# Type I: Determination of Limiting or Ultimate Moment Carrying Capacity

of a Beam Section.
The steps involved are:
1. Find the position of actual neutral axis Xu from the known values of b,
d, Ast, fck’ and fy
2. Find the position of critical neutral axis Xu,max
3. Compare Xu, with Xu,max to determine the type of beam section:
(a) if Xu > Xu,max, the section is over-reinforced.
(b) if Xu < Xu,max, the section is under-reinforced.
4. Calculate the moment carrying capacity for the appropriate type of
beam section.
For the over-reinforced section
Mu,lim = (0.362fck .Xu,max .b)(d- 0.4 l6 Xu,max)
And,
For the under-reinforced section:
Mu,lim = T x z = 0.87 fy (d — 0.416 Xu)

Example 1 . Determine the limiting moment-carrying capacity of a
reinforced concrete rectangular section of size 250 X 550 mm deep
(effective) reinforced on the tension side with four 20 mm dia bars. The
concrete used is of grade M20 and reinforcing steel is mild steel of grade
Fe250.
Solution For the given section and materials:
b = 250 mm, d = 550 mm, Ast = 4 x x 20 = 1257 mm2,

87 fy Ast Xu = (0.b = (0.531 x 550 = 292. 0. and hence Mu. (Do it yourself) . Xu = 0. If in Type-I problems. respectively.lim = T x z = 0. the section is under-reinforced. The concrete mix and steel used are of M20 and Fe415 grades.max.416 x 151.05 mm.fck = 20 MPa and fy = 250 MPa Equating tensile and compressive forces.19 X 106 Nmm = 133. Determine the safe uniformly distributed load that the beam can carry over a simply supported effective span of 6 m.87 fy. Ast )/ 0.b. Since Xu < Xu.05 mm The maximum permitted value Xu.87 x 250 x 1257 x (550 — 0.max = 0.max is given by Xu.05) = 133.87 fy (d — 0.2 A reinforced concrete rectangular section of size 300 x 600 mm (effective) is reinforced by 3 bars of 20 mm dia.19 kNm Type II: Determination of load carrying capacity of a beam section.416 Xu) = 0.87 x 250 x 1257)/ 0.531d (for f 250 MPa) = 0.362 fck .362 fck . Example. load-carrying capacity can be computed.362X20X250 = 151. effective span and support conditions of the beam are known. For the given environmental exposure the effective cover to reinforcement is 50 mm.

deflection that causes separation of finishes. plastering etc.But that is not a sufficient condition to ensure serviceability. b) The deflection including the effects of temperature. From IS. The deflection shall generally be limited to the following: a) The final deflection due to all loads including the effects of temperature.1 The vertical deflection limits may generally be assumed to be satisfied provided that the span to depth ratios are not greater than the values obtained as below: a) Basic values of span to effective depth ratios for spans up to 10 m: Cantilever 7 Simply supported 20 Continuous 26 . shall also be prevented along with structural stability. And this shall be ensured for the entire life of the member. Cracks.2. creep and shrinkage and measured from the as-cast level of the supports of floors. creep and shrinkage occurring after erection of partitions and the application of finishes should not normally exceed span/350 or 20mm whichever is less.456: 2000 “23.Limit state of serviceabiity Conditions ofdesign for limit-state of collapse will ensure that the section will not collapse under the design loads. The member shall not deform to such an extent as to cause problems to the performance of the building element not only its structural functions. This is done by limitting deflection. should not normally exceed span/ 250. roofs and all other horizontal members. 23.2 Control of Deflection The deflection of a structure or part thereof shall not adversely affect the appearance or efficiency of the structure or finishes or partitions.

the values in (a) may be multiplied by 10/span in metres.b) For spans above 10m. c) Depending on the area and the stress of steel for tension reinforcement. except for cantilever in which case deflection calculations should be made. 4. 6 and the reinforcement percentage for use in Fig.thevalues of (a)or (b) be modified as per Fig.d. 5. 4 and 5 should be based on area of section equal to bf. e) For flanged beams.” . d) Depending on the area of compression reinforcement. the value of span to depth ratio be further modified by multiplying with the modification factor obtained as per Fig. the values in (a) or(b) shall be modified by multiplying with the modification factor obtained as per Fig.