 32 A. The band spacing of germanium is calculated from the measurements. plane.01 2 Connecting cable. 12 V AC 13505. 1 pair 06489. The voltage across the sample is measured at room temperature and constant control current as a function of the magnetic induction B. plug/socket.61 1 Data cable 2 x SUB-D.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 234 Physical Structure of Matter Solid-state Physics.01-11 Hall effect in p-germanium with Cobra3 What you can learn about …  Semiconductor  Band theory  Forbidden zone  Intrinsic conductivity  Extrinsic conductivity  Valence band  Conduction band  Lorentz force  Magnetic resistance  Mobility  Conductivity  Band spacing  Hall coefficient Principle: The resistivity and Hall voltage of a rectangular germanium sample are measured as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The Hall voltage UH is measured as a function of the magnetic induction B. black. 4 mm plug. 234 Laboratory Experiments Physics 4. The Hall voltage is measured at room temperature and constant magnetic field as a function of the control current and plotted on a graph (measurement without compensation for defect voltage). carrier board 11805. tangential.00 1 Hall effect.LEP_5_2 09.00 1 Pole pieces. PC.50 1 Tasks: Power supply 12V/2A 12151.99 1 Cobra3 measuring module Tesla 12109.00 1 1. The voltage across the sample is measured at constant control current as a function of the temperature. Manual on CD-ROM included Hall effect in p-germanium with Cobra3 P2530111 Hall voltage as a function of temperature.93 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. 2. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. The sign of the charge carriers and the Hall constant RH together with the Hall mobility mH and the carrier concentration p are calculated from the measurements. the type of charge carrier and the mobility of the charge carriers are determined from the measurements.3. 600 turns 06514. laminated 06501. KG · D . at room temperature. The band spacing.05 2 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.37070 Göttingen .55 1 Connecting cable. 32 A.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. The Hall voltage UH is measured as a function of temperature at constant magnetic induction B and the values are plotted on a graph. USB 12150. What you need: Hall effect module 11801. U-shaped.04 1 Connecting cable.55 1 Support rod -PASS-. Plasma Physics 5. 30 x 30 x 48 mm.00 1 Hall probe.01 2 Iron core. red. 4 mm plug. 32 A.08. 3. l = 75 cm 07362.

plane.99 1 Cobra3 measuring module Tesla 12109. digital 13610. Measure the Hall voltage UH as a function of temperature at uniform magnetic flux density B. 4 mm plug.05 2 2 Teslameter.93 1 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. 4. At room temperature and with a constant control current.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 235 Physical Structure of Matter Solid-state Physics.55 1 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. l = 50 cm 07361.02-01/11 What you can learn about …  Semiconductor  Band theory  Forbidden zone  Intrinsic conduction  Extrinsic conduction  Valence band  Conduction band  Lorentz force  Magneto resistance  Neyer-Neldel Rule Principle: The resistance and Hall voltage are measured on a rectangular strip of germanium as a function of the temperature and of the magnetic field. From the readings taken. 12 V AC 13505.3.02 1 1 Power supply 0-12 V DC/ 6 V. laminated 06501. From the readings taken. 4 mm plug. Laboratory Experiments Physics 235 . 4 mm plug. 32 A. tangential. and plot the readings on a graph.00 1 1 Pole pieces. carrier board 11802. l = 250 mm 02025. Also calculate the Hall mobility mH and the carrier density n. Plasma Physics Hall effect in n-germanium 5.01 3 2 Connecting cable. measure the voltage across the specimen as a function of the magnetic flux density B. red. 1 pair 06489. 32 A.61 1 Data cable 2 x SUB-D. n-Ge. blue. with protective cap 13610.01 1 1 Coil. 5. specific conductivity. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. l = 75 cm 07362.00 1 1 Hall effect. Manual on CD-ROM included Hall effect in n-germanium P25302 01/11 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Set-up of experiment P2530211 with Cobra3 What you need: Experiment P2530211 with Cobra3 Experiment P2530201 with teslameter Hall effect module 11801.LEP_5_2 09.00 1 1 Hall probe. square.50 1. determine the Hall coefficient RH and the sign of the charge carriers. plug/socket. black. 3.01 2 2 Iron core. USB 12150. At constant room temperature and with a uniform magnetic field measure the Hall voltage as a function of the control current and plot the values on a graph (measurement without compensation for error voltage).55 1 1 Connecting cable. l = 50 cm 07361. U-shaped.55 1 1 Support rod -PASS-.93 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128.00 1 Software Cobra3 Hall effect 14521.08. From the results obtained the energy gap. 9 pole 14602.37070 Göttingen Hall voltage as a function of temperature. 1 Power supply 12V/2A 12151. At room temperature measure the Hall Voltage UH as a function of the magnetic flux density B. 30 x 30 x 48 mm. Keeping the control current constant measure the voltage across the specimen as a function of temperature.00 1 Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. 32 A. type of charge carrier and the carrier mobility are determined. KG · D . calculate the energy gap of germanium. 2.00 1 PC.04 2 1 Tasks: Connecting cable. 600 turns 06514.

1 pair 06489. l = 75 cm 07362. The temperature dependence of the Hall voltage is investigated on the copper sample. 4 mm plug.00 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. U-shaped.00 1 Meter 10/30 mV. square.. 4 mm plug.08.01 1 Coil.. plane. 300 turns 06513.55 1 Support rod -PASS-. 32 A. with protective cap 13610.3. 30 x 30 x 48 mm. stabilised.00 1 Pole pieces. 32 A.03-00 Hall effect in metals What you can learn about …  Normal Hall effect  Anomalous Hall effect  Charge carriers  Hall mobility  Electrons  Defect electrons Principle: The Hall effect in thin zinc and copper foils is studied and the Hall coefficient determined. universal 13500. KG · D . The effect of temperature on the Hall voltage is investigated.55 2 Connecting cable.93 1 Teslameter.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 236 Physical structure of matter Solid-state Physics.00 1 Hall effect. carrier board 11804. l = 75 cm 07362. Plasma Physics 5. Tasks: 1. l = 250 mm 02025. What you need: Hall effect. 236 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Manual on CD-ROM included Hall effect in metals P2530300 Hall voltage as a function of magnetic induction B. 0.00 1 Universal clamp with joint 37716.93 1 Power supply. 4 mm plug.00 1 Power supply.05 2 Complete Equipment Set. blue. 200°C 07019. The Hall coefficient is determined from measurements of the current and the magnetic induction. The Hall voltage is measured in thin copper and zinc foils. digital 13610.LEP_5_2 09. laminated 06501. Zn. red. 32 A. tangential. carrier board 11803.93 1 Universal measuring amplifier 13626.30 V.04 5 Connecting cable. 3.01 6 Connecting cable. 2.02 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040.37070 Göttingen ./ 20 A 13536.01 2 Iron core. l = 75 cm 07362. Cu. using a copper sample. black.93 1 Hall probe.

4 mm plug.55 1 Right angle clamp -PASS- 02040. 32 A. square. l = 50 cm 07361. Plasma Physics Band gap of germanium 5. blue. The current and voltage are to be measured across a germanium test-piece as a function of temperature.04-01 What you can learn about …  Semiconductor  Band theory  Forbidden band  Intrinsic conduction  Extrinsic conduction  Impurity depletion  Valence band  Conduction band Principle: The conductivity of a germanium testpiece is measured as a function of temperature.01 1 Power supply 0-12 V DC/ 6 V.01 1 Connecting cable. The energy gap is determined from the measured values. l = 10 cm 07359.00 2 Connecting cable. 2. A linear plot is obtained. 32 A. l = 10 cm 07359.3. the conductivity  is to be calculated and plotted against the reciprocal of the temperature T. Tasks: 1.55 1 Support rod -PASS-.00 1 Intrinsic conductor. What you need: Hall effect module 11801.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 237 Physical structure of matter Solid-state Physics. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 4 mm plug. l = 250 mm 02025.04 1 Complete Equipment Set. red. 32 A. carrier board 11807.LEP_5_2 09. black. KG · D .93 1 Tripod base -PASS- 02002. Manual on CD-ROM included Band gap of germanium P2530401 Regression of the conductivity versus the reciprocal of the absolute temperature. 4 mm plug. Ge. from whose slope the energy gap of germanium can be determined. 12 V AC 13505. From the measurements.05 2 Connecting cable.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 237 .55 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128.08.

LEP_5_2

09.08.2007

12:18 Uhr

Seite 238

Physical structure of matter

Solid-state Physics, Plasma Physics

5.3.04-11 Band gap of germanium with Cobra3
What you can learn about … 
Semiconductor 
Band theory 
Forbidden band 
Intrinsic conduction 
Extrinsic conduction 
Impurity depletion 
Valence band 
Conduction band

Principle:
The conductivity of a germanium
testpiece is measured as a function
of temperature. The energy gap is
determined from the measured values.

What you need:
Hall effect module

11801.00

1

Intrinsic conductor, Ge, carrier board

11807.01

1

Power supply 0-12 V DC/ 6 V, 12 V AC

13505.93

1

Tripod base -PASS-

02002.55

1

Support rod -PASS-, square, l = 250 mm

02025.55

1

Right angle clamp -PASS-

02040.55

1

Connecting cable, 4 mm plug, 32 A, black, l = 50 cm

07361.05

2

Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

1

Power supply 12V/2A

12151.99

1

Software Cobra3 Hall effect

14521.61

1

Data cable 2 x SUB-D, plug/socket, 9 pole

14602.00

1

PC, Windows® 95 or higher
Typical measurement of the probe-voltage as a function of the temperature.

Complete Equipment Set, Manual on CD-ROM included
Band gap of germanium with Cobra3
P2530411
Tasks:
1. The current and voltage are to be
measured across a germanium
test-piece as a function of temperature.
2. From the measurements, the conductivity  is to be calculated and
plotted against the reciprocal of
the temperature T. A linear plot is
obtained, from whose slope the
energy gap of germanium can be
determined.

238 Laboratory Experiments Physics

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

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09.08.2007

12:18 Uhr

Seite 239

Physical structure of matter

Solid-state Physics, Plasma Physics

Surface treatment / Plasma Physics 5.3.10-00
What you can learn about … 
Arc discharge 
Glow discharge 
Electron avalanches 
Townsend breakthrough
mechanism 
Streamers 
Microdischarges 
Dielectric barrier discharge
(DBD) 
Surface energy 
Contact angle (CA) 
Contact angle measurement

Principle:
Different samples are exposed to a
dielectric barrier discharge in air at
atmospheric pressure. The plasma
induces both chemical and physical
reactions on the sample surface altering the surface structure and thus
the surface energy. The contact angle
of water on the sample surface is
observed in the exposed and in the

What you need:
Plasma Physics Operating Unit

09108.99

1

Plasma Physics Experimental Set

09108.10

1

Plasma Physics Sample Set

09108.30

1

Microliterpipette dig. 2-20 µl

47141.01

1

Pipette tips, 2-200 µl, 1000pcs

47148.01

1

Denatured alcohol (Spirit f.burning), 1000 ml

31150.70

1

Vernier caliper

03010.00

1

Water, distilled, 5 l

31246.81

1

Housing for experiment lamp

08129.01

1

Halogen lamp, 12 V/50 W

08129.06

1

Power supply 0-12V DC/6V,12V AC

13505.93

1

Lab jack, 160 x 130 mm

02074.00

1

Tripod base -PASS-

02002.55

1

Universal clamp with joint

37716.00

1

Support rod -PASS-, square, l = 400 mm

02026.55

1

Right angle clamp -PASS-

02040.55

2

Web-Cam CCD USB VGA PC Philips SPC900NC

88040.00

1

Software "Measure Dynamics", single user license

14440.62

1

Contact angle measurement equipment

PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Complete Equipment Set, Manual on CD-ROM included
Surface treatment / Plasma Physics
P2531000

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Measurement results for the contact angle of water on different sample
surfaces after plasma exposure of duration t.

unexposed region to analyse the
effect of the plasma treatment on
the surface energy.

Tasks:
Various samples are to be treated
with a plasma for different periods of
time. The effect of the treatment on
the contact angle of water on the
surface is to be observed by drop size
measurement or by web cam photography.

Laboratory Experiments Physics 239

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Seite 240

Physical structure of matter

Solid-state Physics, Plasma Physics

5.3.11-00 Paschen curve / Plasma Physics
What you can learn about … 
Glow discharge 
Electron avalanches 
Free path length 
Townsend breakdown theory 
Paschen curve

Principle:
The electric breakthrough voltage in
air is measured in dependence on
electrode distance and gas pressure.
The results are compared to the
Paschen curve which is a result of
Townsend electric breakdown theory
which assumes the product pd of
electrode distance d and gas pressure p to be the similarity parameter
describing the electric breakdown
behavior of a gas.

What you need:
Plasma Physics Operating Unit

09108.99

1

Plasma Physics Experimental Set

09108.10

1

Digital multimeter 2010

07128.00

1

Vacuum pump, one stage

02750.93

1

Oil mist filter

02752.00

1

Rubber tubing, vacuum, i.d. 8 mm

39288.00

2

Fine control valve

33499.00

1

Moving coil instrument

11100.00

1

Range multiplier, vacuum

11112.93

1

Tubing connect., T-shape, ID 8-9 mm

47519.03

1

Connecting cord, safety, 32 A, l = 100 cm, red

07337.01

1

Connecting cord, safety, 32A, l = 100 cm, blue

07337.04

1

Complete Equipment Set, Manual on CD-ROM included
Paschen curve / Plasma Physics
P2531100

Breakdown voltage in dependence on electrode distance for different gas
pressures.

Tasks:
Measure the voltage between plane
parallel electrodes at which electric
breakthrough occurs in dependence
on electrode distance d at different
gas pressures p in the hPa range.
Create plots of the breakthrough
voltage over electrode distance d
and over product of electrode distance and pressure pd (Paschen
curve).

240 Laboratory Experiments Physics

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

LEP_5_2

09.08.2007

12:18 Uhr

Seite 241

Physical structure of matter

X-ray Physics

Characteristic X-rays of copper 5.4.01-00
What you can learn about … 
Bremsstrahlung 
Characteristic radiation 
Energy levels 
Crystal structures 
Lattice constant 
Absorption 
Absorption edges 
Interference 
The Bragg equation 
Order of diffraction

Principle:
Spectra of X-rays from a copper
anode are to be analyzed by means
of different monocrystals and the
results plotted graphically. The energies of the characteristic lines are
then to be determined from the
positions of the glancing angles for
the various orders of diffraction.

What you need:
X-ray basic unit, 35 kV

09058.99

1

Goniometer for X-ray Unit 35 kV

09058.10

1

Plug-in module with Cu-X-ray tube

09058.50

1

Counter tube type B, BNC cable, l = 50 cm

09005.00

1

Lithium fluorid crystal, mounted

09056.05

1

Potassium bromide crystal, mounted

09056.01

1

Recording equipment:
XYt recorder

11416.97

1

Connecting cable, l = 100 cm, red

07363.01

2

Connecting cable, l = 100 cm, blue

07363.04

2

Software X-ray unit, 35 kV

14407.61

1

Data cable 2 x SUB-D, plug/socket, 9 pole

14602.00

1

or
X-ray intensity of copper as a function of the glancing angle; LiF (100) monocrystal as Bragg analyzer.

PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Complete Equipment Set, Manual on CD-ROM included
Characteristic X-rays of copper
P2540100

Tasks:
1. The intensity of the X-rays emitted by the copper anode at maximum anode voltage and anode
current is to be recorded as a
function of the Bragg angle, using
an LiF monocrystal as analyzer.
2. Step 1 is to be repeated using the
KBr monocrystal as analyzer.
3. The energy values of the characteristic copper lines are to be calculated and compared with the
energy differences of the copper
energy terms.

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments Physics 241

LEP_5_2

09.08.2007

12:18 Uhr

Seite 242

Physical structure of matter

X-ray Physics

5.4.02-00 Characteristic X-rays of molybdenum
What you can learn about … 
X-ray tube 
Bremsstrahlung 
Characteristic radiation 
Energy levels 
Crystal structures 
Lattice constant 
Absorption 
Absorption edges 
Interference 
The Bragg equation 
Order of diffraction

Principle:
Spectra of X-rays from a molybdenum anode are to be analyzed by
means of different monocrystals and
the results plotted graphically. The
energies of the characteristic lines
are then to be determined from the
positions of the glancing angles for
the various orders of diffraction.

What you need:
X-ray basic unit, 35 kV

09058.99

1

Goniometer for X-ray Unit 35 kV

09058.10

1

Plug-in module with Mo-X-ray tube

09058.60

1

Counter tube type B, BNC cable, l = 50 cm

09005.00

1

Lithium fluorid crystal, mounted

09056.05

1

Potassium bromide crystal, mounted

09056.01

1

Recording equipment:
XYt recorder

11416.97

1

Connecting cable, l = 100 cm, red

07363.01

2

Connecting cable, l = 100 cm, blue

07363.04

2

Software x-ray unit, 35 kV

14407.61

1

Data cable 2 x SUB-D, plug/socket, 9 pole

14602.00

1

or
X-ray intensity of molybdenum as a function of the glancing angle; LiF (100)
monocrystal as Bragg analyzer.

PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Complete Equipment Set, Manual on CD-ROM included
Characteristik X-rays of molybdenum
P2540200

Tasks:
1. The intensity of the X-rays emitted by the molybdenum anode at
maximum anode voltage and
anode current is to be recorded as
a function of the Bragg angle,
using an LiF monocrystal as analyzer.
2. Step 1 is to be repeated using the
KBr monocrystal as analyzer.
3. The energy values of the characteristic molybdenum lines are to
be calculated and compared with
the energy differences of the
molybdenum energy terms.

242 Laboratory Experiments Physics

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

05 1 Potassium bromide crystal.70 1 Counter tube type B. 9 pole 14602.08. mounted 09056.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 243 . The energy values of the characteristic iron lines are to be calculated and compared with the energy differences of the iron energy terms. The intensity of the X-rays emitted by the iron anode at maximum anode voltage and anode current is to be recorded as a function of the Bragg angle. PC.4. LiF (100) monocrystal as Bragg analyzer. l = 50 cm 09005. blue 07363. BNC cable. plug/socket. The energies of the characteristic lines are then to be determined from the positions of the glancing angles for the various orders of diffraction. red 07363. Step 1 is to be repeated using the KBr monocrystal as analyzer. 3.LEP_5_2 09. l = 100 cm. Manual on CD-ROM included Characteristik X-rays of iron P2540300 Tasks: 1.04 2 Software X-ray unit.00 1 or X-ray intensity of iron as a function of the glancing angle.01 2 Connecting cable.61 1 Data cable 2 x SUB-D. using an LiF monocrystal as analyzer. KG · D .2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 243 Physical structure of matter X-ray Physics Characteristic X-rays of iron 5. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. What you need: X-ray basic unit.01 1 Recording equipment: XYt recorder 11416.03-00 What you can learn about …  X-ray tube  Bremsstrahlung  Characteristic radiation  Energy levels  Crystal structures  Lattice constant  Absorption  Absorption edges  Interference  The Bragg equation  Order of diffraction Principle: Spectra of X-rays from a iron anode are to be analyzed by means of different monocrystals and the results plotted graphically. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. mounted 09056.00 1 Lithium fluorid crystal.97 1 Connecting cable.99 1 Goniometer for X-ray Unit 35 kV 09058. 2. l = 100 cm.10 1 Plug-in module with Fe-X-ray tube 09058. 35 kV 09058. 35 kV 14407.

99 1 Goniometer for X-ray Unit 35 kV 09058. What you need: N Imp s -1 X-ray basic unit.61 1 5000 Data cable 2 x SUB-D.04-00 The intensity of characteristic X-rays as a function of anode current and anode voltage What you can learn about …  Characteristic X-ray radiation  Energy levels  The Bragg equation  Intensity of characteristic X-rays Principle: Polychromatic X-radiation from a copper anode is to be directed against an LiF monocrystal so that the wavelengths can be analyzed according to Bragg. 9 pole 14602.04 2 6000 Software X-ray unit. 3.UK)1. The intensity spectrum of polychromatic radiation from an X-ray tube is to be recorded with the help of an LiF monocrystal.50 1 Counter tube type B. red 07363. Windows® 95 or higher 4000 Complete Equipment Set. BNC cable. The results of the measurement are to be compared with the theoretical intensity formula.05 1 11416.37070 Göttingen 140 .5 (IA = const.97 1 10000 9000 8000 Recording equipment: XYt recorder Ka 7000 Connecting cable. The intensities of the characteristic Ka and Kb radiations are to be determined as a function of both the anode current and the anode voltage.01 2 Connecting cable. l = 100 cm. 35 kV 09058.00 1 Lithium fluorid crystal.10 1 Plug-in module with Cu-X-ray tube 09058.08. The dependency of the characteristic Ka and Kb radiation on the anode current and anode voltage are to be determined. Manual on CD-ROM included The intensity of characteristic X-rays as a function of anode current and anode voltage P2540400 3000 Kb 2000 Tasks: 1.00 1 or PC. plug/socket. 1000 20 40 60 80 100 (UA .). 2. and be plotted graphically.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 244 Physical structure of matter X-ray Physics 5.LEP_5_2 09. 244 Laboratory Experiments Physics 120 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. l = 50 cm 09005.UK)3/2/kV 3/2 Ka and Kb intensities as a function of (UA . blue 07363. KG · D .4. l = 100 cm. 35 kV 14407. mounted 09056.

l = 50 cm 09005. LiF (100) monocrystal as analyzer. LiF (100) monocrystal as analyzer.05 1 Potassium bromide crystal. using a zirconium filter. 2.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 245 Physical structure of matter X-ray Physics Monochromatization of molybdenum X-rays 5.61 1 Data cable 2 x SUB-D. Step 1 is to be repeated. Laboratory Experiments Physics 245 . PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. mounted 09056. The LiF monocrystal is to be used to filter out a characteristic line and the appertaining monochromatization graphically recorded.LEP_5_2 09. red 07363. plug/socket.97 1 Connecting cable. What you need: X-ray basic unit. The energy values of the characteristic molybdenum lines are to be calculated. l = 100 cm.03 1 Recording equipment: XYt recorder 11416. 4. KG · D .01 1 Diaphragm tube with Zr.foil 09058.08.37070 Göttingen Molybdenum X-ray monochromatization with Zr filter.00 1 or Molybdenum X-ray intensity as a function of the glancing angle q. The intensity of the X-rays emitted by the molybdenum anode is to be graphically recorded as a function of the Bragg angle. Manual on CD-ROM included Monochromatization of molybdenum X-rays P2540500 Tasks: 1. l = 100 cm. 35 kV 09058. 9 pole 14602.10 1 Plug-in module with Mo-X-ray tube 09058. mounted 09056.60 1 Counter tube type B. using LiF and KBr monocrystals successively as analyzers.00 1 Lithium fluorid crystal.04 2 Software X-ray unit. blue 07363.99 1 Goniometer for X-ray Unit 35 kV 09058.01 2 Connecting cable. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. PC.05-00 What you can learn about …  Bremsstrahlung  Characteristic radiation  Energy levels  Absorption  Absorption edges  Interference  Diffraction  Bragg scattering Principle: Polychromatic X-rays are to be energy analyzed using various monocrystals and a suitably selected thin metal foil having an absorption edge which drastically reduces the intensity of an unwanted line. 35 kV 14407. BNC cable. 3.4.

l = 100 cm.00 1 Lithium fluorid crystal. KG · 37070 Göttingen . 35 kV 09058. 246 Laboratory Experiments Physics 3. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 2. What you need: X-ray basic unit. using LiF and KBr monocrystals successively as analyzers.10 1 Plug-in module with Cu-X-ray tube 09058. using a nickel filter. BNC cable. The energy values of the characteristic copper lines are to be calculated.4. Copper X-ray monochromatization with Ni filter. mounted 09056. LiF (100) monocrystal as analyzer (Diameter of diaphragm tube d = 1 mm). plug/socket.00 1 or Copper X-ray intensity as a function of the glancing angle q.03 1 Recording equipment: XYt recorder 11416. 4. The LiF monocrystal is to be used to filter out a characteristic line and the appertaining monochromatization graphically recorded. 35 kV 14407.05 1 Potassium bromide crystal. LiF (100) monocrystal as analyzer (Diameter of diaphragm tube d = 2 mm).08. PC.01 1 Diaphragm tube with Ni.61 1 Data cable 2 x SUB-D.04 2 Software X-ray unit.97 1 Connecting cable. Manual on CD-ROM included Monochromatization of copper X-rays P2540600 Tasks: 1. l = 100 cm.01 2 Connecting cable. mounted 09056.06-00 Monochromatization of copper X-rays What you can learn about …  Bremsstrahlung  Characteristic radiation  Energy levels  Absorption  Absorption edges  Interference  Diffraction  Bragg scattering Principle: Polychromatic X-rays are to be energy analyzed using various monocrystals and a suitably selected thin metal foil having an absorption edge which drastically reduces the intensity of an unwanted line.99 1 Goniometer for X-ray Unit 35 kV 09058.50 1 Counter tube type B. l = 50 cm 09005.LEP_5_2 09. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. The intensity of the X-rays emitted by the copper anode is to be graphically recorded as a function of the Bragg angle. blue 07363. Step 1 is to be repeated. 9 pole 14602.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 246 Physical Structure of Matter Physics of the Electron 5.foil 09056. red 07363.

99 1 Goniometer for X-ray Unit 35 kV 09058.01 2 Connecting cable.10 1 Plug-in module with Mo-X-ray tube 09058. separation of the Ka1 and Ka2 lines in 5th order diffraction. mounted 09056.61 1 Data cable 2 x SUB-D. l = 100 cm. l = 50 cm 09005. Tasks: 1. blue 07363.LEP_5_2 09. What you need: X-ray L basic unit. BNC cable.05 1 Recording equipment: XYt recorder 11416.07-00 What you can learn about …  Characteristic X-ray radiation  Energy levels  Selection rules  The Bragg equation  Energy term symbols Principle: The polychromatic molybdenum X-ray spectrum is to analyzed by means of a monocrystal. 35 kV 09058. l = 100 cm.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 247 Physical Structure of Matter Physics of the Electron Ka doublet splitting of molybdenum X-rays / fine structure 5. and a comparison made with the theoretical predictions.00 1 Lithium fluorid crystal. red 07363. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set.97 1 Connecting cable.00 1 or PC. plug/socket. KG · 37070 Göttingen 2. 9 pole 14602.04 2 Software X-ray unit.60 1 Counter tube type B.4. The separation of the Ka doublet in higher order diffraction is to be examined. 35 kV 14407. Complete Equipment Set. Manual on CD-ROM included Ka doublet splitting of molybdenum X-rays / fine structure P2540700 X-ray spectrum of molybdenum. The wavelengths and ratio of the intensities of the two Ka lines are to be determined in high order diffraction. The energy of the characteristic lines is to be determined from the positions of the glancing angles at various orders of diffraction. The intensity of the X-rays emitted by the molybdenum anode at maximum anode voltage is to be recorded as a function of the Bragg angle. Laboratory Experiments Physics 247 . Manual on CD-ROM included 20000 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. using an LiF monocrystal as analyzer.08.

35 kV 14407.10 1 Plug-in module with Fe-X-ray tube 09058.LEP_5_2 09.00 1 Lithium fluorid crystal.08-00 Ka doublet splitting of iron X-rays / fine structure What you can learn about …  Characteristic X-ray radiation  Energy levels  Selection rules  The Bragg equation  Energy term symbols Principle: The polychromatic iron X-ray spectrum is to analyzed by means of a monocrystal. 35 kV 09058.97 1 Connecting cable. and a comparison made with the theoretical predictions. 9 pole 14602.04 2 Software X-ray unit.05 1 Recording equipment: XYt recorder 11416. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. The separation of the Ka doublet in higher order diffraction is to be examined. BNC cable.08. blue 07363.37070 Göttingen .4.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 248 Physical structure of matter X-ray Physics 5. l = 50 cm 09005. red 07363. l = 100 cm. The intensity of the X-rays emitted by the iron anode at maximum anode voltage is to be recorded as a function of the Bragg angle using an LiF monocrystal as analyzer. Tasks: 1. plug/socket. mounted 09056. l = 100 cm. Manual on CD-ROM included Ka doublet splitting of iron X-rays / fine structure P2540800 X-ray spectrum of iron.61 1 Data cable 2 x SUB-D. 248 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. What you need: X-ray basic unit. separation of the Ka1 and Ka2 lines in 2nd order diffraction.99 1 Goniometer for X-ray Unit 35 kV 09058.01 2 Connecting cable. 2.00 1 or PC. KG · D . The wavelengths and ratio of the intensities of the two Ka lines are to be determined in high order diffraction.70 1 Counter tube type B. The energy of the characteristic lines is to be determined from the positions of the glancing angles for various orders of diffraction.

The short wavelength limit of the bremsspectrum is to be used to determine the agreement with the Duane-Hunt displacement law.50 1 Counter tube. 2.00 1 or PC. and to determine Planck's “quantum of action”.08. 35 kV 14407. l = 50 cm 09005.10 1 Plug-in module with Cu X-ray tube 09058. and to determine Planck's “quantum of action”. blue 07363. l = 100 cm. Manual on CD-ROM included Duane-Hunt displacement law and Planck’s “quantum of action” P2540900 Bremsstrahlung as function of two anode voltages. plug/socket. 35 kV 09058.61 1 Data cable 2 x SUB-D.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 249 . Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. mounted 09056.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 249 Physical structure of matter X-ray Physics Duane-Hunt displacement law and Planck's “quantum of action” 5.99 1 Goniometer for X-ray unit.00 1 Lithium fluoride crystal.05 1 Recording equipment: XYt recorder 11416. using an LiF monocrystal.4. 3. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.01 2 Connecting cable. What you need: X-ray basic unit.97 1 Connecting cable. The intensity of the X-rays emitted by the copper anode at various anode voltages is to be recorded as a function of the Bragg angle.04 2 Software X-ray unit.LEP_5_2 09. Tasks: 1. 35 kV 09058. Glancing angle q as x-axis in degree. red 07363. 9 pole 14602. type B. BNC cable. The results are to be used to verify the Duane-Hunt displacement law. KG · D . The short wavelength limit (= maximum energy) of the bremsspectrum is to be determined for the spectra obtained in (1).09-00 What you can learn about …  X-ray tube  Bremsstrahlung  Characteristic X-ray radiation  Energy levels  Crystal structures  Lattice constant  Interference  The Bragg equation Principle: X-ray spectra are to be recorded as a function of the anode voltage. l = 100 cm.

3.00 1 Lithium fluorid crystal. Rydberg frequency and screening constant Principle: The X-rays emanating from three X-ray tubes.50 1 Plug-in module with Mo-X-ray tube 09058.10-00 Characteristic X-ray lines of different anode materials/Moseley's Law. are to be analyzed and the wavelengths of the characteristic X-ray lines from each are to be determined.04 2 Software x-ray unit. each with a different anode material.37070 Göttingen .01 2 Connecting cable.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 250 Physical structure of matter X-ray Physics 5. l = 50 cm 09005. 9 pole 14602. Manual on CD-ROM included Characteristik X-ray lines of different anode materials / Moseley’s Law. 2. KG · D . l = 100 cm. What you need: X-ray basic unit. so that Moseley's Law can be verified.97 1 Connecting cable. 250 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 1 10 or 20 30 40 Z PC.70 1 Counter tube type B.60 1 Plug-in module with Fe-X-ray tube 09058. and then be used to determine their wavelengths and frequencies. The X-ray spectra emanated from Fe. plug/socket.4.05 1 20 b 2f 8 10 s a 1>2 15 Recording equipment: XYt recorder 11416. 35 kV 09058. blue 07363. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. Rydberg frequency and screening constant What you can learn about …  Characteristic X-ray radiation  Bohr's atomic model  Energy levels  Binding energy  Bragg scattering  Moseley's law. The Bragg angles of the characteristic lines are to be determined from the spectra. Cu and Mo X-ray tubes are to be recorded. red 07363. l = 100 cm. BNC cable.10 1 Plug-in module with Cu-X-ray tube 09058.LEP_5_2 09. The Rydberg constants and the screening constants are to be determined from the Moseley straight lines.61 1 Data cable 2 x SUB-D.08.99 1 Goniometer for X-ray Unit 35 kV 09058. P2541000 Rydberg frequency and screening constant Moseley straight lines Curve a: Transition n2 —>n1 Curve b: Transition n3 —>n1 (Ka line) (Kb line) Tasks: 1. 35 kV 14407. mounted 09056.

11-00 What you can learn about …  Bremsstrahlung  Characteristic radiation  Bragg scattering  Law of absorption  Mass absorption coefficient  Absorption edges  Half-value thickness  Photoelectric effect  Compton scattering  Pair production Principle: Polychromatic X-rays are to be energy selected using a monocrystal analyzer.08.10 1 Plug-in module with Cu-X-ray tube 09058.16 0.12 0.08 0. The mass absorption coefficients are to be determined from the graphical representation of the measured values. l = 139 pm Curve 2: Al (Z = 13).05 1 Absorption set for x-rays 09056. What you need: 10 9 8 7 6 X-ray basic unit. KG · D .00 1 PC.99 1 Goniometer for X-ray Unit 35 kV 09058. mounted 09056. BNC cable.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 251 Physical structure of matter X-ray Physics Absorption of X-rays 5. 3.02 1 Software for X-ray Unit 35 kV 14407. 0. 4. The absorption coefficients for copper and nickel are to be determined as a function of the wavelength and the measured values plotted.61 1 Data cable 2 x SUB-D. The mass absorption coefficients for aluminium. zinc and tin foils of constant thickness are to be determined as a function of the wavelength.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 251 .14 0. Ia = 1 mA. 35 kV 09058. l = 70 pm Curve 3: Zn (Z = 30). l = 139 pm.50 1 4 Counter tube type B. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 2. The validity of m/r = f(Z3) is to be proved. 9 pole 14602. The intensity attenuation of the primary radiation is to be measured for aluminium and zinc as a function of the material thickness and at two different wavelengths. The energies of the K levels are to be calculated.04 0. It is to be shown from the graphical representation that m/r = f(l3). Manual on CD-ROM included Absorption of X-rays P2541100 4 3 2 3 1 0.02 Tasks: 1.10 0.18 0.4. l = 50 cm 09005.06 0. The monochromatic radiation obtained is to serve as the primary radiation source for examination of the absorption behaviour of various metals as a function of the absorber thickness and the wavelength of the primary radiation. Curve 1: Al (Z = 13). plug/socket.00 1 3 Lithium fluorid crystal. Windows® 95 or higher I/I0 2 5 2 1 10 9 8 7 6 5 Complete Equipment Set.20 d/mm Semi-logarithmic representation of the pulse rates as a function of the absorber thickness.LEP_5_2 09. Ua = 35 kV.

steel. 5. The intensity of the X-rays emitted from the copper anode is to be recorded as a function of the Bragg angle using an LiF monocrystal as analyzer. 35 kV Goniometer for X-ray Unit 35 kV Plug-in module with Cu-X-ray tube Counter tube type B. and the energy of the transmitted intensities analyzed using a monocrystal analyzer.00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11416.00 1 1 PC. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set.05 09056.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 252 Physical structure of matter X-ray Physics 5. What you need: X-ray basic unit.50 09005.LEP_5_2 09. porcelain Spoon with spatula end.08.61 14602.and L-absorption edges of X-rays / Moseley's Law and the Rydberg constant What you can learn about …  X-ray bremsstrahlung  Characteristic radiation  Bragg equation  Bohr's atomic model  Atomic energy level scheme  Moseley's law  Rydberg constant  Screening constant Principle: Samples of various elements of different atomic numbers are to be irradiated with X-rays of a known spectral distribution. l = 150 mm. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.12-00 K.00 09056. The K absorption edges of different absorber materials are to be found. l = 100 cm.01 07363. 70 ml. The Rydberg and screening constants are to be calculated from the energy values of the K absorption edges. l = 50 cm Lithium fluorid crystal. Manual on CD-ROM included K.4.04 1 2 2 14407. 252 Laboratory Experiments Physics 3.97 07363. micro Recording equipment: XYt recorder Connecting cable. The Rydberg constant is to be calculated from the energy values of the L absorption edges.10 09058. X-ray spectra of copper without absorber and with K absorption edges for various absorbers. l = 100 cm.04 30222. cryst.99 09058.and L-absorption edges of X-rays / Moseley’s Law and Rydberg constant P2541200 Tasks: 1. 9 pole 09058. The Rydberg constant and screening constants are to be found by determining the energy at which absorption edges occur. blue or Software x-ray unit. red Connecting cable.37070 Göttingen . plug/socket.00 33393. mounted Set of chemicals for edge absorption Silver nitrate. BNC cable. KG · D . 2.00 32603. 35 kV Data cable 2 x SUB-D. 15 g Mortar with pestle. The L absorption edges of different absorber materials are to be found. 4.

50 1 Counter tube type B. The spacing between the lattice planes of each monocrystals then to be determined by analyzing the wavelength-dependent intensity of the reflected radiation.02 1 NaCl-monocrystals.01 2 Connecting cable. l = 100 cm.01 1 Recording equipment: XYt recorder 11416. BNC cable. set of 3 09058.08.13-00 What you can learn about …  Characteristic X-ray radiation  Energy levels  Crystal structures  Reciprocal lattice  Miller indices  Bragg scattering  Atomic form factor  Structure factor Principle: Polychromatic X-rays are to be directed against NaCl monocrystals with different orientations. The planes of reflection and their Miller indices are to be found. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set.00 1 Universal crystal holder for X-Ray Unit 09058. and the distances between lattice planes calculated for each orientation. Manual on CD-ROM included Examination of the structure of NaCl monocrystals with different orientations P2541300 Tasks: 1.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 253 . X-ray intensity of copper as a function of the glancing angle: NaCl monocrystal with different orientations as Bragg-analyzer: 1-(100). plug/socket. What you need: X-ray basic unit. 3. l = 100 cm.97 1 Connecting cable.00 1 or PC. The Bragg angles of the characteristic radiations are to be determined from the spectra. 9 pole 14602. KG · D .04 2 Software X-ray unit. red 07363. 2.61 1 Data cable 2 x SUB-D. 35 kV 09058. NaCl monocrystals with the orientations (100).LEP_5_2 09. 35 kV 14407.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 253 Physical structure of matter X-ray Physics Examination of the structure of NaCl monocrystals with different orientations 5. (110) and (111) are each to be separately used to record an intensity spectrum of the polychromatic radiation emanated by the X-ray tube.99 1 Goniometer for X-ray Unit 35 kV 09058. 3-(111) PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.4. l = 50 cm 09005. blue 07363.10 1 Plug-in module with Cu-X-ray tube 09058. 2-(110).

2.02 1 Diaphragm tube with Zr. white 47481. Complete Equipment Set. Thickness of the sample. 4. for 4. wet chemical. 254 Laboratory Experiments Physics 3. IA = 1 mA.4. The lattice constants of the sample materials are to be determined.60 1 1 Mortar with pestle. KG · D . l = 150 mm.37070 Göttingen . 0. micro 33393. 10 pieces 09058.14+15-00 X-ray Physics X-ray investigation of different crystal structures / Debye-Scherrer powder method What you can learn about …  Crystal lattices  Crystal systems  Reciprocal lattice  Miller indices  Structure amplitude  Atomic form factor  Bragg scattering Principle: y n - Polycrystalline samples are to be irradiated by an X-ray beam and the resulting diffraction patterns recorded on film and evaluated.23 1 1 Bag for x-ray films. Manual on CD-ROM included X-ray investigation of different crystal structures / Debye-Scherrer powder method …of cubic crystal structures P2541400 …of hexagonal crystal stuctures P2541500 l . Set-up of experiment P2541400 What you need: Exp.99 1 1 Plug-in module with Mo-X-ray tube 09058. 20 sheets 09058.20 1 1 X-ray film fixing.5 l solution 06696. Debye-Scherrer pattern of a powdered sample of CsCl. .4 mm. Tasks: 1. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.25 1 Caesium chloride 5 g 31171. 180 x 240 mm.20 1 1 Polaroid film holder chassis 09058. 100 x 100 mm. Exposure time.08 1 1 Polaroid film (ISO 3000).2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 254 Physical structure of matter 0 5.03 Vernier caliper.foil 09058.00 1 Sodium chloride.08. Mo X-ray tube: UA = 35 kV.LEP_5_2 09.00 1 1 1 Film holder 09058. The Debye-Scherrer rings are to be evaluated and assigned to the corresponding lattice planes. 100 pieces 09058. P2542500 with hexagonal structures Exp. 2. steel. 250 g 30155. porcelain 32603. Debye-Scherrer photographs are to be taken of powdered samples of sodium chloride and caesium chloride.00 1 Spoon with spatula end.00 3 3 . 70 ml. 35 kV 09058.0 h. plastic 03011.22 1 1 X-ray film developer.30 1 1 Tray (PP).5 l solution 06696. for 4.21 1 1 or X-ray films. 9 x 12 cm. The number of atoms in the unit cells of each sample are to be determined. P2542400 with cubic structures X-ray basic unit.

30 1 Tray (PP). PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 9 x 12 cm.21 1 or X-ray films. 10 pieces 09058. IA = 1 mA Distance between sample and film: D = 19 mm Exposure time: t = 120 min Tasks: 1.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 255 Physical structure of matter X-ray Physics X-ray investigation of crystal structures / Laue method 5. KG · D .5 l solution 06696.00 3 Complete Equipment Set.05 1 Crystal holder for lane diffraction 09058. What you need: X-ray basic unit.60 1 Lithium fluorid crystal.08 1 Vernier caliper. wet chemical. 100 pieces 09058.22 1 X-ray film developer. 2. plastic 03011.20 1 X-ray film fixing. for 4. Cu X-ray tube: UA = 35 kV.08. Manual on CD-ROM included X-ray investigation of crystal structures / Laue method P2541600 Laue pattern of an LiF (100) crystal.20 1 Polaroid film holder chassis 09058. 180 x 240 mm. 100 x 100 mm.00 1 Polaroid film (ISO 3000).99 1 Plug-in module with Mo-X-ray tube 09058.5 l solution 06696.16-00 What you can learn about …  Crystal lattices  Crystal systems  Crystal classes  Bravais lattice  Reciprocal lattice  Miller indices  Structure amplitude  Atomic form factor  The Bragg equation Principle: A monocrystal is to be irradiated by a polychromatic X-ray beam and the resulting diffraction patterns recorded on film and evaluated. for 4. mounted 09056.LEP_5_2 09. 20 sheets 09058.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 255 . 35 kV 09058. The Laue diffraction of an LiF monocrystal is to be recorded on a film. The Miller indices of the corresponding crystal surfaces are to be assigned to the Laue reflections. white 47481.23 1 Bag for x-ray films.4.11 1 Film holder 09058.

61 1 Data cable 2 x SUB-D. The Compton wavelength for 90° scattering is to be determined and compared with the theoretical value.99 1 Goniometer for X-ray Unit 35 kV 09058. The portions of the scattered X-rays at various angles is to be measured with a counter tube. A scatterer is to be used and the intensity of the X-rays scattered at different angles determined. plug/socket.LEP_5_2 09. Experimental set-up for 90° Compton scattering.37070 Göttingen . Measurements are to be made with an absorber positioned in front of and behind the scatterer. Windows® 95 or higher 0.3 Complete Equipment Set. mounted 09056. What you need: 0. 9 pole 14602. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 2.35 PC.00 1 0.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 256 Physical structure of matter X-ray Physics 5.00 1 Lithium fluorid crystal. and behind. The transmission of an aluminium absorber is to be determined as a function of the wavelength of the X-rays by means of Bragg scattering and the measured values plotted graphically. using a premeasured transmission curve. 35 kV 09058.04 1 Software for X-ray Unit 35 kV 14407.08. BNC cable.4. Manual on CD-ROM included Compton scattering of X-rays P2541700 0.50 1 Counter tube type B. and the different transmission coefficients then calculated. Δl 0. 3. the scatterer is to be determined 256 Laboratory Experiments Physics for the same angles as previously. The intensity attenuation which occurs on placing an aluminium absorber in front of.25 Tasks: 1. so that the Compton wavelength can be determined from the varying intensity attenuation of the X-rays at different wavelengths.05 1 Compton attachment for X-ray Unit 35 kV 09058.10 1 Plug-in module with Cu-X-ray tube 09058. 4. The different transmission coefficients and the transmission curve are to be used to determine the changes in wavelengths.17-00 Compton scattering of X-rays What you can learn about …  Compton effect  Compton wavelength  Rest energy  Absorption  Transmission  Conservation of energy and momentum  X-rays  The Bragg equation Principle: Compton scattering is to be achieved by directing an X-ray beam against a piece of plastic. KG · D .4 X-ray basic unit. l = 50 cm 09005.2 55 60 65 l/pm Transmission curve of aluminium.

What you need: UA= 35 kV 3. BNC socket .0 X-ray basic unit. 50 MΩ 07159.4 mm plug 07542. The ion dose rate is to be determined from the saturation current values and the air masses penetrated by radiation are to be calculated. 32 A. Manual on CD-ROM included X-ray dosimetry P2541800 IC/nA UA= 30 kV 2. 4 mm plug.00 2 High value resistors. 4 mm plug. Using the two different diaphragm tubes and the fluorescent screen.10 1 Connecting cable. IA = 1 mA. Using the d = 5 mm aperture. 35 kV 09058.05 1 Power supply.. the given distance between the aperture and the radiation source at maximum anode coltage and current is to be verified.50 1 Capacitor plates for X-ray Unit 35 kV 09058. l = 75 cm 07362. l = 10 cm 07359. l = 50 cm 07361.93 1 Digital multimeter 2010 07128.93 1 Direct current measuring amplifier 13620. Laboratory Experiments Physics 257 .2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 257 Physical structure of matter X-ray Physics X-ray dosimetry 5. the ion current is to be determined and graphically recorded at variPHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. l = 30 cm 07542.01 2 Connecting cable.4.04 2 Connecting cable. regulated. blue. l = 50 cm 07361. 2.04 2 Connecting cable.LEP_5_2 09. 4 mm plug.20 1 Screened cable. 4 mm plug.0 UA= 25 kV UA= 20 kV 1.99 1 Plug-in module with Cu-X-ray tube 09058.600 V- 13672. Tasks: 1. 3. 0. 4.00 1 Adapter. red. The ion dose. 32 A.18-00 What you can learn about …  X-rays  Absorption inverse square law  Ionizing energy  Energy dose  Equivalent dose and ion dose and their rates  Q factor  Local ion dose rate  Dosimeter Principle: The molecules of air within a plate capacitor are to be ionized by X-rays. The ion current at maximum anode voltage is to be measured and graphically recorded as a function of the capacitor voltage by using two different beam limiting apertures. ion dose rate and local ion dose rate are to be calculated from the ionization current and the radiated mass of air. The energy dose rate and various local ion dose rates are to be calculated. 5. 32 A. 6. Using the d = 5 mm aperture. red. Diaphragm tube d = 5 mm. KG · D .. BNC.01 2 Complete Equipment Set. The saturation current is to be plotted as a function of the anode voltage. the ion current is to be determined and graphically recorded at various anode currents but with maximum anode and capacitor voltages. 32 A. blue.08.0 UA= 15 kV 100 200 300 400 500 UC/V Ionization current IC as a function of capacitor voltage UC for various anode voltages UA.37070 Göttingen ous anode currents but with maximum anode and capacitor voltages. 7.

2. which is hidden from sight and exposed to X-ray radiation.08. 50 g 30104.50 1 Blood vessel. KG · D . A 50% potassium iodide solution is to be injected into the blood vessel model.LEP_5_2 09.06 1 Potassium iodide.00 1 Wide mouth bottle with screw cap. to enable the inner structure of the model to be examined on a fluorescent screen. 258 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Manual on CD-ROM included Contrast medium experiment with a bood vessel model P2541900 Figure shows the model filled to different extents with contrast medium. Experimental steps: 1.4. clear glass. The fluorescent screen of the X-ray basic unit is to be observed to follow the course taken by the injected solution in the blood vessel model.04 1 Complete Equipment Set. d = 6 mm 40485. BORO 3.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 258 Physical structure of matter X-ray Physics 5. l = 200 mm.19-00 Contrast medium experiment with a blood vessel model What you can learn about …  X-ray radiation  Bremsstrahlung  Characteristic radiation  Law of absorption  Mass absorption coefficient  Contrast medium Principle: A liquid contrast medium is to be injected into a model of a blood vessel.00 1 Stirring rods.37070 Göttingen .99 1 Plug-in module with Cu-X-ray tube 09058. 250 ml 36013.3. 250 ml 46213. 35 kV 09058. What you need: X-ray basic unit. model for contrast fluid 09058.05 1 Beaker. DURAN®. short form.

20-00 What you can learn about …  X-ray radiation  Bremsstrahlung  Characteristic radiation  Law of absorption  Mass absorption coefficient  Stereographic projection Principle: The length and the spatial position of a metal pin which cannot be seen are to be determined from radiograms of two different planes which are at right angles to each other. plastic 03011.4. wet chemical.20 1 X-ray film fixing.00 3 Complete Equipment Set.22 1 X-ray film developer. 35 kV 09058.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 259 .21 1 or X-ray films.20 1 Polaroid film holder chassis 09058. What you need: X-ray basic unit. 3.5 l solution 06696. white 47481.5 l solution 06696. for 4. for 4. The length of a metal pin which cannot be seen is to be determined from radiograms of two different planes which are at right angles to each other.08. The true length of the pin is to be determined by taking the magnification which results from the divergence of the X-rays into account.LEP_5_2 09. KG · D . 180 x 240 mm.30 1 Tray (PP). 20 sheets 09058. Manual on CD-ROM included Determination of the length and position of an object which cannot be seen P2542000 Projection fotos of the implant model in the xz-plane (left) and in the yz-plane (right). 100 x 100 mm.00 1 Polaroid film (ISO 3000). 9 x 12 cm. Tasks: 1.23 1 Bag for x-ray films.50 1 Film holder 09058. 10 pieces 09058. The spatial position of the pin is to be determined. 2. 100 pieces 09058.08 1 Implant model for X-ray photography 09058.99 1 Plug-in module with Cu-X-ray tube 09058.07 1 Vernier caliper. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 259 Physical structure of matter X-ray Physics Determination of the length and position of an object which cannot be seen 5.

Windows® 95 or higher* 09058. and so also the corresponding Bravais lattice type. 50 g Zinc. 250 g Software for X-ray Unit 35 kV* Data cable 2 x SUB-D.10 32603.02 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 09058.10 31768. Exp.08.foil Spoon with spatula end.04 1 1 Bragg-Cu-Ka and Cu-Kb-lines of NH4Cl. Record the intensity of the Cu X-rays back scattered by the four cubic crystal powder samples with various Bravais lattice types as a function of the scattering angle. 32 A. 70 ml. Exp.37070 Göttingen . 4 mm plug. their spacings as well as the lattice constants of the samples.03 31155.7%. 250 g Sodium chloride.10 31767. lead diox. A swivelling Geiger-Mueller counter tube detects the radiation that is constructively reflected from the various lattice planes of the crystallites. are irradiated with the radiation from a Roentgen tube with a copper anode.10 31122.97 Conn.03 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 33393.00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 *Alternatively: Xyt recorder 11416. which crystallize in the three cubic Bravais types. micro Vaseline. 250 g Potassium chloride.LEP_5_2 09. cable. BNC cable. 32 A. cable. l = 50 cm Lithium fluorid crystal. Calculate the lattice plane spacings appropriate to the angular positions of the individual Bragg lines. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Complete Equipment Set. Determine the lattice constants of the samples and their Bravais lattice types. 3.10 09058.50 09005.25 30098. Determine the number of atoms in the unit cell. 100 g Germanium. Exp. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. mounted Universal crystal holder for X-Ray Unit Probe holder for powder probes (diffractometry) Diaphragm tube with Ni. porcelain Ammonium chloride.09 09056. blue. The Bragg diagrams are automatically What you need: Exp.25 30258. 99%. face-centered and body-centered. KG · D . 9 pole* PC.00 30024.00 09056. Manual on CD-ROM included Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer patterns of different powder samples P254 21/22/23/24/25-00 260 Laboratory Experiments Physics recorded. 35 kV Goniometer for X-ray Unit 35 kV Plug-in module with Cu-X-ray tube Counter tube type B. 250 g Potassium bromide 100 g Molybdenum. plug/socket. l = 150 mm.. Powder. l = 100 cm 07363. powder 100 g Lead-IV oxide. steel.05 09058. 4. P2542500 with a cubic powder sample P2542400 with a tetragonal lattice structure P2542300 with a hexagonal lattice structure P2542200 with diamond structure P2542100 with the three cubic Bravais lattices X-ray basic unit. l = 100 cm 07363.01 Conn.25 30155.21/22/23/24/25 Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer patterns of different powder samples What you can learn about …  Wavelength  Crystal lattices  Crystal systems  Bravais-lattice  Reciprocal lattice  Miller indices  Structure factor  Atomic scattering factor  Bragg scattering  Characteristic X-rays  Monochromatization of X-rays Principle: Polycrystalline powder samples.61 14602. Exp.05 31978. 4 mm plug.25 14407.4. red. 100 g Mortar with pestle. 2. Powder.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 260 Physical structure of matter X-ray Physics 5.00 30238. Their evaluation gives the assignment of the Bragg lines to the individual lattice planes.99 09058. Assign the Bragg reflections to the respective lattice planes. 10 g Silicium. 99. Problems: 1. simple. Powder.

ed from the various lattice planes of the crystallites. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. l = 150 mm. powder. The intensities of the individual reflex lines are determined and compared with those theoretically expected. 9 pole* PC.37070 Göttingen 4.foil Spoon with spatula end. 100 g Copper. 2.00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11416.97 07363. 32 A. 3.00 09056.04 1 1 1 Complete Equipment Set. Laboratory Experiments Physics 261 . 4 mm plug. A Geiger-Mueller counter tube is automatically swivelled to detect the radiation that is constructively reflect- What you need: X-ray basic unit. the evaluation allows the Bragg reflexes to be assigned to the individual lattice planes.10 14407. The Bragg diagram is automatically recorded.10 30119. 100 g Software for X-ray Unit 35 kV* Data cable 2 x SUB-D.10 09058.99 09058. BNC cable.02 09058. red. l = 100 cm Connecting cable.09 09056. l = 100 cm 09058. cubic face-centered crystallizing powder sample is irradiated with the radiation from a X-ray tube with a copper anode. Windows® 95 or higher *Alternatively: Xyt recorder Connecting cable. steel. mounted Universal crystal holder for X-Ray Unit Probe holder for powder probes (diffractometry) Diaphragm tube with Ni. Assign the Bragg reflexes to the respective lattice planes. Determine the intensity of the individual reflex lines and compare them with the theoretically expected intensities.08.03 33393.LEP_5_2 09. 4 mm plug. 5. Tasks: 1.01 07363. Determine the number of atoms in the unit cell. 32 A.00 30238. plug/socket.61 14602. blue. and both their spacing and the corresponding Bravais lattice type to be determined. micro Vaseline.05 09058. KG · D .50 09005.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 261 Physical structure of matter X-ray Physics Diffractometric measurements to determine the intensity of Debye-Scherrer reflexes 5. Record the intensity of the Cu X-rays back scattered by a cubiccrystallizing copper powder sample as a function of the scattering angle. l = 50 cm Lithium fluorid crystal. 35 kV Goniometer for X-ray Unit 35 kV Plug-in module with Cu-X-ray tube Counter tube type B. Calculate the lattice plane spacings from the angle positions of the individual Bragg lines.26-00 using a cubic lattice powder sample What you can learn about …  Crystal lattices  Crystal systems  Bravais-lattice  Reciprocal lattice  Miller indices  Structure factor  Atomic scattering factor  Lorentz-polarization factor  Multiplicity factor  Debye-Waller factor  Absorption factor  Bragg scattering  Characteristic X-rays  Monochromatization of X-rays Principle: A polycrystalline.4. Manual on CD-ROM included Diffractometric measurements to determine the intensity of Debye-Scherrer reflexes using a cubic lattice powder sample P2542600 Debye-Scherrer pattern of a copper powder sample. Calculate the lattice constant of the substance and the Bravais lattice type. In addition.

powder. micro 33393. l = 100 cm 07363. 4 mm plug.4.50 1 Counter tube type B.00 1 Butane cartridge 47535. 100 g 30119. Record the intensity of the Cu Xrays back scattered by a cubic crystallizing copper powder sample as a function of the scattering angle. Manual on CD-ROM included Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer measurements for the examination of the texture of rolled sheets P2542700 262 Laboratory Experiments Physics tube is automatically swivelled to detect the radiation that is constructively reflected from the various lattice planes of the crystallites.LEP_5_2 09. 100 g 30238. l = 150 mm.00 1 Butane burner for cartridge 270 and 470 47536. BNC cable. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.00 1 PC.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 262 Physical structure of matter X-ray Physics 5.00 1 Vaseline.27-00 Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer measurements for the examination of the texture of rolled sheets What you can learn about …  Wavelength  Crystal lattices  Crystal systems  Bravais-lattice  Reciprocal lattice  Miller indices  Structure factor  Atomic scattering factor  Bragg scattering  Characteristic X-rays  Monochromatization of X-rays  Fiber textures  Sheet textures  Annealing texture  Recrystallization Principle: A polycrystalline.99 1 Goniometer for X-ray Unit 35 kV 09058. 9 pole* 14602.03 1 Spoon with spatula end.61 1 Data cable 2 x SUB-D.04 1 Complete Equipment Set.1 mm. 2.02 1 Probe holder for powder probes (diffractometry) 09058. Record the Bragg spectrum of a thin sheet of copper. that is made even more complete by heating the sheet. cubic face-centered crystallizing copper powder sample and a thin copper sheet are separately irradiated with the radiation from a X-ray tube with a copper anode.00 1 Software for X-ray Unit 35 kV* 14407. the rolled thin sheet gives a spectrum showing an alignment of the crystallites (rolled texture). l = 100 cm 07363. In contrast to the powder sample. mounted 09056. 100 g 30117. A Geiger-Mueller counter What you need: X-ray basic unit. The Bragg diagrams are automatically recorded. l = 50 cm 09005. *Alternatively: Xyt recorder 11416. plug/socket. 4 mm plug.10 1 Plug-in module with Cu-X-ray tube 09058.01 1 Connecting cable. The evaluation allows the Bragg reflexes to be assigned to the individual lattice planes.09 1 Diaphragm tube with Ni.37070 Göttingen . KG · D . steel.97 1 Connecting cable. 200 mm. Repeat the measurements made in Task 3 after the sheet of copper has been subjected to annealing. 35 kV 09058.05 1 Universal crystal holder for X-Ray Unit 09058.10 1 Crucible tongs. stainless steel 33600. Assign the Bragg reflexes to the individual lattice planes.10 1 Copper foil.10 1 Copper. Tasks: 1. blue. 0. 32 A. 4. 3.foil 09056. Windows® 95 or higher Debye-Scherrer diagram of a rolled copper sheet. red.08.00 1 Lithium fluorid crystal. 32 A.

this experiment. 2. 35 kV 09058.00 1 Lithium fluoride crystal.99 1 Goniometer for X-ray unit.61 1 RS232 data cable 14602.80 1 Counter tube. The identification of the different transitions is a major task in this experiment. the transition takes place in lower level l. l = 100 cm.97 1 Connecting cable.05 1 Recording equipment: XYt recorder 11416.37070 Göttingen Laboratory Experiments Physics 263 . The identification of the various l-lines has to be carried out by applying the appropriate selection rules.. red 07363.08.LEP_5_2 09.4. KG · D . type B 09005. 35 kV 09058. 35 kV 14407. l = 100 cm. The energy values of the characteristic tungsten lines are to be calculated and compared with the energy differences of the copper energy terms 3. The intensity of the X-rays emitted by the tungsten anode at maximum anode voltage and anode current is to be recorded as a function of the Bragg angle. m and even o shell. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set. blue 07363. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.5 keV) is higher than the applied energy in What you need: X-ray basic unit.00 1 or PC. mounted 09056.01 2 Connecting cable.10 1 Plug-in module with W X-ray tube 09058. using an LiF monocrystal as analyzer. Manual on CD-ROM included Characteristic X-rays of tungsten P2542800 X-ray intensity of tungsten as a function of the glancing angle. As the necessary energy for the k-transition (69.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 263 Physical structure of matter X-ray Physics Characteristic X-rays of tungsten 5.28-00 What you can learn about …  Bremsstrahlung  Characteristic radiation  Energy levels  Crystal structures  Lattice constant  Absorption  Absorption edges  Interference  The Bragg equation  Order of diffraction  L-Transition Principle: Spectra of X-rays from a tungsten anode are to be analyzed by means of a LiF monocrystal and the results plotted graphically. a LiF (100) monocrystal is used as a Bragg analyser. Tasks: 1. The energies of the characteristic lines are then to be determined from the positions of the glancing angles for the various orders of diffraction.04 2 Software X-ray unit.

08. Manual on CD-ROM included Spectroscopy with the X-ray energy detector P2544000 Spectrum of a Gold/Silver alloy Tasks: 1.09 1 PC.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 264 Physical structure of matter X-ray Physics 5.02 1 Probe holder for powder probes 09058. Windows® 95 or higher Complete Equipment Set.99 1 Goniometer for X-ray unit 35 kV 09058. Verification of the Bragg equation with the help of the X-ray energy detector 264 Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Calibration of the X-ray energy spectrum of copper 2.4. X-ray fluorescence analysis of pure metals and alloys 4.37070 Göttingen .40-00 Spectroscopy with the X-ray energy detector What you can learn about …  Energy levels  Bremsstrahlung  Characteristic radiation  Bragg equation  Selection rules Principle: The X-ray energy detector is used to gain information about the energy distribution of high energy gamma radiation in the range of 2 to 40 keV. KG · D .30 1 Multi-Channel-Analyzer 13727.50 1 X-ray energy detector 09058.99 1 Software Multi-Channel-Analyzer 14452. 35 kV 09058.61 1 Specimen set X-ray energy detector 09058. Determination of the resolution of the X-ray energy detector 3.LEP_5_2 09. The X-ray energy detector with a resolution of 380 keV in combination with a multi channel analyzer is used for direct measurement of the transition energies of K and L levels of metals and alloys.31 1 Univ. What you need: X-ray basic unit.10 1 Plug-in Cu tube for X-ray unit 09058. crystal holder 09058.

the tubes show different characteristic X-ray lines (Moseley law). The X-ray tubes are separately available and easy to exchange: The tubes are completely adjusted and come supplied in separate plug-in modules which are simply to be plugged into the basic unit. Exchanging the tubes takes only seconds and the X-ray unit is immediately ready to operate.37070 Göttingen Models for two different extent with contrast medium Laboratory Experiments Physics 265 . KG · D . Due to their anode material. Rydberg frequency and screening constant 11 (25411) Absorption of X-rays 12 (25412) K and L absorption edges of X-rays / Moseley's law and the Rydberg constant 13 (25413) Examination of the structure of NaCl monocrystals with different orientations 14 (25414) X-ray investigation of cubic crystal structures / Debye-Scherrer powder method 15 (25415) X-ray investigation of hexagonal crystal structures / Debye-Scherrer powder method 16 (25416) X-ray investigation of crystal structures / Laue method 17 (25417) Compton scattering of X-rays 18 (25418) X-ray dosimetry 19 (25419) Contrast medium experiment with a blood vessel model 20 (25420) Determination of the length and position of an object which cannot be seen 21 (25421) Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer patterns of powder samples with the three cubic Bravais lattices 22 (25422) Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer patterns of powder samples with diamond structure (germanium and silicon) 23 (25423) Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer patterns of powder samples with a hexagonal lattice structure 24 (25424) Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer patterns of powder samples with a tetragonal lattice structure 25 (25425) Graphical evaluation of a diffractometric Debye-Scherrer patterns of a cubic powder sample 26 (25426) Diffractometric measurements to determine the intensity of DebyeScherrer reflexes using a cubic lattice powder sample as example Contrast medium experiment with a blood vessel model 27 (25427) Debye-Scherrer diffractometric measurements for the examination of the texture of rolled sheets PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.LEP_5_2 09. 25421 1 (25401) Characteristic X-rays of copper 2 (25402) Characteristic X-rays of molybdenum 3 (25403) Characteristic X-rays of iron 4 (25404) The intensity of characteristic X-rays as a function of anode current and anode voltage 5 (25405) Monochromatization of molybdenum X-rays 6 (25406) Monochromatization of copper X-rays 7 (25407) K doublet splitting of molybdenum X-rays / fine structure 8 (25408) K doublet splitting of iron X-rays / fine structure 9 (25409) Duane-Hunt displacement law and Planck's “quantum of action” 10 (25410) Characteristic X-ray lines of different anode materials/ Moseley's Law. Further new features: ● RS232 interface for computer-assisted control. They can thus be used for fundamental measurements concerning the formation of X-rays and also for experiments on the basis of radiation of different hardness levels (wavelength).08.02 • 27 described Experiments Please ask for a complete equipment list Ref.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 265 Physical structure of matter X-ray Physics X-Ray Experiments A unique feature: 3 different X-ray tubes with anodes made of copper or molybdenum or iron to be plugged into the unit. measuring and evaluation purposes ● X-ray tube visible during operation ● integrated rate meter with counter X-Ray Experiments • No. No. 01189.

4 (13603) Mechanical stimulation of the front end of an earthworm 4.3 (13369) Free fall with a screen 1.2007 12:18 Uhr Seite 266 Handbooks Interface-System Cobra3 Physics.11 (13501) Amontons Law 3.10 (13500) Gay-Lussas Law 3.3 (13512) Transpiration of leaves 6.11 (13715) Chloride in mineral water 2 Ecology and Environment 2.10 (13312) Induction impulse 266 Laboratory Experiments Physics 4. detuning of tuning forks 2.Hemholtz's resonators 2.16 (13644) Boyle and Mariotte's law 4 Electricity 4.02 84 described Experiments Please ask for a complete equipment list Ref.11 (13377) Pendulum oscillationsvariable g pendulum 1.variant B (with Software Gas Laws) 9. moment of inertia 2. unaccelerated motion 1.4 (13370) The path-time law for free fall with the falling sphere apparatus 1.14 (13642) Charles' (Amontons') law variant A 3.2 (13513) Photosynthesis (measurement of oxygen pressure) 6.9 (13620) Characteristic oscillations in cavity resonators .7 (13373) Uniformly accelerated.5 (13641) Gay-Lussac's law (with Software Gas Laws) 9.3 (13362) Measurement of the speed of sound in air 2.7 (13615) Investigation of beats 2.15 (13381) Uniform rotary motion 1.1 (13368) Franck-Hertz Experiment 6.4 (13503) Electromyography 5.8 (13619) Influence of damping on the spectrum of the characteristic oscillations of air columns 2.7 (13497) Specific dissolution heat of salts 3.12 (13378) The harmonic oscillation of helical springs-parallel and series connection of spring 1.2 (13697) The ionic permeability of the cell membrane 3.9 (13311) Switch-on behaviour of an inductivity 4.15 (13630) Acoustic spacial orientation 3.14 (13367) Current-voltage characteristic of a solar cell 4.1 (13360) Measurement of frequency of tuning forks.11 (13313) Generation of an alternating current.12 (13623) Speech analysis 2. Biochemistry 3.1 (13600) Neuro-simulator (membrane time constant and low-pass filtering) 4.6 (13510) The Bergman rule: heat loss in dependence on body surface area and volume 2.16 (13382) Uniform.1 (13705) The manual titration of citric acid 1.3 (13320) Electric potential of a concentration element 8. Plant Physiology 6.12 (13314) Efficiency of motor and generator 4.7 (13511) The isolating effect of body coverage 2.variant A (with Software Gas Laws) 9. rectification and filtration 4.6 (13642) Charles' (Amontons') law .8 (13325) Daily course of luminosity 2.23 (13625) Forced oscillations of a non-linear electrical series resonance circuit . Nerves Physiology 4.2 (13634) Range of alpha particles in the air 6.6 (13372) Force-free. accelerated rotational motion.2 (13601) Neuro-simulator (how an exciting synapse functions) 4.13 (13366) Measurement of the rebound time of a switch 4.3 (13698) Determination of the Michaelis constant 3.1 (13315) Dependence of the luminous intensity on the distance 6.sinusoidal. 25423 Cobra3 Physics • No.5 (13509) Comparison of the heat capacities of water and land 2. linear motion 1.5 (13495) Specific condensation heat of water 3.3 (13602) Mechanical stimulation of the rear end of an earthworm 4.1 (13696) Determination of the isoelectric point of an amino acid (glycine) 3.16 (13612) Analysis of simple and composite sinusoidal signals 4.10 (13621) Tone analysis 2.9 (13607) The enzymatic activity of catalase 5. linear.3 (13707) Determination of the phosporic acid content of a soft drink 1.5 (13514) Glycolysis (measurement of temperature 6. low-pass.10 (13376) Frequency of a thread pendulum 1. Thermodynamics 3.solid and hollow cylinder .2 (13361) Investigation of the natural oscillation of columns of air 2. non-smoothed alternating currents 4. Chemistry / Biology Cobra3 Chemistry/Biology • No.8 (13498) Specific heat value of fuels 3.1 (13301) Frequency of a spring pendulum 1.6 (13308) Switch-on current of a incandescent bulb 4.2 (13492) Specific evaporation heat of water 3.6 (13638) Absorption of gamma quanta (or electrons) as a function of material density 6.2 (13706) The automatic titration of ordinary vinegar 1.1 (13318) Electrolysis of copper sulphate solutions 7.1 Chromatographic seperation processes: gas chromatography (13321) 9. Acoustics 2. Food Chemistry 1.3 (13327) Electrocardiography 5. No.4 (13636) Absorption of electrons (or positrons) in thin layers of matter 6.5 (13371) Uniform.chaotic oscillation 4.28 (13633) Free damped oscillation 5. Gas laws 9. Human Physiology 5.7 (13639) Law of radioactive decay 6.8 (13374) The elastic collision 1.LEP_5_2 09.9 (13713) Determination of the calcium carbonate content of egg shell 1. 25422 1.3 (13703) The origin of acid rain 2.6 (13365) Acoustical Doppler effect 2.6 (13710) Titration curves of fresh milk and sour milk 1.4 (13306) Collector current-collector voltage characteristic of an NPN-transistor 4.15 (13643) Charles' (Amontons') law variant B 3.19 (13616) Determination of the non-linear distortion factor from the Fourier spectrum of distorted sinusoidal oscillations 4. bandpass filters 4.08.2 (13327) Electrocardiography 5.Steiner`s law 1.5 (13700) Enzyme inhibition (poisoning of enzymes 4.9 (13325) Daily course of luminosity 3.21 (13618) Investigation of the characteristic oscillations of air columns 4.10 (13714) Determination of the common salt content of meat broth 1.5 (13605) Muscle stretch reflex and determination of conducting velocity 5.5 (13604) Electrical stimulation of an anaesthesized earthworm 5. linear motion.5 (13637) The quantal flux of gamma radiation in air 6.20 (13617) The Fourier spectrum of rectified.27 (13632) Phase relationships in a series resonant circuit 4.4 (13494) Specific heat capacity of solid bodies 3.14 (13380) Moment of inertia of different bodies:disc.1 (13608) Photosynthesis (bubble-counting method) 6.1 (13499) Volume expansion of gases (with Software Pressure) 9. Physical Structure of Matter 6. No.1 (13303) Ohm's Law 4. rectangular.8 (13606) Acoustic orientation in space 5.3 (13493) Specific heat capacity of liquids 3. Optics 5.8 (13310) Switch-on behaviour of a capacitance 4.3 (13635) Mean range of beta radiation in air 6.4 (13708) The pH and degree of acidity of coffee 1.elimination of background noises 2.17 (13613) Spectral analysis of different signal forms .8 (13644) Boyle and Mariotte's law (with Software Gas Laws) PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.4 (13609) Glycolysis (measurement of pressure) 6.5 (13307) Second order conductors 4.9 (13375) The inelastic collision 1.24 (13626) Analysis of Fourier series 4.2 (13702) The pH of various water samples 2.4 (13699) Substrate inhibition of enzymes 3.02 61 described Experiments Please ask for a complete equipment list Ref.10 (13505) Blood pressure measurement 5.25 (13627) High-pass.1 (13326) Cardiac and vasular sonic measurement (Phonocardiography) 5.5 (13364) Measurement of the speed in metal rods 2.6 (13515) Calorimetry of foods 7.11 (13622) Oscillations in metal plates 2. Mechanics 1.5 (13709) Determination of the content of fruit acid in juices and wine 1. Newton`s 2nd law 1.11 (13506) Measurement of the respiratory rate 5.4 (13502) Boyle's and Mariotte's Law (with Software Pressure) 9.3 (13305) Characteristics of semi-conductor diodes 4.6 (13504) Electro-oculography 5. KG · D .7 (13643) Charles' (Amontons') law .8 (13640) Radioactive equilibrium 1. Electrochemistry 7.2 (13302) Frequency of a thread pendulum 1.18 (13614) Spectral analysis of periodic spike pulses 4.14 (13629) Determination of the speed of sound in air .7 (13326) Cardiac and vascular sonic measurement (Phonocardiography) 5.7 (13711) Changes in pH during the aging of milk (souring) 1.7 (13309) Measurement of the work and power of an incandescent bulb 4.4 (13704) The twenty-four hour rhythm of an aquatic plant 2. 01310.6 (13496) Specific melting heat of ice 3.13 (13508) Regulation of body temperature 6.1 (13491) Specific heat capacity of water 3.1 (13701) The conductivity of various water samples 2.22 (13624) Coupled electrical resonant circuits 4. Chemical equilibrium 8.4 (13363) Measurement of the speed of sound in diffent gases 2.3 (13501) Amontons Law (with Software Pressure) 9.2 (13304) Temperature dependence of the resistance of pure metals 4.12 (13502) Boyle's and Mariotte's Law 3.8 (13712) The buffering properties of foods 1.2 (13500) Gay-Lussas Law (with Software Pressure) 9.2 (13319) The electrochemical series of metals 7.13 (13641) Gay-Lussac's law 3.travel time measurement between two microphones 2.37070 Göttingen .15 (13611) Single-valued and multiplevalued Fourier spectra 4.12 (13507) Changes in the blood flow during smoking 5.13 (13628) Signal filtration . triangular signals 4. 01320.13 (13379) Dependence of the oscillation period of a leaf spring on the pendulum length & pendulum mass 1.26 (13631) Switch rebound 4.9 (13499) Volume expansion of gases 3.

2007 12:53 Uhr Seite 267 Index .08.Vorspann 09.

22 Airy disk. 32 Are discharge 239 Atomic beam 213 Atomic energy level scheme 252 Atomic form factor Atomic model according to Bohr 210 260. 262 Characteristic X-rays of tungsten 255. 255. 188 185. 187. -. 227 -spectroscopy 76. 33. 30 33. rays 226.Vorspann 09. 66 108. 261. 46 Circuit Circular motion 141. 246. 234. 262 Characteristic X-ray radiation 230. 211 268 Laboratory Experiments Physics 224 Binding energy 210. 244 247. 246 256. 244 260. 248 249. 263 Absorption coefficient of ultrasonic waves 73 227. 20.2007 12:53 Uhr Seite 268 Index A Angular restoring force -. 223 Carbon film resistor 157 13 Cardanic gyroscope 35 Carnot cycle 139 164. 24 Axis of rotation Acoustic waves 68 Adhesion 57 Adiabatic coefficient of gases 134 Adsorption 208 Advanced Optics 123 Aerofoil 60 Air track 19. 246. 186 207 Angular restoring torque 257 AC impedance Cathode Bernoulli equation Absorption of gamma or beta rays AC circuit 63 48 Atomic scattering factor Absorption inverse square law Beat frequency Angular restoring moment Apparent force Absorption coefficient Absorption edges 45. 246 251. 190. 44 31. KG · D . 111 Broadening of lines due to Doppler effect and pressure broadening 97 C Capacitance 169. 250 251. 54 Birefringence 117 Centripetal force 31. 261. 172. 209. 137. 44 27. 46 187. 264 40. 256. 234 233. 262 Angular velocity 28. 162 67 Bethe formula Boiling point elevation Avalanche effect Acoustic resonant circuit 76. 232. 111 60 221 28. 104 Ballistic Pendulum 27 Ballistics 26 Balmer series 210 Band gap 237. 21. 167. 250 Biot-Savart’s law B -deflection 219 -decay. 186. 261. 31 32. 168 Charging capacitor 188 Charles’ (Amontons’) law 128 Chladni figures Capacitance of a plate capacitor Capacitor Charge Chemical potential Capacitor in the AC circuit 40. 243 245. 40. 41 43. 243. 242 243. 228 241.08. 235 237. 258. 190 30 Circularly and elliptically polarised light 108 Circularly and elliptically polarized waves 197 Circulation Clausius-Clapeyron equation 60 139. 117 Brewster’s law 110. 243 244. 250. 30. 255 251 63 204 Boiling point Absorption of X-rays Acoustic Doppler effect Cathode rays Bessel function Attenuation coefficient Acceptors 60 47 227 185. 253. 149 Boyle temperature 133 Bragg equation 241. 29. 264 Brewster angle 115. 192 173 Capacitance of metal spheres 169 166. 101 253. 249 250. 176 Bremsstrahlung 161. 241 242. Airy ring Amonton’s law Amplitude holograms Amplitude Analyzer Angle of incidence Angle of scattering Angular acceleration Angular frequency Angular momentum 45. 48 101 128. 254 260. 242. -particles 219 -energies of Ra 223 -particles in gases 224 -spectrum of 241Am 222 226 Absorption 145. 252. 149 114 36. 34 35. 258 259. 260. 32 Black body radiation 143 Characteristic curves 162 Blood vessel model 258 Bode diagram 190 Characteristic curves of semiconductors 162 212. 246. 242 243. 41 43. 264 Characteristic X-ray lines of different anode materials 250 Characteristic X-rays of copper 241 Characteristic X-rays of iron 243 Characteristic X-rays of molybdenum 242 263 Bragg reflection 215 Bragg scattering 245. 261 262 Atomic spectra 211 225 157. 142 64 155. 46. 238 Band-pass filter 194 Band spacing Band theory 233. 207. 247. 194 59 25 Centre of gravity 226 Babinet’s theorem Cavendish balance 175. 259 263. 242. 253 Bravais lattice 241. 238 Band-width Barometric height formula Barrier layer Basic constants Beat 67 Central force 221 Birefraction 113 Centrifugal force 31. 243 245. 248. 252. 139 141 Bounding surface 58 Boyle and Mariotte’s law 128. 169 Charge carrier generation 157 Charge carriers 236 Charging 167. 252 136. 245. 44 Characteristic impedance 194 Characteristic radiation 241. 41 Cavity resonator 45. 251 263 Absorption edges of X-rays Absorption factor 252 261. 254.37070 Göttingen . 232. 245. 213 Characteristic frequency Bohr magneton Bohr’s atomic model 212. 168 169. 40 41. 192 Average velocity 132 Avogadro’s law 149 164 Acceleration 19. 190 186 130. 242. 32. 54 Anode 207 Anomalous Hall effect 236 Antineutrino 227 Aperiodic case 43. 140 Cloud Chamber 219 CO2-laser 115 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 186 187. 20 Avogadro’s number Acceleration due to gravity 19. 199. 101. 262 Characteristic X-rays 241. 30. 29. 47. 263. 249 251.

171 173 209 Dielectric polarisation 173 Dielectrics 169 Du Nouy method 57 Differencial energy loss 224 Duane-Hunt displacement law 249 Differentiating network 181 Dulong Petit’s law 136. 190 Coulomb forces Coil in the AC circuit 185 Coulomb potential Collector equations 145 Coulomb’s law Collision of second type 117 Coulometry Compressibility Compressor Compton effect Compton wavelength 256 146 Conduction band 161. 210 Decay constant 216. 116 63. 100 101. 262 Crystal structures 241. 44 Decomposition of force 38. 137 Diffraction spectrometer 209 Convex lens Coherence length for non punctual light sources 97 Corpuscle 229 Debye-Scherrer measurements 262 Diffraction uncertainty Coherence time 97 Cosmic radiation 219 Debye-Scherrer method 215 Coherent light 93 Coulomb field 172. 101 102. 262 Debye-Scherrer powder method 254 Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer patterns 260 Debye-Scherrer reflexes 261 Diffractometric measurements 261 Debye-Sears-effect 122 Diffusion 144 Coil 182. 142 130 Demonstration experiments 85. 149 200 167. 63 83. 217 Diffusion potential 161 14 Decay diagram 226 Diode and Zener diode 188 194 Decay energy 130. 103 Dielectric barrier 239 Doublets Dielectric constant 173 Drag 60 Drag coefficient 60 Droplet method 203 Dielectric displacement Conservation of parity 256 57. 21 22. 221 Debye-Scherrer patterns 260 Diffractometric Debye-Scherrer measurements 261. 165 233. 142 Condensation Debye-Waller factor 146 51. 231 251 Compton scattering of X-rays 172 71 227. 261. 22 Doppler shift of frequency 91 194 161. 223. 75. 253. 256 Compton scattering 221 99 170. 103. 237 238 Conduction of heat Conductivity 145 Conductor 144 155. 97. 225 Density of liquids 53 Dependency of wave velocity 51 118. 44 258 Damping of waves 49 Contrast medium Convection 145. 242. 90 De Broglie relationship 99 Cooling capacity 160 De Broglie wavelength 229 Coplanar forces 14 Dead time 218. 114 Coherence conditions 97 Contact angle (CA) 239 Contact resistance 153.2007 12:53 Uhr Seite 269 Index Cobra3 266 Coefficient of cubic compressibility 128 Coefficient of thermal expansion 128 Coefficient of thermal tension 128 Coercive field strength Coherence 180 95. 82. 76 77. 171 Counter tube 228. 33 142 Deformation Cryoscopy 142 Degree of dissociation Crystal classes 255 Degree of freedom Crystal lattices 254. 223 Direct energy conversion 159 43. 165 Conductor (Magnetic field) Connection between the fine structure of the -spectrum and the accompanying -spectrum Conservation of angular momentum Conservation of energy 216. 219. 154 Damping constant 43. 217 Dispersion Dissipation factor Donors Density Doppler effect 71. 168 Disintegration product 216.37070 Göttingen 13 Double slit 74. 20. 227 Diffraction index 181 Cornu’s spiral 82 Debye temperature 136. 245 246 Diffraction at the slit 196 Diffraction image of a diffraction grating 210 Diffraction of microwaves 196 51. 226 Diode laser 40. 41 Decay series 130. 133 Cryoscopic constants D Constructive and destructive interference 219 Coupled oscillating circuits Conservation of momentum 21. 120 Discharging Demonstration track 19. 262 Current balance Current density Curvature Cycle 227 Damped oscillation 197 Damped/undamped free oscillation 15 141. 83 Detection probability 231 Dosimeter 257 158 Developing of film 114 Double refraction 108 179 Diameter 13 146 184 43. 104. 225 229. 39 194 Decomposition voltage 163 Directional characteristic pattern 198 Defect electrons 236 Directional quantization 213 Directivity 198 Coupled Pendula Creeping Critical or optimum coupling Critical point 179 222 227 20.08. 235. 256 Concave lens 170. 255 260. 102. 90 Concentration ratio 164 218. 137 Different symmetries of distributions 218 Duration 230 Laboratory Experiments Physics 269 . 262 Counting rate 141. 160 Conversion electron 230 Conversion of heat 148 Damping 187 Daughter substance 210. 104 114. 99. 229. 162. 74. 197. 216 217. 68. 154. 22 Conservation of energy and momentum Diffusion cloud chamber Couple 153. 231 246.Vorspann 09. 86 124. 196. 183. 261. 21. 103. 217. 234 Conductivity of metals 261. 44 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 233 234. 254 255. 187. 263 Crystal structures cubic 254 Crystal structures hexagonal 254 Crystal systems 254. 255 260. 243 249. De Broglie equation 215 Diffraction 52. KG · D . 162 52.

171 172 Elementary charge 203 Energy-band diagram 161.m. 234. 196 Frictional resistance 199 Full-wave rectifier 188 G -absorption 209. 148. 238 Force 82. 165 163. 241 242. 131. damped. 249 250. 237 238 Extrinsic conductivity 233. 203 Electric field constant 89 Electric field strenght 170. forced and torsional oscillations 25 56 Freezing point depression 142 Falling ball viscometer Faraday effect 112 Faraday’s contant 164 Frequency 49. 213 Electron spin resonance 214 Electrons 236 Electro-optical modulator 113 Electrostatic induction 169. 97. 75. 82. 235 92 Fresnel lenses 209. 95. 222. 44 -spectrometry 232 44 -spectroscopy 228 160 Fourier optics 121. 234 218 167. 171 Electrostatic potential 170. 65. 54 127 Equipotential lines 166 Equivalent dose and ion dose and their rates 257 Equivalent of heat 138 ESR 214 Evaporation 53 209. 248. 101 102. 247. 103. 231  rays 227 43. 71. 128. 210. 263. 172.37070 Göttingen . 248 Forbidden zone Exchange energy Excited nuclear states 207. 253. 243. 206 Exitation of molecular vibration 222 115 Expected value of pulse rate Electron concentration in gases 224 Exponential function Electron diffraction 215 Extension and compression Extrinsic conduction 235. 208 130. 211. 22 Elasticity 16 Electric charge Energy levels 172 Electric constant 264 209. 122 g-factor Fourier transform 121.08. 204 Electron collision 205.Vorspann 09. 229 -radiation 230. 211 Electron charge 203. 190 74. 76.) 156 Electron absorption 225 Electron avalanches 239. 211 227 -emission Forced cooling Forced oscillation Fourier analysis 228. 244. 245 246. 206. 66 69. 70. 97. 77 95. 77 82. 24 Free path 157 Free path length 240 Fabry Perot Etalon 117 Fabry-Perot interferometer 212 Free. 170. 89 Frequency doubling Faraday’s law Fresnel diffraction Fermi characteristic energy level 161 Ferromagnetic hysteresis 180 Fresnel biprism Ferromagnetic material 181 Fresnel integrals Fibre optics 120 Field intensity 172 Field strength 179 Filter Fine structure 119 163. 102. 247. 103. 206 209.2007 12:53 Uhr Seite 270 Index Duration of oscillation 36 Dynamic and kinematic viscosity 56 Dynamic pressure 60 E e/m 204 Earth’s magnetic field 174 Ebullioscopic constants 141 Edge diffraction 100 Efficiency 145. KG · D . 104 First and second law of thermodynamics First law of thermodynamics 148 130.f. 214 Energy term symbols 247. 100 101. 104 121. 171 33 Energy of translation Energy quantum 33 205. 133 14. 162 Energy ceiling 145 Elastic after-effect 17 Energy detector Elastic collision 21 Energy dose 257 17 Energy level diagram (decay diagram) 222 Elastic hysteresis Elastic loss 21. 131 Equilibrium spacing 226 270 Laboratory Experiments Physics 134 External photoelectric effect 206 213. 168 18 Fraunhofer diffraction 74. 161 Efficiency rating 160 Electron in crossed fields 204 Electron mass 204 Electron oscillation 112 Electron spin 212. 248 Electric flow 172 Eötvös equation Electric flux 170 Equation of adiabatic change of slate Electric theory of light 111 Electrical conductivity 144 Electrical eddy field 183 Equation of state for ideal gases Electrical fields 166 Equilibrium Electrode polarisation Electrolysis 163. 264 170. 122. 211 Excitation energy 205. 214 47 Galvanic elements 163 Gas 132 Gas constant 59 Gas discharge tube 117 Gas laws 148 Gaussian beam 120 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 234 222 -quanta 227. 169 170. 164 122. 196 Free and fixed end 49 Free charges F 173 Free fall 23. 165 Electromagnetic field interaction 112 Electromagnetic theory of light 110 Electromagnetism 112 Electromotive force (e. 76 77. 100 77 Forbidden band 233. 75. 240 Electron capture Equation of state 57 59. 181. 159. 164. 101 Fresnel zones 82. 122 G-modulus Four-point measurement 144 Four-wire method of measurement 153 Franck-Hertz experiment with Hg-tube 205 Franck-Hertz experiment with Ne-tube 60 Frustrated total reflection Forbidden transition 19 110 Fresnel’s zone construction 237. 138 Flammersfeld oscillator 134 Flat coils 176 Fluidity 56 Focal length 90 Focal point 197 Fresnel mirror 92 Fresnel’s equations 76. 173 Energy loss Electric discharge 224 115 Energy of rotation Electric field 166.

16. 217 Half-life and radioactive equilibrium Half-shade principle Half-value thickness Half-wave rectifier Hall coefficient Hall effect 216. 137 Impurity depletion Induced emission Kerr effect Internal energy Inverse Joule-Thomson effect 50 247 Kundt’s tube 191. 176. 18 Hysteresis 53 130. 175. 177 Huygens-Fresnel principle H 99 Helium Neon Laser High-pass filter Induction 160 Gay-Lussac’s law General equation of state for ideal gases Inductance of solenoids 99 155. 41 Greenhouse effect 145 Grids 102 Group velocity 50 Grüneisen equation Gyroscope 127 33. 97. 131 181 Interference in thin films Impact parameter Isotherms Integrating network 198 Image charge 174 Isogenic lines Horn antenna Illuminance Isoclinic lines 172 15. 234 Intrinsic energy 135 135 237. 119 60 183 185.2007 12:53 Uhr Seite 271 Index Gaussian distribution 218 Heat insulation Gaussian rule 172 Heat of vaporization Gay-Lussac theory 135 Heat pipe 147 139. 180. 175. 75. 122 K doublet splitting of molybdenum X-rays 81.37070 Göttingen 113 Kinetic energy 115. 190 Holograms Half life 167. 17. 161. 82. 104. 142 Glass jacket system Glow discharge 142 239. 118. 242. 185 186. 81. 120 Laser Doppler anemometry 116 Inversion temperature 135 Laser physics 123 Ionizing particles 219 Lattice constant Ionizing energy 257 Isobars Isochoric and isothermal changes 130. 118. 164 Germanium 237. 92 94. 241. 178 179. 121. 140 128. 101 102. 116 181. 160 Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle 117 Helmholtz arrangement 176 Helmholtz coils Helmholtz resonators 141 High. 96. 190 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 131 148 241. 183 Isochors and adiabatic changes of slate 67 Henry’s law Hooke’s law 184 174. 243 246. 66. 234 112. 79. 95. 188 Intrinsic conduction 235. 149 Heat pump Geiger-Nuttal law 130. 101. 251 188 Hooke’s law oscillations 233. 38. 114. 78. 78. 119. 223 Heat radiation 145 Heat transfer 147 Heat transition 147 Heat transport 144 Heating capacity 160 128. 181 Impedance 174 248 Interferometer 105. 97. 181. 117.104. 42 130. 242 243. 240 Grade resistance 84 Gradient 172 Graetz rectifier 188 Graphite structure 215 Grating spectroscope 91 Gravitational acceleration 23 Gravitational constant 25 Gravitational force 39 Gravity pendulum 40. 131 Induction constant 114 Hydrogen bond H2O anomaly 172. 119 84 Kinetic theory of gases 132 Kirchhoff’s diffraction formula Kirchhoff’s laws 136. 35 146. 103. 103. 68. 137 Induced voltage Heat conductivity 147. 190. 122. 195. 133 Identity of atomic number and charge on the nucleus 221 230 Internal friction 55 156. 98. 75. 156. 104 116. 235.08. 118.Vorspann 09. 95 I Index of refraction 230 Intensity 42 Huygens’ principle 52. 117. 172 K doublet splitting of iron X-rays Klein-Nishina formula Internal resistance 221 K Interference of ultrasonic waves 79 Internal conversion in 146mBa Ideal gas Harmonic wave 68 68. 34. 74. 192 121. 249. 74. 233 234. 107 170. 249. 76 77. 96. 76 77. 82. 102. 217 109 227. 182. 160 Inductance 115. 196 61 Isotopic spin quantum numbers J Interference of electromagnetic waves Harmonic sound intervals 130.and low-pass filters 116 116. 263 Lattice planes 215 Lattice potential 127 Lattice vibration 136. 102 103. 187. 238 Gibbs-Helmholtz equation 141. 191 229 65 L L-Transition 263 Lambert’s law 107 Laminar flow 60 Landé factor 214 Laser 101. 236 Hall mobility 236 174 Induction impulse 193 Isomeric nuclei 230 Inductive and capacitive reactance 191 Inelastic collision 27 Inside diameter thickness 13 Instantaneous velocity 33 100 Joule effect 160 Interaction potential 133 Joule-Thomson effect 135 Interaction with material 231 Interface Interference 57 52. 223 244 147 Inclinometer Isotopic properties Intensity of characteristic X-rays Hothouse effect Harmonic oscillation 36. 263 93 212 Interference of acoustic waves Interference of equal inclination 94 Interference of microwaves 195 Interference of thin layers 94 53 180 128. 238 Inversion Heat capacity of gases 130. KG · D . 39. 106. 216. 168. 98. 131 Induced resistance Heat capacity of metals 136. 237 238 Intrinsic conductivity 233. 137 Laboratory Experiments Physics 271 .

77. 35 . 29. 47 48 Maxwell’s wheel 33 235 136. 18. 261. 37 38. 74. 106. 195 Microwaves 195. 39 Molecule radius 133 Mathies rule 157 Molecules 132 Maxwell disk 33 Moment 14. 211 Multiplicity factor 261. 44 174. 47 130. 21. 183. 193 272 Laboratory Experiments Physics Moment of inertia of a sphere 118 Melting 261 262 153 Mean lifetime of a metastable state 176 Lorentz-polarization factor Low resistance 28 Magnetic field of paired coils Material waves 181. 30 33. 78. 176. 196 197. 219 233. 75 76. 235 66 Moment of inertia of a disc 200 Malus’ law Loudness 224 Mean free path length Magnetic Board Electricity 62. 198 Law of inductance 184 Law of induction 193 Law of gravitation 25 Law of lenses 90 Law of refraction 110 Laws of falling bodies 23. 64. 183. 83 Lorentz force 48 224 Measurement of projectile velocities Magnetic field 28. 20. 179 Magnetic field constant 89 180. 234 Nd-YAG laser 119 Neutrino 226 Model kinetic energy Modulation Modulus of elasticity 132 89 113 15. 176 177. 193 Magnetic flux. Paschen-. 97 111 94 Multiplicity 209. 175. 34. 190 Moment of inertia of a mass point Mechanical hysteresis 144 Low-pass filter 224 149 Lorenz number 187 Mean ionization energy of gas atoms Magnetic Board Heat Mass coverage Loss resistance 28. 106. 258. 84 Newton’s 2nd law 19. 137 Mole volumes 105. 46.37070 Göttingen 34. 183 48 Moment of inertia of spheres and rods 25 Momentum 84 Measurement accuracy 99 27 Monochromatization of X-rays 245. 81. 65 Mobility 233. 107 n-germanium (Hall effect) Mixture temperature 61 Luminous flux N 49 53 105. 20 Newton’s ring apparatus 93 Newton’s rings 93 Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquid 55 Newtonian liquid 56 Neyer-Neldel rule 235 No-load operation 156 Normal Hall effect 236 NTC 157 Nuclear transitions 230 Numerical aperture 120 Nutation PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.Vorspann 09. 213 Magnet Board Optics Magnetic field of coils Longitudinal waves 210 Maxwellian velocity distribution Moment of inertia of 2 point masses 48 Newton’s law 30. 35. 45. 204. 131 Molecular vibration 115 Mathematical pendulum 36. 82. 254. 73. 230 158 Magnetic moment 120 232. 22 Law of distance 171. 234 235 Magnetostriction Magnification Mass absorption coefficient Mass-spring system 181 90. 21 Linear motion due to constant acceleration 23. 24 Linear relationship between the propagation time of sound and its respective path Liquid Littrow prism 117 Lloyd mirror 79 Loaded transformer 182 Local ion dose rate 257 Logarithmic decrement 43. 48 Moment of inertia of a cylinder Mean energy loss of -particles per collision 124 62 56 Moment of inertia of a bar 132. 262 203 Natural vibrations 61.2007 12:53 Uhr Seite 272 Index Laue method 255 Law of absorption 73. 65.08. 259 Law of collision Luminous intensity 105. 70 72. 213 26 211. 185 186. 42 Linearity 197 Linear expansion 127 Linear motion 22. 199 Miller indices 253. 251 258. 84 20. 29. coil 180 Magnetic flux density 175 Magnetic inclination and declination 174 Magnetic induction 183 Magnetic induction (formerly magnetic-flux density) Mica plate Michelson interferometer Magnetic resistance 233. 178. KG · D . 259 19. 178. 261 262 16 Mechanical work 138 Medical 258 Medical application of X-rays 258 Monomode and multimode fibre Moseley’s law Mesons 219 Motion involving uniform acceleration Magnetic field of single coils 175 Metallic film resistor 157 Motion track Magnetic field strength 180 Metals (Hall effect) 236 Moving charges Magnetic flow density 174 Metastable states Magnetic flux 177. Brackettand Pfund-Series 21. 28. 179 182. 28. 22 Multiple slit Microscope Millikan experiment 177. 250 252 53 Maxwell’s equations 173. 246 260. 98 181. 24 Length 13 Lenses 121. 79 80. 30 Maxwell relationship 91 Moment of inertia 27. 102 90 Modulation of light 251. 106 Lyman-. 234. 262 81. 96 97. 107 230 Natural frequency Mohr balance Luminance Multipole radiation 51 Mirror 225 215 158 75. 255 260. 198. 178 179. 38. 48 Mechanical equivalent of heat 138 158. 122 Lenz’s law 184 Lever 14 Lift and drag 60 Light intensity 107 M Magnet Board Mechanics 1 85 Magnet Board Mechanics 2 86 Light quantity 107 Light velocity 98 Limit of elasticity 17.

219 225. 232 109 Polarization level 192 Photoelectric effect 188 108.08. 165 Ohmic resistance 191 One-electron spectra 209 Operating point 162 Optic axis 108 Optical activity 109 Optical anisotropy 113 Optical instruments 90 Optical path difference 94 Optical pumping 118. 43. 195. 190. 35 59. 39 70. 106 Precession Photon energy 207. 192 Resistance to flow 60 Resistance to pressure 60 Resistivity Resolution of optical instruments 153. 104 Peltier heat pump 160 Polar diagram 60 PEM fuel cell 163 Polarimetry Polariser Pendulum oscillations Pendulum 38. 119 Potential R r. 44 Poisson’s distribution 159. 140 Photonuclear cross-section 231 Pressure and temperature 128 Photonuclear reaction 230 Principle of conservation of momentum 27 Prism 91 Projectile motion 26 49 37. 94 110. 257 37 114 Refractive index 207. 217 Plasticity Particle energy 130. 192 Phase velocity 49. 111 112. 227 231. 208. 242 243. 169 Potential and kinetic energy 27. 208 Pressure 34. 190 Phase holograms 114 Phase relationship 93 Phase shift 66. 199 Reflection coefficient 110 Reflection factor 110 Reflection of longitudinal waves Refraction Plane of polarisation 108 Parallel-T filters 181 Plane parallel plate 94 Q Parallel-tuned circuit 187 Plastic flow 16 Q factor Parent substance 216. 92. 251 Paraboloid of rotation Parahelium 54 209. 44 94 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.m. 98 Refrigerator 146 Relativistic Lorentz equation 226 Relaxation 184. 38. 186 187. 187. 110. 41. 91. 44 Period 36 Periodic motion 49 Phase 89. 83 157 58 188 Reduced length of pendulum Reference beam Reflection 51. 37. 154 101 Laboratory Experiments Physics 273 . 216 217. 199 161. 55 43. 119 180 Resistance 153. 234 218 Poisson’s ratio 38. 79. 263 108 Orthohelium 209. 251. 228 Radioactive equilibrium 130. 194.2007 12:54 Uhr Seite 273 Index O Pauli method 114 Object distance 90 153. 80 Phase center Physical pendulum p-germanium (Hall effect) 233. 73. 81. 39 38.Vorspann 09. 96. 187.s. 181 Phase and group velocity 198 Phase displacement 185. 249 43. 98. 39. 94. 118. 106 66 72 51. 84 Potential difference Photo-conductive effect 161 Photo effect 228 Potential well model of the atomic nucleus 172 33 130. 44 Rectifier circuits Pull-out method 42 194 143 Polarization of light Parallel springs Parallel conductance Radiation 110 Potential energy 207. 50. 223 Radioactive particles 219 Radioactive radiation 227 Range dispersion 224 Raoult’s law 141. 262 Reconstruction 122 Recovering time and resolution time of a counter tube 218 63. 156. 119 Optical rotatory power Order of diffraction Ordinary and extraordinary ray 241. KG · D . 162 Pair formation 227. 211 Oscillating circuits 194 Oscillation period Oscillations 109 Oscillatory circuit 184 P 15 Peltier effect 160 Poisson’s spot 76. 240 Particle velocity 219 Plate capacitor 166 Quantum leap 206 Paschen curve 240 PLZT-element 113 Quantum number 214 Path difference 93 Pohl’s pendulum Quarterwave plates 108 Path of a ray 90 Pohl’s plate 16. 211 Polarizability Polarization 108 Radiation field 198 113 Polarization of microwaves 197 Polarizer 111 Polarizer and analyzer 197 Polytropic equation 134 Positron 226 166. 68. 261. 39 37. 39 40. 71 Piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer 71 Propagation of a wave Piezoelectric ultrasonics transformer 70 Propagation of sound waves Pin hole 76 PTC Pin hole diaphragms 101 Planck’s constant 210 Planck’s “quantum of action” Radioactive decay 218. 255 260. 208. 199 89. 101. 42. 119 Optical resonator 115. 231 Pair production 228. 115. value 91 Phasor diagram Piezoelectric effect p-n junction 70. 135 Real image 90 Reciprocal lattice 253. 142 Rate of decay 216. 155. 223 Plasma Physics 239. 43. 38.37070 Göttingen Quantisation of energy levels Quantity of light Quincke tube 212 105. 96. 254. 217 Ratio of attenuation/ decrement RC filters 181 Reaction rate 109 Real and virtual image 114 Real charges 173 Real gas 133. 223 Power and Work 154 Power matching 156 Photometric law 105. 160 Peltier coefficient Object beam Ohm’s law 194 Remanence 16. 154.

65 68. 104 117 115. 260 261. 79 81. 42.229 116 230. 65 69. 80 210. 171 172 57. 46 Stokes’ law 62. 29. 58 239 54 51. 48 57. 237. 47 Shear stress Slit 209. 242. 160 159 Thomson coefficient 159. 83 72. 160 159 274 Laboratory Experiments Physics Spectral lines (shape and half width value) Spectral power density Spectrometer-goniometer Spectroscope 59. 140 Temperature amplitude attenuation 178 15 71 Temperature dependence of resistances 143 Temperature dependence of resistors and diodes 157 Temperature gradient 144 Term diagram 227 Terminal voltage 156 Terrestrial gravitational acceleration 37 Testoring torque 44 The Bragg equation 144 Thermal capacity 127. 46. 118 119 25. 47. 69 Stefan-Boltzmann’s law Steiner’s law Steiner’s theorem Smoothing factor 188 Step response 181 Solar cell 161 Stereographic projection 259 Solar ray collector 145 Stern-Gerlach experiment 213 Solenoids 184 Stirling engine 148 Sound 25.37070 Göttingen 120. 31. 211 Slit diffraction 100 99.08. 177 Torque and restoring torque Torsion modulus 43 16. 71 Straight conductor (magnetic field) Stress 56. 247 248. 231 252 165 159. 252 Sound velocity 69 Sound velocity in gases and solids 65 Spatial and time coherence 97 Structure of NaCl 253 Specific charge of the electron 204 Superimposition of magnetic fields 178 Specific heat 144 Specific rotation 109 Rydberg constant Rydberg frequency 250 Rydberg series 211 S Saccharimetry 109 Specific thermal capacity 138 Sampling theorem 116 Spectra 209 Scattering Scattering of light by small particles (Mie scattering) Scintillation detectors Screening constant Second order conductors Seebeck coefficient Seebeck effect (thermoelectric effect) 221 . 233. 47. 48 Torsion pendulum 43. Superimposition of sound waves 147 Temperature dependence 254. 252. 247. 41 Spontaneous and stimulated light emission Spontaneous emission 55 Spring constant 17. 18. 46. 234 235. 35 40. 262 Thermogenerator Superposition of waves Surface adhesion Surface energy 91 Surface of rotating liquids Surface tension Spectroscopy with the X-ray energy detector 264 Surface treatment Spectrum of emission 115 Surface waves Speed of light 181 Sweep 63. 161. 162 223. 44 45. f. 54 Rotating liquids Rotation Rotation niveau Rotational energy Rowland grating Rüchardt’s experiment Rules governing selection 54 29. 44. 132. 58 239 241. 45 46. 52 Ripple voltage 188 RLC circuit 187 RLC measuring bridge 191 Rope wave 50 Rotary viscometer 55 28. 41. 199 194 143 159. 147 Thermal capacity of gases 134 Thermal energy 138 Thermal equation of state 133 Thermal expansion 127 Thermal pump 148 Thermal radiation 147 Thermal tension coefficient 128 Structure factor 253. 43. 199 26 189 . 44 Torsional vibration 40. 192 130. 138. 40 41. 195 Statics 14 Stationary longitudinal waves 72 Stationary waves 64. 264 Self-inductance Semiconductor 256 Resting energy Rotary motion Selection rules 184. 168 Time measurement Torque 13 16. KG · D . 67 Resonator cavity 117 Resonator modes 119 Rest energy 226 Restrictor valve 146 Reversible cycles 148 Reversible pendulum 37 Reynolds number 60 Rigid body 45. 47. 211 49. 255 Surface charge density 91 Temperature Structure amplitude 97 116 90 37 120 80 Telescope 143 Slope efficiency Sonar principle T Total reflection Trajectory parabola Transfer function PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 263 Thermal Thermoelectric e. 44. 82 58 170. 211. 30 115 27. 194. 41. 160 Threshold energy 120 Throttling 135 Time constant 167. 248 249. 238 Spin Spinorbit interaction 211 Spin-orbital angular momentum interaction 209 Spin-orbit coupling 181 Spiral spring Semiconductor thermogenerator 159 Serial springs 42 Series connection 155 Series-tuned circuit 187 Shear modulus 40. 203 Rutherford atomic model 221 Rutherford experiment 221 Sound pressure 69. 48 Ring method 57 Ripple tank 51. 34. 214 Resonance frequency 43. m. 45. 103.2007 12:54 Uhr Seite 274 Index Resonance 184. 29 91 134 230 209.Vorspann 09. 160 Thomson equations 159. 64. 48 Square wave 181 218 Shell structure of electron shells 232 Standard deviation Short circuit 156 Standing waves Single electron atom 210 Single slit 74 Singlet and triplet series 209. 243 244. 32. 255 256.

199 256 Transverse and longitudinal modes 120 Transverse and longitudinal resonator modes 117 Transverse and longitudinal waves 66 Transverse wave Universal gas constant degree of freedom Universal gas constant Unloaded transformer 130. 260 261. 120 62. 181. 68 V Valence band 90 Virtual light source 92. 56 Viscosity 55. Hg 211 Vaporisation enthalpy 146 Two-wire field 213 Vaporization 140. 181 128. 50. 135 Van der Waals force 135 Van’t Hoff law 139 Two-electron spectra 209 Van’t Hoff factor 142 Two-electron systems: He. 71. 109 70 Weight 13 Weight resolution 13 47. 256 257. 191 144 15 Z Z diode 112 13 232 49. 251. 96 98. 263. 73 74. 96. 237 238 Van der Waals equation 133. 77. 82. 72 Wave equation 89. 243. 48 115 61 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 262. 235. 197 Tunnel effect Virtual image 131 Viscometer 55. 140 U Variable g-pendulum Velocity 38. 233. 70. 70. 233 234. 264 X-ray bremsstrahlung 252 X-ray dosimetry 257 X-ray energy detector 264 X-Ray Experiments.37070 Göttingen 242. 140 Volume expansion 53 Volume expansion of liquids 127 189 232. 259 Zener effect Zone construction Zone plate 157 212. 248 249. 89. 242. 68. KG · D . 64. 81. 66. 130 182 Use of an interface 49. 249 Y Young’s modulus Zeeman effect Weiss molecular magnetic fields Wheatstone bridge Wiedmann-Franz law 181 155. 78 80. 69 70. Handbook 265 X-ray fluorescence 232 X-ray radiation Vapour pressure of water 139. 195. 96 98. 65. 21.08. 39 19. 246. 214 157 77 77. 92. 262 Wave-particle dualism 99 Wave phenomena 51 Weak interaction 227 Weber-Fechner law Ultrasonic waves 66. 208 X X-ray 155. 71. 252 253.2007 12:54 Uhr Seite 275 Index Transformer 182. 244 245. 176 Work function 207. 258. 184 Transistor 162 Transit time 120 Transition probability 222. 199. 20. 50. 146 Vapour pressure 140. 79 Velocity of ultrasonics Uncertainty of location 99 Verdet’s constant Uncertainty of momentum 99 Vernier Uniform acceleration 84 Vibration Uniform magnetic field 158. 234. 259. 260 261. 146 Wien-Robinson bridge Wire loop 175. 235 241. 83 Ultrasonic diffraction 82 Ultrasonic Doppler effect 83 Velocity gradient Velocity of light Velocity of sound Velocity of sound in air Ultrasonic MichelsonInterferometer 81 Ultrasonic velocity 80 Velocity of sound in liquids 132 55 W 66 69. 243.Vorspann 09. 71 X-ray tube 72. 223 Turbulence 116 Turbulent flow 60 42.71 X-ray spectral analysis Wave Wavelength 258. 177 Universal gas constant 128 Vibration niveau Vibration of strings 50 49. 75. 230 Transmission 195. 95 Laboratory Experiments Physics 275 . 56 203 Viscosity measurements 56 Viscosity of Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids 55 Visible spectral range 210 Voltage 161. 22 Velocity distribution Ultrasonic 69. 162. 72. 76. 254. 250. 255. 72. 166 169 Voltage doubling 188 Voltage source 156 Voltage stabilisation 188 Volume 128.247. 65 69.

KG · D .08.Vorspann 09.37070 Göttingen .2007 12:54 Uhr 276 Laboratory Experiments Physics Seite 276 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.

3.03-00 2.12-00 1.28-01 1.1.1.01-11 3.3.05-00 5.11-01/11 5.4.11-00 5.2.5.02-01/11 5.12-00 4.09-01 4.03-11 1.3.3.2.01-00 3.6.11-00 2.2.5.3.11-00 5.27-01 1.5.3.16-11 1.08-00 1.4.04-01/11 1.3.4.5.3.4.07-00 5.1.04-01/05 5.6.03-00 1.5.01-00 4.5.30-00 1.03-01/15 4.4.18-00 1.02-00 2.01-11 5.4.5.4.5.14-00 1. (00 49) 5 51 60 4115 or by post or contact our local representative PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.3.16-01 1.4.2.25-11 1.13-00 5.4.03-00 5.3.4.02-01/15 4.04-00 2.33-00 1.1.2.Vorspann 09.03-11 5.3.01-00 4.4.19-15 1.01-00 1.1.23-00 1.3.3.11-00 4.04-15 4.02-00 1.1.05-11 2.04-00 4.4.2.1.2.24-01/11/15 5.47-01/11/15 5.32-00 5.6.3.6.12-00 3.28-00 5.5.21/22/23/24/25-00 5.2.01-01 4.3.3.3.1.02-00 2.12-00 1.06-00 2.45-01/11/15 5.3.4.02-00 5.04-01 4.02-15 4.1.04-00 2.5.2.2.03-00 3.17-15 1.01-15 3.3.2.01-00 1.03-01/05 1.5.6.06-00 5.01-01 5.01-01/15 3.4.2007 12:54 Uhr Seite 277 Send to Fax No.13-00 5.2.03-00 2.27-00 5.2.3.3.02-01/15 4.1.5.04-00 4. KG D-37070 Göttingen Federal Republic of Germany Information / Quotation Address of institution Please send detailed descriptions.3.02-01 2.01-11 1.07-11 4.13-01/05 1.4.3.02-00 1.6.1.4.5.34-00 1.08-00 5.05-00 4.02-00 4.03-00 5.40-00 5.3.13-00 1.4.5.10-00 1.04-00 2.5.2.09-15 4.5.3.16-00 5.4.2.21-00 1.23-01/11/15 5.4.3.04-00 5.3.31-00 1.4.5.4.2.6.3.2.20-00 5.4.15-15 1.06-00 4.3.08-11 1.2.03-00 4.3.01-15 4.4.14/15-00 5.2.21-01/11/15 5.5.4.5.03-01/11 4.06-00 2.2.5.6.01-00 2.23-01 1.12-11 4.1.2.27-11 1.3.5.03-15 5.05-00 4.06-01/15 1.06-00 4.05-00 2.6.1.6.02-00 3.4.22-01/11/15 5.5.04-00 3.2.3.06-01/15 4.08-00 4.3.4.3.11-00 1.4.6.4.4.3.09-01/15 4.07-00 4.5.1.3.2.2.03-11 5.4.06-00 3.2.09-11 1.1.10-00 4.5.08-00 4.32-00 1.2.3.25-01 1.3. free of charge Please send an offer for the following experiments Telephone Fax Date Signature Please circle the corresponding experiment numbers 1.4.1.20-15 5.4.2.4.08-00 5.04-01/11 4.1.4.3.08-00 2.18-00 1.11-00 1.4.5.10-05 5.1.2.46-01/11/15 5.06-00 5.07-00 2.5.02-00 3.05-15 1.2.05-00 2.3.5.06-00 4.01-00 5.02-00 3.05-00 4.3.03-00 1.04-01/15 4.09-00 2.2.01-00 5.4.01-01 3.28-11 1.22-00 1.04-01 5.04-00 5.19-00 1.6.07-00 1.3.3.01-00 2.5.2.41-01/11 5.05-01/05 .3.03-11/15 1.19-00 5.05-00 3.04-01/15 4.1.2.18-00 5.20-00 1.12-00 5.1.35-00 1.3.4.2.02-00 4.1.03-00 2.01-00 2.2.2.09-00 5.01-01 1.02-11 2.01-00 1.1.4.26-00 1.3.04-00 2.44-01/11/15 5.02-00 4.5.4.07-01/15 1.09-00 5.04-00 3.4.4.21-15 1.4.07-00 4.1.1.10-00 2.04-11 5.05-00 1.10-00 5.2.3.02-01 3.6.3.2.05-01/05 5.01-00 3.02-00 3.42-01/11/15 5.05-11/15 1.07-01 1.03-00 2.2.3.1.13-15 4.5.6.09-11 1.3.5.02-00 2.07-11 1.03-00 2.2.4.02-00 5.6.15-00 1.4.4.3.5.01-01 3.3.02-11 3.2.3.3.1.17-00 5.22-00 1.5.07-01 2.1.03-00 4.11-00 4.4.2.1.07-00 5.02-00 2.3.10-00 5.3.06-01/11 4.04-00 1.3.03-00 3.3.01-00 1.26-11 1.20-00 1.5.01-00 2.16-15 1.01-00 4.1.3.24-15 2.1.02-00 2.01-00 2.06-11 1.4.2.4.08-00 4.4.4.01-11 5.23-11 1.01-01 5.4.08-00 4.5.1.04-00 2.08.05-01/15 4.3.12-00 5.31-00 5.01-00 3.13-11/15 1.3.

08. (00 49) 5 51 60 4115 or by post or contact our local representative PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.Vorspann 09. KG D-37070 Göttingen Federal Republic of Germany Information / Quotation Address of institution Please send an offer for the following equipment Telephone Date Equipment Fax Signature Article-No.2007 12:54 Uhr Seite 278 Send to Fax No. Quantity .

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2007 12:54 Uhr Seite 280 Send to Fax No. Quantity .Vorspann 09. KG D-37070 Göttingen Federal Republic of Germany Information / Quotation Address of institution Please send an offer for the following equipment Telephone Date Equipment Fax Signature Article-No. (00 49) 5 51 60 4115 or by post or contact our local representative PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.08.

French and Spanish). Cobra3 and Natural Sciences on the board. Available in English. Laboratory Experiments The experiments in the Phywe publication series “Laboratory Experiments” are intended for the heads of laboratories. Special brochures Additionally there are special brochures for our particularly successful teaching systems TESS (available in German. English) and Natural Sciences on the board (available in German. For the student system “Advanced Optics and Laser Physics” a special brochure is available in English. colleges of advanced technology. brochures and more… PHYSICS – CHEMISTRY – BIOLOGY The comprehensive catalogue for physics. Additionally you can find a large number of laboratory materials and an insight in our particularly successful teaching systems TESS.08. English. chemistry and biology.Vorspann 09. Laboratory Experiments Physics is also available on CD-ROM. Available in English and Spanish. Cobra3 (available in German. .2007 12:54 Uhr Seite 281 – catalogues. English). technical colleges and similar institutions and also for advanced courses in high schools.

com We reserve ourselves all rights concerning errors. 08.2007 12:54 Uhr Seite 282 Phywe Systeme GmbH & Co.32 4 th edition .08 Order No. 16505.07.08.sales@phywe.phywe.Vorspann 09. KG Robert-Bosch-Breite 10 D-37079 Göttingen Germany phone: ++49/551/604-0 fax: ++49/551/604-115 www.com int. partial reproduction and photocopies. translation.