Peter Radgen

Edgar Blaustein
(Eds.)

Compressed Air Systems
in the European Union
Energy, Emissions,
Savings Potential and Policy Actions

ISBN
3-932298-16-0
Das Werk einschließlich aller seiner Teile ist urheberrechtlich geschützt.
Jede Verwertung ist ohne Zustimmung des Verlags unzulässig.
Das gilt insbesondere für Vervielfältigungen, Übersetzungen, Mikroverfilmungen
und die Einspeicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronischen Systemen.
Copyright © 2001 LOG_X Verlag GmbH, Stuttgart.
Projektmanagement: Dr.-Ing. Peter Radgen, Fraunhofer ISI
Umschlaggestaltung: Jürgen G. Rothfuß, Neckarwestheim
Druck: Rondo Druck, Ebersbach-Roßwälden
Bindung: Waidner GmbH, Fellbach
Printed in Germany

Preface
According to the Kyoto Protocol from 1997, the EU has to reduce greenhouse
gas emissions by 8 % below their 1990 levels until the period of 2008-2012. To
achieve these reduction targets substantial efforts will be required by all sectors.
Two main strategies have been identified, which allow significant emission reductions without harming economic growth. The first is the wider adoption of
energy efficient technologies. Energy efficiency has been a key element in the
energy policy of the European Union since it reduces the emissions related to
energy consumption and, at the same time, saves energy costs and contributes
to extending the remaining lifetime of our natural resources.
Among the cross cutting energy savings technologies, electric motor systems
are by far the most important type of electric load. They are used in all sectors
in a wide range of applications, such as fans, compressors, pumps, or conveyors. Since electricity consumption in electric motor systems account for abut 70
% of all electricity use in the industry sector and since energy costs make up
more than 70 % of the life cycle costs of a motor system, even small improvements in the energy efficiency of motor systems will produce large energy savings across the EU.
Therefore, the EU has supported a number of studies, analysing the market for
energy efficient electric motor applications. This book summarises the findings
of the study on compressed air systems in the EU, while other studies such as a
study on the use of pumps have recently been completed and studies on fans
and on air conditioning systems are in preparation.
As energy savings measures in compressed air systems are highly profitable,
we hope that our propositions on how to stimulate further applications of energy
savings techniques in compressed air systems will be adopted by the European
Com-mission and the national Government of each Member State.
Karlsruhe, February, 5th, 2001.

Peter Radgen
Edgar Blaustein

<Paolo.fhg. <Christiane.de> Christiane Schmid.1031/Z/98-266. Project co-ordinator Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie 27 rue Louis Vicat 75015 Paris.chretien@ademe. While the many members of the association who participated are too numerous to list.it> Roberto Carapellucci. Project Officer: Paolo Bertoldi. Harry Craig and Desmond Wall.DG17.cec. project XVII/4.fr> Anne Rialhe.be> Study team participants ADEME.fr> Fraunhofer ISI Fraunhofer Institute Systems and Innovation Research Breslauer Strasse 48 76139 Karlsruhe.de> DoE Department of Energetics – University of L'Aquila Località Monteluco di Roio 67040 L'Aquila.BERTOLDI@BXL.fhg. France Bruno Chrétien. Savings Potential and Policy Actions Final Report. Emissions.univaq.rialhe@voila.nl> Industry representatives The study team would like to thank Pneurop (the European association of manufacturers and distributors of compressed air equipment) for their participation in the study.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union Energy. October 2000 The project was carried out with support from the European Commission. <bruno.Schmid@isi. we would like to make particular mention of the participation of Henri Ysewijn (President of Pneurop). <robcip@ing. <edgar. Netherlands Gerard Hurink.blaustein@wanadoo. <robcar@ing. Guy Van Doorslaer (SG of Pneurop).Radgen@isi. <ece_international_vof@hetnet. Germany Peter Radgen. . under the SAVE Programme.univaq.fr> Edgar Blaustein. <Peter. <a.it> ECE ECE International VOF De Spinhoek 8 7772 PX Hardenberg. Italy Roberto Cipollone.

........ 44 3...........................1 Aim of Model Development ............................................................................................ 46 3................................................................................................ Model Energy Consumption and Growth........ 15 Samenvatting......... Characterisation of Compressed Air Systems in the EU................................... 28 1.........4 Use of Sophisticated Control Systems ........3 Improvement of Compressor Technology .......... 43 3.............................. 27 1.........................................................................................................3....................................... 25 1................................................................5 Recuperating Waste Heat ............................................................3 1.................2 Description of the Model......................................................... 45 3..2 Optimal Choice of the Type of Compressor .................................. 37 2........................1 Data Collection Methods ..................................................... 38 3........................................................................................... 31 CAS Users .......................... 37 2.8 Optimising End Use Devices... 46 3.................... 1 Zusammenfassung.............................................................................................................6 Improved Air Treatment .............. 11 Rapporto Conclusivo ....2 Numeric Data .............................................. 32 Compressed Air Service Providers ................ 48 ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE ............................................... Technical and Economic Energy Savings Potential ...........I Compressed Air Systems in the European Union Table of Contents Executive Summary .................3........................................................... the Data Used................. 37 2......1 1.. 47 3................................... 33 2........ and the Results ...1 Improvement of Drives ........ 46 3..............................3 The Simplified Model.................... 5 Résumée ..... 19 Introduction ............... 47 3...............................................7 Overall System Design................. 27 1........................2 Qualitative Data on CAS Decision Processes .........

.....1.. 63 5.............10 6............2 Manufacturers of Compressors and CAS Equipment ..................... 55 4........................4 6..........................................3 Electric Utilities .......................................................... 71 5....................................................2 Classification of Actions and Development of a Concerted Programme ............1........10 Reducing Air Leaks ... 90 Voluntary Agreements ...............9 6.............................................5 6................4 Engineering Consultants and Compressed Air Suppliers ..2 Outsourcing of the Compressed Air Function ................... Organisational Aspects of Energy Savings ..1.... 108 ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE ................................................ 50 4...........................5 Environmental Impact ................2 6..1... 81 6.............Compressed Air Systems in the European Union II 3......1 6.................................. 61 5.................................................................................1 CAS Final Users ................ 77 6............................................................... 98 Economic and Regulatory Actions..........11 Measuring and Tracking System Performance.. 55 4.................1..........................1 6...... and Education ............................ 95 Development of Guidelines for Outsourcing .............................. 49 3...... 88 Labelling and Certification .................. 84 Dissemination of Information.............................. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems .............. 82 Advertising Campaign... 83 Measuring Campaign............. 99 Other Possible Actions ...............1 Organisational Barriers to Improving CAS Energy Efficiency ...11 Actions............................... 49 3.......1.........................9 Reducing Frictional Pressure Losses in Networks..... 56 4.........1.........3 Proposition to the Commission on How to Act..........1...............................3 Analytical Accounting Methods.........................................8 6....................1..................................... Analysis of Impacts.... 57 5......... 103 6.........3 6........................1. 84 Contests and Awards..................... 86 Life Cycle Costing...................................................... Training............6 6....... 73 5............................................................................1...................... 48 3........... 102 6........ 82 Technology Demonstration....12 Synthesis of Technical Measures .....................................7 6.............................. 76 5........................................................

..............III Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 7......................... 113 7................................................................................... 121 APPENDIX 2: Market Characterisation: Numeric Data ..... Evaluation of the Impact of Measures....................... 113 7................................................................................................ 119 APPENDIX 1: Market Characterisation: Qualitative Data .................................................. 131 APPENDIX 4: Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Users......................2 Future Energy Consumption of CAS .. 145 APPENDIX 5: Qualitative Data Collection Guide for Equipment Manufacturers ...............................1 The Energy Scenarios............................. 157 ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE ........... 114 Bibliography ............................................. 127 APPENDIX 3: ADEME Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Outsourcing...............................

....... 49 Figure 7: Major energy savings measures .................................................Compressed Air Systems in the European Union IV List of Figures Figure 1: CAS electricity consumption ............. 116 Figure 19: CAS electricity consumption by country... 89 Figure 11: LCC of a compressor with variation of electricity prices............................................................................... US and Japan in 1996 .................................... 41 Figure 4: Process chain for CAS................................. 107 Figure 13: Evaluation matrix for proposed actions (costs and covered potential) ............................ ARP scenario ...................... 108 Figure 14: Evaluation matrix for proposed actions (Implementation time and costs) ....... 116 Figure 18: CAS electricity consumption by country....................................................................................................................... 53 Figure 8: Industry Electricity Factor for EU countries........................................ ERP scenario ................ 45 Figure 6: An example of a CA network .................................................................................................................. 29 Figure 2: Number of air compressors by power range .............. 117 ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .... 30 Figure 3: Number of new and upgraded CAS until 2015......... 115 Figure 17: CAS electricity consumption by country.................................... 66 Figure 10: LCC for two different sizes of compressors............................................................ indicating the significance of energy consumption .......................... 110 Figure 16: CAS electricity consumption according to scenario .............................................. 65 Figure 9: Electricity Consumption for EU countries in 1996 ...... 43 Figure 5: Major families of compressors ................................... 90 Figure 12: Evaluation matrix for proposed actions (covered potential and implementation time)..... BAU scenario ...... 109 Figure 15: Construction of the Awareness Raising Programme (ARP)..........................

............................. 74 Table 22: Reduction of energy sales for electric utilities due to the actions globally considered (medium price scenario) ..................................... 29 Table 2: Number of air compressors installed .................. 39 Table 4: Electricity consumption for CAS in 1999........ 58 Table 9: Energy savings measures .......................... 73 Table 21: Reduction of energy sales for electric utilities due to each of the proposed actions (medium price scenario)........................................................................................................................... 30 Table 3: Number of air compressors installed in 1999 ........ 70 Table 17: Payback Time......V Compressed Air Systems in the European Union List of Tables Table 1: Electricity consumption in compressed air systems ........................................ 64 Table 12: Energy Savings and CAS Energy Savings Ratio for each proposed measure ....................... 68 Table 15: Reduction of operating costs for each proposed measure ................................... 75 ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE ...................................................... 52 Table 8: Types of measuring systems.................................................................................. 51 Table 7: Energy savings measures ....... 70 Table 16: Increment of Investment costs for each proposed measure ... 63 Table 11: Market Penetration Factor and Efficiency Gain Factor ................................................................................................ moderate ARP scenario............. 39 Table 5: Growth rates for CAS in the EU...................................... 72 Table 20: Estimated annual sales of new / upgraded components ....................... 74 Table 24: Global Energy Savings Ratio for each proposed measure .................................. 68 Table 14: Reduction of energy costs for the actions globally considered............... 71 Table 18: Payback Time.......... full realisation of techno-economic potential ..................................... 61 Table 10: Some acronyms for energetic and economic parameters .................................................................................... 74 Table 23: Fuel savings ......................... 71 Table 19: Number of company-level measures for each proposed energy savings measure ........................ 67 Table 13: Energy Savings and CAS Energy Savings Ratio for the actions globally considered ............................... 40 Table 6: Compressed air system life cycle ...................................

.......... 79 Table 29: Energy savings and CO2 emission reduction for each of the proposed actions ............. 111 Table 35: Total CAS electricity consumption in TWh..................................................................... 104 Table 32: Affected components of proposed actions ...... 80 Table 31: Target groups of proposed actions .............................................. 80 Table 30: Energy savings and CO2 emission reduction in the moderate scenario .................................................................................................. 106 Table 34: Actions and action levels ......................................................... 114 ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE ................................... 76 Table 27: Electricity production in 1997 for various countries................................. 75 Table 26: Energy and Fuel Savings for the moderate scenario ......Compressed Air Systems in the European Union VI Table 25: Global Energy Savings Ratio for the action globally considered .... 104 Table 33: Estimate of gained energy savings by the two programmes.......................................................... per country ................................................................. 78 Table 28: Specific CO2 emissions...........

The study "Compressed Air Systems in the European Union" has developed recommendations for actions that could bring about market transformation. They operate on the average 3500 hours per year. or over 80 TWh per year in the European Union. The economically and technically feasible energy savings amount to 32.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 1 Executive Summary Executive Summary Introduction Using compressed air in the industrial and service sectors is a common practice. Nonetheless. The most important energy savings measures are: • • reducing air leaks better system design ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . technical energy savings measures Compressors are relatively long lived capital goods. with 1 % to 2 % growth in Italy. handling and use are safe and easy. All the technical measures examined are cost effective (payback time of less than 36 months) in some applications. and 0 % growth in the other European countries. Market characterisation. The current stock of compressors is as follows. Performance of CAS depends on the performance of each element. achievable over a 15 year period. with an average lifetime of 13 years for compressors between 10 and 90 kW.9 %. in order to realise this potential for energy and cost savings. A large technical and economic potential for energy savings is not being realised under current market and decision mechanisms. the energy efficiency of many compressed air systems is low: case studies show that savings in the range from 5 to 50 % are possible. but even more on overall system design and operation. since production. Compressed air accounts for as much as 10 % of industrial consumption of electricity. Country Total France 43 765 28 885 14 880 Germany 62 000 43 400 18 600 Greece + Spain + Portugal 35 660 25 685 9 976 Italy 43 800 30 660 13 140 United Kingdom 55 000 46 750 8 250 Rest of the EU 81 040 56 015 25 024 321 265 231 395 89 870 Total 10-110 kW 110-300 kW The market for compressed air systems (CAS) is stable in Europe. and 16 years between 90 and 300 kW. Greece and Spain.

can be introduced at any moment in the life cycle of a CAS. Furthermore.5 % Overall system design. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .Executive Summary • • Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 2 use of adjustable speed drives (ASD) recovery of waste heat.8 % Upgrading of compressor 30 % 7% 2. better performing equipment. • manufacturers of CAS equipment could benefit from expansion of the market for higher quality. • engineering consultants and compressed air suppliers could benefit from expanded opportunities to counsel users on energy efficiency. drying and filtering 10 % 5% 0. in order to benefit from reduced energy costs. HEM) 25 % 2% 0.4 % Recovering waste heat for use in other functions 20 % 20 % 4.8 % TOTAL 32. Nevertheless.0 % More frequent filter replacement 40 % 2% 0.5 % Reducing frictional pressure losses 50 % 3% 1.9 % System operation and maintenance Table legend: (1) % of CAS where this measure is applicable and cost effective (2) % reduction in annual energy consumption (3) Potential contribution = Applicability * Reduction Energy savings can best be achieved at the time when a new system is built from scratch. much can be done at the time of replacement of major components of an existing system.5 % Improvement of drives: (Adjustable speed drives. The following table resumes the potential contribution to energy savings of the technical measures examined. including multipressure systems 50 % 9% 4.1 % Use of sophisticated control systems 20 % 12 % 2.0 % Improved cooling. and would have to adjust their product line accordingly. • electric utilities would have slightly decreased sales. in particular regular filter maintenance and air leak detection.5 % Optimising certain end use devices 5% 40 % 2. ASD) 25 % 15 % 3. Energy savings measure % applicability (1) % gains (2) potential contribution (3) System installation or renewal Improvement of drives (high efficiency motors. Market transformation for greater energy efficiency would impact different actors: • users of CAS would have to increase capital investments and maintenance costs. actions which are related to maintenance and operations.0 % Reducing air leaks 80 % 20 % 16.

• Complex management structure. Measures to optimise the cost of equipment purchases. • Voluntary Agreements with manufacturers and with users. on a low priority item such as electricity consumption. Electricity consumption in general is usually treated as a general overhead item in company analytical accounting schemes: reducing this cost item is often not the responsibility of any particular manager. and aimed at organisational change. It is difficult to get high level management agreement. Purchasing. • Technology Demonstration. The study evaluates the following actions. rarely take into account electricity consumption. Top management. for reasons which are essentially organisational: • No compressed air cost accounting. new tube connections for reducing losses. such as competitive bidding procedures. the solutions must be user oriented. • Dissemination of information. • Contests and awards for superior system design. to raise awareness of CAS energy consumption. new concepts for air drying. training and education on CAS energy savings • Life Cycle Costing. cutting across departmental responsibilities.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 3 Executive Summary While the technical measures needed for increased energy efficiency are considered to be more profitable than many other industrial investments. since it is most often a relatively small cost item for any company. CAS electricity consumption is "invisible" to top management. The objective must be to convince high level management to make the decisions necessary to carry out energy efficiency programmes. • Labelling and Certification of both system components and entire systems. for innovative concepts such as gas turbine driven compressors. Actions to promote energy efficient compressed air systems Since the barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency measures stem essentially from organisational factors in CAS user companies. • Advertising campaign. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Maintenance. these measures are not carried out by private enterprises. Responsibility for potential optimisation measures is largely diffused among several management functions: Production. • Lack of awareness of possible savings. is not aware of possible energy savings. which can demonstrate that environmentally optimal decisions are also economically optimal. gas expansion driven compressors. or automatic leak detection systems. responsible for purchasing policy and investment decisions. Finance. • Measuring campaign to give CAS users an idea of their savings potential. • Development of guidelines to improve contracts for outsourcing CAS services.

the programmes would have to meet the following conditions: • optimal co-ordination between EU and member state action. integrated into a "Motor Driven Systems Challenge" programme.) In the view of the study team. particularly for upstream aid in decision making and for audits. • sufficient financial resources. (similar to the existing EU GreenLights programme) includes the information and decision aid measures. • The Awareness Raising Programme (ARP). including in particular the three key actions: advertising campaign. • sufficient human resources. in order to favour participation of the private sector. information and training. It is estimated that such a programme could incite the saving of 11 TWh/year by 2015. This programme would work best in the context of co-ordinated efforts between national and European actions. could. stimulate savings of 24. • The Economic and Regulatory Programme (ERP) (including subsidies. and regulatory measures). in combination with the ARP. which nevertheless could be achieved over a 15 year period. Proposition to the Commission on how to act The study proposes that the Commission implement all or part of the "Awareness Raising Programme".5 % of current CAS electricity consumption. these levels of savings constitute very ambitious targets.Executive Summary 4 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union • Taxes on energy or on carbon emissions.7 %. • strong commitment from business leaders and organisations. To be successful. • Regulations to impose standards for system design and operation. taxes. • Subsidies. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Recommended actions have been grouped into 2 programmes. (Note that the study team believes that the ERP would be ineffective without the ARP. and could stimulate the saving of 16. • high level political support. equivalent to over 5 million tons of CO2. measuring campaign.

Ein großes technisches und wirtschaftliches Energieeinsparpotenzial wird unter aktuellen Markt. bei deren Umsetzung die bestehenden Hemmnisse abgebaut und überwunden werden können. Griechenland und Spanien und einer Stagnation der Bestandszahlen (0 % Wachstum) in den übrigen EU-Ländern. 13 Jahren für Kompressoren zwischen 10 und 90 kW bzw. mit 1 bis 2 % Wachstum in Italien. Marktanalyse und technische Energieeinsparmaßnahmen Kompressoren sind relativ langlebige Investitionsgüter mit einer durchschnittlichen Lebensdauer von ca.und Entscheidungsmechanismen nicht realisiert.und Dienstleistungsbranchen ist verbreitet. die im Laufe ei- ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . dass Einsparungen im Bereich zwischen 5 und 50 % möglich sind. In der folgenden Tabelle ist die Gesamtzahl der Kompressoren nach Ländern und Größenklassen zusammengefasst: Land Summe 10-110 kW 110-300 kW Frankreich 43 765 28 885 14 880 Deutschland 62 000 43 400 18 600 Griechenland + Spanien + Portugal 35 660 25 685 9 976 Italien 43 800 30 660 13 140 Großbritannien 55 000 46 750 8 250 Übrige Länder der EU 81 040 56 015 25 024 321 265 231 395 89 870 Summe Der Markt für Druckluftanlagen ist europaweit stabil. Nach den Auswertungen der Arbeitsgruppe sind derzeit in der Europäischen Union ca. Die wirtschaftlich und technisch umsetzbaren Energieeinsparungen belaufen sich auf mehr als 30 %. 10 % des industriellen Stromverbrauchs oder über 80 TWh pro Jahr. damit dieses Potenzial für Energieund Kosteneinsparungen in Druckluftanlagen realisiert werden kann. Umgang und Nutzung sicher und einfach sind. Trotz dieses hohen Energieverbrauchs ist die Energieeffizienz vieler Druckluftanlagen (DLA) niedrig: Fallstudien zeigen. Im Rahmen der vorgelegten Studie wurden Handlungsempfehlungen erarbeitet. Die Gesamteffizienz einer Druckluftanlage hängt sowohl von der Effizienz der einzelnen Komponenten der Anlage aber auch von der Auslegung des Gesamtanlage und dessen Betrieb ab. 321 265 Kompressoren im Einsatz.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 5 Zusammenfassung Zusammenfassung Einleitung Der Einsatz von Druckluft in den Industrie. 16 Jahren für Kompressoren zwischen 90 und 300 kW. Sie sind im Durchschnitt 3 500 Stunden pro Jahr in Betrieb. Auf die Drucklufterzeugung entfallen in der Europäischen Union ca. da Erzeugung.

wenn Hauptkomponenten einer bestehenden Anlage ersetzt werden. Darüber hinaus können Maßnahmen. in denen diese Maßnahme anwendbar und rentabel ist (2) % Energieeinsparung des jährlichen Energieverbrauchs (3) Einsparpotenzial = Anwendbarkeit * Effizienzgewinn Energieeinsparungen lassen sich am effizientesten und kostengünstigsten bei der Installation einer neuen Druckluftanlage realisieren. insbesondere die regelmäßige Filterwartung und das Aufspüren und Beseitigen von Leckageverlusten. Mehrdruckanlagen 50 % 9% 4.0 % Verbesserte Druckluftaufbereitung (Kühlung. Die nachfolgende Tabelle fasst das Energieeinsparpotenzial der untersuchten technischen Maßnahmen zusammen. die mit der Instandhaltung und dem Betrieb der Druckluftanlage in Verbindung stehen.0 % Verminderung der Leckageverluste 80 % 20 % 16.0 % Häufigerer Filterwechsel 40 % 2% 0.4 % Wärmerückgewinnung für Nutzung in anderen Anwendungen 20 % 20 % 4.5 % Gesamtanlagenauslegung inkl.5 % Verbesserte Antriebe (drehzahlvariable Antriebe. ASD) 25 % 15 % 3.5 % 5% 40 % 2. Die wichtigsten Energieeinsparmaßnahmen sind: • • • • Verminderung von Leckageverlusten verbesserte Anlagenauslegung Einsatz von drehzahlvariablen Antrieben Wärmerückgewinnung.8 % SUMME 32. zu jedem Zeitpunkt während der Lebensdauer einer Druckluftanlage durchgeführt werden. Große Energieeinsparungen lassen sich jedoch auch realisieren. Trocknung und Filterung) 10 % 5% 0. % Anwendbarkeit (1) % Effizienzgewinn (2) Gesamtpotenzial (3) Verbesserte Antriebe (hocheffiziente Motoren.1 % Einsatz effizienter und übergeordneter Steuerungen 20 % 12 % 2. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .Zusammenfassung Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 6 ner Zeitspanne von 15 Jahren erzielbar sind. HEM) 25 % 2% 0.9 % Energieeinsparmaßnahme Neuanlagen oder Ersatzinvestitionen Optimierung von Druckluftgeräten Anlagenbetrieb und Instandhaltung Legende: (1) % DLA.8 % Technische Optimierung des Kompressors 30 % 7% 2.5 % Verminderung der Druckverluste im Verteilsystem 50 % 3% 1. Alle untersuchten technischen Maßnahmen sind in vielen Anwendungsfällen rentabel (Amortisationszeit von unter 3 Jahren).

mit denen die Kosten von Gerätebeschaffungen optimiert werden sollen. Obwohl die zur Steigerung der Energieeffizienz in Druckluftanlagen notwendigen technischen Maßnahmen profitabler als viele andere Investitionen in der Industrie sind. B. Technische Leiter) zu überzeugen. Das Ziel ist es. Es ist schwierig. fehlt das Bewusstsein für mögliche Energieeinsparungen. der quer über Abteilungskompetenzen reicht. • Hersteller von Druckluftanlagen könnten aus einer Ausweitung des Markts für hochwertige. Diese lassen sich im Wesentlichen in drei Problemgruppen zusammenfassen: • Es gibt keine Kostenstelle für die Drucklufterzeugung und -nutzung. Beschaffung. werden diese aus organisatorischen Gründen häufig nicht von Unternehmen umgesetzt.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 7 Zusammenfassung Eine verstärkte Umsetzung von Maßnahmen zur Steigerung der Energieeffizienz auf Grund der Marktbeeinflussung durch politische Maßnahmen hätte Auswirkungen auf verschiedene Akteure: • Druckluftanwender müssten gestiegene Kapitalinvestitionen und Wartungskosten in Kauf nehmen. auf dieser Managementebene über Posten mit niedriger Priorität wie den Stromverbrauch einen Konsens zu erreichen. Im Rahmen der vor- ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Berater und Contractoren im Bereich Druckluft könnten von den erweiterten Möglichkeiten profitieren. Anwender über Energieeffizienzaspekte zu beraten. • Mangelndes Bewusstsein möglicher Einsparungen. um von reduzierten Energiekosten zu profitieren. Ausschreibungen. Wartung. da es sich in vielen Fällen um relativ kleine Beträge handelt. Finanzierung. das Management (Geschäftführer. Die Verantwortung für die Senkung dieser Kosten gehört meistens nicht zu dem Verantwortungsbereich eines einzelnen Managers. müssen sich die möglichen Maßnahmen an Anwendern orientieren und auf Organisationsveränderungen abzielen. Der obersten Geschäftsleitung. berücksichtigen den Stromverbrauch nur selten. leistungsfähige Geräte Nutzen ziehen und müssten ihr Produktangebot entsprechend modifizieren und optimieren. Der Stromverbrauch zur Drucklufterzeugung bleibt der Geschäftsführung "unsichtbar". • Komplexe Managementstruktur. die für die Beschaffungspolitik und Investitionsentscheidungen verantwortlich ist. Der Stromverbrauch zur Drucklufterzeugung wird in der Regel als Bestandteil der Gemeinkosten verbucht. • der Stromabsatz der Energieversorger würde leicht sinken. z. die notwendigen Entscheidungen für die Durchführung von Energieeffizienzprogrammen zu treffen. Maßnahmen zur Förderung energieeffizienter Druckluftanlagen Da die Hemmnisse zur Umsetzung energieeffizienter Maßnahmen im Grunde auf organisatorische Faktoren bei den Druckluftanwendern zurückgehen. Die Verantwortlichkeit für mögliche Optimierungsmaßnahmen ist meistens auf mehrere Managementfunktionen verteilt: Herstellung. Maßnahmen. • Ingenieurbüros.

• Steuern auf Energie oder CO2. B. • Lebenszykluskosten. durch Erdgasexpansionsanlagen angetriebene Kompressoren oder eine automatisierte Leckageerkennung. um Nutzern von Druckluftanlagen ein besseres Verständnis des qualitativen und quantitativen Einsparpotenzials ihrer Druckluftanlagen zu vermitteln.7 % initiieren. (Dabei ist zu beachten. in Anlehnung an das bestehenden EU-GreenLights-Programm) umfasst die Maßnahmen im Bereich Information und Entscheidungsunterstützung und könnte Einsparungen bis zu 16. • Subventionen. dass optimierte umweltgerechte Entscheidungen auch wirtschaftlich optimal sind. um Outsourcingverträge für Druckluftdienstleistungen zu verbessern. • Wettbewerbe und Preise. • Vorschriften und Normung für Systemauslegung und -betrieb. wie z. die aufzeigen. das jedoch ohne weiteres über einen ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Subventionen und Steuern) könnte zusammen mit dem ARP Einsparungen bis zu 24. • freiwillige Selbstverpflichtungen zwischen Herstellern und Anwendern.) Nach Auffassung der Projektbearbeiter. neue Rohrverbindungstechniken. neue Konzepte der Druckluftaufbereitung. • Das "Economic and Regulatory Programme (ERP)" (Maßnahmen-Programm für Wirtschaftlichkeit.und Pilotvorhaben mit innovativen Konzepten.und Weiterbildung im Hinblick auf Energieeinsparungen bei Druckluftanlagen. • Das "Awareness Raising Programme (ARP)" (Aufmerksamkeits-Programm. dass das Projektteam das ERP ohne die gleichzeitige Umsetzung des ARP für unwirksam hält.5 % des derzeitigen Stromverbrauchs in Druckluftanlagen aktivieren.Zusammenfassung 8 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union liegenden Studie wurden die folgenden möglichen Maßnahmenvorschläge erarbeitet und bewertet. stellt die Umsetzung dieser Einsparpotenziale ein sehr ehrgeiziges Ziel dar. Die einzelnen Maßnahmen wurden als Handlungsempfehlung in zwei sich ergänzende Programme zusammengefasst. Aus-. • Informationskampagnen. Fort. • Messkampagne. • Werbekampagne zur Steigerung des Bewusstseins für den Stromverbrauch in Druckluftanlagen. durch Gasturbinen angetriebene Kompressoren. • Erstellung von Leitfäden. • Kennzeichnung und Zertifizierung sowohl von Anlagenkomponenten als auch von Gesamtanlagen. Motivation zu einer optimierten Anlagenauslegung. • Demonstrations. um Leckageverluste zu reduzieren. Vorschriften. besonders zur Unterstützung bei der Auswahl und Konzeption von Anlagen und für Audits.

Für einen Erfolg der zu ergreifenden Maßnahmen ist dabei sicherzustellen. Dieses Programm würde am sinnvollsten im Zusammenspiel von aufeinander abgestimmten Maßnahmen auf nationaler und europäischer Ebene funktionieren. z. • ausreichendes Personal. • hochrangige politische Unterstützung und Förderung. B. Eine überschlägige Ermittlung ergab. • großes Engagement von Wirtschaftsunternehmen und Fachorganisationen. • ausreichende und langfristige Finanzierung. Dabei sollten mindestens die drei Hauptaktionen Werbekampagne. Information und Ausbildung sowie die Messkampagne umgesetzt werden. um eine breite Akzeptanz in der Öffentlichkeit zu erzielen. integriert in ein Programm zur Verbesserung der Energieeffizienz bei Einsatz und Anwendung von Elektromotoren (Motor Challenge Programme). ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 9 Zusammenfassung Zeitraum von 15 Jahren erreicht werden kann. dass die Kommission das vollständige "Awareness Raising Programme" oder Teile davon durchführt. das die Programme den folgenden Rahmenbedingungen gerecht werden: • optimale Abstimmung zwischen der EU und den Maßnahmen einzelner Mitgliedsstaaten. dass ein solches Programm Einsparungen von 11 TWh/Jahr (oder mehr als 5 Millionen Tonnen CO2) bis 2015 initiieren könnte. Handlungsvorschlag für die Europäische Kommission Die Studie schlägt vor.

.

mais plus particulièrement de sa conception générale et de son mode d’exploitation. économiquement et techniquement intéressant. L’air comprimé représente 10 % de la consommation d’électricité de l’industrie. soit plus de 80 TWh pour l’Union Européenne. avec une croissance de 1 à 2 % en Italie. une croissance nulle dans les autres pays européens. Les mesures les plus importantes sont : • La réduction des fuites • Une meilleure conception du système ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Les conditions actuelles du marché et des mécanismes de décision ne permettent pas la mise en œuvre de cet important potentiel d’économies d’énergie. mesures techniques d’économie d’énergie Les compresseurs ont des durées de vie relativement longues. Le potentiel d’économies d’énergie. est estimé à 32. Caractérisation du marché. 16 ans pour les compresseurs de puissance de 90 à 300 kW. Mais le rendement énergétique de nombreux systèmes à air comprimé est faible : les études de cas mettent en évidence des économies d’énergie possibles de 5 à 50 %. Le parc installé par pays est indiqué ci-dessous. Toutes les mesures techniques examinées sont rentables économiquement (temps de retour de moins de 36 mois). au moins pour certaines applications. réalisable en 15 ans. Pays Total France 43 765 28 885 14 880 Allemagne 62 000 43 400 18 600 Grèce + Espagne + Portugal 35 660 25 685 9 976 Italie 43 800 30 660 13 140 Grande-Bretagne 55 000 46 750 8 250 Autres pays de l’Union européenne 81 040 56 015 25 024 321 265 231 395 89 870 Total 10-110 kW 110-300 kW Le marché pour les systèmes à air comprimé (SAC) est stable en Europe. sa production et son usage étant faciles et sans danger. Grèce et Espagne. L’étude "Transformation du marché des systèmes à air comprimé" propose des actions pour transformer le marché et réaliser le potentiel d’économies d’énergie (et de dépenses) identifié. Ils sont utilisés en moyenne 3500 heures par an. La performance d’un système dépend de chaque élément. en moyenne 13 ans pour les compresseurs de puissance comprise entre 10 et 90 kW.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 11 Résumée Résumée Introduction L’utilisation de l’air comprimé dans l’industrie et le tertiaire est courant.9 %.

5 % Conception générale. mais aussi lors du remplacement des principaux composants d’un système existant. séchage et filtrage 10 % 5% 0.0 % Remplacement plus fréquent des filtres 40 % 2% 0. en particulier la maintenance régulière des filtres et la détection des fuites.8 % TOTAL 32. De plus.• • Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 12 Résumée L’utilisation de moteurs à vitesse adaptable La récupération de chaleur.0 % Amélioration du système de refroidissement.0 % Réduction des fuites d’air 80 % 20 % 16. de meilleure qualité. les mesures relatives à la maintenance et à l’utilisation.5 % Amélioration des moteurs (moteurs à vitesse variable) 25 % 15 % 3. Mesures d’économie d’énergie % application (1) % gains (2) contribution potentielle (3) Installation ou remise à neuf du système Amélioration des moteurs (moteurs à haut rendement) 25 % 2% 0. Le tableau suivant résume la contribution potentielle aux économies d’énergie des mesures techniques analysées. Les mécanismes de transformation du marché pour une meilleure efficacité énergétique nécessitent l’implication de différents acteurs : • Les utilisateurs des systèmes à air comprimé devront augmenter leur investissement (capital et maintenance).8 % Amélioration du compresseur 30 % 7% 2.5 % Réduction des pertes de pression par friction 50 % 3% 1. pour limiter les dépenses dues à l’énergie. peuvent être introduites n’importe quand dans la vie du système à air comprimé.5 % 5% 40 % 2.4 % Récupération de la chaleur pour d’autres usages 20 % 20 % 4. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .1 % Utilisation de systèmes de contrôle précis 20 % 12 % 2. • Les constructeurs pourront bénéficier d’une ouverture du marché pour des équipements plus performants.9 % Optimisation des appareils consommant l'air comprimé Exploitation et maintenance Légende: (1) % des systèmes où la mesure est applicable et rentable (2) % réduction de la consommation d’énergie annuelle (3) Contribution potentielle = Application * Réduction Les économies d’énergie sont mises en œuvre plus aisément lors de l’installation du système. systèmes multipression 50 % 9% 4. ils devront ajuster leur ligne de production selon la demande.

• Le manque d’information sur les économies possibles. pour des concepts innovants tels que de nouvelles connections des tubes pour réduire les pertes. son coût étant le plus souvent relativement bas. La consommation d’électricité est le plus souvent incluse dans les frais généraux : réduire ce coût n’est du ressort précis d’aucun responsable. La consommation d’électricité des compresseurs est "invisible" pour la direction.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 13 Résumée Les compagnies électriques auront une légère baisse des ventes. • La complexité des structures de gestion. • Les bureaux d’ingénierie et les fournisseurs d’air comprimé pourront bénéficier d’opportunité pour conseiller les utilisateurs sur l’efficacité énergétique. à l’intérieur des entreprises utilisatrices d’air comprimé. Les mesures pour optimiser le coût des achats d’équipements prennent rarement en compte la consommation électrique. • Compagnes de mesures pour que les utilisateurs d’air comprimé aient une idée de leurs potentiels d’économie. pour sensibiliser aux consommations d’énergie de l’air comprimé. comptabilité. Actions pour diffuser des systèmes à air comprimé performants Les obstacles à la mise en œuvre de mesures d’économie d’énergie étant essentiellement dus à des facteurs organisationnels. formation. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Il est difficile d’obtenir l’accord de la direction. • Bien que les mesures techniques pour améliorer l’efficacité énergétique soient plus rentables que beaucoup d’autres investissements industriels. pour une question aussi peu prioritaire que la consommation électrique. qui peut montrer l’intérêt économique d’une solution intéressante environnementalement. La responsabilité des prises de décision est répartie entre plusieurs gestionnaires : production. • Diffusion de l’information. Notre étude a évalué les actions suivantes. pour le séchage de l’air ou la détection automatique des pertes. sur les économies possibles des systèmes à air comprimé. La direction. L’objectif est de convaincre la direction de mettre en œuvre les programmes nécessaires pour économiser l’énergie. • Etiquetage et certification à la fois des composants et du système luimême. achat. • Concours et primes pour la conception des systèmes. transversale sur plusieurs services. • Analyse en coût global. pour des questions essentiellement d’organisation : • L’absence de comptage du coût de l’air comprimé. • Campagnes d’information. ces mesures ne sont pas mises en œuvre par les entreprises privées. • Démonstration technologique. n’est pas au courant des possibilités d’économie d’énergie. les solutions doivent toucher ces entreprises et les amener à modifier leur organisation. responsable des politiques d’achat et des décisions d’investissement. maintenance.

Les actions recommandées sont regroupées dans deux programmes. • allocation de ressources financières suffisantes. • Un programme économique et réglementaire (Economic and Regulatory Programme (ERP)) (incluant subventions. (similaire au programme européen GreenLights) qui comprend les mesures d’information et d’aides à la décision. intégrées au sein d’un programme plus général (le "Motor Driven Systems Challenge" programme). (Il faut noter que les réalisateurs du projet ne croit pas à l’efficacité du deuxième programme mis en œuvre sans le premier. • allocation de ressources humaines suffisantes. • Un programme d’information (Awareness Raising Programme (ARP)). ces niveaux d’économie d’énergie constituent des objectifs très ambitieux. équivalentes à plus de 5 millions de tonnes de CO2. • engagement financier réel des chefs d’entreprises et des organisations professionnelles. Pour ce faire. pour favoriser la participation du secteur privé. Subventions. Développement de contracts-types pour l’externalisation de la fourniture d’air comprimé.14 Résumée • • • • • Compressed Air Systems in the European Union Accords volontaires entre les constructeurs et les utilisateurs. la formation. les conditions suivantes devraient être respectées : • coordination des actions entre l’Union européenne et les états membres. qui en combinaison avec le programme d’information permettrait 24. taxes et mesures réglementaires). Proposition pour la Commission L’étude propose que la Commission mette en œuvre tout ou partie du programme d’information.) Selon le point de vue de l’équipe ayant réalisé le projet. mais qui peuvent être atteints sur une période de 15 ans. Taxes sur l’énergie consommée ou les émissions de carbone.7 % d’économie.5 % de la consommation actuelle d’électricité des systèmes à air comprimé. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . et peut permettre une économie de 16. les campagnes de mesures. avec en particulier trois actions clés : la campagne d’information. Les économies suscitées par un tel programme sont estimées à 11 TWh/an en 2015. Ce programme se développerait plus favorablement dans le cadre d’une coordination des efforts entre les actions nationales et européennes. • support politique appuyé. Réglementations pour la conception et l’utilisation des systèmes. particulièrement pour les prises de décisions amont et les audits.

con crescite dall’1 al 2 % in Italia. Paese Totale Francia 43 765 28 885 14 880 Germania 62 000 43 400 18 600 Grecia + Spagna + Portogallo 35 660 25 685 9 976 Italia 43 800 30 660 13 140 Regno Unito 55 000 46 750 8 250 Resto dell’UE 81 040 56 015 25 024 321 265 231 395 89 870 Totale 10-110 kW 110-300 kW Il mercato degli impianti di aria compressa (CAS) è stabile in Europa. Tutti i provvedimenti tecnici esaminati sono economicamente convenienti (tempi di ritorno inferiori a 36 mesi) in ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Ciononostante.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 15 Rapporto Conclusivo Rapporto Conclusivo Introduzione L’uso dell’aria compressa nel settore industriale e dei servizi è pratica comune. Lo "Studio sulla trasformazione del mercato dei Sistemi di Aria Compressa" sviluppa alcune raccomandazioni su possibili interventi che potrebbero dar luogo a reali modificazioni del mercato. così da concretizzare il suddetto potenziale di risparmio energetico ed economico. e 16 anni fra 90 e 300 kW. ottenibile su uno scenario temporale di 15 anni. l’efficienza energetica della maggior parte degli impianti di aria compressa è piuttosto bassa: l’analisi di casi reali mostra che sono possibili risparmi di entità che può variare fra il 5 e il 50 %. in media 13 anni per compressori fra 10 e 90 kW. gestione ed utilizzo. Esiste un significativo potenziale tecnico ed economico di risparmio energetico che normalmente sfugge alla percezione nell’ambito dei correnti processi decisionali e di mercato. ma ancor più dipendono dal progetto e dall’esercizio dell’impianto nel suo complesso. Grecia e Spagna. L’attuale parco dei compressori è ripartito come segue. Un compressore opera in media 3500 ore annue. pari a oltre 80 TWh annui nella Unione Europea. data la semplicità e la sicurezza della sua produzione. Caratterizzazione del Mercato e interventi tecnici di risparmio energetico I compressori d’aria sono beni d’investimento con durate relativamente lunghe. L’aria compressa costituisce sino al 10 % del consumo industriale di elettricità. Le prestazioni di un impianto di aria compressa dipendono da quelle dei suoi singoli elementi.9 %. e crescite nulle negli altri paesi. Gli interventi di risparmio energetico ritenuti fattibili dal punto di vista tecnico ed economico ammontano al 32.

1 % Uso di sistemi di controllo sofisticati 20 % 12 % 2. essiccazione e filtraggio 10 % 5% 0. Inoltre. Nondimeno.5 % Riduzione perdite per attrito 50 % 3% 1.0 % Miglioramento del raffreddamento.8 % TOTALE 32.5 % Progetto complessivo dell’impianto (multi livello di pressione) 50 % 9% 4. I risparmi energetici possono essere ottenuti al meglio in sede di nuova costruzione dell’impianto.9 % Intervento di risparmio energetico Istallazione o rinnovo dell’impianto Ottimizzazione di alcune utenze Gestione e manutenzione dell’impianto Legenda: (1) % di impianti ove il provvedimento è fattibile e conveniente (2) % di risparmio energetico (3) Contributo potenziale = Applicabilità * Risparmio La trasformazione di mercato volta al risparmio energetico avrebbe ricadute su vari soggetti del panorama economico: • Gli utenti degli impianti di aria compressa vedrebbero incrementati i costi di investimento e di manutenzione in vista di una riduzione della spesa energetica. di velocità. La tabella seguente riassume il contributo potenziale di ciascun provvedimento al risparmio energetico globale.8 % Aggiornamento dei compressori 30 % 7% 2. % di applicabilità (1) % di risparmio (2) contributo potenziale (3) Miglioramento dei motori (motori a alta efficienza. molto ancora si può fare in sede di rinnovo dei componenti più importanti su impianti esistenti.5 % 5% 40 % 2. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .0 % Sostituzione più frequente dei filtri 40 % 2% 0. HEM) 25 % 2% 0.5 % Miglioramento degli azionamenti: (variaz.0 % Riduzione delle perdite di aria 80 % 20 % 16. interventi relativi alla manutenzione e alla gestione (in particolare la manutenzione sistematica dei filtri e la verifica delle perdite di aria) possono essere introdotti in qualsiasi momento della vita utile di un impianto di aria compressa.4 % Recupero del calore di scarto per altri scopi 20 % 20 % 4. ASD) 25 % 15 % 3.Rapporto Conclusivo Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 16 misura maggiore o minore a seconda delle applicazioni. Gli interventi più importanti sono: • • • • riduzione delle perdite di aria compressa miglioramento del progetto dell’impianto uso di azionamenti a velocità variabile (ASD) recupero del calore di scarto.

La responsabilità di possibili provvedimenti di ottimizzazione è diffusa fra varie funzioni decisionali: Produzione. • Competizioni e premi per progetti impiantistici di alto livello. E’ difficile raggiungere un accordo ad alto livello. responsabile per la politica degli acquisti e degli investimenti. Amministrazione. raramente fanno riferimento al consumo elettrico. Promozione degli impianti di aria compressa a basso consumo energetico Le soluzioni devono essere orientate all’utente e volte a conseguire mutamenti in fattori organizzativi. • Anche se gli interventi di risparmio energetico sono considerati più redditizi rispetto a molti altri investimenti industriali. • Campagne informative. per aumentare la consapevolezza riguardo al consumo energetico legato all’utilizzo di aria compressa. su un argomento a basso livello di priorità come il consumo di elettricità. Il presente studio ha valutato le seguenti misure.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 17 Rapporto Conclusivo I produttori di impianti e componenti pneumatici potrebbero beneficiare di una espansione del mercato dei componenti di alta qualità e di elevate prestazioni e dovrebbero rivedere di conseguenza le loro linee di prodotti. essi non sono realizzati in pratica dalle imprese private per motivi essenzialmente organizzativi: • Mancanza di una voce di spesa specifica per l’aria compressa. • Le aziende elettriche avrebbero limitate riduzioni delle vendite. L’obiettivo dev’essere quello di convincere il management di alto livello a compiere le decisioni necessarie allo sviluppo di programmi di risparmio energetico. trasversale rispetto alle responsabilità dei vari settori. • Campagne di misura per dare agli utenti una percezione diretta dei possibili risparmi. • I progettisti e gli istallatori di impianti di aria compressa potrebbero beneficiare di nuove opportunità di prestazioni finalizzate al risparmio energetico. • Dimostrazioni di nuove tecnologie. quali ad esempio gare di appalto. Le procedure per il controllo dei costi di attrezzamento. Manutenzione. che spesso costituiscono i maggiori impedimenti all’adozione di provvedimenti di risparmio energetico. non è consapevole dei possibili risparmi energetici. essendo di norma una voce di costo relativamente piccola. nuovi tipi di connettori per ridurre le perdite. Il consumo elettrico è generalmente contabilizzato globalmente nel bilancio analitico di un’azienza: ridurre tale costo non rientra solitamente nelle responsabilità di uno specifico manager. Acquisti. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Il consumo di energia elettrica è "invisibile" per il top management. • Scarsa consapevolezza dei risparmi ottenibili. • Complessità della struttura decisionale. per concetti innovatici quali compressori mossi da turbine a gas. compressori mossi da espansori di gas o sistemi automatici per il rilevamento di perdite. Il top management. nuovi sistemi di essiccazione.

congiuntamente all’ARP. Sussidi. Valutazione del Life Cycle Cost. Tassazione sull’energia consumata o sulle emissioni di CO2. campagna di misura. istruzione e sensibilizzazione sul risparmio energetico. Proposta operativa per la Commissione Il presente studio propone alla Commissione l’implementazione. (Si noti che il Gruppo di Studio è convinto che l’ERP sarebbe inefficace in assenza dell’ARP. integrato in programma "Motor Driven Systems Challenge". Normative che regolino gli standard di progetto e di gestione degli impianti. equivalenti a oltre 5 milioni di tonellate di CO2. per favorire la partecipazione del settore privato. Il suddetto programma sortirebbe maggiori effetti ove fosse inserito in un contesto di sforzi coordinati a livello Europeo e dei singoli paesi. • Il programma di sensibilizzazione (ARP). Le azioni raccomandate sono state raggruppate in due programmi. del "Programma di sensibilizzazione".5 % dell’attuale consumo energetico per l’aria compressa. Si può stimare che tale programma potrebbe portare ad un risparmio di 11 TWh/anno entro il 2015. in particolare per i costi relativi al supporto decisionale e agli audits. Per avere successo. • forte coinvolgimento delle industrie leader e delle organizzazioni di settore. • supporto politico di alto livello. Accordi su base volontaria con i produttori e gli utenti. • Il programma economico e normativo (ERP) (che include sussidi. Etichettatura e certificazione dei componenti e degli impianti. che può mostrare come le decisioni ottime dal punto di vista ambientale sono tali anche dal punto di vista economico. potrebbe. e misure normative). (simile all’attuale programma EU GreenLights) contiene i provvedimenti di informazione e supporto decisionale. tasse. che tuttavia potrebbero essere verosimilmente raggiunti su un periodo di 15 anni. anche parziale.7 %.) Secondo la visione del Gruppo di Studio. comprendente in particolare le tre misure chiave: campagna di sensibilizzazione. questi livelli di risparmio costituiscono obiettivi molto ambiziosi. portare a risparmi del 24. Sviluppo di linee guida per la stesura dei contratti per la subfornitura del servizio di aria compresa. e potrebbe stimolare risparmi sino al 16. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . i programmi dovranno rispettare le seguenti condizioni: • coordinamento ottimale dell’azione fra l’UE e gli Stati membri. • risorse umane sufficienti. informazione e addestramento. • risorse finanziarie sufficienti.Rapporto Conclusivo • • • • • • • • 18 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union Disseminazione delle informazioni.

het omgaan en het gebruik van perslucht is ongecompliceerd. Volgens de evaluatie van marktgegevens door de werkgroep. In de Europese Unie wordt circa 10 % van het industriële elektriciteitsverbruik ingezet voor productie van perslucht ofwel ruim 80 TWh per jaar. 16 jaar voor compressoren tussen 90 en 300 kW. In de volgende tabel is een opstelling gemaakt naar vermogen en betreffende landen. In het kader van deze studie worden aanbevelingen uitgewerkt.en kostenbesparingen in persluchtinstallaties gerealiseerd kunnen worden. als ook van het totaalontwerp en de juiste inzet ervan.500 bedrijfsuren per jaar in bedrijf. De economisch en technisch haalbare energiebesparingen bedragen meer dan 30 %. De totale efficiency van een persluchtinstallatie hangt zowel van de efficiency van de individuele componenten van de installatie af. Ondanks dit hoge energieverbruik is de efficiency van veel persluchtinstallaties (DLA) laag: praktijkstudies tonen aan. Marktanalyse en technische energiebesparingsmaatregelen Compressoren zijn relatief duurzame investeringsgoederen met een gemiddelde levensduur van circa 13 jaar voor compressoren tussen 10 en 90 kW. Een hoog technisch en economische besparingspotentieel wordt in de actuele markt. resp. Griekenland en Spanje en een stagnatie (0-groei) in de overige EU-landen.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 19 Samenvatting Samenvatting Inleiding De toepassing van perslucht in de industrie. met een groeipercentage van 1-2 % in Italië. zodat energie. De installaties zijn gemiddeld 3.265 compressoren in bedrijf. De productie.en beslissingsmechanismen niet bereikt. welke in een tijdsbestek van ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .en toeleveringsbranche is alom bekend. dat besparingen mogelijk zijn tussen 5 – 50 %. waarmee bestaande drempels overwonnen kunnen worden. zijn er in de Europese Unie ongeveer 321. Land Totaal Frankrijk 43 765 28 885 14 880 Duitsland 62 000 43 400 18 600 Griekenland + Spanje + Portugal 35 660 25 685 9 976 Italië 43 800 30 660 13 140 Groot Brittanië 55 000 46 750 8 250 Overige landen binnen EU 81 040 56 015 25 024 321 265 231 395 89 870 Totalen 10-110 kW 110-300 kW De markt voor persluchtinstallaties is op Europees niveau nagenoeg stabiel.

Compressed Air Systems
in the European Union

20

Samenvatting

15 jaar te realiseren zijn. Alle onderzochte technische maatregelen zijn in veel
toepassingen rendabel (terugverdientijden < 3 jaar). De belangrijkste energiebesparingsmaatregelen zijn:



verlaging van lekkageverlies.
verbetering van ontwerp van installaties.
toepassing van toerental-variabele aandrijvingen.
warmteterugwinning.

In de navolgende tabel wordt het energiebesparingpotentieel van de onderzochte technische maatregelen samengevat:
Energiebesparingsmaatregel

%
toepasbaarheid (1)

%
efficiencyvoordeel (2)

Totaalpotentieel (3)

2%

0.5 %

15 %

3.8 %

7%

2.1 %

12 %

2.4 %

20 %

4.0 %

5%

0.5 %

9%

4.5 %

3%

1.5 %

40 %

2.0 %

Nieuwe installaties resp. vervangingsinvesteringen
Verbeterde aandrijving(high efficiency
25 %
motoren, HEM)
Verbeterde aandrijving (toerental variabele
25 %
aandrijving, ASD)
Technische Optimalisering van de
30 %
compressoren
Toepassing efficiënte en overkoepelende
20 %
besturingen
Warmteterugwinning voor gebruik in
20 %
andere functies
Verbeterde persluchtconditionering
10 %
(koeling, droging en filtering)
Totaalontwerp incl. installaties met
50 %
verschillende drukken
Vermindering drukverlies in
50 %
verdeelsystemen
Optimalisatie van persluchtapparatuur
5%
Het bedrijven van installaties en onderhoud/instandhouding
Vermindering van lekkageverlies

80 %

20 %

16.0 %

Het frequenter vervangen van filters

40 %

2%

0.8 %

TOTALEN

32.9 %

Legenda:

(1) DLA, waarbij deze maatregelen toepasbaar en rendabel zijn
(2) energiebesparing van het jaarlijkse energieverbruik
(3) Besparingspotentieel = toepasbaarheid * efficiencyvoordeel

Energiebesparingen zijn bij ontwerp van een nieuwe persluchtinstallatie op de
meest gunstigste en efficiënte wijze te realiseren. Hoge besparingen zijn echter
ook in bestaande installaties te realiseren, door hoofdcomponenten te
vervangen. Bovendien kunnen maatregelen, die met de instandhouding en het
bedrijven van de persluchtinstallatie in verbinding staan, in het bijzonder de
regelmatige vervanging van filters en het opsporen en verhelpen van
lekkageverliezen, op elk willekeurig tijdstip tijdens de levensduur van een
installatie worden doorgevoerd.

ADEME

Fraunhofer ISI

SAVE

DoE

ECE

Compressed Air Systems
in the European Union

21

Samenvatting

Een efficiënte aanpak van maatregelen tot verhoging van de energie-efficiency
op basis van marktbeïnvloeding door politieke maatregelen, heeft uitwerking op
de verschillende marktspelers:

Persluchtgebruikers moeten hogere kosteninvesteringen en kosten voor
onderhoud incalculeren, om zodoende van energiekostenreductie te kunnen
profiteren;

Fabrikanten van persluchtinstallaties kunnen van verbeteringen in de markt
van hoogwaardige en efficiënte apparatuur/componenten, hun voordeel doen
en dienen hun eigen productaanbod dienovereenkomstig daarop aan te
passen resp. te optimaliseren;

De omzet van de energiebedrijven zal gering dalen;

Ingenieurbureaus, adviseurs en contractors in het bereik "perslucht"
kunnen van deze uitbreiding van mogelijkheden profiteren en gebruikers
omtrent energie-efficiency adviseren.

Ofschoon de, voor verhoging van de energie-efficiency in persluchtinstallaties
noodzakelijke technische maatregelen, veelal meer profitabel zijn dan andere
investeringen in de industrie, worden deze vanwege organisatorische redenen
veelal niet door de onderneming uitgevoerd. Dit kan in drie probleemgroepen
worden samengevat:

Er bestaat geen kostenrekening voor persluchtproductie- en gebruik.
Het energieverbruik voor persluchtproductie blijft voor de directie
"onzichtbaar", aangezien het in de meeste gevallen om relatief kleine
bedragen gaat. Het energieverbruik voor persluchtproductie wordt in de regel
als algemene kosten geboekt of is een bestanddeel van totale
energiekosten. De verantwoording voor verlaging van deze kosten horen
vaak niet tot de verantwoording van een manager.

Onvoldoende bewustzijn van mogelijke besparingen. De directie, welke
voor de aanschafpolitiek en investeringsbeslissingen verantwoordelijk is, mist
vaak het bewustzijn voor mogelijke energiebesparingen. Maatregelen, welke
nodig zijn om de investering te optimaliseren, b.v. het maken van een bestek,
hebben vaak nauwelijks invloed op het energieverbruik.

Complex managementstructuur. De verantwoording voor mogelijke
optimaliserings-maatregelen zijn veelal op verschillende managementniveaus verdeeld, zoals b.v. productie, onderhoud, aanschaf, financiering.
Het is problematisch om de prioriteit voor energiekostenverlaging op de
verschillende managementniveaus voldoende onder de aandacht te krijgen.

Maatregelen ter bevordering van energie-efficiënte persluchtinstallaties
Aangezien de argumentatie voor het omzetten van energie-efficiënte
maatregelen veelal vanwege organisatorische factoren bij de eindgebruiker
terecht komen, moeten de mogelijke maatregelen aan deze eindgebruiker
worden gerelateerd. Doel daarbij is, het management (bedrijfsleider, directeur,
hoofd technische dienst) te overtuigen van de noodzaak van het doorvoeren
van energiebesparingplannen. In het kader van deze studie werden de

ADEME

Fraunhofer ISI

SAVE

DoE

ECE

22

Samenvatting

Compressed Air Systems
in the European Union

volgende voorstellen voor maatregelen uitgewerkt en vond daaromtrent en
waardering plaats:

Reclamecampagne voor het verhogen van het bewustzijn omtrent het
energieverbruik bij persluchtinstallaties;

Demonstratie- en pilootprojecten met innovatieve concepten, zoals b.v.
door gasturbine of aardgasmotor aangedreven compressoren, nieuwe
leidingsverbinding-technieken om lekkages te verminderen, nieuwe
concepten van persluchtconditionering, door aardgas-expansiemotor
aangedreven compressoren of een geautomatiseerde lekkagebewaking.;

Meetcampagne, om het energiebesparingpotentieel van persluchtinstallaties
en distributie op efficiënte wijze voor de eindgebruiker zichtbaar te maken;

Concurrentie en prijzen: Motivatie tot optimaal installatieontwerp;

Informatiecampagnes, Opleidingen en kennisoverdracht m.b.t. energiebesparingen bij persluchtinstallaties;

Lifetime-cyclecosts, welke aantonen, dat geoptimaliseerde en milieugerichte beslissingen ook economisch optimaal zijn;

Kenmerken en certificatie van zowel installatiecomponenten alsook van
totale installaties;

Eigen verantwoordingsgevoel van fabrikanten en eindgebruikers;

Het opstellen van
persluchtleveringen te
contracten;

Belastingheffing op energie of CO2;

Subsidies, in het bijzonder voor ondersteuning bij de keuze en concepten
van installaties en voor audits;

Voorschriften en normen voor systeemontwerp en toepassing.

richtlijnen, om outsourcingcontracten voor
verbeteren. Hetzelfde geldt voor contracting-

De individuele maatregelen worden als richtlijnen in twee programma’s samengevat:

Het "Awareness Raising Programme (ARP)" (aandachtprogramma), (als
aanvulling op het bestaande EU GreenLights Programm) omvat de
maatregelen in het bereik van informatie en ondersteuning van beslissingen
en kan besparingen opleveren tot 16.5 % van het huidige energieverbruik bij
persluchtinstallaties.

Het "Economic and Regulatory Programm (ERP)" (Efficiency, voorschriften, subsidies, en belastingprogramma’s) kan, samen met de ARP
besparingen opleveren tot 24,7 % (daarbij is aan te merken, dat volgens het
projectteam de ERP zonder het ARP niet kan functioneren).

Volgens de mening van de projectmedewerkers, is de realisatie van het
energiebesparingpotentieel een behoorlijke inspanning, zijn echter van mening
dat dit over een tijdsbestek van 15 jaar haalbaar moet zijn. Om succes te

ADEME

Fraunhofer ISI

SAVE

DoE

ECE

Dit programma zal het meest efficiënt kunnen functioneren als op nationaal en europees niveau goed op elkaar afgestemde maatregelen worden getroffen. ook op lange termijn. "informatie" en "opleiding". Voorstel voor de Europese commissie De studie stelt voor. dat de commissie het volledige "Awareness Raising Programme" of gedeelten daarvan uitvoert. de integratie in een programma tot verbetering van energie-efficiency bij toepassing en gebruik van (Motor Challenge Programme). Daarbij dienen minimaal de drie kernactiviteiten "reclamecampagne".Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 23 Samenvatting kunnen boeken. b. • voldoende beschikbare financiën. om zodoende een brede acceptatie in het openbaar te verkrijgen. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Een globale inventarisering levert tot het jaar 2015 een besparingspotentieel op van 11 TWh/jaar (of meer dan 5 miljoen CO2). • voldoende inzet van het economische bedrijfsleven en vakgespecialiseerde ondernemingen. • voldoende personele bezetting. alsmede een "meetcampagne" gerealiseerd te worden. • politieke ondersteuning op voldoende hoog niveau. zouden minimaal de volgende raamafspraken gemaakt moeten worden: • optimale afstemming binnen de EU en de maatregelen binnen de diverse lidstaten.v.

.

the study examines technical as well as organisational measures. there is a need for a market transformation. which could be cost effective in transforming market functioning. • recovery of waste heat. Thus. Nonetheless. volume and pressure. The study adopts a systems approach. and up to 30 % in certain sectors of activity. which is a design issue related to the integration of the compressed air system into its industrial environment. handling and use are safe and easy. The document is organised according to the tasks of the project work plan: PHASE 1: Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 DATA COLLECTION Characterisation of compressed air systems in the EU Model energy consumption and growth Technical and Economic Energy Savings Potential PHASE 2: Task 4 Task 5 Task 6 ANALYSIS AND ELABORATION OF RECOMMENDATIONS Organisational aspects of energy savings Analysis of impacts Identification of actions to promote energy efficient compressed air systems Evaluation of the impact of measures Task 7 PHASE 3: DISSEMINATION OF RESULTS Task 8 Final report and dissemination of results ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . policies and programmes which could lead to more energy efficient compressed air systems. This type of approach is necessary because the most important actions to improve efficiency involve system issues: • system operations and maintenance practices. compressor controls. such as the glass industry.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 25 Introduction Introduction Using compressed air in the manufacturing and service sectors is a common practice. the energy efficiency of many compressed air systems is low: case studies show that savings in the range from 5 to 50 % are possible. Aircompressors are thus available in a large variety of types. in particular to reduce air leaks and to properly maintain filters. Estimates indicate that compressed air accounts for over 80 TWh of electricity. • system design. taking into account improvements at all stages of the compressed air use cycle. In order to achieve the electricity savings and to make cost effective use of possible improvements. which aims to identify measures. It is clear that market functioning at present is not integrating economically feasible measures into industry choices. etc. since production. to match different user requirements in terms of air quality. and 55 million tons of CO2 per year for the EU. Generating compressed air accounts for as much as 10 % of industrial consumption of electricity. piping topology. including optimal pressure choice. This document is the final report of the SAVE Compressed Air Systems Market Transformation Study.

.

The solution.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 1. is to aggregate data with other industries. The market is highly segmented. Germany. with co-operation from ETSU in the United Kingdom). Data collection was co-ordinated with the other ongoing related SAVE studies: in particular the Pumps study. This model was submitted to Pneurop Compressor Committee. characterised by a relatively small number of producers for air compressors (the main component of CAS). Thus. Netherlands. A numeric data collection guide was circulated to team members (copy in Appendix 1). the study team will develop data from national sources. In general. in conjunction with the International Compressed Air Systems conference) in order to further improve the model. confidentiality of data poses a major problem. in conjunction with optimal industrial statistics extrapolation methods. According to the terms of this agreement. and to judge their cost effectiveness. essentially from the countries of team members (France. After review.1 Data Collection Methods The compressed air systems (CAS) market is a capital goods market. because of the limited number of producers for each category of equipment1. the Variable Speed Drive study and the Motors study. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . 16-17 September. Pneurop has agreed to circulate a qualitative data collection guide among its members. In order to overcome this difficulty. Furthermore. Italy. in order to create an aggregated skeleton model. A different data collection system was used for those target groups that are not represented by Pneurop: 1 Statistical confidentiality rules differ from country to country. the study has negotiated an agreement on data collection with Pneurop. Best available data was used. Of course not all data represented exists in each country. 1. Characterisation of Compressed Air Systems in the EU Characterisation of Compressed Air Systems in the EU Work on this task was organised with respect to the basic objective of the task: provide sufficiently accurate information to help identify priority energy savings measures. from the statistician's point of view. a meeting was held (London. this makes it useless for the needs of a detailed study such as ours. if a small number of producers (from 3 to 5) account for a large part of a market. it is considered that publication of data would violate confidentiality. the European Compressed Air Equipment Manufacturers' trade association. 27 1. by type of compressor and power range. This very complete guide was used to obtain existing data. Unfortunately.

in market segments where less than 5 companies offer products. For those areas where the study directly collected data. Data collected by the study group comes from bibliography. above 300 kW. For instance. whereas in Germany. etc. but not by power. in France. The study has agreed to the values listed in Table 1. the study is focused on CAS within the 10 kW to 300 kW power range. confirmed in discussions with Pneurop. that is to say roughly 10 % of the total electricity consumption in industry. comments from experts from industry and university. centrifugal.2 Numeric Data The level of numeric data produced by the study is summarised in the following tables. Because of their high cost. only scanty data is available.1.). in those countries where distributors are not represented by Pneurop member associations. Characterisation of Compressed Air Systems in the EU 28 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union • the high volume turbo compressor market. The data was collected either through direct interviews with producers and users of CAS. • end users. discussions with manufacturers or associations. they are usually integrated into well designed and maintained systems. The study concluded. CEREN. are specifically designed machines. custom designed systems). that because of its nature (very large. specific data collection tools have been developed. Furthermore. or through a questionnaire designed specifically for Task 2 and distributed to Pneurop and the study group members. In addition. Larger units. March 1994. national data sources are inconsistent in their classification schemes. This is a speciality market. for which the energy efficiency measures covered in this study are not applicable. 1. • energy providers. official statistics are classified by compressor types and volume flows. attached in Appendices 2 and 3. data is available by power range but not by type of compressors (screw. • distribution networks. • CAS value chain service providers. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . account for only a small part of total consumption of compressed air. rapport d'enquête sur les moteurs". piston. Ademe source is "Prospective de la consommation d'électricité dans l'industrie à l'horizon 2010. while very numerous. some data may be confidential. With respect to this questionnaire. it is difficult to distinguish between process gas compressors and air compressors. According to a decision at the kick off meeting. etc. and compressed air outsourcing service providers. particularly engineering consultants. in the form of data collection guides. Furthermore. Smaller units. this market segment is probably of little interest for the energy savings aims of the study. The total electricity consumption in the EU for CAS is approximately 80 TWh.

which have been adjusted to the study's target power range. for 1990. TWh 12 32 14 France Germany Italy UK Rest of the EU 12 10 Figure 1: CAS electricity consumption The ADEME study allows disagregation of air compressor data by power range. expressed in absolute terms. 1996 Rest of the EU 32 11 Best guesses. 19982 Italy 12 11 From Afisac. TWh Country % of industrial Source and remarks electricity consumption France 12 11 Germany 14 7 Source ADEME. OIT. 2 While electricity consumption of CAS in Germany. Table 2 presents the number of installed machines and their division into power ranges. is the largest in any of the European countries. This could be due either to a difference in the statistical categories used in the different countries. extrapolated to industrial electricity consumption per country CAS consumption. for compressor > 10 kW Statistisches Bundesamt. based on 1996 electricity consumption. it appears to be the smallest as a percentage of industrial electricity consumption. The British Compressed Air Society proposes values for the United Kingdom. 1998 United Kingdom 10 10 From 'Best practices leaflet'. including the range 4-10 kW. or to the specificity of industry activity in Germany. from an inquiry.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union Table 1: 1. Afisac proposes some values for Italy. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Characterisation of Compressed Air Systems in the EU 29 Electricity consumption in compressed air systems CAS consumption.

Italy and the United Kingdom. The difference might be due to the size of companies which use CAS in each country. This is surprising. the breakdown between the 2 power ranges depends on extrapolations and estimates. The study team believes that the above data is an accurate representation of the situation. extrapolation Rest of the EU 116 700 81 700 (70 %) Total 321 265 231 395 (72 %) 35 000 (30 %) Extrapolation 89 870 (28 %) Note that while the data for the total number of compressors is derived from reliable data for France. are both considered to be of a very reliable nature. range of 10-70 kW and more than 70 kW Germany 62 000 43 400 (70 %) 18 600 (30 %) Share from German statistics. BCAS. CA number from extrapolation Italy 43 800 30 660 (70 %) 13 140 (30 %) AFISAC (CA number) and extrapolation United Kingdom 55 000 46 750 (85 %) 8 250 (15 %) Insurance data. given existing data sources. Characterisation of Compressed Air Systems in the EU Table 2: Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 30 Number of air compressors installed Number of systems Country 10-110 kW 110-300 kW3 Source and remarks France 43 765 28 885 (66 %) 14 880 (34 %) ADEME study. some contradictory evidence indicates that the number of large machines might be somewhat lower than these estimates. given that statistics for the United Kingdom and France. Nevertheless. Number of systems Number 90000 60000 10-110 kW 110-300 kW 30000 0 France Figure 2: 3 Germany Italy UK Rest of the EU Number of air compressors by power range There is a large difference between the proportion of large machines in the United Kingdom and in other countries. in particular. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Germany. resulting from procedures which actually counted over 100 000 machines in the field.1.

(See Appendix 1 for detailed information on these interviews. Greece and Spain. Specifically. the key decision criteria affecting user choice in purchases. in depth interviews were conducted within 19 companies: 7 in France (of which 3 service providers). how energy consumption issues are (or are not) integrated into the decision process. Specific information on age is available: in France. • an average power loss of 15 % upstream from the compressor (motor power loss. − 16 years between 110 and 300 kW. Generally speaking. operating costs) are integrated into sales strategies and practices. We propose: • for the growth rate of the installed stock of air compressors: − 2 % for Italy. etc. 1. • from the CAS manufacturers' and service providers' point of view. operating hours increase with power. − 132 kW between 110 and 300 kW.) ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . • 3500 hours as the number of operating hours per year.3 Qualitative Data on CAS Decision Processes The basic aim of qualitative data collection is to understand: • from the CAS users' point of view. − a 0 % growth rate for the rest of the EU countries. Operating hours vary between countries and years: 3500 hours in Italy. for the 5 years to come. how energy efficiency issues (and more broadly. afterwards only a renewal of the stock. 1 % for the following 5 years.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 31 1. 4 in Germany and 8 in Italy. Characterisation of Compressed Air Systems in the EU The other parameters are estimated using data from ADEME. • an average lifetime of: − 13 years for compressors between 10 and 110 kW. In order to collect this information. 2700 hours in France in 1990 but only 2000 hours in 1984. cooling.). Afisac and Pneurop. the average age of installed machines is 11 years and one third of the stock in the EU is older than 13 years. • an average power of − 42 kW for compressors between 10 and 110 kW.

Data collected (Appendix 1) shows that for users. Neither compressed air operating costs. performance criteria are the following: • Reliability. purchasing and finance.1 32 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union CAS Users Qualitative data collection. In this case. − Lack of awareness of possible savings. Managers do not feel it is worth their time to improve energy efficiency. • Cost. and this type of decision is rare for compressed air. Because of the nature of compressed air energy costs. nor energy for compressed air. which is not viewed as a strategic business issue for users. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . through in depth interviews with representative CAS users. The cost of lost production is certainly viewed by most users as more important than potential energy savings. even in highly cost competitive industries. managers with decision making power are not sufficiently aware of the existence of cost effective energy savings measures.3. • Quality. since the basic ts1ool that must be used to encourage energy efficiency is cost reduction. In some production systems. This issue is thus related to the preceding issue on lack of information on compressed air energy costs. − Product quality. − Complex management structure. Characterisation of Compressed Air Systems in the EU 1. − Limited management time. This is an important result for the study. In many cases. was focused on determining users' performance criteria in the choice and design of systems. In some cases. production. In this case. or comes into contact with the product (for example in food processing. − No compressed air cost accounting. responsibility for cost reduction measures is often divided between managers for maintenance. The idea that compressed air energy costs are a minor cost item is sometimes false. users are not aware of compressed air costs. It seems that cost is the least important performance criterion for users.1. poor air quality can lead to reduced product quality. Several reasons seem to explain the low priority which users give to compressed air costs. Co-ordination between these functions is a problem in all enterprises. system reliability is the absolute primary performance criterion. Impurities in compressed air can cause breakdowns in production equipment that uses the air. Compressed air quality is important for two main reasons: − Damage to production equipment. pharmaceuticals and electronics). and is therefore very costly. Compressed air energy costs are most often included in general overhead costs. appear as distinct items in corporate cost accounting. System breakdown usually equates to lost production. Since compressed air is an essential part of the production process for most industrial compressed air users. since they feel this would have a negligible impact on total production costs. compressed air enters directly into the finished product. It generally requires very high level decisions to cut across the conflicting priorities of these functions. even when cost accounting information on compressed air is available within the organisation. quality of air is an issue in many respects similar to the reliability issue mentioned above.

ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Messer. national or municipal agencies. sometimes going as far as installing end use devices. ECH). or energy content (kWh of electricity) of the energy product. etc. Much of the information in this paragraph is drawn from this study. ADEME has commissioned a study on outsourcing. They are most often commercially sold as such by the existing Power Utility Companies. because it highlights the distinction between the energy services that final users require. heating.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 33 1. Energy service providers are thus moving downstream in the energy value chain. Clients paid for the quantity (litres of gasoline). piped gas. This business model.3. refrigeration. most of them falling into one of the following categories: • industrial gas suppliers (e. In the past. 4 Because of its rapidly growing importance in France. Air Liquide. and the production of energy services.2 Compressed Air Service Providers As is the case with many "housekeeping" functions in industry. Compressed air can be used. Linde. cooperative organisations or the end users themselves. cleaning (as in dust blowoff) or control (pneumatic industrial control logic devices). • general energy service providers (e. although. Today new actors are entering the market. and billing is evolving towards a model in which users pay for the energy service rendered. communication. the sector was mainly limited to power utilities that sold energy products. g. the maintenance and the operation of installations that produce several types of energy services. g. transportation. Examples are lighting. Vivendi/Dalkia. until recently. They often provide an integrated service composed of the equipment. Suez-Lyonnaise/Elyo. carried out by ADAGE consultants. if properly controlled through regulations and contractual arrangements. motive power. can permit energy service providers to aid the development of rational use of energy. BOC. Harpen. Energy products – such as gasoline. and the primary energy used to produce these services. pneumatic materials transport). for instance. Characterisation of Compressed Air Systems in the EU Energy Services and Energy Service Providers Energy services is a term used to refer to services that require energy in their production. piped steam or chilled water – permit the transportation and/or storage of energy. Compressed air can be considered to be an energy product. electricity. The business is dominated by a small number of large service providers. 1. Praxair). few Power Utilities sold compressed air. to provide motive power (compressed air actuated pistons. Energy service providers may be privately or publicly owned businesses. a major current trend is for businesses to outsource compressed air production4. Energy service providers are organisations that produce and distribute energy products or energy services. The use of this term is important.

often creating specialised subsidiaries with a full line of compressed air or industrial gas services. Characterisation of Compressed Air Systems in the EU • 34 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union power utility companies (e. 1. E. such as cogeneration or trigeneration. based on a variety of energy services. Service providers generally install telemetering equipment to monitor key system parameters that help them perform preventive maintenance. Since clients' foremost concerns are system reliability and air quality. This depends on the precise type of contractual arrangement. The strategy of the companies in the first group is to provide an integrated solution for all the industrial gas needs of a plant. the service provider has no incentive to design systems for high energy efficiency. They might install a system consisting of a large compressor unit coupled with membrane filtration systems to provide nitrogen and oxygen as well as compressed air. compressed air service providers are generally capable of designing and installing optimal systems. As with the preceding type of contract. power utilities have begun to broaden their range of services.ON. almost always in conjunction with a service contract. service contracts usually have stringent clauses on these 2 elements. Some contracts provide for a requirement to put repair people in the field within a certain time (4 hours. Several basic types of contracts exist. most often linked to a service contract. • Leasing of entire systems. Some contracts have penalties if the system stays out of service for more than a contractually specified period. The second group of companies also aims for an integrated solution. heat and cold. downstream from the compressor house.1. We have chosen to organise our analysis of the energy impact of outsourcing by elements of the compressed air system: inside the compressor house.3. g. EnBW. etc. 8 hours. so as to prevent breakdowns. The key to understanding the impact of outsourcing on energy consumption lies with identifying the specific criteria for optimality applied by the service providers. The service provider has no incentive to design systems for high energy efficiency. RWE. HEW. combining electricity.).1 Inside the Compressor House Because of their large size and technical expertise. Finally.2. The actual impact of outsourcing on energy consumption depends on the specifics of the contractual arrangement between the client and the service provider. Town owned utilities. with compressed air. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . EDF). Outsourcing of compressed air can substantially modify the way in which decisions are made on system design and equipment choice. • Equipment sales.

A company that outsources may no longer maintain internal management capacity to detect changes in compressed air needs. and to maintain the efficiency. some compressed air service contracts include leak detection (usually as an "add on" to a basic contract). Of course an ageing compressor. This type of equipment requires frequent calibration of the meters. This may be important if compressed air consumption decreases. To summarise. companies who chose to outsource compressed air production also reduce maintenance staff. In this case. whose efficiency is dropping. Measuring airflow requires more sophisticated and expensive equipment. will also be prone to breakdown. in which case downsizing the system could reduce operating costs. Of course. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Characterisation of Compressed Air Systems in the EU Sale of compressed air. the distribution network may be less well maintained.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union • 35 1. On the other hand.2 Downstream from the Compressor House Maintenance of the air distribution system is a separate issue from air production. and a more complex billing system. overall system efficiency could improve. In some cases. the service provider has little incentive to install efficient systems. On the other hand. On the contrary. distribution air leaks constitute one of the major causes of excessive energy consumption. inefficient systems will run more hours. he will be motivated to design systems with high energy efficiency.3. In this case. the impact of outsourcing on energy consumption depends on who pays for electricity and on how production is measured. the service provider has an incentive to install equipment that stays efficient longer. and overall system efficiency may drop. the service provider has no direct incentive to maintain the compressor at optimal efficiency5. air drying accounts for a significant portion of energy. In this case. Another factor is adaptation to changing needs. à direct electricity consumption for heaters. 5 Note that compressor efficiency decreases with time. The impact can be positive or negative.2. − Who pays for air drying? In some systems. Thus some aspects of preventive maintenance will also help maintain compressor efficiency. 1. This type of contract must be subdivided according to three criteria: − Who pays for electricity? If the service provider pays for electricity. − How is compressed air production measured? The simplest measurement system simple counts hours of compressor operation. if the client pays for electricity. and will thus be more profitable for the service provider. à air consumption in adsorption dryers. depending on the type of contract used. when actual air production is measured. à indirect consumption because of pressure drop across the dryers. Nonetheless.

Characterisation of Compressed Air Systems in the EU 1. The most important factors which determine the nature of the impact are the contractual clauses which determine if: • the service provider is paid on the basis of real measured air production. through a leak detection programme.2. outsourcing can have a negative or positive impact on overall energy consumption. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .3.3 36 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union The Importance of the Contract In conclusion. • the service provider is in some way made responsible for the distribution network efficiency.1.

collected mainly with the aid of Pneurop. . present and future annual energy consumption. 2. the probable rate of growth of their energy consumption. The model integrates the effects of new compressors entering and old ones leaving the stock. We present here the complete model. Electricity consumption is based on the number of installed compressors. j)is the number of operating hours of a compressor (type i) sold in year j ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . presented hereafter. ARP (Awareness Raising Programme) ERP (Economic and Regulatory Programme). we use three scenarios.j) is the efficiency of a compressor (type i) sold in year j hoa(i. In accordance with the other tasks. as it was developed and as it could have been used if all the necessary data had been available. j ) Where: P(i. This model. Model Energy Consumption and Growth 2. Model Energy Consumption and Growth 2. These market conditions are called scenarios. for the different Member States of the European Union. estimates the number of air compressors in the future. j) is the average power of a compressor (type i) sold in year j r(i. as well as the past. using a bottom-up approach.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 37 2. Due to the limited availability of data. the average unitary yearly consumption Cauy(i) at the year n (j<=n) is Cauy (i. Data collected in Task 1 have been integrated into this energy consumption growth model.1 Aim of Model Development The aim of Task 2 was to build a simple model of energy consumption (named stock model) for compressed air systems.2 Description of the Model For a type i of compressor sold at the year j. The data used. as described later: • • • BAU (Business As Usual). It allows evaluation of policy changes on consumption. The results have been cross checked with existing consumption estimates. The number of compressors and the energy consumption in the future are calculated under different market conditions. is presented. as are the results in terms of installed machines. j ) * hoa (i. on their power and on average operating time. j ) * r (i. we also present a simplified model. j ) = P (i.

Model Energy Consumption and Growth Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 38 Consumption(typei . n j =1985 . where pertinent data series are available. The past values. j ) k =1985. that working with hypothesis for the past values would not significantly improve the quality of the results. We consider.3 The Simplified Model.j. It may be developed from partial data available for one or more years.n)) is the sum of each Cauy(i. Due to this lack of data.j) calculated on all the compressors sold since 1985 and still in use at the year n Ctot (typei . We have no data for the compressors installed between 1985 and now. are used to validate the model and the algorithms. What is known is the stock installed (Nb(i)) today.j) Remain (i. But we do not know when the existing compressors were sold and how many remain in use. 2. the Data Used. j. k ) * Cauy(i.k) å å sales(i. According to the lifetime of the compressors (15 years.2. n is the number of compressor (type i) sold in year j is the percentage of compressors sold in year j and still remaining in use in year n. The stock model can calculate results both for the past and the future. and the Results The simplified model We propose to use the following simplified model. Ctot ( yearn ) = Ctot ( yearn ) = ADEME Fraunhofer ISI å Nb(i) * Cauy (i) i = all types å Nb(i) * P(i) * r (i) * hao(i) i = all types SAVE DoE ECE . The total consumption is the sum on all types of compressors. we propose to simplify the equation: the year of sale is not taken into account and we will study the number of machines and the consumption only from 1999 until 2015. yearn ) = power * efficiency * nb _ of _ operating _ hours The total electricity consumption for a type i at the year n (Ctot(i. in theory) we could cover the period from 1985 until 2015. in agreement with Pneurop. j ) * remain(i. yearn ) = Where: Sales (i.

based on the current growth of equipment and no specific improvement on energy efficiency • and scenarios of energy efficiency.5 3.6 2. which give rise to two corresponding scenarios.2 Italy 12 9 3 United Kingdom 10 7.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 2. These measures and actions are grouped into two programmes for action.5 Rest of the EU 23 17 6 Total 80 60 20 Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . mainly coming from Task 1. The data available The following tables present the data available. Model Energy Consumption and Growth 39 Then we define three scenarios: • a business as usual scenario (BAU). − the scenario ARP (Awareness Raising Programme) − and the ERP (Economic and Regulatory Programme).5 2. Table 3: Number of air compressors installed in 1999 Country Total 10-110 kW 110-300 kW France 43 765 28 885 14 880 Germany 62 000 43 400 18 600 Greece + Spain + Portugal 35 660 25 685 9 976 Italy 43 800 30 660 13 140 United Kingdom 55 000 46 750 8 250 Rest of the EU 81 040 56 015 25 024 321 265 231 395 89 870 71 kW 42 kW 132 kW Total Average power Table 4: Electricity consumption for CAS in 1999 Country ADEME Total 10-110 kW 110-300 kW [TWh] France 12 9 3 Germany 14 10.5 Greece + Spain + Portugal 9 6. based on measures and actions aimed at improving energy efficiency. We will compare the results and the main differences between the scenarios in terms of energy consumption in Task 7.

this amounts to. Germany. In the model. For Greece. Spain and Portugal are treated separately from other countries.5. Systems entering the stock due to the building of new installations are called ‘New systems’ in the model.7 % of the systems are retrofitted or upgraded each year. because the number of installed systems is growing in these 3 countries. Growth rate of the installed compressed air systems is: • 2 % for Italy. The renewal of the stock is realised in 15 years. respectively. 8.2. Greece. These systems are called ‘Upgraded systems’ in the model. The hypothesis described here are drawn from Task 1. that is to say that 6. 1 % for the following five years and afterwards renewal of the stock only. Table 5: Growth rates for CAS in the EU For 1999 Operating hours Country Average power [kW] Growth rate year [%] Lifetime years 1-5 5-10 > 10 France 78 0 0 0 Germany 65 0 0 0 Greece + Spain + Portugal 71 2 1 0 Italy 78 2 1 0 United Kingdom 52 0 0 0 Rest of the EU 82 0 0 0 Average value ADEME 3500 Fraunhofer ISI 71 15 SAVE Stock renewal per year 6. • 0 % for the rest of the EU countries. Table 5 summarises the assumption for the calculations. 1. Greece.70 % DoE ECE . Spain and Portugal. These values are presented in the table below. This method of estimation was used due to the lack of other data for these countries. Results: Number of installed systems We indicate here the different hypothesis used by the model for the changes occurring in the number of installed compressed air systems. Model Energy Consumption and Growth Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 40 Note: consumption and number of machines for countries other than France. Portugal and Spain. Italy and Germany have been estimated according to their percentage in the European electricity consumption.0 and 1. Their number decreases from year to year. the compressed air systems currently running in the EU countries are called ‘Old systems’. for the five years to come.6 %.

Portugal. new and upgraded systems for each year between 2000 and 2015. Portugal and Spain together and for the other EU countries together. Germany. old upgraded new 90000 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 France Germany United Kingdom Greece. In 2015. United Kingdom. the stock of installed machines reaches 334010 systems (compared to 321265 today). Italy. This is calculated: • • • individually for France. that is to say an increase of 4 %. Model Energy Consumption and Growth 41 These hypothesis allow us to calculate the number of remaining old systems.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 2. for Greece. Figure 3 shows the number of machines installed until 2015. Spain Italy 2015 2010 2005 1999 2015 2010 2005 1999 2015 2010 2005 1999 2015 2010 2005 1999 2015 2010 2005 1999 2015 2010 2005 1999 0 Rest of the EU Figure 3: Number of new and upgraded CAS until 2015 ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . The stock of CAS is the same for all scenarios.

.

• improved air treatment: reducing pressure and energy losses in cooling. • optimal choice of the type of compressor. including multi-pressure systems. all of these ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . • improvement of compressor technology. integration of variable speed drives into compressors. • optimising certain end use devices: more efficient. 43 3. and of temperature conditions. • reducing frictional pressure losses in networks. • use of sophisticated control systems. • reducing air leaks. in some applications. drying and filtering. • overall system design. better adapted devices. • recuperating waste heat for use in other functions. particularly in multi-stage compressors. Work done during the study has confirmed that all of these technical measures can improve energy efficiency in many installations.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 3. replacing compressed air by electrical or hydraulic systems. The study team has identified and examined the following technical measures that could improve overall performance of the CAS process chain: • improvement of drives: use of high efficiency motors. but even more on overall system design and operation. as a function of specific end use applications. or. optimising filtering and drying as a function of users' needs. Furthermore. • measuring and tracking system performance. Technical and Economic Energy Savings Potential Technical and Economic Energy Savings Potential The chain that links the source of electricity to the service rendered consists of: Drive à Compressor à Air treatment à Network à End use device Controls Figure 4: Process chain for CAS System performance depends on the performance of each element.

Of course more sophisticated accounting/economic tools. The 36 month cut-off period is the upper limit for what industrial enterprises use as decision criterion for energy efficiency investments. 7 Note that small machines (< 10 kW) are outside the scope of this study. Nevertheless. and would most likely be linked to some type of sophisticated control technology. 6 The 36 month cut-off period for payback time is a "quick and dirty" method for defining economic feasibility. in particular since the term is short. 3. and since current interest rates are low. which would start and stop fixed speed machines as well as vary the speed of one machine. Nevertheless. since retrofitting adjustable speed drives to existing machines poses a host of technical problems. In the case of multi-machine installations. these tools are only applicable to large projects (for instance a very large compressor installation). Integration of speed controllers into a CAS would be very cost effective for variable load conditions.). and must be done in detail to take into account the specificity of the financial situation of a particular enterprise. depending on load characteristics. NPV calculations are time consuming. it would appear that energy efficiency labelling might be the most appropriate tool for achieving these gains. the possible gains would be concentrated in new systems. The biggest differences in motor performance are found in small machines7. since it appears unlikely that users could be convinced to retrofit high efficiency motors to existing machines. the adjustable speed drive would be integrated into only one of the machines. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . even at replacement time for the motor. Their installation would be in great part limited to the sale of new compressors. a payback time criterion appears sufficient. or Internal Rate of Return) which take into account the cost of borrowing or raising capital are more accurate. The integration of adjustable speed drives (ASD) into compressors could lead to energy efficiency improvements. Use of sophisticated financial tools (ESCOs. With respect to high efficiency motors. Nevertheless. high efficiency motors would be cost effective for a limited proportion of machines.1 Improvement of Drives The use of high efficiency motors improves energy efficiency. can make projects with longer payback times feasible. For the overall evaluation needs of the present study. Technical and Economic Energy Savings Potential 44 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union measures are cost effective (that is to say they have a payback time of less than 36 months6) in some applications. considered to be about one quarter of installations. since most of these machines operate relatively few hours per year. such as NPV or IRR (Net Present Value. so as to adjust output to system demand.3. Since these machines are most often sold as stand alone units. etc.

The choice between oil injected or oil free machines. scroll. vane.2 45 3. but also in terms of the multiple interactions with other elements of system design. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . simplicity and relatively low cost. This choice can affect the energy efficiency of the system. Source: BCAS/Pneurop Figure 5: Major families of compressors The optimal choice of compressor technology must take into account the specific needs of the user's compressed air system. a large number of alternative technologies exist: piston.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 3. In particular. centrifugal. Nevertheless. The following diagram illustrates the major families of compressors. and turbine compressors all have their market shares. there are multiple variants. as well as between single stage or multi-stage machines constitute other parameters of choice. both in terms of compressor performance. the benefit of multi stage systems for high duty cycle installations is a point which should be stressed. Within each family of compressors. Technical and Economic Energy Savings Potential Optimal Choice of the Type of Compressor The market segment studied (10-300 kW) is today largely dominated (75 % of sales) by oil injected screw compressors because of their reliability.

5 Recuperating Waste Heat By their very nature. in some circumstances. the advisability of using it depends on the existence of a thermal load whose characteristics match the available heat. Another aspect of research is the improvement of production methods. while R&D will certainly make possible small incremental improvements in energy efficiency. regulator. Design of waste heat recovery must assure proper cooling of the compressor. which can. in the highly competitive market for compressors. For these reasons. These control systems can often be used in conjunction with speed controllers. to ade- ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . idling and stopped states of the compressor. . the study has concluded that there is little potential for accelerating improvement in compressor technology through institutional action by the European Union or the Member States. Since this heat is so to speak "free". but also to develop new types. their use is rapidly expanding. and as familiarity with these technologies increases in industry. there is already great pressure on the manufacturers to develop better performing machines. 3. or too limited in quantity. compressors generate heat. 3.4 Use of Sophisticated Control Systems Sophisticated control systems are used to match compressor output to system air demand. the potential for technological improvement within the compressor is much smaller than the gains that can be achieved through improved system design and operations. As the price of electronic control technology comes down. Nevertheless. be used for other functions. it must be kept in mind that compressor performance is limited by the laws of thermodynamics. and their application to compressors is becoming more common.) are available and reasonably priced as compared to alternative solutions.. for instance to achieve closer clearances so as to reduce gap leakage within machines. The waste heat from a compressor is often too low in temperature. Sequencers optimise the operation of multi machine installations. backup heat source. usually designed for niche markets. Furthermore.3. Predictive controls apply fuzzy logic or other algorithms to predict future air demand from past performance of the system.3 46 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union Improvement of Compressor Technology Research and development is quite active in the field of compressor technology. piping. Efforts are being carried out to improve existing families of compressors. They save energy by optimising the transitions between the running. These controls can be fitted to new machines or to many existing installations. Technical and Economic Energy Savings Potential 3.. Thus. and for which the necessary equipment (heat exchangers.

waste process heat or waste process gas could be used. • increase or optimise the frequency of filter replacement. Typical systems are designed to deliver air at the highest pressure and air quality needed by any of the end use devices. needs. drying and filtering equipment causes pressure drops.6 Improved Air Treatment Cooling. Technical and Economic Energy Savings Potential quately match the needs for industrial process heat.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 47 3. and replacement when necessary. The cost effectiveness of recuperating waste heat depends on the alternate sources of energy which are available. This can waste substantial energy if only a small percentage of devices really need this high pressure or high air quality. drying equipment uses compressed air or electricity for filter regeneration. so as to prevent condensation in the system. It may be less cost effective if natural gas. This can often be a very cost effective investment. Furthermore. optimising filtering and drying as a function of users' needs is a major source for energy savings. volume and quality to the needs of the various end use devices. This is applicable when drying is done essentially to maintain the air above the dew point. Over-filtering wastes energy. Increasing the number of filters in parallel decreases air velocity. Blocked filters increase pressure drop. Automatic sensing and alarm equipment to warn of excessive pressure drop can be very cost effective. thus reducing the pressure drop. The possible measures are: • dynamically adjust the degree of drying to outside temperature conditions. Typical applications are more often for space heating. 3. Two examples of system design issues are: • single pressure or multi-pressure systems. • add filtering capacity. It might be very cost effective if the alternative solution would be electric heat. for both new or existing systems. • adjust the degree of oil or dust filtering to match the precise needs of the system. Climate and seasonality also affect the cost/benefit ratio. 3. Maintenance procedures should include regular checking of filters. While this can be straight forward. Alternative solutions might be to: − build a system delivering a lower pressure. or varying.7 Overall System Design The basic objective of good system design is to match air pressure. it can also be very complex if end use devices in the system have differing. when a need exists in proximity to the compressor location. Thus. It may be inappropriate if drying is required to meet a specific process requirement for air quality. and add pressure boosters for those devices requiring higher air pressure ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .

These enterprises are often not qualified for design and installation of CA networks. Even systems which are initially well designed can become "energy wasters" if CA use increases above the level for which the system was initially designed. much CAS use results from devices (pistons. Inadequate control systems can lead to wide pressure variations. a majority of CAS have less than optimal networks. In some applications. so as to reduce pressure variations. it can be useful to install air storage capacity close to these devices. Furthermore. motors. is an important issue for new systems. • Lack of shut-off valves makes it impossible to close off parts of systems. for example for machinery which does not operate during night shifts.) which are components of large fixed machines. which waste energy. Since it is difficult and expensive to improve an existing network.8 Optimising End Use Devices Many end use devices are energy inefficient. • Undersized piping is a common situation. Figure 6 illustrates an example of a CA network. and be more energy efficient. 3. …). 3. • At the time of factory construction. for which replacement or upgrading can be very costly. geometry (pipe diameter. ventilators can often be used with an energy savings benefit. Technical and Economic Energy Savings Potential − • 48 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union provide adequate filtering for the majority of applications. Despite the importance of the network. electrical or hydraulic equipment can cost effectively replace compressed air end use devices.9 Reducing Frictional Pressure Losses in Networks Pressure losses in CA networks depend on multiple factors: topology (ring or star networks. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . materials used. The optimisation of end use devices is one aspect of the system design issue. correct design and installation. etc. when particular end use devices have very erratic demand characteristics. limit pressure variations in the system.3. and add specific local filtering for those devices which require it. While equipment manufacturers' catalogues usually state compressed air requirements for their machines. For instance in blowing and drying applications. etc. including a margin for future growth. users do not always take this into account in their purchasing decisions. Correct design and installation can optimise frictional losses. radius of curvature). While hand held pneumatic tools can be easily replaced by more efficient models. the CA network is often installed by the same enterprise responsible for all the piping or "fluids" work.

Technical and Economic Energy Savings Potential Source: BCAS/Pneurop Figure 6: 3.11 Measuring and Tracking System Performance Measuring and tracking system performance does not in and of itself improve energy efficiency. no air loss. the essential issue is one of proper maintenance.10 An example of a CA network Reducing Air Leaks Reducing air leaks is probably the single most important energy savings measure. and generally cause no damage. long life quick disconnect couplings. it is often the first step in improving energy efficiency. for instance through the use of modern. Nevertheless. Hand held leak "sniffers" which detect the noise of air leaks can reduce the cost of leak detection. Nevertheless. in part because air leaks are invisible. 3. for two basic reasons: ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . or through the specification of high quality.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 49 3. condensate draining devices. Awareness of the importance of a regular leak detection programme is low. Correct design and installation of the network can greatly diminish air leaks. applicable to almost all systems.

for instance to measure the pressure differential across filters or the pressure loss in the network. 3. In some systems. bidding or purchasing procedures installation major component replacement or upgrading preventive and corrective maintenance Table 6 gives an approximate indication of the phase at which each of the measures described above could be applied. As long as the per unit cost of delivered compressed air is unknown. low cost pressure sensing equipment can still be very useful. Three basic parameters – air flow. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . which must be several times as long as its diameter. this situation is relatively rare in the context of European industry. and retrofitting reliable measuring equipment can be difficult or impossible if this was not taken into account at the time of system design and installation8. Where information on air flow is not available. or changes in the nature or quantity of air use. Measuring air flow also poses technical problems. The best opportunity for achieving energy savings is at the time when a new system is built from scratch.12 Synthesis of Technical Measures Measures to improve energy efficiency of CAS are relevant at different stages of a CAS's life cycle: • • • • system design. air pressure. With the shift to a service and information economy. except in those Member States which are still in a phase of industrialisation. the number of industrial plants is decreasing. At this moment. particularly in variable load applications. or to detect excessive pressure variation in a system. electricity consumption – must be measured and recorded in order to evaluate system performance. The study has concluded that medium and large size systems should be designed and installed so as to facilitate the measurement of air flow. the interpretation of this data can be difficult. • Tracking of system performance is a valuable tool to detect performance degradation. 8 The most common type of flow meter must be installed in a turbulence free pipe. it is difficult to initiate the management process necessary to improve a system. Technical and Economic Energy Savings Potential 50 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union • Measuring air use and energy consumption is essential in determining whether changes in maintenance practices or investment in equipment could be cost effective. While this seems simple in principle. Few new plants are being built in Europe. Nevertheless. no adequate place exists to install the meter.3. with the rationalisation of production and merger of production sites. Institutional action to encourage (or even mandate) this might be useful. the entire range of energy savings measures is open.

These measures can be introduced at any moment in the life cycle of a CAS. and would probably be limited to the larger systems. even when they show high rates of return on investment. In any case. The study team has consulted a number of experts to obtain estimates of the applicability of energy savings measures. In this situation. or extension of existing systems. It is estimated that possible gains in existing system at the time of major overhaul is 2/3 of the efficiency gains possible in new systems which are designed and built from scratch. Thus. independently of the life cycle of major system components. multi-pressure systems. but some are more difficult. constitute a major opportunity for energy savings. or the recovery of waste heat. Experience has shown that industrial enterprises are loath to allocate precious capital resources to energy savings investments. choice of type of end use devices (other than hand held tools). it appears to the study team that it would be more cost effective to target institutional efforts on the decision making process at the time of major component replacement or upgrading. rather than to waste efforts on the more limited and complex retrofit measures. This is true for example for the introduction of some types of sophisticated control systems. since it provides an ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . in particular frequency of filter changes and air leak detection. in particular those relating to the system design: air network. these measures usually require an engineering study and are thus more difficult to foster. the economic cut-off point was chosen at 36 months payback time. most measures are possible. Actions which are related to maintenance and operations. purchasing installation component maintenance replacement Improvement of drives ++ ++ Optimal choice of compressor ++ + Sophisticated control systems ++ ++ Recuperating waste heat ++ ++ Improved air treatment ++ ++ Overall system design ++ + Optimising end use devices ++ + Reducing frictional losses ++ + + + + + ++ + ++ Reducing air leaks Measuring system performance ++ + ++ The much more frequent situation is that of replacement of major components of an existing system. This is a conservative cut-off point.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union Table 6: 3. Technical and Economic Energy Savings Potential 51 Compressed air system life cycle system design. and on the potential for gains. Some energy savings measures can be retrofitted to existing systems at any moment. Nevertheless.

See Paragraph 5. Upgrading of compressor 30 % 7% 2. Table 7 resumes the findings of the study. In multimachine installations. only one machine should be fitted with a variable speed drive.1 % Use of sophisticated control systems 20 % 12 % 2.3. Improved cooling. The possible savings are of course higher in new systems designed from scratch. Technical and Economic Energy Savings Potential Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 52 internal rate of return (profitability) of over 25 %.0 % System operation and maintenance Reducing air leaks 80 % 20 % 16.9 % Table legend: (1) % of CAS where this measure is applicable and cost effective (2) % reduction in annual energy consumption (3) Potential contribution = Applicability * Reduction The study team thus concludes that the economically and technically feasible energy savings amount to 32. The estimated gain is for overall improvement of systems. that in retrofits to existing systems. drying and filtering 10 % 5% 0. since the large majority of major system components are replaced within this time frame.5 % Optimising certain end use devices 5% 40 % 2. 32. be they mono or multi-machine.5 % This does not include more frequent filter replacement (see below). Overall system design.4. This gain could be achieved over a 15 year period.0 % More frequent filter replacement 40 % 2% 0.4 % Recovering waste heat for use in other functions 20 % 20 % 4.9 %. 9 Note the potential for savings. not of electricity consumption. Table 7: Energy savings measures Energy savings measure % % Potential applica. including multi-pressure systems 50 % 9% 4.8 % Applicable to variable load systems. The total possible savings must be calculated as a product of efficiency gains. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Equation 5.5 % Reducing frictional pressure losses (for example by increasing pipe diameter) 50 % 3% 1. since electricity is converted to useful heat.1.9 %.5 % Most cost effective in small (<10 kW) systems Improvement of drives (Speed Control) 25 % 15 % 3. is less than the sum of the savings for individual measures. which is significantly higher than the average rate of return on industrial investments.8 % TOTAL9 Largest potential gain 32.0 % Note that the gain is in terms of energy.gains contribution bility (1) (2) (3) Comments System installation or renewal Improvement of drives (high efficiency motors) 25 % 2% 0.

Technical and Economic Energy Savings Potential 53 In summary. Figure 7 shows the share of these measures on the overall savings potential. the most important energy savings measures appear to be: • reducing air leaks • better system design • use of speed controllers • recovery of waste heat.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 3. Major energy savings measures 26% Reducing air leaks 42% Overall system design Recovering waste heat Adjustable spee drives All other measures 10% 10% Figure 7: ADEME 12% Major energy savings measures Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . although its economic value is subject to practicality and energy price considerations.

.

the term "profitable" is used as shorthand for "profitable investment opportunity". Secondarily. and on one possible method of overcoming this barrier. 4. In this chapter. and those in the purchase and finance departments responsible for investment decisions. he may be judged on the cost of maintenance. Thus. the adoption of energy savings measures for compressed air depends as much on resolving organisational questions as technical questions. As in many other areas of energy efficiency. Specialisation of functions within medium and large companies leads to the dissociation between the technical managers who are aware of potential energy savings. despite profitable opportunities10. Shortage of capital makes it difficult for companies to invest in more efficient systems. most business organisations do not have analytical cost accounting tools for compressed air costs. Limited available capital is reserved for investments that have a clear link to strategic business objectives (expanding sales. In most businesses. reducing compressed air costs is "nobody's problem". these costs are not specifically assigned to compressed air users within the organisation. that while cost reduction is generally a high priority for businesses in competitive environments. Organisational Aspects of Energy Savings Organisational Aspects of Energy Savings It is clear that a large technical and economic potential exists for increasing energy efficiency in compressed air systems. While "profitable" is less precise. This leads to the paradoxical situation. On the other hand. since it is understandable for most readers. compressed air production is a "house keeping" function assigned to the maintenance department.). we present preliminary conclusions of the study on the nature of organisation barriers to CAS energy efficiency. The maintenance manager is judged on the reliability of the production equipment for which he is responsible.1 Organisational Barriers to Improving CAS Energy Efficiency There are multiple reasons that explain why business organisations do not adopt cost effective energy savings measures. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 4. In this document. see footnote 6 on page 44) is higher than the opportunity cost of capital for the investing company. through outsourcing. 55 4. etc. As noted in the findings from the market characterisation task. it is used in this non technical text. the major cost item of compressed air production is electricity consumption (75 % of 10 The term "profitable investment opportunity" describes an investment whose IRR (internal rates of return.

outsourcing of the compressed air function is growing rapidly. Organisational Aspects of Energy Savings 56 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union overall compressed air costs).). 11 Outsourcing is most often limited to the part of the compressed air system inside the com- pressor house consisting of drive + compressor + cooling/drying/filtering equipment + air tank. as compared with an in house solution requiring investment in new equipment: • improve reliability and quality of service. As described in Paragraph 1. etc. guaranteed through the contractual obligations of the service provider. 12 Outsourcing refers to the business practice by which an enterprise isolates an element of the business from other activities. In most cases.2. analytical accounting methods. switching to a service provider was seen as having some of the following advantages. telecommunications. • liberate limited management capacity for other more strategic tasks. financial planning.4. Companies that outsource compressed air production usually do so because their system was in crisis: it either had become so unreliable that it affected general production capacity. project management. Outsourcing is typically used for very high skill functions (computer operations. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . the service provider is a large specialised company.) or for very low skill functions (gardening. office cleaning. or the equipment was so old that maintenance had become very expensive or impossible. etc. In either case. • reduce compressed air costs. • control and make visible compressed air costs. and contractualises it so as to have the function performed by another enterprise specialised in this function.3. perceived as being capable of respecting its contractual obligations. 4. But this cost item is almost never considered as part of the maintenance department budget. The study will examine two radically different approaches to making compressed air costs visible: • • outsourcing of the compressed air function. • liberate capital for other more strategic investments. The conclusion of this analysis is that the key to overcoming organisational barriers to improving CAS energy efficiency lies in making the cost of producing compressed air visible to all levels of management.2 Outsourcing of the Compressed Air Function The production of compressed air11 is typical of functions that can be easily isolated within a business organisation and outsourced12.

4. in fact. This finding leads to the conclusion that modifying current outsourcing practices might be an area for institutional action by the Commission. much less at more detailed levels within the company. This would make it possible to motivate them to realise savings. and the recipients of information. the technical parameters can be decided upon. this objective is not always being met. but not energy costs.3 Analytical Accounting Methods As explained above. In fact. even at the output of the compressor. or shop level? • What frequency for reporting? Real time. • What is the basic purpose of energy consumption accounting and reporting? Is it primarily for cost control or cost reduction? Is it used for benchmarking? Is it a maintenance tool to warn of problems? • Who are the recipients? Cost controllers. but may pay more for compressed air. actual consumption is rarely measured. Thus. businesses using outsourcing usually achieve improved reliability and quality of service. the actual cost per cubic meter of air is rarely measured. In fact. production managers. • What is the level of detail? Company wide? Factory wide? Profit centre? Production department.3. outsourcing can even lead to higher energy consumption (see Paragraph 1. as explained above (Paragraph 1. Organisational Aspects of Energy Savings The last two points are of most concern for the present study.3). while outsourcing in principle should be a useful tool to improve energy efficiency. the majority of outsourcing contracts cover maintenance costs. or cumulative? • How are energy costs broken down? Does electricity appear separately? Is energy consumption for production separated from administrative consumption? Is compressed air electricity consumption separated from other electricity consumption? Within compressed air consumption. Paradoxically. Different levels of precision might be aimed for in an energy related measuring. compressed air costs are usually considered as part of overhead costs. The study findings at this point seem to show that. is main drive con- ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . without even knowing it. Accounting methods could be developed which help managers become more conscious of compressed air costs. and in some cases. under current contractual practice. accounting and reporting system.3.3). maintenance managers? Once these parameters are determined. and are rarely broken down by user departments within companies.2. The basic parameters which determine the nature of an energy accounting and reporting system are the objectives.2.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 57 4.

Table 8 outlines three types of measuring systems. Detailed reporting of different types of energy consumption. ventilation.1031/92033. are meters installed on each machine? Is the metering cumulative only. administration. Air flow meters for each shop in a factory. INTERLAC – INTERCOOPERATIVE LAITIERE) tested a real time telemetering system. under the "Monitoring and Target Setting" sub-programme.)? • What kind of metering is done? Electricity consumption only? Operating time for compressors? Compressed air flow? In multi-machine systems. Detailed. etc./00097/91.). Statistical energy savings and management procedures for monitoring and target setting (M&T) that had been developed for other high energy using industries was re-shaped to fit meat companies. frequent reports for production and/or maintenance managers. Table 8: Types of measuring systems Objective Metering Reporting Company wide electricity No special metering. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Synthetic monthly summary of costs. are: • Pilot project for the development and demonstration of Energy Monitoring & Target Setting in the Meat and Meat Product Industry (SAVE XVII/4. generating greater detail in energy reporting has a cost. Reporting for senior management. as compared with production levels. Use of consumption cost control. Synthetic reports for senior management. Electricity and air flow meters on each compressor. which must be justified by the objectives and the potential savings. Detailed cost accounting by production department. Meat and Livestock Commission). • ENERGY MANAGEMENT INTEGRATED IN A DAIRY INDUSTRY (THERMIE project IN. Some typical projects. which lay the technical and organisational basis for energy accounting systems. Maintenance tool. declining compressor performance. compressor house heating and lighting. with 47 measurement points in a dairy. permitting the rapid identification of production problems (major leaks. Shop or production level cost accounting. among others. existing information from electricity (and other energy) bills. Detailed cost control and Installation of electricity benchmarking. Maintenance reports. meters for major functions. perhaps at a higher frequency. Comparison of unit energy costs between factories.4. Note that the Commission has funded several projects. broken down into 2 categories: production. including production of compressed air. or does it produce time based information? Of course. etc. Organisational Aspects of Energy Savings Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 58 sumption separated from auxiliary consumption (air drying.

Organisational Aspects of Energy Savings A computerised guide to M&T for accountants (SAVE XVII/4. Linden Consulting Partnership) The project developed a computerised knowledge base for generic application in industry and commerce for financial directors and company accountants to provide an interactive training and management information system to enhance the acceptance of M&T systems by professional accountants. work remains to be done to treat the specific problems of compressed air energy accounting. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .1031/93-047. While these projects lay the groundwork for general energy accounting systems.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union • 59 4.

Compressed Air Systems
in the European Union

5.

61

5. Analysis of Impacts

Analysis of Impacts

The study analysed the impacts of:

technical energy savings measures to improve compressed air system energy efficiency;

EU Commission and Member state actions to encourage market transformation, so that these measures are implemented.

Action for market transformation could be relevant considering that:

compressed air generation accounts for approximately 10 % of the total
electrical energy consumption of industry (Paragraph 1.2);

typically, over a ten year period, the total cost of compressed air includes
75 % energy, 20 % capital, and 5 % maintenance (Paragraph 6);

energy efficiency of compressed air systems is often relatively low; air leaks,
for instance, account for 10 to 20 % of the total air usage.

Various technical measures can produce significant improvements in energy
efficiency, while reducing costs. The efficiency and cost of compressed air generation is controlled by the efficiency of the compressors, but is strongly influenced by several factors including:





compressor configuration and location;
number of compressors used to meet the demand;
individual compressor and overall system control modes;
quality of the inlet air;
quality of the cooling service;
quality of maintenance.

The main technical measures that can improve energy efficiency of compressed
air systems in many installations have been discussed in Task 3, and are summarised in the Table 9.
Table 9:

Energy savings measures
Energy savings measures
6. Improved cooling, drying and filtering

1. Improvement of drives: use of high
efficiency motors

7. Overall system design, including multipressure systems

2. Improvement of drives (e. g. speed
control)

8. Reducing frictional pressure losses

3. Upgrading of compressors

9. Optimising certain end use devices

4. Use of sophisticated control systems
5. Recuperating waste heat for use in
other functions

ADEME

Fraunhofer ISI

10. Reducing air leaks
11. More frequent filter replacement

SAVE

DoE

ECE

5. Analysis of Impacts

62

Compressed Air Systems
in the European Union

All the measures are cost-effective in some applications, even if they are characterised by different applicability and gains (see Table 6). A careful selection
of efficient components can help to save energy, but even greater efficiency
opportunities exist within the compressed air system design, implementation
and maintenance.
The entire set of measures, at their maximum application, defines the technoeconomic potential of the project, as defined in Task 3. To make reasonable
predictions, however, different scenarios have been conceived in Task 6. In the
following, reference will be made to the "Awareness Raising Programme" (ARP)
scenario, corresponding to 50 % of the potential energy savings.
Our "analysis of impacts" will be focused on possible macroscopic modification
of the compressed air market (and of linked markets), subsequent to the introduction of new technologies and improved design and maintenance. This
analysis will cover the influence of these measures on the cost structure of market actors involved and on their market strategy.
We have chosen to organise our analysis of impacts of market transformation
by different actors:



users of CAS;
manufacturers of compressors and CAS equipment;
electric utilities;
engineering consultants and compressed air suppliers.

Together with the energy issues, economic and emission issues should be kept
in mind. The former are considered in the paragraphs dedicated to CAS final
users and electric utilities, while the latter are summarised in the paragraph
dedicated to environmental impact.
In this chapter, some acronyms for energetic and economic parameters have
been used. For the reader’s convenience, the following Table 10 is a brief
summary. Three different values are used for energy costs, since prices vary
among EU countries, even inside a given country.

ADEME

Fraunhofer ISI

SAVE

DoE

ECE

Given the very short payback times of measures studied (under 3 years) use of discounted payback would unnecessarily complicate the discussion.04 – 0. in order to make energy efficiency enhancing measures acceptable for users. (See footnote 6 on payback time.1 CAS Final Users As discussed in Chapter 1.) ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . without substantially altering the results.08 €/kWh (low. See discussion after Equation 5. system reliability and air quality are the key issues for compressed air users. Analysis of Impacts Some acronyms for energetic and economic parameters The Global Energy Consumption The Industry Energy Consumption The CAS Energy Consumption (GEC) (IEC) (CasEC) = 2200 TWh/year = 990 TWh/year = 80 TWh/year13 The Industry Electricity Factor The Compressed air systems Factor The Efficiency Gain Factor The Market Penetration Factor (IEF) (CasF) (EGF) (MPF) = IEC / GEC = 45 % = CasEC / IEC = 10 % The Energy Savings The CAS Energy Savings Ratio The Global Energy Savings Ratio The Energy Price (ES) (CasESR) = ES / CasEC (GESR) = ES / GEC (EP) = 0. medium.1 below. Therefore. Chapter 3.06 – 0. Opportunities for enhancing energy efficiency exist in all three basic areas of compressed air systems: 13 This figure does not correspond to the CasF cited below. these measures should improve (or at least not degrade) system reliability and air quality. high) The Energy sales of electric utilities The Fuel consumption (Ee) (F) The Number of Compressors (NC) The Number of Compressed air systems (NCas) The Maintenance Costs The Operating Costs The Investment Costs The Payback Time14 (MC) (OC) (IC) (PB) = CasEC * EP+MC = ∆IC / (-∆OC) 5. 14 Note that we use simple payback time in this chapter’s calculations.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union Table 10: 63 5.

valves and dedicated storage). there called "applicability" (the subscript i is referred to the considered action). due to increased complexity of new plants. treated and delivered to the system. Data reported in Chapter 3 defines two important parameters: • The Market Penetration Factor (MPFi). Table 11: Market Penetration Factor and Efficiency Gain Factor Market Penetration Factor (MPF) Efficiency Gain Factor (EGF) Drives: high efficiency motors 25 % 2% Drives: Speed Control 25 % 15 % Upgrading of compressor 30 % 7% Sophisticated control systems 20 % 12 % Recovering waste heat 20 % 20 % Cooling. where the air is compressed. filters and dryers). which will most likely be more expensive than currently used ones. • The Efficiency Gain Factor (EGFi). drying and filtering 10 % 5% Overall system design 50 % 9% Reducing frictional pressure losses 50 % 3% 5% 40 % Reducing air leaks 80 % 20 % More frequent filter replacement 40 % 2% Action Optimising end use devices Moreover. and to modified maintenance practices (more frequent filter change. that is the actual use of compressed air. fittings. …). we can define: Ø The Industry Electricity Factor (IEF). Analysis of Impacts • supply (compressors. • transmission (pipes. some modifications are expected in the cost structure: • Increase of capital investment costs. From the final users point of view.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 64 5. • demand. to the point-ofuse. − Increased maintenance costs. equal to about 45 % ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . due to the adoption of high efficiency plants. • Operating cost variation: − Decreased energy costs due to energy savings. leak detection. there called "gain" (the gain in energy costs is proportional to gain in efficiency).

industry electricity consumption includes also agricultural electricity consumption.1 %) and Finland (54. Countries characterised by high electricity consumption are Germany. Source: IEA. Analysis of Impacts The Industry Electricity Factor. Obviously. can be estimated observing the electricity fraction of total energy consumed by industry in recent years. in fact. ENEL "Dati statistici sull'energia elettrica in Italia 1997" Figure 8: Industry Electricity Factor for EU countries. a fixed value of 45 % has been assumed for the industry electricity factor. these absolute values are reported for different countries. commercial buildings).9 %) and the US (35. Great Britain (35. Greece (36. all consuming more than 100 TWh/year of electricity in industry. 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Au st Be ria lg D ium en m a Fi rk nl an Fr d a G nce er m an G y re ec Ire e la nd U S Ja pa n 0 Lu xe Ital m y N bo et he urg rla nd U P s ni o te r d tug Ki a ng l do m Sp a Sw in ed en EU 15 Industry Electricity Factor (%) In order to estimate the energy savings achievable in compressed air systems directly from each country electricity consumption.6 %). agriculture. US and Japan in 1996 15 The high percentage in Luxembourg may be due to the importance of electric steel produc- tion in that country. Great Britain and Italy. comparing the incidence of various sectors (industry.9 %). France. the IEF is in the range from 40 to 50 percent for many countries. besides the efficiency gain and market penetration of technical measures. the industry electricity factor is reported for different countries in 1997. 16 The value for the US may be overestimated. while it is remarkably higher than 50 % for Luxembourg15 (61. household. due to different criteria for aggregating electric- ity consumption: in the US.8 %)16. As shown. depend on the absolute value of the electricity consumption in industry. defined as ratio between electricity consumed by industry and total electricity consumption.9 %) and lower than 40 % for Denmark (30.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 65 5. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . energy savings achievable in each country. In Figure 9. In Figure 8.

and so as to avoid overestimating the savings potential.1a) CasEC = 80 TWh/year ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . However. defined as ratio between electricity consumed by compressed air systems and total electricity consumption in industry. ENEL "Dati statistici sull'energia elettrica in Italia 1997" Figure 9: Electricity Consumption for EU countries in 1996 The Compressed air systems Factor (CasF). according to the data available to the study. As an example. is approximately equal to 10 %. equal to about 10 %. (5.1) CasEC = IEF*CasF*GEC = 99 TWh/year Thus. as referred in Chapter 1 (Table 1) Ø The Global Electricity Consumption (GEC): GEC = 2200 TWh/year (see Figure 9) Ø The Compressed air systems Electricity Consumption (CasEC): (5. we will use a somewhat lower value of 80 TWh. in the interest of coherence with other studies. the data collected for Italy reveal an annual electric energy consumption by compressed air systems of about 15000 GWh which corresponds to about 11 % of the electric energy consumption in industry (135000 GWh/year). Ø The Compressed air system Factor (CasF).Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 66 5. 99 TWh appears to be a likely figure for total CAS energy consumption in Europe. Analysis of Impacts Electricity consumption (TWh) 500 Commercial buildings Household Agriculture Industry 400 300 200 100 Au st B e r ia lg D iu m en m a Fi r k nl an Fr d a G nce er m an G y re ec Ire e la nd Lu xe Ital m y N bo et u he rg r la nd U ni Po s te r d tug Ki a ng l do m Sp a S w in ed en 0 Source: IEA. in the rest of this chapter (and in the rest of the study).

4 Recovering waste heat 3. Table 12: Energy Savings and CAS Energy Savings Ratio for each proposed measure Energy Savings (ES) [TWh/year] Action CAS Energy Savings Ratio (CasESR) [%] Drives: high efficiency motors 0.40 0.5 Overall system design 3.3) The results of the calculations are listed in Table 12.0 Cooling.60 4. In particular: Ø Energy Savings: ESi = CasEC*EGFi*MPFi (5.5) CasESR = ES/CasEC ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .5 Reducing frictional pressure losses 1.8 Reducing air leaks More frequent filter replacement To estimate energy savings deriving from the application of all the proposed actions.20 1.40 0.5 Optimising end use devices 1. the energy savings subsequent to each of the proposed actions have been evaluated.2) Ø CAS Energy Savings Ratio: CasESRi = ESi/CasEC (5.4) Ø CAS Energy Savings Ratio: (5.00 3.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 67 5.60 2. Analysis of Impacts Using this set of data.5 Drives: Speed Control 3. drying and filtering 0.8 Upgrading of compressor 1.0 0.0 12.1 Sophisticated control systems 1.92 2.80 16. the resultant energy savings will be: Ø Energy Savings: ES = GEC*IEF*CAF*(1-Πi(1-EGFi*MPFi)) (5.68 2. it should be considered that the efficiency gain of each measure acts on the residual CAS energy consumption. Therefore.64 0.20 4. after the previous measures have been undertaken.

high) considered.5 Reducing frictional pressure losses 50 3 98. Indicating with EP the energy price for CAS users (in €/kWh).3 Upgrading of compressor 30 7 97. as a result of individual companies negotiating their energy prices.5 Overall system design 50 9 95.Table 13: Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 68 5. medium. Energy market globalisation could bring a levelling of prices. have been proposed here as a starting point for further calculations.5 Drives: Speed Control 25 15 96. but paradoxically. In addition. energy service providers often package electricity with other services (heat. three values of ∆EC are reported.9 Sophisticated control systems 20 12 97.0 Cooling. Three values. 0.5 5 40 98. for the action globally considered.0 Reducing air leaks 80 20 84. drying and filtering 10 5 99.6 Recovering waste heat 20 20 96.3 low EP -1052 medium EP -1578 high EP -2104 17 The energy price varies widely among the European countries and in some cases also de- pends on the time of the day or the season in which energy is required. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .2 Optimising end use devices Πi 67.9 % The evaluated energy savings will determine a decrease in energy costs EC. it will be: ∆EC = -EP*ES (5.3 TWh/year CasESR 32.04. according to the different hypothesis for price (low.1 % ES 26. Analysis of Impacts Energy Savings and CAS Energy Savings Ratio for the actions globally considered Market Penetration Factor (MPF) Action Efficiency Gain Factor (EGF) 1-EGF*MPF [%] Drives: high efficiency motors 25 2 99. also wider price spreads between customers.6) In the following table.06 and 0.0 More frequent filter replacement 40 2 99. …) making it difficult to determine real electricity prices.08 €/kWh. 0. refrigeration.17 Table 14: Reduction of energy costs for the actions globally considered ES [TWh/year] ∆EC [Million €/year] 26.

Finally. estimated maintenance costs are: (5.10. three values of ∆ECi are reported in the following table. is: (5. to put into practice proposed measures. according to the different hypothesis for price considered. Therefore.10) For each measure individually considered the decrease in energy costs ∆ECi will be: ∆ECi = -EP*ESi (5. for each action.94 calculated from Equation 5. in the medium price scenario. some of the measures would have more impact on maintenance and system complexity than others. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .7) EC = EP*CasEC = 4800 Million €/year The application of proposed measures will increase plant complexity and the frequency of some maintenance tasks. The ratio between maintenance and energy costs in existing plants can be assumed to be equal to about 515 % (Paragraph 6. which. will produce a rise in maintenance costs. Of course.6) for typical CAS systems with low-medium power. From these values. it is possible to estimate the global investment costs that European CAS users should undertake to implement energy savings measures. a decrease in operating cost is evaluated.8) MC = 10 %*EC = 480 Million €/year Assuming that maintenance costs rise by about 20 %.11) Again. the payback time (PB) of each action has been estimated. their increase can be evaluated as:18 ∆MC = 20 %*MC = +96 Million €/year (5. On the other hand. "More frequent filter changes" or "Waste heat recovery" could be expected to increase maintenance costs. In particular "Reducing air leaks".Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 69 5. Analysis of Impacts These savings should be compared with the global energy costs for CAS users.9) The operating cost OC is therefore decreased by a quantity: ∆OC = ∆EC + ∆MC = 1482 Million €/year (5. assuming the medium value of energy price and reducing each value by a factor ∆OC/∆EC = 0. users would have to increase capital investment in CAS. To evaluate the increment in investment costs. introduction of adjustable speed drives or sophisticated control systems may decrease the frequency of mechanical failures. 18 We have used an estimate for the overall increase in maintenance costs.1. especially during the first years. Moreover. This effect.

60 -144 -216 -288 -203 Reducing frictional pressure losses 1. drying and filtering Overall system design Reducing air leaks More frequent filter replacement ∆IC [Million €] 1370 Finally. a "global" payback time can be evaluated. from the variations of Energy.40 -16 -24 -32 -23 Overall system design 3.68 -67 -101 -134 -95 Sophisticated control systems 1. Analysis of Impacts Reduction of operating costs for each proposed measure ∆EC [Million €/year] Energy Savings Action low EP [TWh/year] medium EP ∆OC [Million €/year] high EP Drives: high efficiency motors 0.20 -128 -192 -256 -180 Cooling.80 -512 -768 -1024 -721 0.20 -48 -72 -96 -68 Optimising end use devices 1.64 -26 -38 -51 -36 Reducing air leaks More frequent filter replacement Table 16: Increment of Investment costs for each proposed measure Payback Time ∆OC [Million €/year] (PT) [months] Drives: high efficiency motors ∆IC [Million €] -23 12 23 -169 9 127 -95 18 143 Sophisticated control systems -108 6 54 Recovering waste heat -180 6 90 -23 6 12 -203 18 305 Reducing frictional pressure losses -68 12 68 Optimising end use devices -90 18 135 -721 6 361 -36 18 54 Drives: Speed Control Upgrading of compressor Cooling. drying and filtering 0. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .60 -64 -96 -128 -90 12.92 -77 -115 -154 -108 Recovering waste heat 3. roughly defining its economic feasibility.Table 15: Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 70 5.00 -120 -180 -240 -169 Upgrading of compressor 1. assuming the full implementation of all proposed measures. This is in some way representative of the applicability of the proposal. Maintenance and Investment costs.40 -16 -24 -32 -23 Drives: Speed Control 3.

some manufacturers. Defining: Ø The Number of Compressors in use in Europe: (5. Moreover. moderate ARP scenario ∆OC [Million €/year] 5. Obviously. manufacturers will be strongly motivated to modify their production in order to meet users’ demand. CAS users’ increased investment costs may be seen as possible increased sales for manufacturers of compressors and CAS equipment. testing and manufacturing capabilities. Table 18: Payback Time. especially those producing compressors. engineering and development for enhancing their design.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union Table 17: 71 5.2 -741 ∆IC [Million €] 685 PB [Months] 11 Manufacturers of Compressors and CAS Equipment It is clear that the adoption of technical measures to improve compressed air systems efficiency has significant effects on manufacturers of compressors and CAS equipment. giving the final results detailed below. However. these target values are cut in half. Analysis of Impacts Payback Time. Manufacturers’ behaviour towards introduction of new technologies can be quantitatively evaluated from the data estimated for CAS users in the former paragraph. the pay back time is unchanged. CAS manufacturers already invest significantly in research and development. these numbers represent the techno-economic potential of the project. full realisation of techno-economic potential ∆OC [Million €/year] ∆IC [Million €] PB [Months] -1482 1370 11 As stated before. it is important to observe that many manufacturers are already investing heavily to fund research.12) NC = 321000 ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . to be prepared to meet increasing demand for technologically advanced products. In any case. Given the possibility of increased sales. in order to respond quickly to market requirements for both products and services. have recently implemented processes for assessing customer requirements and future marketplace requirements. In the moderate "ARP" scenario.

Compressed Air Systems
in the European Union

72

5. Analysis of Impacts

Ø and the Number of Compressed Air Systems19:

(5.13)

Ncas = 107000

On the basis of these estimates, the number of individual enterprise level
measures for each proposed technical measure can be estimated, assuming
that this number is associated with either NC or Ncas, and is directly proportional to the Market Penetration Factor, which identifies the applicability of each
action.
Table 19:

Number of company-level measures for each proposed energy
savings measure
Number of actions

Market Penetration Factor
(MPF)

NC

NCas

321000

107000

Drives: high efficiency motors

25 %

80250

Drives: Speed Control

25 %

Upgrading of compressor

30 %

Sophisticated control systems

20 %

21400

Recovering waste heat

20 %

21400

Cooling, drying and filtering

10 %

10700

Overall system design

50 %

53500

Reducing frictional pressure losses

50 %

53500

5%

5350

Reducing air leaks

80 %

85600

More frequent filter replacement

40 %

42800

Action

Optimising end use devices

26750
96300

Note that while some measures might be rapidly implemented (in particular leak
detection and optimal filter replacement) others measures would most likely be
spread over the approximately 15 year life cycle of major system components.
Globally, the introduction of new technologies for enhancing energy efficiency
will produce a series of modifications on the market of compressors and CAS
equipment:
Modifications on production activity:

new components;
improvement of existing components;

19 This number can be evaluated by a ratio giving the mean number of compressors in use for

each CAS user. From data developed by the study regarding some of the most important
sectors for CAS users (producers of paper, cement, mineral water, glass, steel products,
etc.), it can be estimated the average CAS has about 3 compressors. It is obviously an average value, this ratio being dependent on the size of the enterprise and its main products.

ADEME

Fraunhofer ISI

SAVE

DoE

ECE

Compressed Air Systems
in the European Union


73

5. Analysis of Impacts

improvement of control systems;
improvement in CAS design;

Remarkable modifications of existing manufacturing practice:


increased employment opportunities;
increased production opportunities;
increased after-market.

For actions requiring new/upgraded component purchasing, an estimate of annual sales volume can be made, assuming a 15 year life cycle. The results are
reported in the following table.
Table 20:

Estimated annual sales of new / upgraded components
Item

Annual sale

High efficiency motors

5350

Speed Controls

1783

Upgraded compressor

6420

Sophisticated control systems

1427

Waste heat recoverators

1427

Coolers, dryers, and filters

5.3

713

Electric Utilities

Energy savings in compressed air systems produce effects on electric utilities,
which can be significant locally, but are of limited impact on the global electricity
network.
The energy savings deriving from the adoption of a single action (ESi) or of all
technical measures (ES) have been already estimated. From the point of view
of the electricity producers, this will determine a decrement in energy sales.
This can be quantified by the variation of energy sales:

∆Ee = ∆EC,

(5.14)

equal to cost decrement for CAS users.

ADEME

Fraunhofer ISI

SAVE

DoE

ECE

Table 21:

Compressed Air Systems
in the European Union

74

5. Analysis of Impacts

Reduction of energy sales for electric utilities due to each of the
proposed actions (medium price scenario)
Energy
Savings (ES)
[TWh/year]

Action

∆Ee
[Million/year]

Drives: high efficiency motors

0.40

-24

Drives: Speed Control

3.00

-180

Upgrading of compressor

1.68

-101

Sophisticated control systems

1.92

-115

Recovering waste heat

3.20

-192

Cooling, drying and filtering

0.40

-24

Overall system design

3.60

-216

Reducing frictional pressure losses

1.20

-72

Optimising end use devices

1.60

-96

12.80

-768

0.64

-38

Reducing air leaks
More frequent filter replacement

Table 22:

Reduction of energy sales for electric utilities due to the actions
globally considered (medium price scenario)
ES

[TWh/year]

∆Ee

[Million €/year]

26.3
-1578

Reduced electricity production will generate a saving in fuel consumption:20

∆F=ES/(η* LHV)

(5.15)

where η is the net electric conversion efficiency and LHV is the low heating
value. Assuming a mean value for η equal to 39 % and considering methane as
primary fuel (LHV=50 MJ/kg), a fuel consumption reduction of about 4.9
Mtons/year has been estimated. Hence, significant reductions of pollutant emissions are expected.
Table 23:

Fuel savings
ES

[TWh/year]

∆F

[Mtons/year]

26.3
4.9

20 For η (efficiency in energy production) a mean value of 39 % has been assumed. For Hu

(Lower Heating Value), it has been assumed to burn methane (Hu = 50 MJ/kg).

ADEME

Fraunhofer ISI

SAVE

DoE

ECE

drying and filtering 0.58 % 0.60 0.08 % Sophisticated control systems 1.20 0.17) Table 24: Global Energy Savings Ratio for each proposed measure Energy Savings (ES) [TWh/year] Global Energy Savings Ratio (GESR) Drives: high efficiency motors 0. applying the usual one-half ratio. which evaluates the ratio between energy savings and global energy consumption: • • for each of the proposed measures GESRi = ESi/GEC (5.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 75 5.40 0.02 % Drives: Speed Control 3. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .07 % 12.16 % Reducing frictional pressure losses 1.16) for the action globally considered GESR = ES/GEC (5.03 % Action Reducing air leaks More frequent filter replacement Table 25: Global Energy Savings Ratio for the action globally considered ES [TWh/year] GESR 26.5 %). Analysis of Impacts It should be noted that. since influence of CAS on total energy consumption (GEC) is low (equal to CasEC/GEC = IEF*CAF = 4.68 0.20 0.09 % Recovering waste heat 3.15 % Cooling.40 0. the influence of the proposed actions on the cost structure of electric utilities would be even lower21.05 % Optimising end use devices 1.60 0. What has been said can be quantified by the Global Energy Savings Ratio. the following results are obtained: 21 We have not considered possible avoided investment costs for new electricity generation facilities.00 0.3 1.64 0.2 % In the moderate scenario.14 % Upgrading of compressor 1.80 0.92 0.02 % Overall system design 3.

etc. new design techniques.Table 26: Energy and Fuel Savings for the moderate scenario ES [TWh/year] ∆Ee [Million €/year] -789 ∆F [Mtons/year] -2. which reveal a limited interest of managers to spend their time on improving energy efficiency. In general. the adoption of new technologies for enhancing the energy efficiency will produce the following modifications.). ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . should receive public incentives. Enterprises that produce high efficiency CAS can be expected to implement processes for assessing customer and future market requirements.3. Hence. As mentioned above in Chapter 1. all parties must be kept up-to-date with a specific training oriented towards the new energy savings technologies. • training activities. including manufacturers. According to results shown in Paragraph 1. which involve the market for both design consultants and maintenance services: • increased design costs (new software. The development of the external sources market. optimisation tools. therefore.1. the required analysis is likely to be delegated to external sources. in order to respond quickly to market requirements for both products and services. • enhanced knowledge required. such as training through institutional structures.4 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 76 5. maintenance is often outsourced to enterprises specialised in this function or to CAS producers. However. • support for decision making. They will also require training for personnel employed in this task. distributors and consultants. which are strictly related to the particular characteristics of the enterprise involved and its CAS services.6 % Engineering Consultants and Compressed Air Suppliers The adoption of technical measures proposed in Chapter 3 requires the definition of the strategies to be used.15 0. the adoption of saving actions could greatly stimulate the market for engineering expertise.5 GESR 5. A similar trend will involve all the activities of extraordinary maintenance of CAS equipment. (market analysis). Analysis of Impacts 13. • new opportunities.

c.f. enhancing the energy efficiency of CAS. Assuming an average power plant efficiency ηg = 0.c. = 370 grams / kWh for coal fired plants. will produce a decrease in their environmental impact.f. Nevertheless. compressed air outsourcing is developing rapidly in France.c. geothermal. 5. the reduction of CO2 emissions has become a public policy priority.39. CO2 production from a power plant depends on the primary fuel employed and on the energy conversion efficiency.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 77 5. distinguishing different energy sources.) can be calculated: s. the above reported figures can be translated into CO2 emissions as follows: 720 grams CO2 / kWh for oil fired plants 515 grams CO2 / kWh for natural gas fired plants 890 grams CO2 / kWh for coal fired plants. Moreover. 22 For instance. the energy savings (ES) allow for reducing the fuel consumption and related pollutant emissions.f. renewable sources) varies. Interviews with companies that have chosen to outsource confirm that controlling energy costs is one of the main decision criteria in favour of outsourcing. interviews with the main outsource suppliers indicate that potential energy savings is one of their main selling points. their importance is variable between different European countries22. Analysis of Impacts As for compressed air service suppliers. = 220 grams / kWh for oil fired plants s. the reduction of CO2 emissions will vary between countries. In Table 27. nuclear. Data does not exist for a European wide quantitative analysis of outsourcing. In fact. the fraction of electricity produced in power plants without combustion (hydroelectric. the following specific fuel consumption (s.f. Given the large spread in the specific emission among fuels.5 Environmental Impact The adoption of the proposed technical measures. Increased user awareness of the potential for energy savings could thus be expected to expand the market for compressed air outsourcing. but is rare in the United Kingdom. = 180 grams / kWh for natural gas fired plants s. Given the context of recent international agreements (Kyoto protocol). Considering an average composition for each fuel.c. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . the electricity production in 1997 is reported for various countries.

Conversely.2 France 68.4 2761.2 0.2 61.3 2413.9 50.5 90. the resulting specific CO2 emissions are reported.3 23.1 6.4 352.5 79. In the following table.2 – – 40.3 861.8 – 70.9 38.7 4.1 345.3 69.5 Country World Italy Portugal United Kingdom US Total Source: ENERDATA.5 56.9 – 200.7 97.5 363.5 549.9 Luxembourg 0.7 3.3 – 47. ENEL "Dati statistici sull’energia elettrica in Italia 1997" It is evident that the reduction of CO2 emissions will be high in countries where the fraction of electricity produced from fossil fuel power plants is high (Greece.3 92.9 34.0 – – 19.4 43.1 Finland 11.4 30.1 – 20.1 241.9 63.). Italy.1 82.9 789.9 251.6 Ireland 1.1 – – 39.9 33.7 6.1 – 98. Moreover.Table 27: Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 78 5.7 8.3 170.2 2443.1 Greece 4.3 1. oil) used for the thermoelectric power generation.).6 17. the possibilities for reducing CO2 emissions with energy savings actions are strictly related to the mix of fossil fuels (coal.8 1115.4 72.9 – 20.2 9.0 1224. Analysis of Impacts Electricity production in 1997 for various countries Hydro Nuclear [TWh] Geothermal [TWh] 2657. with reference to the thermoelectric power generation (case 1) and to the total electricity production (case 2). etc.3 Belgium 1.9 50.2 3808.4 183.1 95.3 Denmark 1. France.1 65.8 Spain 36.5 – 3.7 Austria 37.3 666.2 505. Luxembourg. natural gas.1 14094.8 13. Denmark.1 Netherlands 0.2 95.5 86.2 20.4 4389. it can be fairly low in countries where electricity is mainly produced through hydro or nuclear sources (Sweden. as well as to the mean energy conversion efficiency.6 4.1 – 55.5 41.7 148.7 EU 15 323.3 0.3 Germany 26.8 2392.5 64.0 46.8 34.1 – 395. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .7 9002.2 Sweden 68.3 Europe [TWh] Fossil fuels [TWh] [TWh] Fossil fuels [%] 42.1 50.3 – – 19. etc.5 42.2 78.9 – – 0.0 55.

when compared to the European continent as a whole. for an overall estimate. However. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .Compressed Air Systems in the European Union Table 28: 79 5. or when compared to the whole world or the US. the absolute values of the CO2 emissions avoided by the previously described interventions are worth examining. Analysis of Impacts Specific CO2 emissions Country CO2 emissions related to thermoelectric total electricity power generation production [grams/kWh] World 957 611 1045 582 EU 15 801 406 Austria 541 186 Belgium 755 289 Denmark 957 928 Finland 893 449 France 700 58 Germany 932 598 Greece 952 862 Ireland 677 643 Italy 656 524 Luxembourg – – Netherlands 652 624 Portugal 695 425 United Kingdom 745 520 Spain 868 436 1051 69 939 681 Europe Sweden US Source: ENERDATA. and therefore any energy savings is highly appealing from the environmental point of view. In any case. inside the Union there are countries. it appears significant to evaluate the reduction of CO2 emissions for each energy savings action and the mean EU value for the specific CO2 emission referred to the total electricity generation. In Table 29. considering a specific CO2 emission of 406 grams/ kWh. like Denmark or Greece. in light of the variations between countries. However. ENEL "Dati statistici sull’energia elettrica in Italia 1997" It can be readily observed that in the European Union. we show the decrease for the 11 measures. the specific CO2 emission is rather low. where specific emissions are very high.

68 0.22 Upgrading of compressor 1.16 Overall system design 3.30 Cooling.60 0.64 0. drying.40 0.3 Mtons/year (Table 30).Table 29: Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 80 5.3 Mtons/year Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .46 Reducing frictional pressure losses 1.60 1.40 0.80 5. and filtering 0. these data are reduced by one half and the energy savings will be 13.5 TWh/year and a related emission saving of 5.78 Recovering waste heat 3.5 TWh/year 5.20 0.92 0. Table 30: ADEME Energy savings and CO2 emission reduction in the moderate scenario Energy Savings (ES) CO2 emission reduction 13. Analysis of Impacts Energy savings and CO2 emission reduction for each of the proposed actions Energy Savings (ES) [TWh/year] Action CO2 emission reduction [Mtons/year] Drives: high efficiency motors 0.20 1.68 Sophisticated control systems 1.65 12.49 Optimising end use devices 1.16 Drives: Speed Control 3.00 1.26 Reducing air leaks More frequent filter replacement In the ARP moderate scenario.20 0.

81 6. Thus these cost cutting practices can be counterproductive in terms of reducing life cycle costs for electricity. and motor system consumption in particular. the results are often outstanding. This is particularly true since the optimal systems according to the electricity consumption criterion often require higher initial investment. cutting across departmental responsibilities. rarely take into account long term operating costs including electricity consumption.1. To facilitate the reading and understanding of the proposed actions. is usually treated as a general overhead item in company analytical accounting schemes. "implementation time" and the "covered potential". Experience in national programmes shows that in companies where this has been done. The criteria 'implementation time' gives an indication of the time which is necessary to get the ac- ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . since it is most often a relatively small cost item for any company. Thus reducing this cost item is not the responsibility of any particular manager. It is difficult to get high level management agreement. for reasons which are essentially organisational: • Motor system electricity consumption is "invisible" to top management. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems The basic conclusions of the data collection tasks can be summarised in the following manner: a large economic and technical potential exists for energy savings in compressed air systems. and management retrospectively is happy with the decision. The objective must be to convince high level management to make the decisions necessary to carry out energy efficiency programmes.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 6. on a low priority item such as electricity consumption. Purchasing. • Measures to optimise the cost of equipment purchases. The cost criteria gives an estimate of the expected cost which would be born by the Commission or national institutions. Since the barriers to the energy efficiency measures are essentially organisational. 14 different actions will be described. These 14 actions where derived from intensive discussions of the study group.9 % of their current electricity consumption. • Electricity consumption in general. which will help to exploit the existing savings potentials in CAS. Thus they are not even proposed by suppliers in competitive bidding procedures. these measures are not carried out by private enterprises. taking into account the view from outside people who are actively working in the compressed air business. Finance. In Chapter 6. The criteria for the evaluation used are "cost". While the technical measures needed are considered to be more profitable than many other industrial investments. each action will be evaluated in a standardised table after a short description of each action. the solutions must also be organisational. estimated at 32. such as competitive bidding procedures. Maintenance. • Responsibility for potential optimisation measures is largely diffused among several management functions: Production.

Therefore. but the responsibility for different aspects of the compressed air system is often spread over different levels of management. 6. since these actions are not even considered by management. such as an "Economic and Regulatory Programme" (ERP) containing mandatory actions. associations and national institutions. At this level. therefore the potential covered by a set of two actions may be even larger than the sum of the potentials of these two actions. The contents should inform that a savings potential exists rather than how and how much energy can be saved. An action with very good performance will have low cost. as a first step. These programmes are described in Paragraph 6. Information should be concise and easy to remember: "How is your compressor today?" The channels could be any medium which touches management: journals. which require intensive preparation and discussion. fairs. This campaign could be started by the Commission and include the cooperation of manufacturers. that the different actions are not independent in their results. An additional channel could be the involvement of ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . For a better understanding of the tables it should be noted. Some actions can be prepared in a short time and thus will permit quick initial results. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems 82 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union tion started and is important to set up a complete programme. management must be encouraged to examine and think about their compressed air system. The proposed actions are grouped into two distinct programmes. information about possible saving options need not be too detailed: as a starting point. Other actions. key persons are not even aware of the large costeffective savings potential which lies in their compressed air system. internet. public authorities might consider resorting to other actions. The "Awareness Raising Programme" (ARP) is linked to the experience. Often. an advertising campaign could create an initial awareness of the savings potential in compressed air systems. if action through consensus proves to be impossible. However. meetings.2.6. Thus public actions aimed at encouraging specific technical measures to exploit the savings potential are pointless.1. will influence the energy consumption of CAS only in the medium or long term. that the best results can be achieved if all actors involved work together to achieve the feasible reduction of energy consumption in CAS and the related reduction of CO2 emissions.1 Actions 6.1 Advertising Campaign Analysis of the energy savings potentials in Chapter 3 and the organisational aspects of energy savings in Chapter 4 has revealed that large cost-effective savings potentials exist for most compressed air users. The criteria 'covered potential' gives an indication of the share of the total savings potential which might be reached through each action. the implementation time will be short and the covered potential will be high.

Innovative concepts which might be supported include • • • • • gas turbine driven compressors. gas expansion motor or gas expansion turbine driven compressors.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 83 6. The campaign should be simple. The EU is member of the CADDET team and thus initiatives for further projects might be supported within the framework of this programme. g.caddet-ee. In order to avoid unnecessarily high costs. Pilot actions are also used to demonstrate "theory" on energy savings in a practical way. often including actions targeted at efficient compressed air production and distribution. Once this campaign has started and begins to take effect. more detailed information might have a better chance to reach the targeted audience. new tube connections for reducing leakage and pressure losses. we would recommend cheap media such as a WEB site. automatic leak detection systems. comprehensible to other compressed air system users. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems trade organisations.2 low short high medium medium medium high long low Technology Demonstration Pilot actions are aimed at only a small proportion of the target group. new concepts for air drying. 23 http://www. Various programmes already support demonstration actions for energy-efficient measures and technologies.org/ ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . and furthermore. an email or fax campaign. Costs Implementation Time Covered Potential 6. demonstration can push new. through publications in journals and newspapers. or flyers and news flashes in newspapers and technical papers.1. the results can be used to gain more insight into the handling of compressed air systems and to orient more detailed research. Examples are the Best Practise programmes in the United Kingdom or the international Centre for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies (CADDET)23. efficient technologies considerably. demonstration projects should address market deficiencies and generate technical information aimed at new technologies. but can be considerable and time-consuming. Therefore the cost for preparation should be low. The promotion potential of these concepts needs to be evaluated on a deeper technical level. demonstration links manufacturers to end-users and gives them some feedback about end-users needs. and should be limited to non technical information. The costs and implementation efforts very much depend on the demonstration objective. e. and the internet. In general. However. brochures and posters. Results should be disseminated to a broad public. However.

Compressed air system users could apply for support for the measurement expense (e. The procedure for measurement. The institution would also be responsible for public relations and dissemination of results. it is much easier for them to consider and adapt savings measures. Assuming that a good analysis for one company costs about 5 000 Euro of which 50 % would be financed through support from the Commission. the actual cost of each individual system analysis depends on system size and complexity. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems Costs Implementation Time Covered Potential 6. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . 50 %). g.5 million Euro to be financed by the EU. The support would be conditioned by an agreement to publicly report on the results in public (anonymously or as an advertisement for the involved partners). Costs Implementation Time Covered Potential 6. In addition. which would arrange the necessary support.1. The applications would be filed at a national institution24. users or other involved organisations to improve the efficient applications of compressed air systems.3 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 84 low short high medium medium medium high long low Measuring Campaign A general and major obstacle when introducing energy efficiency is that users are often not willing or capable of relating general information or measures to the specific situation in their own company. and would in some cases cost less or more than 5 000 Euro.4 low short high medium medium medium high long low Contests and Awards The awarding of prizes is a way to honour the efforts of manufacturers.6. the measuring campaign could involve a few pre-selected member countries of the EU. a pilot action to overcome this barrier would be a measurement campaign to give compressed air system users a short description of their savings potential. Thus. including the analysis of the energy and air consumption in a company might be as follows. The bigger and more far-reaching side effect of awards is the pub- 24 The EnR agencies of several European countries already administer similar programmes. As a starting point. If they get a cheap and concise overview of their own situation. Of course. the institution would collect statements of interest from metering institutions and distribute a list to compressed air system users. the investigation of 3 000 companies would cost 7.1.

The comparison of different compressed air systems is equally difficult. The call for tenders would consist of a fictitious example of a system with specific requirements for the produced air: pressure. in contrast to existing awards like the Energy Star award. These awards acknowledge superior technical accomplishment.gov/energystar/ ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .epa. quality. Participants should deliver solutions which fulfil these needs with less energy consumption.]. For a suitable award. Thus. yet the contest realisation and the target groups are quite different. quantity. By linking the contest with the requirements of an existing company or a system which needs to be replaced or newly built. Setting up appropriate criteria for "efficiency" might thus prove difficult.. public education. 6. The approaches are explained in more detail below.1 Award for System Design Awards for energy or environmental efficient products often lack the possibility to compare the different submitted examples. required air quality etc. the contest could serve as sort of a 25 Energy Star Award Rules and Instructions: Year 2000. The awards should "honour organisations that have made notable contributions to energy efficiency [."25 The analysis of the savings potential in Chapter 3 has shown that the most important benefits can be gained from improved system design rather than from improving the individual components.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 85 6. load curves. The assessment of solutions might also take into account environmental and economic aspects. A possible approach to overcome this problem might use "standardised" conditions of entry.4. a compressed air system award should not only include the improvement of equipment but should be concentrated on the system interactions. and promotional efforts to realise and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of ENERGY STAR-labelled products that result in substantial energy and cost savings and a cleaner environment. The US ENERGY STAR awards can serve as an example for a successfully organised contest where both manufactures and retailers are rewarded. equipment.1. Existing awards are targeted on both users and equipment manufacturers. More and continuously updated in- formation under www. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems lic attention gained during the contest procedure. as the systems can vary in size. from press releases and from the use of the award name and logo for publicity campaigns. implementation.. the study group has derived two possible approaches: • Award for the best system design corresponding to the definition of a theoretical user's needs • Awarding the design of existing and implemented systems Both approaches focus on proper system design.

e. compressor and dryer and filter manufacturers) or possibly independent consulting engineers. In this case. In both cases the awards could be rewarded on national and EU level. and Education The examination of the organisational barriers has shown that responsibility for different aspects of the compressed air system is often widely spread within business organisations. as well as multipliers like service providers and compressed air system distributors. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .4. As in the first approach. information tools and training courses need to address all company levels. the costs of such a contest would mainly consist of public relations costs and the prizes for the contest.5 Dissemination of Information. Training.2 low short high medium medium medium high long low Design Award for Installed Systems A second (parallel) prize could award real system solutions which have been or are about to be implemented in companies. However.6. the certification of the function of the workability and chances for realisation must be carefully considered. the impact on energy consumption of applications would be easy to prove. 6. g. While. in the second approach. from engineering and maintenance staff to management.1. In the second approach distributors or compressed air system users are the target group. the criteria would be less explicit and the comparison of the filed applications less straightforward. Costs Implementation Time Covered Potential 6. Thus. The applicants in the first case would be manufacturers (who in most cases already co-operate with each other. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 86 public bidding process and the winning of the award might be linked with the possibility to realise the proposed system. that the definition of an agreed set of decision criteria for either award might be difficult to obtain and will therefore require some time for preparation. Costs Implementation Time Covered Potential low short high medium medium medium high long low It should be recognised. the major benefit lies in the broad dissemination of the awarded examples. Again.1. the benefit of awarding seems to be rather low as only projects are awarded which would have been realised anyway. for the first approach.

etc. culture. Seminars represent significant effort and expense. Most information today is available in an electronic form. It would be possible to include in EuroDEEM modules on the performance and benchmarking of CAS. Managers usually have access to the internet.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 87 6. • Energy audits: Detailed energy analyses are provided by some manufacturers and service providers when new investments in the compressed air system are planned. handbooks. trade associations and government agencies and address mainly engineering and maintenance staff. Similar considerations can be applied to training seminars and training material. etc. the information network and the reception may differ largely and differences in education. The Commission's EuroDEEM database could serve as an information dissemination tool. • Education: The complete design and implementation of efficient compressed air systems is currently only a side topic in the education of engineers and technicians. for instance. For instance. The participants can contribute to the seminar ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . They include • Publications: Different kind of publications like leaflets brochures. distributors. very different in the food sector and in glass production. energy agencies. The interests. thus the Internet as a platform open to the general public might be a suitable tool to realise the pool. and the material should be indexed according to its target groups. for instance. journals and software are issued and distributed by manufacturers. Information must be specific to an industry: compressed air needs are. both for those who offer and those who attend the seminar. Shortcomings of these information and training devices are not the accessibility but the focussing to the specific needs of the target groups. • Seminars and Training Courses: comprehensive seminars are carried out by manufacturers. on good/best practices. with pointers to information tools maintained. on system design and component selection. sector membership. Practise examples as well as training material should be offered. by European Energy Agencies or by manufacturers. trade associations. material for maintenance staff should be available in their mother language whereas information for managers might be usable in English. e-mail and CD-ROM use whereas the maintenance staff on the shop floor may not. size of the company and/or the size of compressed air system should be carefully taken into account when spreading information. EuroDEEM could also serve as an entry point to a distributed information service. Several approaches to disseminate information to different target groups are used and should be further promoted. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems Raising awareness of energy savings through information and training tools is a common and widespread measure. One way to obtain better dissemination of suitable information to relevant target groups could be by collecting and grouping all kinds of information in an "information pool" which is accessible to information agents as well as users.

where more efficient compressed air system use could be demonstrated in practise (provided that there are enough persons in the factory interested in attending the seminar.6. A link to the practise which is important for many people to absorb knowledge could be achieved if the seminars were combined with on-site tours. In a pure sense. LCC is a concept that makes the cost of a product visible over its whole lifetime. Further efforts should focus on favouring more widespread use. careful design and maintain of compressed air systems should be part of the basic education of technicians and engineers. and better fit between information and targeted groups. Nevertheless. for compressed air systems. and also associated services such as cooling and ventilation. Energy costs include the consumption of the compressor drive. • Maintenance Costs: They include replacements for wear.6 low short high medium medium medium high long low Life Cycle Costing Life cycle costing (LCC) methods are one of the basic tools which link purchasing decisions to their long term impact on energy consumption. However. Costs Implementation Time Covered Potential 6. most seminars provide theoretical knowledge. in that it allows management to demonstrate that environmentally optimal decisions are also economically optimal.1. Integration of information tools with demonstration and pilot actions would be advantageous. LCC facilitates "Challenge" type programmes. è Good quality information and training material is available. LCC is the assessment of all costs that are caused by the existence of a specific product. Seminars could take place at the site of a compressed air system user. As noted earlier. • Energy Costs: Energy Costs are the sum of the yearly electricity costs for running the compressed air system over the whole lifetime. The energy costs can be calculated with the following formula: ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . filters and other spare parts. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 88 with their experience and their own specific problems. consumption of oil. Last but not least. They should also include the labour cost for the maintenance staff. Maintenance costs are mostly difficult to assess as they are usually not accounted for separately from the compressed air system. or the factory management is willing to open their doors to outsiders). three main cost factors should be considered: • Investment Costs: The purchase price of the components of the compressed air system and the cost of their installation. many companies are not aware of costs related to the compressed air system.

Variation of Power Operating hours: 4000 h Power: 15 kW Lifetime: 15a Power: 160 kW 15% (64 k€) 21% (9 k€) .Interest rate = 10% 79% (332 k€) Investment Costs Maintenance Costs Energy Costs Figure 10: LCC for two different sizes of compressors. For the calculation of the life cycle costs. for compressors of 15 and 160 kW. operating hours. Chapter 2).Maintenance costs: 5 % of inv. a range of parameters can be varied: share of maintenance cost (on a basis of annual energy cost or on the basis of initial investment). that catalogue prices normally represent an upper value for the purchase price. price = 0. that even for very low electricity prices the energy costs remain the dominant factor of the life cycle costs. Life Cycle Costing . lifetime. The list makes clear that results from LCC can only serve as an example for typical compressed air system applications. costs pa. although they all will show the large importance of the energy costs (typically 75 % and more of the total costs). represent typical values for CAS (cf. load factor = 1. = 90 %. el.Energy costs: (24 k€) motor eff.. The investment costs are based on actual catalogue prices. motor efficiency. as it does not take into account factors such as the complex load profiles that have to be satisfied by the CAS.06 €/kWh. the results should be sufficiently accurate in most cases. 6% .Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 6. rise in energy price. While this simplification may influence the final result of the calculation. indicating the significance of energy consumption Depending on the average electricity price. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . The two examples presented below. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems 89 Lifetime æ Motor Power ö å çç Motor Efficiency ∗ Operating Hours pa ∗ Load Factor ∗ Energy Price ∗ (1 + Rise in Prices pa )t ÷÷ ø t =1 è This formula is however a simplification. It should be kept in mind. the share of energy costs in the total life cycle costs may vary considerably. The assumptions for the calculations are included in the Figure 10.Investment costs: list price . However the calculations presented in Figure 11 show. share of idle. rise in prices = 0 8% (4 k€) 71% (31 k€) . part and full-load times. energy price.

and consequently on the type of products which manufacturers put on the market. typical parameters. The input would be plant specific parameters or – if the user is not aware of any specific details – pre-defined. This could be done with the help of a software tool which provides the calculation scheme.04 €/kWh base case 0.08 €/kWh (+ 67 %) 0. reliable product information is an essential component of efforts to help users make optimal choices in the design. Labelling of CAS. Experience has shown that product information can have a powerful influence on consumer choice. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 90 Variation of the Electricity Price Power 15 kW. operating under a ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .1. purchase and operation of CAS. Product labelling on energy performance is a way to inform prospective buyers of the relative quality of competing products.12 €/kWh Electricity Price Energy Costs Maintenance Costs Investment Costs Figure 11: LCC of a compressor with variation of electricity prices Compressed air system users could link the findings of LCC sample calculations with their own specific investment decisions if they have a suitable computer software tool at hand to calculate the LCC with their specific parameters. Operating hours 4000 h. The result will be an individual LCC calculation in a graphical form. Lifetime 15a 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% (.1 €/kWh (+ 100 %) 0.33 %) 0. Costs Implementation Time Covered Potential 6. like other labelling. poses some difficulties since individually marketed components are integrated into complex systems.7 low short high medium medium medium high long low Labelling and Certification Appropriate.6.06 €/kWh (+ 33 %) 0.

A product information system should consist of the following elements: • a definition of the scope of a particular product description. that is to say. What is common to these approaches is the identification of adequate product information. This often takes the form of a label which is physically affixed to the product. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems variety of specific environments. This information would permit users. For labelling. appropriate product information on system components would be an essential element of any programme which aims to transform the market towards better energy (and economic) efficiency. Furthermore. that can be implemented alone with positive and pertinent results.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 91 6. • sufficiently accurate to permit the identification of the best product for a particular application. in comparison with the economic consequences of the choice. so as to assure a level playing field between competing manufacturers. Their energy performance depends on correct system design. product information must be: • detailed enough to permit informed choice in a variety of operating conditions and with different system design constraints. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . on proper installation. the cost of producing product information should be reasonable. • cost effective. • the presentation mode for the information. we consider comparative testing (as described below) to be a first step towards labelling. in practice. which if applied correctly to a given product. and on correct maintenance. in the case of disagreement between user and supplier over the performance and efficiency of the CAS system. on interaction with other components and end use devices. • a definition of the pertinent information which must be given to users. develops the necessary information. two types of approaches could be considered: • • Energy labelling for individual system components Energy performance labelling or certification for entire systems. The test protocol should permit objective judgements.1. • a test protocol. system designers and installers to best build CAS which meet user needs in the most efficient manner. In order to fulfil this role.7. they will be treated separately in the following paragraphs. Therefore.1 Energy Labelling for Individual System Components With respect to CAS. Nevertheless. 6. • fair and verifiable. these two approaches would be very different in nature.

since user demand for information already exists. Under this approach. Such a voluntary testing programme could contribute to elucidating. several difficulties would have to be overcome. At the same time. • technical problems could be resolved in a satisfactory manner. with each country taking on the responsibility for a subset of an agreed upon list of components. manufacturers.6. so that they appear in those test result publications which will have demonstrated their usefulness to users. Replacing systems components with functionally identical products with better performance accounts for ¼ of the potential savings. The following paragraphs describe a voluntary testing programme. the members of the EnR network) could divide up the effort. which would start by gaining experience with comparative testing. as described in the following paragraphs. As users become more aware of energy savings in CAS. manufacturers might be willing to pay to have their products tested. laboratories. • the cost of obtaining and publishing product information would be reasonable.1. Such a testing programme might be carried out through a co-operative effort among member states. or can be expected to develop rapidly. As explained in Chapter 3. National institutions (for instance. as a possible option to meet the challenge of creating a useful and workable product information system for individual CAS components. the technical problems associated with the medium term objective of providing appropriate product information. over ¾ of the potential energy savings in CAS would come from proper system design and optimal maintenance procedures. 6. they might be willing to pay for the relevant information (for instance through trade associations). such product testing might become a self supporting activity. system designers) would identify those areas where: • comparative testing could be most useful. Nevertheless. Costs Implementation Time Covered Potential low short high medium medium medium high long low The study team investigated an approach to product information. in co-operation with the most important stakeholders (users.1. and perhaps resolving.1 Comparative Testing The study team investigated the possibility of inciting test laboratories to perform comparative testing of CAS components. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 92 Furthermore. • Who pays? In the medium term. In order for such a comparative testing programme to be useful.7. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . the cost effectiveness of labelling must be taken into account in establishing priorities for future public action.

Meeting variable needs for compressed air A large portion of CAS must meet varying needs for air. and to find appropriate responses to the questions raised in creating energy efficient systems. As described above. a very large variety of operating conditions would have to be simulated.7. The pertinent data for the comparison of the energy consumption is the "specific consumption".. Recent research has made progress in the definition of standard variable load profiles. For a machine that might be produced in limited series. The cost for carrying out reliable and fair tests would be very variable for different types of equipment. and might be a prohibitively high proportion of the value of the machine. in co-operation with a laboratory. in Compressors and their Systems. For large. IMechE Conference Transactions. 1999. it would be essential that public authorities (the Commission and member states) "prime the pump" by financing test programmes. few laboratories are capable of performing comparative tests on CAS components. and the scope of product information. to be useful. or with buyers. • Possible high cost. Today. Characterisation of a variable load is of course much more difficult than for a constant load. Laboratory testing would be best fitted for small components produced in large series. "Changing attitudes in compressed air usage through developments in variable speed drives". 6. The test process for machines and control systems designed for variable loads necessitates the definition of a limited number of test protocols.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 93 6. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . transportation and installation can be very costly. The method is similar to the definition of highway and city driving modes for the testing of automobile fuel consumption. • Test conditions. • Expertise.1. so as to permit users to compare competing products.2 Labelling of Individual System Components Developing adequate product information systems for CAS components necessitates defining useful categories of products. the cost of testing could not be spread over many machines. To establish laboratories of this nature and familiarise them with the testing procedure required could be a long and expensive process. Professional Engineering Publishing Ltd. limited volume items. perhaps through the use of standardised test cycles (similar to the city/highway protocols for cars). London. For certain types of equipment. which should be representative of a majority of real systems.1. For certain pieces of equipment (for example large compressors) purchase. 26 Grant. ISO reference conditions specify measurement at 20°C and 0 %RH (relative humidity). that could be used in testing26. tests would have to simulate actual operating conditions. expressed in kWh per m3. perhaps testing could be done at the factory. or even custom built. A. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems in the short term.

1. but also because these machines usually operate a small number of hours per year.1. and where it might prove useful: • Labelling similar to current European labelling programmes for consumer goods. Users and manufacturers would have the opportunity to suggest elements for the definition of test protocols.1. "bottom up". approach to product labelling might be to initiate the above described comparative testing programme. because these machines are outside of the scope of the study (focused on medium size. users and manufacturers on the usefulness of a particular test protocol and the resulting production information. In addition. and to evaluate the usefulness of their results for equipment users. In this way. the efficiency class of the motor should appear on the compressor nameplate and in catalogue information.3 From Comparative Testing to Labelling A pragmatic. The voluntary product testing phase would allow testing laboratories to try out different test protocols.4 Short Term Opportunities for Labelling The study group identified two areas where product labelling could be implemented in the short term at a reasonable cost. a consensus might develop between laboratories.1. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems 94 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 6. 6.6. In a preliminary phase. over time. è The study team has concluded that a "bottom up" approach is the most promising option for developing product information for CAS components. with a simple A to G quality scale.7. efficiency at full load and at three-quarter load could be quoted in the catalogue. 6.7. test protocols might become ISO standards. and corresponding labels could be adopted by the EU as voluntary or mandatory product information. • For compressors sold with motors covered by existing European motor labelling agreements.1. 10 to 300 kW machines).7. and the total energy savings potential appears to be small.2 Labelling for a Programme of Rational Use of Energy Performance or quality labelling of entire systems is a different (although complementary) approach to pertinent product information for CAS. The study did not further investigate this possibility. Experience gained could lead to a consensus on pertinent test protocols and labels. the Commission and member states could encourage and finance comparative testing. and to use the experience gained to define elements of voluntary or mandatory product labelling. Once this consensus is achieved. This could create an "Intel inside" effect ("eff 1 motor inside"). might be applicable to small compressors (under 10 kW) which are sold as stand alone tools.

the label would have to be renewed periodically. Achieving and effective.1. The action is based on co-operation between public authorities and 27 P. This would of course necessitate some categorisation of systems (including such criteria as air quality and nature of variable loads). 1999. This approach is in some respects similar to an ISO 9000 or ISO 14000 approach. The motivation for users to request labelling or certification might come from two sources: • increased awareness of the money savings potential from improved CAS design and operation. senior management might be easily convinced of the utility of this approach for CAS. In order to cover system operation. overall system design. EMAS and a future European compressed air system quality label should be considered. in which the energy consumption (or overall cost. for instance. a label might. Much work has already been done to define the "best practices" which should be respected in the design and operation of CAS.V. certify that the system had been designed in accordance with good engineering practices. such as the distribution network. A weakness of this approach is that it would focus attention on the production of compressed air. Graz ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . which takes into account long term energy consumption. Some elements of LCC could be integrated into the requirements for a quality label.A. possible synergy between ISO. It would be difficult to treat downstream issues.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 95 6. in: E. success and barriers. including initial cost and operating costs) of a system would be compared with that of similar systems. impartial and workable system would of course necessitate extensive discussion with manufacturers and users.8 low short high medium medium medium high long low Voluntary Agreements Voluntary (or negotiated) agreements (VA) have gained growing popularity in the 90s27. A European wide CAS challenge could include the certification or labelling of entire systems. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems In the quality approach. Proceedings of the SAVE Conference For An Energy Efficient Millennium. or leak detection. In fact. The performance approach might use "benchmarking" techniques. Since the benchmarking of service functions in industry is becoming increasingly common. Costs Implementation Time Covered Potential 6. • government incentives or pressure. Bertholdi. through European and national energy or Green House Gas programmes. – the Austrian Energy Agency. Energy efficient equipment within SAVE: Activities. One of the main obstacles to this approach would be to convince users to put into operation the necessary equipment to measure air flow. strategies. which accounts for over half of the potential for energy savings. 8-10 Nov.

6. weaving looms) is of special importance in order to include optimisation air consumption in the VA. Major efforts would be necessary to negotiate such agreements: • The VA is only reasonable if the participating manufacturers account for a significant market share. The criteria to become a partner in the GreenLight Programme are addressed to users of lighting systems. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 96 industry representatives. two approaches might be possible: • A voluntary agreement with manufacturers and their associations • A voluntary programme targeted on compressed air system users Both approaches are described in the following paragraphs.6. in 1997 the DoE initiated the Compressed Air Challenge. For improvements of the whole compressed air systems. In addition. a voluntary programme with private and public organisations to accelerate the penetration of efficient lighting28. as they have the freedom to decide how to reach the target.org ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . g. bottling machines. the Commission is currently setting up the GreenLight Programme.1.eu-greenlight. manufacturers. distributors. The target should provide 28 http://www. pneumatic transport equipment. etc. associations and public institutions to support energy-efficient compressed air systems. • A consensual target for energy-efficient production. a voluntary collaboration of large compressed air system users.1 A Voluntary Agreement with Manufacturers and their Associations A voluntary agreement between the European Commission and manufacturers of compressed air systems equipment would aim to influence the supply side of the market by setting ambitious efficiency standards. Governmental authorities are favourable to VA because they are easier and faster to implement than regulatory approaches. For the adoption of a European compressed air system Challenge Programme. The US Department of Energy's Motor Challenge Programme is an industry/ government partnership designed to improve the energy efficiency of motordriven systems.8. compressor as well as other equipment (filters. accelerating technological development and phasing out low-efficiency products. Both initiatives have shown the usefulness of providing public recognition for private enterprise engagement in actions which favour the environment. distribution and consumption of compressed air must be developed. In Europe. The integration of manufacturers of end-use devices with considerable compressed air consumption (e. wrapping machines.) manufacturers need to be included. The advantages are: manufacturers are more willing to reach efficiency targets. dryers.

Voluntary agreements. Costs Implementation Time Covered Potential 6. call for tenders for awards. K.29 The money was spent for co-ordination. • Procedures to monitor the progress must be defined. Ghislain. • An agreement should be reached on action to take in case of noncompliance.8. the partners would profit from accompanying actions (information campaigns. pumps. have high implementation efforts. This type of challenge programme can easily integrate and be coupled with the entire range of measures available in European or National energy efficiency programmes and the ones already described like certification of compressed air systems. to which companies could adhere. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems notable improvements in a given period of time which must lie well above a pre-defined "business as usual" scenario. In exchange. The Commission would have to define a user charter. Meadows. an advertising campaign and press work. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . J. that is the users rather than manufacturers of efficient products. containing targets and procedures for improvement in the production.1. A starting condition of the US compressed air challenge programme was to gather a $ 300 000 budget in the first year by including sponsors with a minimum contribution of $ 30 000 each. etc. The proposal was submitted by a consortium of EnR agencies and other partners.)30.2 low short high medium medium medium high long low A Voluntary Programme for Compressed Air System Users The GreenLight programme of the European Commission interprets the voluntary agreement instrument in a different way from most of existing programmes: it addresses the demand rather than the supply side. McKane. information exchange and dissemination. development of information and training material.P. Compressed Air Challenge: Market Change from the Inside Out. compressors) was submitted for consideration by the Commission under the SAVE II programme. which necessitate intensive negotiation.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 97 6. a successful agreement includes important market players. Compressed air system users would become partners in the programme by announcing their willingness to fulfil the adopted targets. The negotiated target could be linked to an energy/environment "charter". On the other hand. Proceedings of the 1999 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry. that is involving companies which use compressed air. thus the benefit can be considerable. would foster the systems approach rather than the improvement of stand-alone equipment (as in the VA concept described in the preceding paragraph). distribution and consumption of compressed air within a company. addressing motor systems in general (fans. Washington 1999 30 A pilot action of this type. 29 A. demonstration and pilot actions. Applying this process to compressed air systems. in: ACEEE.T.

for instance. Such action could ensure that energy consumption and energy savings are considered in outsourcing contracts. cooling. possibility to contract with other cus- ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Therefore energy services like heating. Costs Implementation Time Covered Potential 6. reliability and cost. location. However the possible energy savings in CAS are very often not addressed in outsourcing contracts. that the contract for outsourcing of a CAS system will be in any case an individual contract. This is the case. rather than by the service provider.6. However the target group is even more difficult to approach and a broad application of the programme would be a very ambitious goal. In fact. Outsourcing is very often initiated when old equipment must be replaced. or because repeated breakdowns have caused loss of production. so that the service provider is motivated to engage in measures such as leak reduction. to create a consistent bundle of actions. • use some type of "ESCO" arrangement. Thus. Outsourcing permits companies to delegate a function to a specialised service provider. Many contracts are written in such a way that neither the contractor nor the customer have an interest in reducing energy consumption. under a contract which specifies quality of service. when electricity consumption is paid for by the company. • pay for air delivered. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 98 Again.1. which has to take into account the specific needs of the service provider and the customer and the external conditions such as space availability. steam production and the delivery of compressed air or other services are outsourced from the company. in many contracts. the service provider does not benefit from increased efficiency of the compressor. However it should be noted. management time) on their core business. or from leak reduction. because it has become too expensive (or impossible) to maintain. or system reconfiguration which reduce air consumption.9 low short high medium medium medium high long low Development of Guidelines for Outsourcing More and more companies are trying to focus their limited resources (capital. this approach could and should be linked with several other measures. Public action could be useful to help potential users of outsourcing services to better contractualise the delivery of service: • install electricity and air flow meters. the service is paid for as a function of the number of hours of operation of the compressor.

energy savings measures.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 6. discussion of some form of eco-tax is continuing within the EU. fiscal or regulatory authority of the EU and of member states to strongly incite. or of special low cost financial mechanisms. The study team wishes to limit its comments to a remark on the potential effect of energy related taxes on those energy savings measures identified in Chapter 3 of this report. Under the British system. • Subsidies.10. or by removing money through taxes. these same energy savings measures. etc. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . to carry out energy audits. When the subsidies apply to investment costs.). • Taxes. 6. Many European countries currently use this type of measure. In the context of the Kyoto Protocol process. energy. technically feasible. Costs Implementation Time Covered Potential 6. on electricity. or even to impose. Taxes Fiscal policy is a broad policy question. Note that the United Kingdom has recently instituted an interesting combination of subsidies and eco-taxes. with a scope much wider than CAS. A complementary approach would be to use the economic. etc. or even to pay for part of energy savings investment costs. But the tax is refunded to firms which engage in energy savings investments or actions.10 low short high medium medium medium high long low Economic and Regulatory Actions The preceding paragraphs have described a programme of actions which aims to convince industry management to adopt profitable.1 Taxes and Subsidies Economic measures. taxes. they often take the form of tax reductions (accelerated depreciation. è The study has identified a very large potential for measures which are highly profitable (3 year maximum pay back time) under current economic conditions (energy prices.1. integration of compressed air delivery into a broader energy services package. aim to modify the economic parameters which influence the decision making process. electricity is taxed. etc.1. or on carbon.). Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems 99 tomers. by injecting money through subsidies or tax reductions.

31 Note that if such a programme were targeted on those systems which consume the most energy. è If subsidies are to be considered. to overcome possible internal barriers. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .6. subsidising investments seems to have less impact. or to the contrary low cost. due to the variable nature of possible measures. and should be closely linked with awareness raising programmes. and the impact appears to be larger. On the other hand. the percentage of energy use would be much larger than 10 %. Costs Implementation Time Covered Potential low short high medium medium medium high long low Note that the "medium" estimation for the cost of economic measures is approximate. It is of course important that a follow up of the audit be ensured. Experience has shown that this is an effective complement to a programme of actions which aims at raising management awareness of the savings potential. Paying for half of this for 10 % of the 320 000 medium size systems in Europe would thus cost about 30 million Euro. è A small change in energy prices would make investments that are already highly profitable even more profitable. Most of the energy savings investments carried out with subsidies would have been profitable without the subsidy. or perhaps 6 million Euro per year if the effort was spread over 5 years31. and at interesting management in paying for more comprehensive diagnostics. For the reasons described in Chapter 4. and it seems likely that the existence of a subsidy is not the decisive element which convinces management to consider these investments. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 100 Taxes will add only marginal additional costs on the total energy expenditures and will therefore modify the technical and economic potential for energy savings only slightly. Slightly increasing the profitability would probably not have much impact on decision making. For instance a brief prediagnostic for a CAS costs approximately 2 000 Euro. A programme of subsidies or tax rebates might be very expensive. businesses are not seizing these opportunities. Subsidies The review of experience with subsidies performed by the study team indicates that subsidies should be placed as far upstream as possible and as a complement to awareness raising programmes. The cost of upstream measures is much lower. experience indicates that they should be placed as far upstream in the decision process as possible (that is to say as close as possible to initial decision to consider energy efficiency in the CAS).

In fact. This approach is being widely used in Europe for boilers. For the over 320 000 medium size CAS in Europe. It is interesting to estimate what such a system would cost. This is done routinely in building regulations. or all rotating machines. . a July 5. taxes can have a small or large impact. to achieve energy savings. A workable system would probably have a larger scope. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . some kind of on site audit or inspection is necessary. But of course. This would include the cost of running the administration responsible for registering installations. for instance. from the point of view of public authorities. it could be justified if they were the only way to obtain the potential savings identified in Chapter 3. for instance all motor driven systems. and thus may have a negative cost32. a very considerable sum33. Similarly. But French experience seems to show. due to the so called "double dividend". In fact. and paying for some kind of internal or external quality control scheme. the costs would of course be even higher.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 101 6. to insure optimal operation: for instance. depending on their nature.. the inspection costs are born by businesses. it would not be limited to CAS. this would then amount to 200 million Euro per year. Some argue that they can have an overall positive effect. Thus. that on the contrary. In this case. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems depending on the breadth of the measure. taxes can be revenue generating. it would seem logical that if a man- datory inspection system was created. and in any case. 33 The scope of this study is limited to CAS. We have taken as a working hypothesis a 3 year inspection cycle.2 Regulations Regulatory measures are used by governments to impose certain energy savings technologies. In France. French experience with the decree of 1977 indicates that the cost of administering this type of inspection would be at least 2 000 Euro per system every 3 years (650 Euro/year). Nevertheless. making sure that the inspections are carried out. that maintenance included leak detection and regular replacement of filters. 6. it would be technically possible to: • require licensing for the installation of new systems. this type of "command and control" system is not very effective in achieving the goal of energy savings.10. This figure does not include the cost of the on site inspections. • mandate periodic inspection of existing systems. While the cost of administering mandatory measures is high. rather than an opportunity to identify money saving operating cost 32 There is much debate among economists on the overall impact of energy taxes. or industrial energy use. businesses see the inspection as a cost item imposed by governments. with a procedure that aimed at imposing a certain number of "good" or even "best" practices in the design and installation of CAS..1. 1977 decree instituted a broad system of mandatory energy inspections in industry. This debate is outside the scope of this study.

accounting and calculation tools. and perhaps of limited effectiveness. aims to bring together a group of purchasers which formulate their product requirements and producers which are willing to compete to fulfil these demands. These low cost inspections were rarely sufficiently comprehensive to provide a basis for energy savings investments. the French system was sharply reduced in scope. Procurement applied to the scope of compressed air systems would focus on the improvement of the system components rather on the system itself. audits). Experience shows that at the very least. it would seem logical to make a concerted effort to build a voluntary programme based on awareness raising actions. Management tends to look for the lowest cost service provider who will meet the strict minimum imposed by the regulations. A priori. It is interesting to note that in 1998. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Yet.6. savings potentials and system components. It has been successfully applied in some national initiatives. administrative responsibility for awareness building and regulatory measures has to be assigned to separate agencies. it would appear difficult to integrate mandatory regulatory measures into a programme based largely on awareness building measures.11 low short high medium medium medium high long low Other Possible Actions In the preceding chapters a range of measures have been described which aim at different target groups. before considering mandatory regulatory measures. In view of evidence collected. The study group therefore concluded that co-operative procurement is not a useful measure for improving compressed air systems and thus this possibility was not examined in more detail. Costs Implementation Time Covered Potential 6. since businesses who have paid for one inspection imposed by regulations. a large range of other ideas or instruments exists (e.1. and thus miss the major saving option. Thus. under some conditions. è The study team has concluded that mandatory inspections and/licensing would be costly. the overall effect of mandatory inspections may even be negative. are unlikely to pay for an audit of the same installation to identify energy savings measures. Procurement shows the producers that a potential market exists for efficient products. It would appear that consideration of mandatory regulations should be considered if other types of measures prove insufficient to achieve substantial energy savings. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 102 reductions. incentives. Co-operative procurement as an example. which represent different forms of the described concepts or were considered not to be practical for the improvement of compressed air systems. g.

and the involved target groups. Each of the measures described in Chapter 6. the basic actions should address this issue. The implementation of the described measures involves different target groups and stakeholders: • Companies (users). The system can thus be optimised by improvement of individual components or of the system as a whole. • Compressor or CAS component manufacturers' associations. • Distributors.1 may affect only parts of the CAS. Due to the nature of energy savings in CAS. research institutes. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems Classification of Actions and Development of a Concerted Programme The following tables summarise the impacts of the described actions. for those sectors of activity which are major compressed air users. (decisions which are not being made under current conditions in the market). Table 31). but it is obvious. Note that in this respect. • Manufacturers of compressors.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 6. sphere of action. influence. other system components and compressed air systems. motors) where decision making is limited to a relatively small number of producers. For all saving options estimates of the applicability of the technical measure and the potential for efficiency gains were conducted to derive the maximum potential contribution of each option (see Table 7). • Industry associations. a range of technical and organisational saving options has been identified which all could improve the overall performance of a compressed air system. As the analysis of the savings potentials has shown that the largest potential exists in the overall system optimisation. estimating the prospective impact of measures is of a very different nature from the impact of other programmes (household appliances. the bulk of savings would result from the decisions of several hundreds of thousands of users to implement profitable energy savings investments and practices. etc. or the overall performance ( = whole system). that the user of CAS will be one of the key-actors that has to be addressed (cf. • Other stakeholders: energy agencies. which operate a compressed air system. all system components. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . etc. Each CAS consists of a number of different components. The groups differ in aim.2 103 6. who sell system components and provide the link between manufacturers and users. other associations. means. In Chapter 3.

Agreement for Manufacturers Whole System ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü = The measure includes the improvement of the component ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Agreement for Manufacturers ü ü ü ü Voluntary User Programme Outsourcing Guidelines Subsidies and Taxes Regulations ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü = The target group is involved in the implementation of the measure Table 32: Affected components of proposed actions Affected components Compressors Dryers Filters Networks End-use Devices ü Advertising Campaign Technology Demonstration Measuring Campaign ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Award for System Design Award for Installed Systems Information and Training Material LCC Tool Component Labelling ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Voluntary User Programme Outsourcing Guidelines Subsidies and Taxes Regulations ü ü ü ü ü System Certification Vol.6. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems Table 31: Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 104 Target groups of proposed actions Target groups Users Manufacturers Manuand User Distributors and Trade Others facturers Associations Associations ü ü ü Advertising Campaign Technology Demonstration Measuring Campaign ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Award for System Design ü ü ü ü ü Award for Installed Systems Information and Training Material LCC Tool Component Labelling System Certification ü ü ü ü Vol.

The impact of these programmes would depend on the proportion of users who would put into practice some energy savings measures. It is assumed that the ERP would be put into practice in addition to the ARP. The techno-economic potential identified in Chapter 3 is 32. Under these circumstances. To estimate the impact of the two action programmes proposed. focused on CAS energy savings. This programme would be somewhat similar in nature to the existing EU GreenLights programme. and would be linked with it in an optimal way. and by the proportion of measures carried out by these firms. Experience shows that once a firm undertakes an energy savings programme. on the nature of the administrative practices used to carry it out and on the amount spent on subsidies or the level of new taxes. the proportion of potential savings that they would actually realise.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 105 6. a large proportion of possible energy savings measures are in fact carried out. these actions have been grouped into two programmes. Table 33 resumes these estimates. since it would depend on the legal basis of such a programme. taxes. We estimate that in the case of co-ordinated and complementary EU and national programmes. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems In order to estimate the impact of the proposed EU and member state actions. This type of programme would require EU directives. and that the proportion of measures carried out would also increase slightly (from 85 % to 90 %). it could be expected that the percentage of firms acting might increase substantially (from 60 % to 85 %).9 % of current CAS electricity consumption. which would include subsidies.1 to 6.9. For the awareness raising programme. which would include all of the information and decision aid measures described in Chapters 6. Estimating the impact of an economic and regulatory programme is difficult.1. as well as changes in national law and fiscal policy. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . • Economic and Regulatory Programme (ERP). and regulatory measures. and that 60 % of these firms could be motivated to implement an energy savings programme. and for these users.1. of a different nature: • Awareness Raising Programme (ARP). The study estimates this proportion at 85 %. this potential must be multiplied by the percentage of firms acting. that high level management in almost all industrial firms could be informed of the potential for savings. experience with existing national programmes (for instance ADEME regional pilot programmes or training activities of the German manufacturers association VDMA) shows that well designed information campaigns can in fact reach a large proportion of industrial users of medium sized systems.

such as the development of an LCC Tool or the outsourcing guidelines.5 % of current CAS electricity consumption. we have not projected savings for the ERP in isolation. would have to meet the following conditions: • optimal co-ordination between EU and member state action. Figure 12 shows the implementation time for the different actions and the savings potential covered by these actions. or 25. Actions that can be implemented quickly. • sufficient human resources. Note that the study team does not believe that an ERP could be effective in the absence of the ARP. in order to favour the active participation of the private sector. will cover only a small share of the total potential. Short tabular summaries have been presented after the descriptions of the possible actions. • strong commitment from business leaders and organisations. • high level political support. and information and training. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems Table 33: Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 106 Estimate of gained energy savings by the two programmes % of firms acting % of measures carried out % of technoeconomic potential gained % energy savings Awareness raising programme (ARP) 60 % 85 % 51 % 16. the technology demonstration and system certification will require a significant amount of time ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . showing the different sets of evaluation criteria. e. Such programmes. Thus. • sufficient financial resources.2 % For this study.6. Large saving effects can be realised on a medium-term with the measuring campaign. or 16. g.8 % Economic and regulatory programme (ERP) combined with ARP 85 % 90 % 77 % 25. • the ARP combined with the ERP would achieve 3/4 of the techno-economic potential. to be successful. we have assumed that: • the ARP could stimulate the achievement of half of the techno-economic potential. these levels constitute very ambitious targets. which nevertheless could be achieved over a 15 year period by well designed and comprehensive programmes. the actions have been grouped into three different diagrams. In the view of the study team. For a better understanding of the linkages between the different actions and the related costs. Activities orientated to long-term improvements. implementation time and the covered potential.2 % of current CAS electricity consumption.

The fiscal and regulatory measures however will need much time but will have smaller effects than many other possible actions. that the actions grouped into the ARP in general have a better cost-benefit-ratio than those in the ERP. if the savings potential for the proposed actions is compared to the associated cost. It can be seen. Agreement for Manufacturers Component Labelling Regulations Advertising Campaign Subsidies and Taxes Award for Installed Systems low Covered Potential Voluntary User Programme Technology Demonstration LCC Tool Award for System Design Outsourcing Guidelines short medium long Implementation Time Figure 12: Evaluation matrix for proposed actions (covered potential and implementation time) If actions to improve CAS were adopted by the European Commission. to ARP Information and Training ER Programme medium System Certification Vol. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems 107 to be implemented but may have a significant impact.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 6. Actions with small savings potentials tend to have lower cost whereas actions with high savings potentials have higher cost. that the cost-benefit-ratio of all proposed actions are on a similar level. In Figure 13 these two criteria are presented in one graph. it is also important to choose the measures which can be started with justifiable costs. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . AR Programme high Measuring Campaign possible suppl. A first idea of the cost-benefit-ratio can be obtained. However it should be noted.

Therefore. This approach would facilitate combining short. that significant energy savings potentials exists in CAS throughout Europe. the study group has decided not to propose single actions but a program of actions which maximise synergy between the individual actions.6. Agreement for Manufacturers Component Labelling Regulations Advertising Campaign Award for Installed Systems Subsidies and Taxes Technology Demonstration low Covered Potential Voluntary User Programme LCC Tool Award for System Design Outsourcing Guidelines low medium high Costs Figure 13: Evaluation matrix for proposed actions (costs and covered potential) 6. Therefore action should be mainly user oriented but should not oversee the influence of other key actors and key factors. medium and long term actions in a program that may run over a period of several years. As the group of users of CAS is a very inhomogeneous group of actors. Thus. to ARP Information and Training ER Programme medium System Certification Vol. These potentials can be developed. a single isolated action may not be very effective in achieving any improvement. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 108 AR Programme high Measuring Campaign possible suppl. if increased user awareness about the economic savings potentials can be achieved.3 Proposition to the Commission on How to Act The results of this study have shown. awareness of the savings potential in CAS could be maintained over the long period necessary (15 year replacement cycle for systems) for actions to be effective.

"advertising campaign". Figure 14 shows that the actions combined in the ARP are based on each other and represent a mix of short and mediumterm actions. Figure 15 represents the programme in form of a building. Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems 109 The program should start with the three key actions. In addi- ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Agreement for Manufacturers Information and Training Technology Demonstration Award for Installed Systems low Award for System Design Advertising Campaign LCC Tool Outsourcing Guidelines short medium long Implementation Time Figure 14: Evaluation matrix for proposed actions (Implementation time and costs) To aid in the understanding of the ARP. if the ARP is not successful in the medium-term. The walls of the building will be constructed on one side by the LCC tool and the guidelines for outsourcing and on the other side by the award for System design and installed systems. but at higher overall cost. technical demonstration will be a necessary part of the building. This would help demonstrate the value of other actions. The advertising campaign. A large portion of the building will be built by the voluntary user programme and the voluntary agreements for manufacturers. to ARP Regulations ER Programme medium Costs Voluntary User Programme Component Labelling Measuring Campaign Subsidies and Taxes Vol. elements of the ERP could be implemented. information and training and the European wide measuring campaign will act as the foundation for the action programme. System Certification AR Programme high possible suppl. "information and training" and "measuring campaign" which we believe are essential components of any action programme. However. it would be possible to present first results of the actions with short implementation time and low cost. As the action program proceeds.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 6. To complete the building and to protect the achieved savings for the future.

Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 110 tion. when additional space is required. and other motor driven applications. fans and pumps. Therefore the European Union should set up an European wide programme and encourage the national governments to co-operate on a national level. all levels of management should be reached in the target group (see Table 34). The advertising campaign might be integrated in a much larger advertising campaign addressing the rational use of energy or a least the energy savings potentials in motor applications such as compressors (air. In addition.6. it is not sufficient to act only on community level but to have co-ordinated efforts between national and European actions. it will prepare the building for further extensions (additional savings potential) which can be exploited in the future. A European "Motor Challenge" could serve as a focal point for actions with respect to compressed air. The priority actions proposed in the ARP with respect to CAS would also gain in impact if they were inserted into a transversal programme aimed at energy savings for all motor driven applications in industry. ventilation. gas. pumping. This would in some respects be similar to the insertion of the US DoE "Compressed Air Challenge" into its "Motor Challenge". refrigeration plant). It would allow scale economies and synergy between actions in these areas. since much of the awareness raising work is common to all these systems. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Technology Demonstration Award for Installed System Voluntary User Programme Advertising Campaign Award for System Design Outsourcing Guidelines LCC Tool Information and Training Voluntary Agreement for Manufactures Measuring Campaign Figure 15: Construction of the Awareness Raising Programme (ARP) To make this program work. This is especially important for the key actions identified by the study group.

The members of the study group who prepared this study will be pleased to help the European Commission in implementing the proposed awareness raising programme.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union Table 34: 6. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Actions to Promote Energy Efficient Compressed Air Systems 111 Actions and action levels Action to be performed by Advertising Campaign Technology Demonstration Measuring Campaign Award for System Design Award for Installed Systems Information and Training Material LCC Tool Component Labelling System Certification Vol. Agreement for Manufacturers Voluntary User Programme Outsourcing Guidelines Subsidies and Taxes Regulations EU National level Management level to be addressed ü ü ü Top Management ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Upper Management Upper and Middle Management Top Management Top Management ü Upper and Middle Management Upper Management Middle Management Upper Management Top and Upper Management Top and Middle Management Upper Management ü ü Top and Upper Management Upper and Middle Management The dissemination of the results of this study will be a first step in communicating the large economic savings potential in compressed air systems to the public.

.

We indicate here the different hypothesis used by the model for the energy scenarios and the results of the model. in terms of energy consumption. and no action is taken. which are described below. etc. The scenarios are different from the point of view of energy: while they are based on the same stock of systems the energy policy differs from one scenario to another. They are organised in different scenarios. This consumption. Due to the technical progress in energy efficiency. 7. It allows the calculation of the impact of the energy savings actions. the new and upgraded systems consume less energy than the old systems. in terms of installed power. in the stock since 1999. which gradually replace old systems. is specific to each country. 7. based on the values of consumption of Task 1. it is assumed that energy consumption will be 5 % less than in the old systems. named a stock model. Rather. The three scenarios differ globally in energy consumption. it is also assumed that energy consumption will diminish by 5 %. We propose to take an optimistic value. • For the new systems entering the stock due to the growth in installed systems. industrial maintenance practices.1 The Energy Scenarios An equivalent consumption is recalculated per compressed air system. Only new and upgraded systems benefit from some progress in terms of energy efficiency. No specific hypothesis were applied to more detailed technical parameters (installed power. of the impact of the programmes for action identified previously. We are proposing three scenarios for energy consumption: • a scenario BAU (Business As Usual). The energy savings actions are the ones identified in Task 6. • a scenario ARP (Awareness Raising Programme). This value reflects the specificity of each country. Evaluation of the Impact of Measures 113 Evaluation of the Impact of Measures This task deals with the evaluation. • For the upgraded systems. it is assumed that there is no improvement in energy consumption. an overall reduction factor was applied.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 7. has been described and developed in Task 2. which takes into account these changes. per system. no energy policy is adopted. The model. In the BAU scenario. This scenario continues the current trend of energy consumption. hours of operation. etc. operating hours.). 5 % as the decrease of energy consump- ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . • a scenario ERP (Economic and Regulatory Programme). This is taken into account through a specific gain applied only to these systems: • For the old systems.

7 % reduction in consumption at the end of this period. either the change in consumption per country. Different countries evolve differently: total consumption over the pe- ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . generally more difficult and expensive to implement) are implemented in parallel with the ARP actions during a 15 year period. we calculate the energy consumption. fiscal and regulatory actions (mandatory measures. in order to reach three quarters of the maximum potential identified in Task 6. that is to say 16. for each type of system.7. we consider that economic. showing either the total consumption. per year and per country. the upgrading of the systems may imply a reduction of the leaks. Table 35: Total CAS electricity consumption in TWh. that is to say 24. In the ERP scenario. the new technologies are more efficient. annual energy consumption only decreases by 1 TWh. The consumption first increases to 81 TWh. 7.5 % reduction in consumption in the year 2015.2 Future Energy Consumption of CAS The results are presented in different graphs and tables. In this scenario. voluntary actions focused on awareness raising (in general the easier and least costly actions) are implemented over a 15 year period. the 1996 value. Evaluation of the Impact of Measures Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 114 tion for new and upgraded systems. This value integrates different elements: efficiency deteriorates with the age of the compressor. In the ARP scenario. machines are better sized to correspond to needs. we consider an effort on energy savings allowing reaching half of the maximum potential identified in Task 6. to 80 TWh. etc. and then decreases. according to the scenario. per country France Germany BAU 1999 2005 2010 2015 ARP 1999 2005 2010 2015 ERP + ARP 1999 2005 2010 2015 Italy United Greece/Spain/ Rest of EU Kingdom Portugal Total 12 12 12 11 14 14 13 13 12 13 13 13 10 10 10 10 9 10 10 10 23 23 22 22 80 81 80 79 12 11 11 10 14 13 12 12 12 12 12 11 10 9 9 8 9 9 9 8 23 22 20 19 80 77 73 69 12 11 10 9 14 13 11 10 12 12 11 10 10 9 8 7 9 9 8 7 23 21 19 16 80 74 68 61 In the BAU scenario. For each scenario.

due to some unforeseen changes. reliance on current technological progress from industry. despite a 4 % increase of the stock. Evaluation of the Impact of Measures 115 riod studied decreases in France. United Kingdom and the rest of the EU countries but increases (due to the growth in stock) in Spain. where the increase of the stock is larger. to Scenario Consumption. As the stock increase is limited to 4 countries (of which only one with a large stock). will not allow a decrease in energy consumption and the emission of greenhouses gases. energy consumption would increase for the first few years. It must be kept in mind that this scenario is based on an optimistic value of 5 % for current energy efficiency progress. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Germany. in the absence of a targeted energy policy. this appears only in Italy. Portugal and Italy. If the policies and actions proposed in the ARP scenario were adopted. Thus. CAS Electricity Consumption acc. the total consumption for each of the EU countries would decrease at the end of the period. consumption would decrease to 61 TWh in 2015. For the 4 countries with an increase in stock. it can be compensated by the current energy savings progress. In the ERP scenario. In the both cases. Note that energy consumption would rise if the stock were to increase significantly. consumption would decrease to 69 TWh in 2015. especially in the ARP scenario. In the ERP scenario. is due to the replacement of old systems by new and more efficient systems. TWh 90 80 BAU ARP 70 ERP 60 50 1999 2005 2010 2015 Figure 16: CAS electricity consumption according to scenario The stability in energy consumption. Greece. Without any policy the consumption of the new systems might not decrease this much.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 7.

BAU scenario CAS Electricity Consumption by Country. Portugal. TWh 25 20 15 10 5 1999 2005 2010 France Italy Rest of EU 2015 Germany United Kingdom Greece. BAU Scenario Consumption. ARP scenario ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . ARP Scenario Consumption. Evaluation of the Impact of Measures Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 116 CAS Electricity Consumption by Country. TWh 25 20 15 10 5 1999 2005 2010 France Italy Rest of EU 2015 Germany United Kingdom Greece. Spain Figure 17: CAS electricity consumption by country.7. Spain Figure 18: CAS electricity consumption by country. Portugal.

TWh 25 20 15 10 5 1999 2005 2010 France Italy Rest of EU 2015 Germany United Kingdom Greece. Evaluation of the Impact of Measures 117 CAS Electricity Consumption by Country. ERP scenario ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Spain Figure 19: CAS electricity consumption by country. Portugal. ERP Scenario Consumption.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 7.

.

in: E. Energy Saving in the Filtration and Drying of Compressed Air.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 119 Bibliography Bibliography ADEME. Compressing Air Costs: Leakage. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .). Installation Guide: Guide to the Selection & Installatino of Compressed Air Services. Best practices Series. United States Industrial Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment: Executive Summary. Compressed Air Savings through Leakage Reduction and the Use of High Efficiency Air Nozzles.. Graz Bertholdi P. CompAir-Broomwade-Reavell. DoE. US). US). Springer. 1999. – the Austrian Energy Agency. de la Recherche et de l'Energie (Wallonie. Compressed Air Leakage Reduction Through the use of Electronic Condensate Drain Traps. Energy efficient equipment within SAVE: Activities. September 1999 DoE (Department of Energy. Compressing Air Costs: Treatment.V.. Compressing Air Costs. La Variation Electronique de Vitesse: Guide d'utilisation. 1998 BCAS. Le Réactif. Refurbishment of a Compressed Air System. 1992 Bertholdi P. 1998 ETSU. Energy Star Award Rules and Instructions: Year 2000 DoE (Department of Energy. Belgium). CEREN Afisac. US). 1997 – co-edited by ADEME. Energy and Cost Savings from Air Compressor Replacement. Heat Recovery from Air Compressors. Falkner H.. Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry. strategies. Rapport d'enquête sur les moteurs. success and barriers. March 1994. Cost & Energy Savings Achieved by Improvements to a Compressed Air System. (ed. Compressed Air Costs Reduced Automatic Control. 1998 DoE (Department of Energy. Energy Efficiency Improvements in Electric Motors and Drives.A. Prospective de la consommation d'électricité dans l'industrie à l'horizon 2010. Compressing Air Costs: Generation. Proceedings of the SAVE Conference For An Energy Efficient Millennium. DoE. 2000 Centre Français de l'Electricité. EDF and GIMELEC Direction Générale des Technologies. N° 21. 8-10 Nov. Paris. Compressed Air and Energy Use. de Almeida A.

caddet-ee.M. Professional Engineering Publishing Ltd. Proceedings of the 1999 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry. J.T.. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.gov/energystar http://www. December 1998 Pneurop. Fairmont Press. in: ACEEE.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 120 Bibliography IEA. Appendix B. Fachserie 4. US. Air Treatment: Contaminations Purity Classes and Measurement Methods. Compressed Air Systems: A guidebook on Energy and Cost Savings. McKane.T.epa.. in Compressors and their Systems. ENEL "Dati statistici sull'energia elettrica in Italia".eu-greenlight. Fachserie 7 Reihe 2. Meadows. Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment. Ghislain. A.org http://www. Reihe 3. London..1997 Grant. Using Collaboration to Achieve Industrial Market Change. IMechE Conference Transactions. Changing attitudes in compressed air usage through developments in variable speed drives.org ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .P. 1993 http://www. A. Washington DC. 1999.. different years Statistisches Bundesamt: "Außenhandel nach Waren und Ländern". Compressed Air Challenge: Market Change from the Inside Out. K. different years Talbot.. 2000 OIT (Office of Industrial Technologies) United States. 1997 Statistisches Bundesamt: Produktion im Produzierenden Gewerbe. A. Washington 1999 McKane.. Pneurop/CAGI.1. E.

Conclusion: vectors in order of importance = Electricity. food processing.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 121 APPENDIX 1: Market Characterisation: Qualitative Data APPENDIX 1: Market Characterisation: Qualitative Data Enterprises Number of enterprises: 16 users 3 service providers Countries: France. cement. ISO 14000 (4). EMAS (1) Uses of compressed air: Materials handling or transport Pistons. Hydraulics ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Mechanical systems. textile. presses. cleaning Drying Hand tools Process Other Air quality: Drying (dew point not specified) Sterilisation 7 16 15 4 7 7 1 9 1 Relative importance of energy vectors Relative importance Compressed air Hydraulics Mechanical systems Electric systems 1 2 3 1 5 9 3 6 2 3 3 4 2 6 2 0 2 2 0 0 Legend: each cell indicates the number of enterprises reporting the energy vector at the given level of importance. movement Blowing. paper. brewery. packaging. Italy Sectors of activity: Metal products. rubber products Certification: ISO 9000 (6 enterprises). other mech. wood products. beverages. Compressed air. Germany. glass.

Demag. Kaeser. number of compressors per system: 4+ Types of compressors: Screw.5. Mattei. with 5 piston compressors over 25 years old Power range: 11 kW to 3600 kW ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . piston. 8 10. 12. rotary vane Air pressure levels (bar): 3 6. Crepelle. Conclusion: Reliability is clearly the first criterion.2. Nea. Mahle. 7. followed by Quality and Cost Compressors Number of compressors: 81 Avg. Nehrer. 7. Range of age: 1 to 55 years. 15 30 Manufacturers: Atlas-Copco. Thomè C. CompAir.APPENDIX 1: Market Characterisation: Qualitative Data Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 122 Relative importance of operating criteria Relative importance Cost Quality Reliability 1 4 3 10 2 3 3 5 3 6 5 Legend: each cell indicates the number of enterprises reporting the given importance to the corresponding criterion. centrifugal. Neumann. 6. Boge. Ingersoll Rand.

Fr = France.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 123 APPENDIX 1: Market Characterisation: Qualitative Data Certification ISO 9001 ISO 14001 Nb of machines Sector. sterilisation Ger Packaging ISO 9000 300 Oil tap. refrigeration. activities CA consumption Country Detailed information for enterprises 620 Air quality Invest.Operating requirement ment cost Energy cost 110 000 000 93 000 000 It Metal products Drying It Textile It Metal products ISO 9000 8000 It Glass ISO 9001 ISO 14001 2400 It Cement production 6500 It Paper production 1800 Dessication. Ger = Germany ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . filtering. drying Ger Wood EMAS Drying It = Italy. Fr Rubber 4 Fr Metals works 2 Fr Metals works 9 Lires Lires 540 ISO 9001 ISO 14001 Dessication 10 50 000 Euros Dessication ISO 9000 Ger Brewery Drying. drying Ger Printing in process Refrigeration. 100 000 Euros dehydration It Beverage production 2000 Dessication It Beverage production Fr Food ind.

Ger = Germany ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . movement Materials handling or transport Uses for compressed air 3 X 2 X 3 2 X X X X X X 2 3 2 1 2 1 X 2 3 X 1 1 X X 1 It = Italy. other mech. X X Fr Rubber X Fr Metals works X X Fr Metals works X X Ger Brewery X X Ger Packaging X Ger Printing X Ger Wood X X X X X Relability It Quality X Cost X Electric systems Textile Mechanical systems It Hydraulics X Compressed air X 2 3 1 1 3 1 2 2 4 3 1 1 3 2 X 1 2 3 2 2 3 1 X 3 4 2 1 3 2 1 X 4 3 1 2 3 2 1 X 4 3 2 1 3 2 1 1 2 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 1 3 2 1 Other X Process Drying Metal products Sector.APPENDIX 1: Market Characterisation: Qualitative Data Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 124 Relative importance of Relative importance energy of operating criteria vectors Metal products X X X X It Glass X X X X It Cement production X X X It Paper production X X X It Beverage production X X X It Beverage production X X Fr Food ind. cleaning It Country Pistons. presses. activities Hand tools Blowing. Fr = France.

177 1800 7.. centrifugal 600 4.100 10 10 Atlas Copco screw 600 4.2 8 9 Electronic control Mattei Rotating 44 420 7 12 Electronic control Mattei Rotating 44 420 7 12 Electronic control Mattei Rotating 44 420 7 12 Electronic control Mattei Rotating 44 420 7 12 Electronic control Atlas Copco screw 250 2.. . piston … 700 8000 7. centrifugal 700 6.100 10 12 Atlas Copco screw 250 2..800 10 5 Ingersoll R. piston 450 5. . centrifugal 700 6.100 10 15 Atlas Copco screw 250 2.. Atlas screw 90 817.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union APPENDIX 1: Market Characterisation: Qualitative Data 125 Country Detailed information for compressors Sector.800 10 8 Atlas Copco screw 600 4.. piston. activities Compressor manufacturer Power Flowrate Pressure [kW] [m /h] 3 [bar] Type Age Control It Metal products Atlas-Copco Screw 34 290 7 It Textile Atlas Copco Vite 30 204 10 25 Atlas Copco Vite 30 204 10 25 Kaeser Vite 55 498 10 1 Metal Atlas centrifugal 6000 7 25 Construction Ingersoll centrifugal 2x5000 7 5 Glasses Ingersoll Screw 24000 7 10 VSD Atlas Copco piston 9 10 17 It It It Cement production It Paper production It Beverage production It Beverage production ADEME Atlas Copco.800 10 7 Ingersoll R. Mattei 3595 20 VSD centrifugal 760 3400 30 Screw.550 30 10 Neumann piston 200 1..000 10 4 Ingersoll R.5 9 VSD. Screw.600 30 5 Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . .5 6 VSD.000 10 3 Atlas Copco Piston 75 960 30 16 Atlas Copco piston 75 960 30 15 Neumann piston 200 1.550 30 8 Thomè C.

5 72 7 12 CompAir Rotary vane 7.5 360 7 2 Demag screw 22 180 7 9 Demag screw 75 720 7 12 Boge screw 45 397 8 18 Boge screw 45 397 8 18 Boge screw 55 416 8 18 Boge piston 15 102 15 17 Boge piston 11 70 15 21 Mahle piston 15 12 7 Mahle piston 1.5 72 7 12 CompAir Rotary vane 7.5 360 7 2 Kaeser screw 37.5 18 10 12 CompAir Rotary vane 7. Power Flowrate Pressure [kW] 3 [bar] Type piston 450 [m /h] 5.5 71 10 19 Manual oil free Nehrer piston 7.Country APPENDIX 1: Market Characterisation: Qualitative Data Sector. Fr Rubber Fr Metals works Fr Ger Brewery Ger Packaging Ger Wood Thomè C. activities It Beverage production Fr Food ind.2 pressure Crepelle 550 6.5 185 7 12 It = Italy.5 72 7 12 CompAir Rotary vane 18.5 71 10 19 Manual oil free Nehrer piston 7.2 and flow rate Demag screw 6.2 Nea piston 40 416 3 44 Manual oil free Nea piston 40 416 3 43 Manual oil free Nea piston 40 416 3 36 Manual oil free Nea piston 23 240 3 47 Manual oil free Nehrer piston 45 361 6 12 Manual oil free Nehrer piston 22 181 6 27 Manual oil free Nehrer piston 15 125 6 21 Manual oil free Nehrer piston 7. Ger = Germany ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .600 Screw Metals works Ger Printing Compressor manufacturer Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 126 Age 30 Control 4 7 700? 6 + 13 5? AtlasCopco 250 6.5 71 10 19 Manual oil free Kaeser screw 37. Fr = France.

5 % of the electricity European consumption.7 % of new machines in the stock. so the same ratio for consumption and numbers of machines = 8% = 1.5 65 0 0 Greece + Spain + Portugal 35660 25685 9976 9 6. Lifetime of 15 years.5 3.5 52 0 0 Rest of the EU 81040 56015 25024 23 17 6 82 0 0 321265 231395 89870 80 60 20 71 42 kW 132 kW 80 Total Average value In Greece In Spain In Portugal 3500 71 15 Stock renewal per year (%) Total Lifetime years Country Consumption Operating hours Number of air compressors For 1999 Average power [kW] Data and hypothesis from Task 1 0 6. due to the growth rate.5 2.6 % Change in stock of compressors Growth rate as indicated. so 6. with 5 % consumption less ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . with 5 % consumption less Replaced systems = the machines replacing the old machines leaving the stock.2 71 2 1 Italy 43800 30660 13140 12 9 3 78 2 1 United Kingdom 55000 46750 8250 10 7.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union APPENDIX 2: Market Characterisation: Numeric Data 127 APPENDIX 2: Market Characterisation: Numeric Data 10.Total 110 300 110 kW 300 kW TWh kW kW Growth rate % year year > 10 1-5 5-10 years France 43765 28885 14880 12 9 3 78 0 0 Germany 62000 43400 18600 14 10.70 = 1.6 2.11010110. Old systems = the machines in the stock since 1999. with no improvement of energy consumption New systems = the machines entering the stock.

STOCK APPENDIX 2: Market Characterisation: Numeric Data Types of machines Growth y 1-5 rate y 5-10 y 10-15 Replacement rate Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 128 United Greece.07 0 0 0 0.07 0.07 0 0 0 0.07 0 0 0 0.07 Italy Rest of the EU 0. Kingdom Portugal.01 0 0.01 0 0.02 0.07 EU total Year 1999 Number All 43765 62000 55000 35660 43800 81040 321265 2000 All New systems Old systems Upgraded systems 43765 0 40847 2918 62000 0 57867 4133 55000 0 51333 3667 36374 713 33283 2377 44676 876 40880 2920 81040 0 75637 5403 322854 1589 299847 21418 2001 All New systems Old systems Upgraded systems 43765 0 37930 5835 62000 0 53733 8267 55000 0 47667 7333 37101 727 32250 4851 45570 894 39612 5958 81040 0 70234 10805 324475 1621 281426 43049 2002 All New systems Old systems Upgraded systems 43765 0 35012 8753 62000 0 49600 12400 55000 0 44000 11000 37843 742 30469 7374 46481 911 37424 9057 81040 0 64832 16208 326129 1653 261337 64791 2003 All New systems Old systems Upgraded systems 43765 0 32094 11671 62000 0 45467 16533 55000 0 40333 14667 38600 757 28653 9947 47411 930 35193 12217 81040 0 59429 21611 327815 1686 241170 86646 2004 All New systems Old systems Upgraded systems 43765 0 29177 14588 62000 0 41333 20667 55000 0 36667 18333 39372 772 26800 12572 48359 948 32917 15441 81040 0 54026 27013 329535 1720 220921 108615 2005 All New systems Old systems Upgraded systems 43765 0 26259 17506 62000 0 37200 24800 55000 0 33000 22000 39766 394 24543 15223 48842 484 30145 18697 81040 0 48624 32416 330413 877 199771 130642 2006 All New systems Old systems Upgraded systems 43765 0 23341 20424 62000 0 33067 28933 55000 0 29333 25667 40163 398 22263 17900 49331 488 27345 21986 81040 0 43221 37818 331299 886 178570 152729 2007 All New systems Old systems Upgraded systems 43765 0 20424 23341 62000 0 28933 33067 55000 0 25667 29333 40565 402 19960 20605 49824 493 24516 25308 81040 0 37818 43221 332194 895 157319 174875 ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Spain France Germany 0 0 0 0.02 0.

Kingdom Portugal. Spain Italy Rest of the EU EU total 40971 406 17635 23336 50322 498 21660 28663 81040 0 32416 48624 333098 904 136016 197081 55000 0 18333 36667 41380 410 15286 26095 50826 503 18775 32051 81040 0 27013 54026 334010 913 114662 219349 62000 0 16533 45467 55000 0 14667 40333 41380 0 12527 28853 50826 0 15386 35439 81040 0 21611 59429 334010 0 92394 241616 43765 0 8753 35012 62000 0 12400 49600 55000 0 11000 44000 41380 0 9768 31612 50826 0 11998 38828 81040 0 16208 64832 334010 0 70127 263884 All New systems Old systems Upgraded systems 43765 0 5835 37930 62000 0 8267 53733 55000 0 7333 47667 41380 0 7010 34371 50826 0 8609 42216 81040 0 10805 70234 334010 0 47860 286151 2013 All New systems Old systems Upgraded systems 43765 0 2918 40847 62000 0 4133 57867 55000 0 3667 51333 41380 0 4251 37130 50826 0 5221 45604 81040 0 5403 75637 334010 0 25592 308418 2014 All New systems Old systems Upgraded systems 43765 0 0 43765 62000 0 0 62000 55000 0 0 55000 41380 0 1492 39888 50826 0 1833 48993 81040 0 0 81040 334010 0 3325 330686 2015 All New systems Old systems Upgraded systems 43765 0 0 43765 62000 0 0 62000 55000 0 0 55000 41380 0 1393 39988 50826 0 1711 49115 81040 0 0 81040 334010 0 3103 330907 ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .Compressed Air Systems in the European Union STOCK 129 Types of machines France Germany 2008 All New systems Old systems Upgraded systems 43765 0 17506 26259 62000 0 24800 37200 55000 0 22000 33000 2009 All New systems Old systems Upgraded systems 43765 0 14588 29177 62000 0 20667 41333 2010 All New systems Old systems Upgraded systems 43765 0 11671 32094 2011 All New systems Old systems Upgraded systems 2012 APPENDIX 2: Market Characterisation: Numeric Data United Greece.

.

Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 131 APPENDIX 3: ADEME Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Outsourcing APPENDIX 3: ADEME Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Outsourcing GESTION de l’AIR COMPRIME DANS L’INDUSTRIE Questionnaire ENTREPRISES sous la direction de Bruno CHRETIEN avril 1999 VOS COORDONNEES nom société: adresse: groupe: tel / fax / e-mail: contact(s): filiale: fonction(s): effectif: activité principale: volume de production: clients: centre technique d’affiliation: certification: ISO 9000 ISO 14 000 ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE EMAS DoE ECE .

.. quelles suites avez-vous alors donné ? ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .] % électricité [….] % air comprimé [….. dépoussiérage séchage (précisez) petite utilités (visseuses... oxygène…) autre (précisez) .] % ..] % mécanique […......si oui. transport actionnement de machines.. la procédure de certification a-t-elle pointé la nécessité / possibilité d’améliorer votre poste air comprimé ? oui non .quelle utilisation faites-vous de l’air comprimé ? mouvement.. vérins..donnez la place relative de l’air comprimé par rapport aux autres énergies utilisées hydraulique […..APPENDIX 3: ADEME Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Outsourcing 132 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union L’AIR COMPRIME DANS VOTRE ENTREPRISE Q I-1 Place de l’air comprimé dans votre entreprise ...quels autres fluides énergétiques utilisez-vous et pour quelles applications ? froid chaleur vapeur gaz (azote... soufflettes…) process ou autre (précisez) .si votre entreprise est certifiée. presses soufflage..

............. fuites......................... pannes................................................................................................................................vous sur le fonctionnement actuel de votre matériel (rendement............................... .................................. Quelle appréciation portez......... précisezen la cause ? microchute de pression humidité dans les circuits huile dans les circuits particules et les conséquences ? ................................................................................) ? Avez-vous observé ou observez-vous actuellement des pertes de productivité liées à une qualité non optimale de l’air comprimé ? Si oui.... nécessité de remplacement. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE ...................Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 133 APPENDIX 3: ADEME Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Outsourcing Q I-2 Votre installation matérielle Description sommaire de l’installation de production d'air comprimé marque des compresseurs type de compresseur puissance et débits spécifiques pression âge état de marche vitesse électronique variable Description sommaire du réseau de distribution longueur diamètre moyen taux de fuites âge … … Description sommaire des conditions de gestion technique / suivi / contrôle gestion technique centralisée appareils de mesurage (ex: BAREXPERT) télésurveillance autre .......................................

...... ..........................................combien de semaines / an ? ............................................... ...................combien d'heures / jour ? ............................ de façon saisonnière Qu’attendez-vous de votre centrale d’air comprimé ? Avez-vous des exigences particulières de qualité ? Si oui veuillez les préciser. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .......) ? ...................................... prix éventuel de réparation des dommages ................une micro-coupure: .................................................................................................................................................une coupure de quelques jours: Comment appréciez-vous le besoin en air comprimé de votre entreprise dans les années à venir ? (cochez la case correspondante et précisez ordre de grandeur) augmentation ....... teneur en huile: humidité: point de rosée: particules: niveau sonore: autre(s): Quel est pour vous le prix d'un incident interrompant la fourniture d'air comprimé (à exprimer en perte nette de production.................................une coupure d'une heure: ..........................APPENDIX 3: ADEME Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Outsourcing 134 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union Q I-3 Vos exigences en matière d'air comprimé / vos besoins Vous utilisez de l’air comprimé de façon régulière tout au long de l'année ...............une coupure d'une journée: ..............combien de jours / an ? ............................................................ diminution ..................... stagnation ............ perte éventuelle de clientèle....

........ Comment comptez-vous y faire face ? Q I-4 Le coût de la production d'air comprimé Dans la production d’air comprimé............. de quel ordre de grandeur ? ................ ........................................................................................................................................................................................ part électricité air comprimé / électricité totale: ....................................................................................... ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .......................................................................................................................................... coût moyen d'achat d'électricité au kWh: ......... ............................. consommation moyenne en kWh/m3: ......................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................... coût de maintenance et d'entretien: ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... pouvez-vous donner un ordre de grandeur des coûts de production de l’air comprimé dans votre entreprise ? coût en investissement matériel initial: ....................................................................... ...............................Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 135 APPENDIX 3: ADEME Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Outsourcing Précisez en quoi ces variations sont liées à l'activité de votre entreprise................................................... aucune idée du coût Avez vous une idée de l’ampleur des économies possibles sur cette fonction ? oui non Si oui...................... coût en F de l'électricité air comprimé: ............................................................................................................................ ........ Plus précisément................................................................... diriez-vous que le coût de l’énergie est un critère majeur moyen mineur pour quelles raisons ? .......................... coût global au m3 produit: ............................... coût global / produit fini (exemple: XXX kWh/tonne de verre): ....................................................................................................................................................................

............................... comment en avez-vous eu connaissance ? diagnostic énergie ADEME / autre bureau d'études le personnel de maintenance peut fournir une appréciation globale la fonction air comprimé est suivie précisément par un système de mesures interne autre (précisez) ........................ veuillez en préciser les principales conclusions et références ? ............................................................................................ .................................................. ....... 2) Avez-vous connaissance d’études particulières menées sur ce thème par votre centre technique ? Si oui........................................................................ indiquez le nombre de personnes) personnel interne spécifiquement affecté à l'air compripolyvalent mé personnel externe conduite maintenance détection fuites / pannes réparation pannes Autres (précisez) Qui exprime le besoin d’acheter ou de modifier votre centrale de production d’air comprimé ? qui est impliqué dans l’achat de nouveau matériel ? le responsable financier le responsable maintenance le responsable production Q 2-2 Avez-vous réalisé un audit / diagnostic énergie de votre installation? non oui (si oui.................................................... au besoin......................................................................................... répondez à Q..................... .... ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE ............................................... LES CONDITIONS DE LA GESTION DE L'AIR COMPRIME DANS VOTRE ENTREPRISE Q I-4 Votre gestion de la fonction air comprimé Q 2-1 Qui gère la fonction air comprimé dans votre entreprise ? (Cochez les cases correspondantes et.............................APPENDIX 3: ADEME Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Outsourcing Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 136 Si oui............................. 2............................................................

........................... Financement ? ADEME [ ]% VOUS [ ]% AUTRE [ ]% Q 2-2-c Quelles ont été les conclusions de l’audit et des actions ontelles été réalisées ? réalisé non réalisé rénovation du matériel existant installation d’appareils de mesure remplacement de compresseurs abandon de l’AC pour certaines fonctions mise en place de VEV modification de l’architecture du réseau mise en place ou amélioration du système de gestion centralisée mise en place d’un système de récupération de chaleur dédoublement du réseau (basse pression / haute pression) optimisation du parc machines par modification des séquences de fonctionnement amélioration du taux de fuite en réseau nécessité d'externaliser autre Q 2-3 Quelle est votre position vis à vis de l'externalisation de la fonction Air Comprimé ? vous ne connaissez pas cette pratique vous n’avez pas d’avis sur cette pratique ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE ........................ DUMOULIN DALKIA INDUSTELEC GDF TRACTEBEL ELECTRABEL SOCHAN CARBOXYQUE SFEE Autre (précisez) .......................................... Q 2-2-b Coût et financement Coût de l’audit en F ? ..................... .......................................................................................................Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 137 APPENDIX 3: ADEME Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Outsourcing Q 2-2-a Qui a réalisé l’audit de votre installation ? BARRAULT AMTECH AIR LIQUIDE RECHERCHE AIR COMPRIME SOTRATECH EDF ENERGIE P...............................................................

mais aucun prestataire n'était intéressé (répondez aux questions suivantes de Q 2-3) Q 2-3-a Quelles sont vos attentes et / ou les avantages liés à l'externalisation ? recentrage sur votre métier de base capacité d'investissement préservée pour le process transfert des risques financiers liés aux investissements matériels sur le prestataire maîtrise technique de la qualité diminution des pertes de production liées à la bonne qualité de l’air comprimé homogénéité de l'offre au niveau national pour vos différentes implantations bénéfice d'un service de Recherche & Développement national / international maîtrise des dépenses récupération de main d'œuvre pour la production occasion de ne pas renouveler un personnel de maintenance sur le départ (ex: retraite) meilleure efficacité de la maintenance meilleures performances du réseau de distribution bénéfice d'une offre globale (avec l'externalisation d'autres fonctions) autre ....APPENDIX 3: ADEME Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Outsourcing 138 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union vous y réfléchissez et: vous avez des attentes particulières (passez à Q 2-3-a) vous avez des craintes particulières (passez à Q 2-3-b) vous avez déjà externalisé suite à une réflexion interne (passez à Q 2-3-a) suite à une décision de votre groupe (passez à Q 2-3-b) en parallèle à l’externalisation d’une autre fonction Ä précisez alors la date de l’externalisation: 199… vous avez voulu externaliser............. reclassement… manque de souplesse / adaptation difficile aux besoins de production perte de contrôle permanent laisser-aller des performances sur le réseau de distribution diminution de la maintenance préventive ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE ................................................... Q 2-3-b Quelles sont les craintes qu’évoque chez vous l'idée d'externaliser? coût élevé de la prestation perte de savoir-faire en interne délais d'intervention longs perte de motivation de votre personnel de maintenance conflits sociaux internes liés à une éventuelle nécessité de licenciement....................................

....................................... Q 2-3-d L'externalisation........Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 139 APPENDIX 3: ADEME Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Outsourcing espionnage industriel autre ................................................ ...... par exemple à Q 2-3-a ? Q 2-4 Précisez le niveau d'externalisation maintenance garantie totale sous-traitée (norme NF x 60-010 niveau 5) contrat d’entretien et de maintenance (norme NF x 60-010 niveau 3 à 5) achat d’air comprimé au m3 + prestations de conduite et maintenance (norme NF x 60-010 niveau 1 à 5) achat d’air comprimé au m3 au sein d’une solution "globale" (fourniture de vapeur ou de d’azote par exemple) ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .............. Q 2-3-c Quels ont été les principaux facteurs déclenchants de cette décision ? audit-diagnostic dysfonctionnements / pannes de lourds investissements à réaliser augmentation d’activité exigences particulières de qualité d’air réduction des dépenses d’exploitation coûts de maintenance coûts d’électricité prise de connaissance d'offres commerciales intéressantes autre (précisez) ..................................................................................................................................................... lesquelles et quand ? Quelles étaient les raisons de cette décision ? (reportez-vous..................... une décision de votre groupe Les autres filiales du groupe ont-elles également externalisé ? Si oui..........

................................ quelles sociétés de prestataires connaissiez-vous ? DALKIA ELYO SOCHAN ELECTRABEL AIR LIQUIDE INDUSTELEC CARBOXIQUE autre EDF GDF TRACTEBEL Q 2-5-b Comment les avez-vous connues ? elles ont réalisé votre diagnostic énergie elles vous ont été signalées par le bureau d'études/l'expert qui a réalisé votre diagnostic elles vous ont été signalées par la direction régionale de l'ADEME elles vous ont fait une offre spontanée elles produisent l'air comprimé d'un industriel de votre connaissance elles vous ont été signalées par la direction de votre groupe elles ont fait la publicité de leurs services dans une presse industrielle spécialisée autre (précisez) …………………………………………………………………………… Q 2-5-c Pour le choix du prestataire..... comment vous-êtes vous mis / avez-vous été mis en relation? vous avez été démarché vous avez réalisé une consultation restreinte au sein des prestataires que vous connaissiez vous avez fait un appel d'offre ouvert autre ..APPENDIX 3: ADEME Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Outsourcing 140 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union Q 2-5 Votre prestataire et vous Q 2-5-a Lors de votre décision d'externaliser......... quelles sont les sociétés qui ont répondu DALKIA ELYO SOCHAN ELECTRABEL AIR LIQUIDE INDUSTELEC CARBOXIQUE autre EDF GDF TRACTEBEL Q 2-5-e Avec qui avez-vous finalement conclu votre contrat d'externalisation ? DALKIA ELYO SOCHAN ELECTRABEL ADEME Fraunhofer ISI AIR LIQUIDE INDUSTELEC CARBOXIQUE autre SAVE EDF GDF TRACTEBEL DoE ECE ..... Q 2-5-d Dans le cas d'un appel d'offre....................................................

......................................... conditions de renouvellement ...............Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 141 APPENDIX 3: ADEME Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Outsourcing Q 2-5-f Pour quelles raisons avez-vous choisi ce prestataire ? son offre compétitive financièrement sa réputation ses garanties sur la fourniture sur la maintenance sur le dépannage sur les économies son offre clé en main complète et adéquate aux besoins sa capacité d’évolution sa compréhension de vos besoins sa culture industrielle son implantation nationale son offre de solution globale sa rapidité d’intervention sa fiabilité sa prise en charge de l'achat de nouveaux investissements compresseurs génie civil autre sa transparence La qualité des interlocuteurs de terrain et la confiancet qu'ils inspirent Q 2-6 Les clauses de votre contrat date de signature ........................................................................................ …) qui restent directement à la charge de votre entreprise ? ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE ............................. Y a-t-il eu des besoins d'investissement (matériel ou génie civil …) lors de l'externalisation ? Si oui......................... maintenance.................................................................. clauses de renégociation ....................................................... durée............ leur prise en charge a-t-elle été totale de la part du prestataire / partagée ? Quelles sont les charges d'exploitation (facture d'électricité.........................................

...................................................................... ............. sur le taux de fuite en réseau ?) ......... Cette rémunération est-elle ? indépendante de votre consommation d'air comprimé attachée au volume d'air consommé Dans ce dernier cas.................................................................................................................................. ......................... performance des matériels… ) ? ........................... ....................................................................................... ................. ................. .............................. objectif de consommation fixé en kWh/m3.......................... le tarif est-il ? binôme (partie fixe + prix au m3 consommé) monôme (prix au m3) Le prix au m3 est-il ? indépendant de la consommation dégressif progressif Avez-vous négocié ces conditions ? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ............................ ................................................................................... objectifs précis sur le nombre de m3............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ .................................................................... Avez-vous des impératifs particuliers (ex: objectif précis d'efficacité énergétique à la production en kWh/m3............................................................................................................................................ ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ....................................... .. Sur quelles bases (garantie sur: fourniture...............................................................................................................................................................................APPENDIX 3: ADEME Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Outsourcing 142 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union Comment réglez-vous votre prestataire ? mensuellement annuellement autre (précisez) ........................................................... Avez-vous imposé des clauses de pénalité pour non garantie des résultats ? ................. .......................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE ..................................... ......................................

Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 143 APPENDIX 3: ADEME Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Outsourcing Quels sont les autres faits saillants du contrat ? Q 2-7 A posteriori. quelles en ont été les conséquences ? ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . quelle appréciation générale portez-vous sur cette décision ? très satisfait satisfait moyennement satisfait déçu Les garanties promises par votre prestataire ont-elles été respectées ? Cette formule est-elle suffisamment souple ? (évolution du matériel. personnel …) ? Evaluez-vous vos performances "air comprimé" (économique. kF. énergétique) en continu avec votre prestataire ? Si oui. maintenance …) et l'ampleur des économies réalisées (kWh. comment ? Avez-vous rencontré des pannes depuis l’externalisation ? Si oui. de la production …) Quels sont la nature (investissement. fonctionnement.

........... au-delà même d'une réflexion générale sur les pratiques énergétiques ? Et d'y répondre sereinement et efficacement ? VOS SOUHAITS ET ATTENTES VIS A VIS DU FUTUR GUIDE ADEME Trouvez-vous judicieux que l'ADEME réalise un guide spécifique sur de conseils sur l'externalisation ? non (justifiez) ..................... qu'attendez-vous en particulier ? des conseils techniques aide au choix des matériels aide au dimensionnement des réseaux aide aux "bonnes techniques" de conduite et de maintenance autre des conseils financiers relatifs aux différents modes d'emprunt et de crédit relatifs aux avantages fiscaux autre des conseils stratégiques sur la réflexion à conduire lors d'une externalisation sur la construction d'un contrat sur la négociation d'un contrat sur les acteurs du marché autre ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE ..........APPENDIX 3: ADEME Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Outsourcing 144 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union Quelles ont été les conséquences de l'externalisation sur le personnel de maintenance (effectif. …) Cette pratique a-t-elle été l'occasion de vous interroger profondément sur votre métier.... motivation. oui (passez aux questions ci-dessous) Si oui.............................. responsabilités..........................

3. 7. 4. 6.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 145 APPENDIX 4: Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Users APPENDIX 4: Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Users Guide for data collection for Users of Compressed Air Systems Prepared by Edgar Blaustein. MANAGEMENT AND OPERATION COMPRESSED AIR COSTS ENERGY SAVINGS MEASURES OUTSOURCING INSTITUTIONAL ACTION Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . Energy 21 for SAVE contract working group 1. 5. 2. ADEME IDENTIFICATION OF CAS USER ROLE OF COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM DESIGN.

ISO 14000. EMAS. national certification.APPENDIX 4: Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Users 146 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union IDENTIFICATION OF CAS USER Site visited Name of enterprise Installation visited Address Particular factory or department Person contacted Contact Name Function or post Telephone Fax Email Products Production Identification of principal product(s) or service(s) produced Approximate indication of quantity or volume produced Clients General description of market served Certification Is the enterprise or production site certified? ISO 9000. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .

quality and reliability? Compressed air production kWh m3/hour Compressor Type bar Age Control manufacturer Screw. . is your company satisfied with the compressed Satisfaction air system? If not. piston. oxygen. . cfm. zones Type of control system. Overall... . Volume for each pressure used.. presses. cost.) Vacuum Other .. Multiple circuits (pressure or air quality)... other mechanical movement Blowing. . telemeControl system tering. what are the problems encountered? Can you summarise your requirements for the comRequirements pressed air system? Can you prioritise. or other units. cleaning Drying Hand tools Process Other . Topology. Average diameter. Estimated total consumption.. Material. Rank in importance: Compressed air Compressed air compared to other Hydraulics forms of energy Mechanical systems Electric systems What other fluid networks do you have? Fluids Refrigeration Steam Heat Other gases (nitrogen. Do you expect your needs for compressed air to grow or shrink in the future? For what reasons? Distribution network Estimated overall length. VSD. in Nm3/hour..... measuring equipment.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 147 APPENDIX 4: Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Users ROLE OF COMPRESSED AIR Site visited Uses of compressed Check uses of compressed air: Materials handling or transport air Pistons. Hours per day or per year Duty cycle Volume of compressed air Growth ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE ..

dew point Particles Other Air quality standard Do your requirements for air quality correspond to a standard for air quality? Certification If your enterprise is certified.APPENDIX 4: Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Users Drying and filtering Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 148 Air quality Type of equipment used Quality requirements Requirements for: Oil Humidity. quality. .)? Future needs Do you expect your compressed air needs to change in the coming years (quantity.. did the certification process identify problems with the compressed air system? What actions were taken? Noise Is noise level a consideration for you? Quality and reliability problems Have you experienced problems with your system (breakdown.. pressure variation. . air quality..)? ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE ..

Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 149 APPENDIX 4: Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Users SYSTEM DESIGN. multiple pressures.. MANAGEMENT AND OPERATION Design responsibility System design Who was responsible for system design? Design criteria Was an outside consultant or engineering firm employed for any phase of the design process? What were the design criteria applied? Was specific or overall energy consumption a design criteria? Were life cycle costs.. leak detection.) considered? How were system requirements (quantity. or overall operating costs among the design criteria? Were specific energy savings measures (advanced control systems. multi-stage compressor.) determined? Purchase decisions Who was responsible for purchase decisions? What was the decision process? Competitive bidding Was a competitive bidding process used? Were operating or energy costs among the choice criteria? ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE ... . quality. .

who will be responsible for deciding on the replacement? What will be the respective roles of the Operations.APPENDIX 4: Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Users Responsibility Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 150 System operation and management Who is responsible assigned for the following functions: operation routine and preventive maintenance leak detection and repair breakdown major overhaul Are outside contractors involved in any of these functions? System replacement Reporting circuit If in the future. Maintenance. major components of the system must be replaced. to whom does this person report? Nature of Reporting What is the nature of reporting? What information is reported? What is the frequency of reporting? Profit centers Does your company use profit center accounting methods? If so. how are energy costs assigned to profit centers? Compressed air costs Do compressed air costs. Purchasing and Finance departments? What would the decision process be? Reporting and accounting Is anyone responsible for reporting on the compressed air system? If so. or energy for compressed air. constitute a specific item in cost accounting? Are they broken down by department or profit center? ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .

as percentage of production costs or as Euros/unit of production of company's product. Make certain that the contact person is comfortable in divulging information.. reject rate.. We do not need precise accounting information.). who is considered to be responsible for solving the problem? Breakdowns Quality Operations problems Have CAS breakdowns stopped production? Do you have any figures for the cost of lost production? Expressed as cost/per hour of breakdown.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 151 APPENDIX 4: Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Users COMPRESSED AIR COSTS Note: some of the following cost items may be considered to be confidential. Energy costs What are your compressed air energy costs. medium or low? Are these cost items considered to be a problem? If so.. . only general cost parameters. Operating and investment costs Original investment cost Overall compressed air Total system operating costs. or compressed air energy costs to be high. .. . as Euros/m3 or as percentage of operating costs. as Euros/m3 . Have compressed air quality problems caused production problems? Quality of product. perhaps broken down by major categories (maintenance.).(Might be expressed as Euros/year.. customer dissatisfaction? Has the cost of these problems been evaluated? ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . (Might be exoperating costs pressed as Euros/year..) Perception of costs Does management consider compressed air costs.

have you evaluated the impact (in terms of cost. Accounting. Maintenance. ..) Possible savings Cost reduction Do you have an estimation of possible savings in the compressed air function? If so. frequency. on what is this estimation based? Cost reduction measures Are you considering any measures to reduce the cost of the compressed air function in your company? If so. Leak correction measures Are there any regular leak correction measures? (Regular replacement of flexible hoses. what measures? Decision process What would be the decision process for deciding measures for cost reduction in compressed air? Who is involved? ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . who carried out the audit? What was its cost? Did your company receive any governmental subsidies for the audit? To whom was the audit addressed? (Production. who carries them out).. etc.) Recommendations What were the recommendations of the audit? Results If audit recommendations were carried out. quality or reliability)? Leak Leaks Do you have an idea of the percentage of air leaks? Leak detection procedures Are there any leak detection procedures? (Type.APPENDIX 4: Data Collection Guide for Compressed Air Users 152 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union ENERGY SAVINGS MEASURES Audits Energy or compressed Has your company done an energy or compressed air system audit recently? air audits If so.

Compressed Air Systems
in the European Union

153

APPENDIX 4: Data Collection
Guide for Compressed Air Users

Specific measures
What compressed air related energy savings measures has your company considered?
Check if any of the following specific measures have been considered.
Overhaul existing equipment
Replace part of the existing installation
Install additional measuring equipment
Replace compressed air by some other energy source
Install improved control system (perhaps including VSD)
Modify distribution network architecture
Replace piping
Leak detection
Use waste heat
Outsourcing
Other
Specify or comment

ADEME

Fraunhofer ISI

SAVE

DoE

ECE

APPENDIX 4: Data Collection
Guide for Compressed Air Users

154

Compressed Air Systems
in the European Union

OUTSOURCING
Perception of outsourcing
Has your company considered outsourcing the entire
Outsourcing considcompressed air function? If so, when, and with what
ered?
conclusion.
If you have considered outsourcing, rate the following
Criteria in evaluating
criteria as positive, negative or indifferent in you
outsourcing
evaluation of outsourcing ("+ / – / blank")
Concentrate on core activities
Free investment capacity for other activities
Quality of compressed air
Reliability of the compressed air system
Reduced cost of compressed air
Improved cost control
Availability of a single source for several plants
R&D capacity of service providers
Concentrate skilled personnel on other activities
Reduce personnel
Availability of an overall solution, including several gases
Cost of outsourcing
Loss of in house competence
Delay in case of breakdown
Problems with company maintenance personnel
Preventive maintenance
Leak control
Industrial espionage
Experience with outsourcing
(Only applicable if outsourcing is used in the company)
Are you satisfied with outsourcing of the compressed
Satisfaction
air function? Specify.

Payment

Is billing dependant on the quantity of compressed air
used? If so, how is consumption measured (hours of
operation, or actual measurement of m3)

Energy costs

Who pays for energy costs? (Specify for motors and for
auxiliary functions such as air drying, compressor
house heating-lighting-ventilation)

ADEME

Fraunhofer ISI

SAVE

DoE

ECE

Compressed Air Systems
in the European Union

155

APPENDIX 4: Data Collection
Guide for Compressed Air Users

INSTITUTIONAL ACTION
Taxation
Are you aware of the fiscal measures in your country to
Knowledge of fiscal
support for energy effi- encourage energy efficiency measures?
ciency
Do you believe these fiscal measures are effective?
Evaluation of fiscal
Has your company taken their impact into account in
measures
decisions on compressed air related decisions?
European or national support measures
Directorate General XVII (Energy) of the European Union is considering various
measures to encourage energy savings in Compressed Air Systems. Could you
indicate what types of institutional action you believe might be useful?

Usefulness of possible Could you give your opinion of the usefulness of the
following measures under consideration.. Rate the folmeasures
lowing measures as useful, useless or indifferent ("+ / –
/ blank")
Labelling. Some kind of product labelling for compressors and air
handling relative to their specific energy consumption.
If you believe that labelling might be useful, what kind of product information would you like to see?
Voluntary agreements by equipment manufacturers to improve the
energy efficiency of compressed air equipment.
Procurement. Organisation of a buyers’ consortium in your industry,
which would initiate a bidding process for the supply of energy efficient compresses air equipment.
If you believe that a procurement program might be useful, what kind of
specifications would you like to see included in the bidding program?
Dissemination of information, training and education focused on
improving compressed air system energy consumption
Demonstration and pilot actions to identify and demonstrate energy
efficient design, equipment and practices for compressed air systems.
Development of accounting and measurement tools. The SAVE
program has supported research on introducing analytical accounting
methods for electricity use. Do you see similar tools for compressed
air as being potentially useful?
Creation of a standard contractual framework for outsourcing of
the compressed air function, to aid companies in including effective
control of energy costs in outsourcing contracts.
Contests and awards to identify the best performing machine corresponding to a given set of specifications.
Comment

ADEME

Fraunhofer ISI

SAVE

DoE

ECE

.

2. Energy 21 for SAVE contract working group 1. 3.Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 157 APPENDIX 5: Qualitative Data Collection Guide for Equipment Manufacturers APPENDIX 5: Qualitative Data Collection Guide for Equipment Manufacturers Guide for data collection for Manufacturers of Compressed Air Systems Draft. ADEME IDENTIFICATION OF MANUFACTURER OR DISTRIBUTOR PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED OR SOLD SYSTEM DESIGN AND MAINTENANCE ENERGY SAVINGS MEASURES Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . v1 Prepared by Edgar Blaustein. 4.

etc. assemblers. .. final users. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .. . Suppliers (for distributors) Who. including geographic regions. compressor packages Filtering equipment and components Drying equipment and components Piping. Measuring and leak detection equipment Control systems and components. type of client (captive distribution network.). in general. EMAS. tubing. Certification Is the enterprise or production site certified? ISO 9000. national certification.). independent distributors. Import or European production. ISO 14000. industrial sectors or other end users. Other ________________________________ Products Clients General description of market served...APPENDIX 5: Qualitative Data Collection Guide for Equipment Manufacturers 158 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union IDENTIFICATION OF MANUFACTURER OR DISTRIBUTOR Site visited Name of enterprise Name of parent company Address Contact Person contacted Name Function or post Telephone Fax Email PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED OR SOLD Production Check products lines offered Drive systems and components Compressors. are your suppliers? Types of companies (component manufacturers.

does your company carry out audits of user needs... how is this done? Can you comment on the results and findings? ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . which include aspects of an energy audit? If so. is this material aimed at the sales force? Is it available to end users? Audits As part of your sales efforts. .Compressed Air Systems in the European Union Energy efficiency as a sales argument 159 APPENDIX 5: Qualitative Data Collection Guide for Equipment Manufacturers Sales strategies Does your product advertising mention the energy efficiency or specific energy consumption of your products? How are energy consumption criteria integrated into your sales activities? Energy savings products Does your company manufacturer products which you believe are more energy efficient than the average product sold on the market? If so.)? Training Does your company provide any specific training programmes or materials focused on energy consumption? If so. advertising programmes. which products? Do these products benefit from particular type of sales efforts (special brochures.

in what manner? To the best of your knowledge.. what are the principal design criteria applied by system designers? Is specific or overall energy consumption a design criteria? Are life cycle costs. or overall operating costs among the design criteria? How were system requirements (quantity. What is the function of the people who contact your firm for service (distributors after sales service technician. 2.APPENDIX 5: Qualitative Data Collection Guide for Equipment Manufacturers 160 Compressed Air Systems in the European Union SYSTEM DESIGN AND MAINTENANCE Design responsibility Energy efficiency related design options End user system design In your view.. who is generally responsible for designing the CAS into which your products are integrated? Does your firm counsel system designers? Are you in direct or indirect contact with system designers? If so. quality.. that is 0. are operating or energy costs among the choice criteria? After sales service Maintenance Does your firm provide after sales service? If so. how do your clients make purchase decisions? What is the decision process. to whom (distributor or final user).) determined? Purchase decisions In your view. what proportion of CAS designs took into account the following options (estimate as quartiles. final user production or maintenance department. and who are the main actors? Competitive bidding Does your firm often respond to competitive bidding tenders? If so. . 1. . specialised maintenance firms..)? ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE . 3 or 4 fourths): Reduced system pressure Multiple system pressures Adequate distribution network design Optimal control of multi compressor systems Waste heat recovery Design criteria In your view.

2. what proportion of users provide for the following types of maintenance to their CAS (estimate as quartiles. does the equipment you sell benefit from regularly scheduled preventive maintenance programmes? Energy efficiency related maintenance practices To the best of your knowledge. we would like your opinion on: − the applicability of the measure. or replacement of major components. what are the major shortcomings of maintenance? In general. ADEME Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE ECE .Compressed Air Systems in the European Union 161 APPENDIX 5: Qualitative Data Collection Guide for Equipment Manufacturers Quality of maintenance In your view. as compared with a standard system. 1. in months. − The second section contains measures having to do with system operation and maintenance. − The first contains measures applicable at the time of system design. Payback time is to be calculated for the additional cost of the measure. that is 0. The table is divided into two sections. measured as the percentage of systems for which the measure would provide cost effective improvement of the energy efficiency of the system. The enumerated measures should be considered in the light of existing practices in average quality systems. are your products generally well maintained in the field? If not. − payback time for the measure. 3 or 4 fourths): Control of leaks Control of filter pressure drop Proper operation of condensate traps Tracking of system performance Periodic review of system requirements ENERGY SAVINGS MEASURES We would appreciate your evaluation of the technical and economic potential of various energy savings measures presented in the following table. − the percentage gains in energy efficiency which could be expected (in those systems where the measure is applicable). For both tables. These options should be considered in comparison with the design of average quality existing installations.

ADEME Upgrading of compressor (for example. integration of VSD´s into compressors Energy savings measure APPENDIX 5: Qualitative Data Collection Guide for Equipment Manufacturers Compressed Air Systems in the European Union ECE . to 2 stage compressor) Fraunhofer ISI SAVE DoE Other _______ More frequent filter replacement % gains (2) System operation and maintenance payback time (3) applications (4) 162 Measuring and tracking system performance Reducing air leaks Other _______ Optimizing certain end use devices Reducing frictional pressure losses (for example by choosing larger pipe diameter) Overall system design. including multi-pressure systems Improved cooling. drying and filtering Recuperating waste heat for use in other functions Use of sophisticated control systems % applicability (1) System installation or renewal Improvement of drives: use of high efficiency motors.