SPACE SAFETY & SUSTAINAIBILITY

WORKING GROUP

IN SUPPORT OF THE UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON SPACE APPLICATIONS

SPACE WEATHER
EFFECTS ON SPACE MISSIONS

2012 | SSS EDUCATIONAL SERIES

© SSS Educational Series 2012

2012 | SPACE GENERATION ADVISORY COUNCIL

SPACE WEATHER EFFECTS ON
SPACE MISSIONS
Contributors:

Chijioke (CJ) Nwosa
Ekaterina Rezugina
Romy Seth

Nigeria
Russia
Canada

Schwarzenbergplatz 6
Vienna A-1030
A
AUSTRIA
info@spacegeneration.org
www.spacegeneration.org
+43 1 718 11 18 30 Fax: +43 1 718 11 18 99

© SSS Educational Series 2012

Acknowledgments
The SSS Working Group would like to thank SSS members for their collaboration and
contribution to the Space Weather Effects on Space Missions Educational Series
document. In addition, we would like to express our gratitude to the SSS Advisory Team;
Ronald Kohl, Shannon Ryan, Maite Trujillo and Brian Weeden for their expertise and
guidance that have been critical to the completion of the project. Further
acknowledgement goes to Ariane Cornell and Marc Cornwall for their review comments
and formatting advice.

Regards,
Minoo Rathnasabapathy, Chijioke (CJ) Nwosa
SSS Co-leads

Proud Partners
Partners of SSS Working Group:

........... ...............1 Skylab .....................................................................................................................................................................................2 Plasma ... 10 2................................................. Atmospheric Effects ................................................... ............. 16 4...............2 Hubble Space Telescope ........... Radiation Sources in Space ................... 4 3............................... 9 2...............................................................1 2............................... 8 2....... Atmospheric Secondaries.............................. 6 6.......... 17 ............................................. Mitigation of Atmospheric Effects ............................................................................................................................................................................................4 Surface Degradation/Erosion .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8 1...................................................................4 Long Duration Exposure Facility .2 3..........................................2 Outgassing and Contamination ......................................................................... 6 5.............................. 4 3...............3 Non-Ionising Dose/Non-Ionising Energy Loss (NIEL) ............................................................................................................... 16 4.................. 6 4.............................................. Representative Cases ............. 5 4....... Earth’s Atmosphere .............. ................................. Examples of Effects.................... 14 3..............................................................................................1 Satellites .................................................. 8 2....................5 Aerodynamic Heating ........................................2 Space Launch Vehicles .............................................. 4 3..... References ......................................................... 7 Section II: Radiation Effects ....5 4..................................................................................................... Introduction ............................................................................... 11 3.................................................. 5 4........................................................................................................................© SSS Educational Series 2012 Table of Contents Section I: Residual Atmosphere Effects ................... 2 3.......................................................................................................................................................................1 3.........................................................................................................................3 Glow ..................1 Ionising Radiation .....2 Cosmic Rays .....................................3 Solar Particles......... Particle Radiation Effects ............4..........................................1 Drag .................................................................. Introduction .......... 6 4... 15 4...................................... 1 1.......................................................................... ................................................................................3 International Space Station ................................................1 Radiation Belts ........... 10 3....... 8 2.............................................................................. 11 3...........................

....................................................2 Launch Vehicles ...........................................................1 Satellites ................. 25 5.......1 Electromagnetic Radiation from the Sun ....... 26 5......................................................................... 27 5....................................... 25 4.........................................1 Satellites .......................................................... 19 Section III: Thermal Effects.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Solar Wind Heating ..................... 25 4............................. 23 3................................................................................................................................ 26 5. Examples of Thermal Effects.................................................................................. Thermal Sources in Space .............................................................3 Humans........................................................................................................................ Mitigation of Radiation Effects ......... 18 6............... 22 2......................................................... 25 4..................................................................................... Representative Cases ............................ 24 3................................................................... Thermal Effects .........3 Humans........................© SSS Educational Series 2012 4..................... References ........................................ 24 4.................... 18 7...........................................................................................................1 Governance of Thermal Output from the Sun ................. References .............. 22 2............................. 22 2.......................... 17 5.......... Mitigation of Thermal Effects.............................................................................................3 Humans.... Introduction ...................................... 30 ..................................................................................................................................... 22 1........................................................................ 28 6...............2 Launch Vehicles ...

Atomic Oxygen (AO). Introduction The saying that “outer space is a vacuum” does not apply to all regions of space. the absorption of EUV leads to a rapid increase in temperature. Spacecraft in LEO. Solar activity strongly influences temperature in the thermosphere. the components of the Earth’s atmosphere which spacecraft are exposed to and the different interactions are outlined. Helium. Earth’s Earth’s Atmosphere Atmosphere The neutral thermosphere is the region of the Earth's atmosphere containing neutral gases like Hydrogen.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section I: Residual Atmosphere Effects Section I: Residual Atmosphere Effects 1. 2.1 and Nitrogen extending from 90 km to 600 km [1]. 1 . In this section. oxygen exists predominantly in atomic form. especially those below 550 km. are still within the reach of the Earth’s atmosphere and have to carry out their operations successfully while subjected to the effects of the atomic and/or molecular atmospheric constituents. Figure 1: Layers of the Earth’s atmosphere (Source: NASA). In this region. 1 Due to photo-dissociation.

AO is the main constituent. its abundance decreases less rapidly with altitude. glow. Atmospheric Effects 3. The density of the constituent gases varies with altitude and solar activity (due to heating caused by the absorption of solar EUV radiation). It shows that.1 Drag Spacecraft in LEO pass through relatively dense neutral particles. surface degradation/erosion. At relative velocities of 8 km/s. Figure 2 shows the number density of the various constituents at different altitudes. drag causes spacecraft to slow. The effects of residual atmosphere on spacecraft include. AO is the constituent of concern in LEO (MAX refers to solar maximum and MIN to solar minimum). aerodynamic heating. In the long-run. Aerodynamic drag drag causes orbit decay and induced torques in spacecraft leading to tracking problems. lose altitude. drag. This aerodynamic drag is dependent on the spacecraft ballistic ballist coefficient2 (the mass-to-area area ratio). 3. Figure 2:: Number density of the different atmospheric constituents as a function of altitude (Source: NASA). and finally re-enter. as shown in 2 The ballistic coefficient of a body is a measure of its ability to overcome air resistance. typically. there is a considerable exchange of impulse and energy between ambient atmosphere and spacecraft causing an applied drag on the spacecraft. 2 . Above 150 km. if not compensated for. with 66% at 200 km and 90% at 500 km. outgassing.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section I: Residual Atmosphere Effects This is the part of the atmosphere that most low altitude spacecraft are exposed to. contamination. long run. Since AO is lighter than the other constituents. re enter.

) can cause short-term changes in the atmospheric density and hence vary the drag on spacecraft. Abrupt changes in the solar activity (from geomagnetic storms. This can affect spacecraft’s predicted orbital lifetime and therefore the 3 Generally. and the atmospheric density (which is a function of altitude). as the thermosphere expands due to increased absorption of solar ultra-violet radiation.000 km during solar maximum. In addition. Spacecraft in LEO experience much lower drag. atmospheric density decreases with increasing altitude. 3 . the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the ambient 3 atmosphere. while those with high ballistic coefficients will survive a larger number of solar cycles and decay more slowly [1]. Periods of high solar activity are accompanied by sudden perturbations in the orbits of LEO which could lead to changes in the location of tracked objects (Figure 4). spacecraft with low ballistic coefficient (low mass-to-area ratio) will respond quickly to the atmosphere and decay relatively faster. solar flares. the most important parameter is the atmospheric density which varies with solar activity. Figure 3: Orbital lifetime as a function of altitude (Source: NASA). during solar minimum. hence this varying drag must be taken into account when calculating or predicting orbits.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section I: Residual Atmosphere Effects Figure 3. The heating and expansion of the thermosphere causes drag at higher altitudes. The height of the top of the thermosphere (the thermopause) lies at about 500 km during solar minimum and climbs to about 1. Among these. etc. and higher drag and faster decay during solar maximum. drag coefficient. and thus slower orbital decay. Cd. Many spacecraft orbit within the thermosphere (including the ISS and the space shuttle).

3.3 Glow Chemical reactions involving AO could produce radiatively active. advanced 4 . Figure 4: Number of tracked objects lost after a large magnetic storm in 1989 (Source: NASA/GSF). since drag is one of the most significant perturbation considered during orbit propagation calculations especially for conjunction analysis. Dust can be a source of contamination. Moreso.4 Surface Degradation/Erosion Degradation/Erosion AO impinging on the spacecraft surfaces can have mechanically or chemically corrosive effects. sudden changes in the solar activity (and hence drag) could render all collision predictions based on previous density values invalid.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section I: Residual Atmosphere Effects fuel budget for station keeping (or orbit maintenance). The LTIME (lifetime) tool developed by NASA can be used to model the effect of drag on spacecraft.2 Outgassing and Contamination Contamination In vacuum. This is a crucial task because uncontrolled re-entries can be potentially very dangerous for larger spacecrafts that may not fully burn up. This decay process can be modelled in a bid to predict when LEO spacecraft systems will re-enter the atmosphere. 3. 3. most spacecraft organic materials will outgas the production spurious particles which could contaminate other surfaces. It could react with and degrade thin organic films. Atmospheric gas particles in LEO sometimes collide with the gases emitted by spacecraft resulting in contamination of spacecraft surfaces. excited constituents which emit significant amounts of background radiation creating a dim light which could interfere with optical measurements [2].

The magnitude of this aerodynamic heating at 150 km altitude is that of the solar constant. and metallised surfaces.0) [8] . 1979. and contamination. electrical. mechanical. spacecraft systems could completely burn up in the atmosphere during re-entry due to aerodynamic heating.0) [11] 3. Representative Cases Cases 4. Molniya orbits) with perigees lower than 150 km. 5 . it decreases with increasing altitude. depending on the ballistic coefficient.Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET-V 2. Skylab fell back to Earth earlier than planned due to increased drag in the neutral thermosphere [3]. and optical properties.g.NeQuick Ionosphere Electron Density Model (NeQuick v2. a number of atmospheric and ionospheric models are available: . From here.5 Aerodynamic Heating Most spacecraft orbit in LEO with a minimum orbital period of 87. silicon based materials form silicone dioxide layers which affect optical transparency of solar cells.5 minutes corresponding to an altitude of 150 km. • Most metals like aluminium produce protective oxide layers that are impervious to AO and hence resistant to further attack.Mass-Spectrometer-Incoherent-Scatter (NRLMSISE-00) [7] . sputtering. • In the same way. micrometeoroid impact damage.International Reference Ionosphere (IRI2001) [10] . Hence AO is able to penetrate and react with the underlying fresh silver.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section I: Residual Atmosphere Effects composites. Spacecraft in LEO get heated by forced convection as they pass through the ambient atmosphere. This erosion of the spacecraft surfaces affects 4 its thermal.Drag Temperature Model (DTMB78) .Horizontal Wind Model (HWM93) [9] . 4. 4 These effects are aggravated by simultaneous exposure to solar UV radiation. • The ATOMOX (Atomic Oxygen) tool developed by ESA can be used to calculate the AO fluence (atoms/m2) on spacecraft surfaces. This is a huge concern especially for spacecraft in highly elliptical orbits (e. Moreso. optical cover glasses etc. In some cases. Under AO exposure: • Silver contacts form silver oxide layers which are porous to AO and flake off due to stresses generated from thermal cycling.1 Skylab On July 11.

5. 6 Aluminized perfluorinated ethylenepropylene film is regularly used for insulation purposes because of its thermo-optical properties.5 Various coatings are used to protect against AO effects: .Silverised or aluminised perfluorinated ethylenepropylene film due to its low sensitivity to AO erosion6 [5]. 4.15 km per year and has been periodically re-boosted by the shuttle. 6 . In addition. low solar absorptance. as an inbuilt propulsion system is required. fluoropolymer filled silicon dioxide. particularly nanosats and cubesats due to weight and size constraints.4 Long Duration Exposure Facility In June 1984. and high thermal emmittance.Vapour deposited gold used on silver electrical contacts.. 4. This led to degradation of the underlying spacecraft materials [4]. . the retrieved silicone oxide coated retroreflectors mounted on the e. 5 Not all spacecraft have this ability. Mitigation of Atmospheric Effects • • Routine orbit reboost and manoeuvres correct for spacecraft orbit decay from drag effects. aluminum oxide and germanium can be sputter deposited on polymers. the large solar array blankets of the ISS have been coated with silicone dioxide for AO protection.AOR (Atomic Oxygen Resistant) Kapton®. External surfaces of the ISS showed AO erosion of the unprotected areas. .© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section I: Residual Atmosphere Effects 4. Aluminised polyimide Kapton® insulation samples on the leading edge of recovered surfaces of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experienced significant erosion due to AO.2 Hubble Space Telescope The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) drops about 10 .3 International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS) requires re-boosting several times a year due to a drag induced average orbit decay of 83 m per day. trapped protons cease to exist at the poles. For example. . but high energy trapped protons continue to feature in the SAA. a polydimethyl silioxane-polyimide mixture [6].Silicone dioxide.

2004. 2001. Spacecraft Environment Interactions. D. 1995.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section I: Residual Atmosphere Effects 6. A new version of the NeQuick ionosphere electron density model. Rutledge. 2002. J. et al. [4] Atomic Oxygen Undercutting of Long Duration Exposure Facility AluminisedKapton Multilayer Insulation. Vol. De Groh. Vol. [10] Bilitza. K. s. 96. A. 36. E. Space Mission Analysis and Design. NASA/TM−2002-211786. 1999. 2008.l. et al. and Garret. Journal of Geophysical Research. [9] Hedin. Reno. L. The Space Environment and Survivability. 4. 70. M. 7 . [6] The Effect of Atomic Oxygen on Altered and Coated Kapton Surfaces for Spacecraft Applications in Low Earth Orbit. [7] Hedin. References [1] The Upper Atmosphere. 207-212. [11] Nava. Radio Science.. J. : Cambridge University Press. A.. Revised Global Model of Thermosphere Winds Using Satellite and Ground-Based Observations. : AIAA 33rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit. D. B. Vol.l. et al. pp 261-275. s. Tribble. 31. 96. [3] Spacecraft Interactions with the Space Environment. 1992. [2] Hastings. 656-664. 1991. pp. NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere Model-Version 2. 1994.. Extension of the MSIS Thermosphere Model into the Middle and Lower Atmosphere. and Mihelcic. 1990. Vol. International Reference Ionosphere 2000. 1991. [8] Owens. Vol. Levadou. H. pp. pp 1856-1862. C.0. [5] Preliminary Investigations into UHCRE Thermal Control Materials. E. R. F. : Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. Journal of Geophysical Research. S. pp 1159. Walterscheid. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics.. et al. A. pp 7657-7688.

including total dose. Charged particles gyrate along the magnetic field lines.5 Earth radii and comprising energetic protons up to 600 MeV together with electrons up to several MeV. Radiation belts are divided into two belts. launchers and the ISS) and human beings in space are vulnerable to Space Weather through its influence on energetic charged particle and plasma populations. and an outer belt comprising mainly electrons extending to 10 Earth radii. 8 . Trapped Particle motion (Source: ESA). Introduction Space systems (satellites. noise in sensors and electrostatic charging. Radiation Sources Sources in Space 2. Single Event Effects (SEE). lattice displacement damage.1 Radiation Belts B elts The Earth's magnetic field creates a geomagnetic cavity known as the magnetosphere [1].© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section II: Radiation Effects Section II: Radiation Effects 1. The trapped particles gyrate spirally around the magnetic field lines and are reflected back and forth between the poles where the fields are confined [2].8 Earth radii [2]. These trapped particles consist primarily of electrons and protons. see Figure 5. In addition aircraft electronics and aircrew are subjected to atmospheric secondary radiation produced by cosmic rays and solar particle events. 2. Figure 5. an inner belt extending to 2. although some heavy ions are also trapped. The magnetic field lines trap low-energy charged particles. The trapped proton distribution exists primarily in regions one and two that extend from slightly above 1 Earth radius to 3. which produce a variety of effects.

4]. In the absence of solar activity. 2. but these take little account of Space Weather variations apart from having different versions for solar maximum and minimum. cosmic radiation is composed entirely of galactic radiation. For more please see [2]. highly inclined low Earth orbits intersect the outer belt electrons at high latitudes in the socalled horn regions. Outside of our solar system. Invariant coordinate map of the AE-8 MAX integral electron flux > 1 MeV (Source: NASA) Other radiation belt models include: • • • • Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite Electron and Proton models (CR. In addition.2 Cosmic Rays Cosmic rays originate from two sources. This is called the South Atlantic or Brazilian Anomaly (SAA) and dominates the radiation received by low Earth orbits. It consists mostly of protons (85%) and alpha particles (helium nuclei) (14%). Less than 9 . the spectrum of galactic cosmic rays is believed to be uniform. there is a region in the South Atlantic where the trapped radiation is found at lower altitudes. see Figure 6. the sun (solar) and sources outside our solar system (galactic). Galactic cosmic rays are always present.RESELE and CRRESPRO) Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer Proton/Electron Telescope model (SAMPEX/PET) International Geostationary Electron model (IGE-2006) Particle ONERA-LANL Environment model (POLE) Because of the displacement of the dipole term in the geomagnetic field away from the Earth’s centre.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section II: Radiation Effects Standard models of the radiation belts are AP8 for protons and AE8 for electrons [3. Figure 6.

mesons. From the point of view of space systems it is particles in the energy range 1-20 GeV per nucleon which have most influence. An important quantity is the rigidity of a cosmic ray which measures its resistance to bending in a magnetic field and is defined as the momentum-to-charge ratio for which typical units are GV. The influence of Space Weather is to provide a modulation in antiphase with the sunspot cycle and with a phase lag which is dependent on energy [5]. The intensity of radiation builds up to a maximum at 60 000 feet (the Pfotzer maximum) and then slowly drops off to sea level.4. model [30] • The Emission of Solar Protons (ESP) model [31] For solar heavy ions. These solar particle events last for several days at a time and comprise both protons and heavier ions with variable composition from event to event. photons and nuclear fragments.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section II: Radiation Effects 1% of the galactic cosmic ray spectrum is composed of high-energy heavy ions. At normal aircraft cruising altitudes the radiation is several hundred times the ground level intensity and at 60 000 feet a factor three higher again. Solar particles are less penetrating and only a few events in each cycle can reach aircraft altitudes or ground level [5]. Solar proton models include: • The King model [28] • The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) model [29] • The Rosenqvist et al. because it is hard to shield against them and it is not possible to predict a coming impact. 10 . neutrons.3 Solar Particles In the years around solar maximum the sun is an additional sporadic source of lower energy particles accelerated during certain solar flares and in the subsequent coronal mass ejections. 2. 2. electrons. Heavy ions deposit more energy per unit depth in a material than protons [2]. the PSYCHIC model (Prediction of Solar Particle Yields for Characterising Integrated Circuits) is available. for more please see Ref [2]. Atmospheric Secondaries The primary cosmic rays interact with air nuclei to generate a cascade of secondary particles comprising protons. Energies typically range up to several hundred MeV and have most influence on high inclination or high altitude systems. Occasional events produce particles of several GeV in energy and these can reach equatorial latitudes [5].

SI units are J/kg or grays (1 gray = 100 rads. Figure 7 is a plot of TID in krads of silicon as a function of aluminium shield thickness for various orbits around the Earth. In general. Particle Radiation Effects 3.1 Ionising Radiation 3 . • Dependence on package and burn-in (especially for some types of plastic package). 11 . Figure 7.1 Total Dose Effects E ffects Dose is used to quantify the effects of charge liberation by ionisation and is defined as the energy deposited as ionisation and excitation per unit mass of material (note that the material should be specified). • In linear devices with junction isolated bipolar transistors there is a pronounced "enhanced low dose rate sensitivity" (ELDRS) effect where the damage is greater at low dose rates. TID depth curves for various orbits around the Earth (Source: NASA).© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section II: Radiation Effects 3.the-shelf devices). where 1 rad is 100 ergs/g). • Dependence on dose rate (mainly because of annealing effects). • Variability from batch to batch and device to device (especially for commercial off. issues which are important for total dose effects are: • Dependence on bias during irradiation (irradiation whilst the device is biased is usually worst case). • Annealing effects (trapped charge reduces after irradiation. The majority of effects depend on rate of delivery and so dose-rate information is required.1. while interface traps tend to build-up).

Trapping of carriers. 3 . The result is that stable defect states are created within the band gap that can give rise to any of the five effects depending on the temperature.1. neutrons or heavy ions).e. see Figure 8 (a). Secondary electrons produced by high-energy photons will also produce displacement effects.e. whereas neutrons give a flat PKA spectrum and a much greater proportion of cluster formation. 12 . It is now well established that the amount of formation of defect clusters depends on the particle type. protons. a current transient which can be interpreted as a false signal or be propagated to cause an output error in combinational logic). Single event upset in memories (i.1. electrons. also leading to carrier removal in some devices (for example the resistance in a lightly doped collector in a bipolar transistor can increase). For protons the situation is in between [6]. Recombination of electron-hole pairs (leading to reduction of minority carrier lifetime and effects in LEDs and laser diodes). Tunneling of carriers. carrier concentration and the location at which the defect resides [7]: • • • • • Generation of electron-hole pairs (leading to thermal dark current in detectors). protons.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section II: Radiation Effects Of relevance to potential work under this project is the problem of doseenhancement under electron or bremsstrahlung radiation where there are boundaries between materials of widely differing atomic number [6]. a-particles and heavy ions can create damage in semiconductor materials by displacing atoms in the crystal lattice. leading to increased current in reverse biased junctions particularly for small bandgap materials and high electric fields. Electron irradiation gives primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) with low recoil energies and hence leads to almost exclusive production of point defects. leading to loss in charge transfer efficiency in CCDs (minority carrier trapping) or carrier removal (majority carrier trapping). 3 . Single event transients in imagers or linear circuits (i.g. with the semiconductor causing either transient or permanent effects: • • • Single dark current generation centers (spikes) and single electron traps in imagers (permanent) due to individual lattice defects such as vacancyphosphorous complexes and divacancies. Compensation of donors or acceptors.3 Single Event Effects E ffects Single event effects arise from the interaction of single particles (e. bit-flips leading to change of stored information.2 Displacement Damage D amage Energetic particles such as neutrons.

particularly in SOI devices (a destructive triggering of a lateral n-p-n n n transistor accompanied by regenerative feedback). 3 . Single event gate rupture (destructive rupture of gate dielectric due to high field generated by high current) [6].g.4 . Both the recoiling nucleus and secondary particles can trigger SEEs as shown in Figure 8 (b). SEE in an electronic device (Source: NASA JPL) For cosmic rays the density of charge deposition by ionisation is proportional to the square of the atomic number so that the heavier species can deposit enough charge in a small volume of silicon to change the state of a memory cell. (transient corruption of a control path). Single event functional interrupt in control circuitry. a one becoming a zero and vice versa [5].4 Biological Effects E ffects The radiation effects on human beings are similar to the effects on electronics (catalogue McNully).1.. The latter is analogous to single event effects in electronics and can result in single or double-strand strand breaks that may not repair successfully resulting in the possibility of cancer. Figure 8. As with SEE. the charge deposition can be by direct ionisation or by nuclear interactions [6]. f Single event snapback in NMOS devices. In addition individual particles can break chemical bonds leading to loss of bases or rupturing of the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA. EE.1.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section II: Radiation Effects • • • • • Single event latch-up up in CMOS circuits (a potentially destructive triggering of a parasitic p-n-p-n n thyristor structure in the device). Ionisation produces free hydroxyl radicals which may lead to base damage in DNA. 13 . Single event burnout in power transistors (a destructive triggering of a vertical nn channel transistor accompanied by regenerative feedback). e. in processors or ADCs.

cancer induction) where probability is a function of dose and non-stochastic (e. while electrons can be important for extravehicular activity. In the geosynchronous environment.1. secondary neutrons become very significant and can provide a third of the dose equivalent for certain missions [8. cosmic-ray ions and solar particle events are most significant and very large solar events could provide debilitating doses if inadequate shielding is provided. both for heavy ions (track structure important) and for nuclear interactions by neutrons and protons. about 100% of the charged particles are ionised. 9].5 Background Noise N oise Spurious counts are produced in many detector systems and these depend on the size distribution of individual depositions and can occur from both prompt ionisation and delayed depositions due to induced radioactivity [5].g. This fraction reduces to about 1% at 300 km altitude. The energy density of the plasma (about 1 to 30 particles/cm3) exceeds that of its magnetic field so that the solar magnetic field lines are frozen into the plasma. Accurate shielding calculations to account for fragmentation of heavy ions and production of secondary neutrons. A review of this area has been given by Reitz et al [10]. Heavy ions in cosmic rays and occasional solar particle events are also of concern. 3 . For interplanetary travel. eye cataracts) which definitely occur beyond a threshold dose.g. The solar wind particles (positively charged ions and free electrons) ejected from the Sun could be so hot that they are homogenised into a dilute plasma. Microdosimetric calculations at the cell nucleus level. In large space structures.2 Plasma Plasma is ionised gas in which electron and ion densities are approximately equal. The electrically neutral plasma streams radially outwards from the Sun with temperatures up to hundreds of keV. 14 . 3.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section II: Radiation Effects Effects are divided into stochastic (e. Individual highly ionising particles can give light flashes in the retina. Important issues include: • • • Determination of quality factors. Currently human exposure is limited to Space Shuttle and International Space Station orbits for which trapped protons in the SAA are a major concern.

biasing of spacecraft instrument readings.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section II: Radiation Effects 3 . 15 .2. The energetic displaced atom may subsequently collide with other atoms of the material. The displacement defects reduce the minority carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths thereby decreasing efficiency of solar cells.3 NonNon-Ionising Dose/NonDose/Non-Ionising Energy Loss (NIEL) Energetic charged particles may collide with the atomic nuclei of materials they impinge on thereby displacing the atom from its crystal lattice site. and upsets to sensitive electronics. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) from such arcs could lead to operational anomalies in spacecraft ranging from minor irritations to the fatally catastrophic. photodetectors. Figure 9 shows the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory's (SOHO) solar array degradation between December 1995 and November 2009. Internal charging. This can occur in the geomagnetic tail region during geomagnetic storms and the subsequent discharges can couple into spacecraft systems. Some models used to analyse the effects of spacecraft charging are: • • • NASA Charging Analyser Programme for Low-Earth Orbit (NASCAP/LEO) NASA Charging Analyser Programme for Geosynchronous Orbit (NASCAP/GEO) Potentials of Large spacecraft in Auroral Regions (POLAR) 3. or deep dielectric charging as it is commonly called. can occur during energetic (several MeV) electron enhancements.1 Electrostatic Electrostatic (Spacecraft) Charging Charging Surface charging can occur when spacecraft are bathed in energetic plasmas (several keV electron temperature) without the presence of neutralising cold plasma. The total absorbed non-ionising dose is referred to as displacement damage dose (Dd) expressed in units of MeVg-1. Electrons penetrating the thin skin can be trapped in dielectric materials near the surface and sufficient build-up can occur over a few days to result in a damaging electron caused electromagnetic pulse (ECEMP) and electrostatic arcing [5]. This could be in the form of increased surface contamination and physical surface damage by ion sputtering. optical lenses and light emitting diodes. Abrupt drops in the efficiency of the solar panels coincide with solar events.

and other secondary processes (Bourrieau et al. pre-amplifiers. Charging effects result in a differential potential that may occur on satellites when surfaces are non-conductive because different surface materials are used (thermal coatings. direct impact of protons or heavy ions on the detector.). which results from the interaction between incident electrons and surrounding materials. SOHO Solar Array Degradation (Source: NASA).© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section II: Radiation Effects Figure 9. 1993) is due to atom displacements inside the cell caused by high energy particles.1 Satellites The rapid ageing of solar cells as seen on GOES during the large storm in March 1991 (see Allen and Wilkinson. The effect is instantaneous [11]. solar cells) and the exposure to the space environment is 16 . antennas.g. Examples of Effects 4. Atom displacements can also be induced by lowenergy particles near the surface. The radiation can interact either directly with the sensor or through other parts of the system (glasses. It is also an instantaneous space weather effect [11]. Due to the cover glass which is superimposed on the cell. etc. e.. 4. 1996). the particles must have an energy sufficient to pass through the coating (but not too high to pass through the whole cell) leaving a part of their energy in it and inducing permanent damage. In photon detectors an increase in background noise can be due to various particles.. It can also be related to bremsstrahlung.

This can sometimes take weeks or months. the suit being similar to the satellite and the shielding being smaller (around 0. electrons with energies below 300 keV and protons below 8 MeV will generally be stopped in the protecting material. 4. normally these effects do not have enough time to perturb the launcher. as they move higher out of the atmosphere are subject to nearly all other space weather effects (surface charging. especially when surfaces are made of dielectric materials. Single Event Upsets were recorded during an Ariane V launch without any solar energetic particle event in progress [11]. the redundancy of computers on board this launcher makes fatal error unlikely [11]. the time scales depend on the material or structure and the differential current [11]. global drag. For SEEs in electronics or computer devices. drops in efficiency of 4% in GEO [12] and 2% in LEO [13]. which is the case for Ariane V launches to GTO or interplanetary orbits [11. internal charging). The external layer thickness of a satellite being usually around 500 microns. Nevertheless. so they must have a sufficiently high energy. SEEs by energetic particles from radiation belt as well as solar energetic particles and cosmic rays. Nevertheless. non-isotropic particle fluxes). The clearest examples of displacement effect arise from observations of degradations in solar-array efficiency where sharp drops can occur during solar particle events.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section II: Radiation Effects different for different surfaces (shadow. For example. More examples of Single Event Effects observed in spacecraft components can be found in Ref [6]. excepted during solar energetic particle events or when crossing during a long period of time the radiation belts (near the South Atlantic Anomaly).3 Humans During Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs). For surface charging. Charging effects and energetic particles (protons from the 17 . The exception is upper stages that have to do additional manoeuvres to place satellites in deep space orbits.2 Space Launch Vehicles Space launch vehicles. nearly all effects similar to spacecraft are possible. 4. 14]. the particles responsible must pass through the shielding of the satellite (thermal coating and structural materials) and the cover and insulating materials of the electronics. The number of SEUs can increase during such an event.5 mm).

This occurred after high radiation levels from the Van Allen belts plunged the efficiency of the solar panels. the solar arrays on the spinning satellite were no longer sunpointing.Placing the most sensitive instruments inside the spacecraft in such a way that they are protected by the structure. During the potential future interplanetary missions. Telesat's Anik E2 lost attitude control due to a malfunction of the primary momentum wheel. astronauts are not protected by the magnetospheric shielding and the fluxes are much higher [11. a major solar _are on October 19.insufficient for intended experiments [20]. 15]. 5. However. or missions to the Moon.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section II: Radiation Effects radiation belts and ions from the cosmic rays or SEPEs) occur on low-altitude stations (ISS. and output was reduced to 25% of its nominal value [16]. Mitigation of Radiation Effects Generally. however. 1989 degraded the solar arrays [19].covering the spacecraft structure with light. More so. NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 5 (GOES-5) experienced ten SEU's in its central telemetry unit. largely tested. The redundant unit failed almost immediately and the satellite was not recoverable through the backup system. particle radiation effects on spacecraft can be mitigated by: • Shielding: . This failure was attributed to an electrostatic discharge event on the control circuitry of the momentum wheels [17] after a period of increased solar activity between the 13th and 21st of the same month [18]. Representative Cases • • • Anik E2 On January 20. GOES-5 In 1989. 6. MIR) and lower than 400 km where the inner Van Allen radiation belts effectively confine human orbital spaceflight around Earth to lower than 400 km (the lowest point of the South Atlantic Anomaly). In practice. 1994. Predictions pointed to a 50% decrease in power output within a year of deployment . six of which were associated with solar fares. charging effects can appear especially when astronauts cross the boundary between sunlight and shadow. ETS-6 In September 1994. inexpensive metals like aluminium or lighter composites like graphite polycyanate [22] 18 . some instruments need to be directly exposed to the environment or may not fit into a more protected area [21] . Japan's Engineering Test Satellite (ETS-6) failed to reach geostationary orbit due to a failure in its apogee kick motor. Consequently.

[4] J I Vette. Basic Mechanisms of Radiation Effects in the Natural Space Radiation Environment. in addition to the above. QINETIQ/KI/SPACE/TR010690/1. “The AE-8 Trapped Electron Model Environment. Dyer." Prec." IEEE NSREC Short Course Notes. Dyer and Gordon R.” NSSDC/WDC-A-R&S 91-29. "Space Radiation Environment Dosimetry. Using materials with low resistivity and that are not susceptible to secondary emissions [23] Proper grounding techniques. Space Department. 1998.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section II: Radiation Effects Glass. [5] C. Schwank. Raymond. Nov 1991. Nov 1991. 1988. QinetiQ Limited [7] P W Marshall and C J Marshall. Newport Beach. Ch. References [1] E. Norfolk. [8] C Dyer. NASA/GSFC. Hopkinson. “The NASA/National Space Science Data Center Trapped Radiation Environment Model Program (TREMP) (1964-1991). "The Space Radiation Environment for Electronics.G." 1998 IEEE NSREC Short Course Notes. SEE tests) Redundancy Implementation of Error Detection. though more fragile. Analysis and Correction (EDAC) and Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) algorithms Spacecraft charging is.” NSSDC/WDC-A-R&S 91-24. [2] James R. Space Radiation Effects For Future Technologies and Missions. CA. Radiation Effects on Spacecraft & Aircraft. Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque. I. of the IEEE 76. NASA/GSFC. QinetiQ Limited 2001 [6] S. 1423. P.1. USA. Electromagnetic Radiation Environment and its effects on spacecraft - • • • • • • • • 7. VA. is often used to shield solar panels and optical devices . Stassinopoulos and J. NM 87185-1083 [3] J I Vette. 19 .Employing shutters to close during times of exposure to high levels of particles while on orbit Selection of radiation hardened electronic parts and materials Using silicon dioxide as a surface passivation coating for silicon devices Pre-launch irradiation tests (TID. mitigated by. 1999. "Proton effects and test issues for satellite designers.

B. ESA Space Weather Study (ESWS).] http://goes.Boscher. Rodgers. "Radiation protection in space. 28th Aerospace Sciences Meeting.” IEEE 21st PVSC. [14] Bourdarie. D. P Samson. Vitreous Radioelectrets: Materials for Shielding Spacecraft against Radiation (review). [11] H. J." Acta Astronautica. The Rescue of Anik E2. 6.2 and 3 Solar Arrays. E. [18] NOAA.gov/data/ [19] Elsen. [20] Garret. V. Editor Proceedings of Workshop on "Predictions and measurements of secondary neutrons in space. P. PUF. pg 381-390. C." NASA/Johnson Space Center. J. Orbital Anomalies in Goddard Spacecraft for CY 1989. J. 41. [21] Miller. Koskinen. [10] G Reitz. [15] Bourrieau. H. pg 16-21. Mandeville. 159. Steklo i Keramika. Cannon. 1999. 2001. 1994. et al. Pulkkinen. No 4/5.XMM. CELESTRI et GTO+. S.2 January 2. Issue 2. 627-631. R. [17] Telesat Starts Anik E2 Rescue.noaa. 1995. pp 313-338. Benchmark Studies of the Effectiveness of Structural and Internal Materials as Radiation Shielding for the International Space Station. [cited 20 Jan. 1995. Goddard Space Flight Centre. Les radiations dans l’espace. Bourrieau. Nevada. in L'homme dans l'espace. 2003 [22] Tsetlin.Tirs AR5 .-C. Evaluation des taux d’événements singuliers induits par les protons piégés. F. Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal. 1241-1248. G Picart. A. Tanskanen. and J. vol 35. Dyer. Sept 1998. September 1998.. and Whittlesey. Esterle. “In-Orbit Behaviour of SPOT 1. D. 1995.. 1989. H Sandler. [13] A Jalinat. 2011. Radiation Research. R Facius. A. Aviation Week & Space Technology. 20 .© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section II: Radiation Effects [9] G D Badwar. [16] Burlton. W. “Recent Solar Flare Activity and Its Effects On In-Orbit Solar Arrays. RF/473900 ONERA/DESP. 1993. 140. Environment Induced Anomalies on the TDRSS and the Role of Spacecraft Charging..” ESA SP-416. Vol II. Paris. Office of Flight Assurance. Pirjola. G. Space Weather Effects Catalogue. GOES Space Environment Monitor. ed. E Rapp. pg 58. 6. 2001 [12] L J Goldhammer. 1990. ESWS-FMI-RP-0001.ngdc.

et al. et al. Literature study on radiation effects in advanced semiconductor devices. Norfolk. L. 1997. 24. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. No. pp 486-490. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. M. 2000. Na. H. March 30 2000. vol 45. [26] P W Marshall and C J Marshall. Vol. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. T Miyahira. 11. VA. 27. [28] King. "Single-event upset effects in optocouplers. 2000. G M Swift. Solar Proton Fluences for 1977-1983 Space Missions. [25] C Claeys and E Simoen. Reno. "Proton effects and test issues for satellite designers. Internal Charging: A preliminary environmental specification for satellites. J. 1974. 47. 1990. Probability Model for Cumulative Solar Proton Event Fluences. New Interplanetary Proton Fluence Model. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. 2000." IEEE NSREC Short Course Notes. 6." IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. No. pp 2867-2875. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science. J. [31] Xapsos. A. S Guertin and L D Edmonds. 2005. 401. 403. et al. Vol. Vol. 1999. [29] Feynman. et al. Vol. F. 21 ." IEEE NSREC Short Course Notes. [27] A H Johnston. [30] Rosenqvist. "Optoelectronic devices with complex failure modes.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section II: Radiation Effects [23] Fennel. No. [24] A H Johnston. Toolkit for Updating Interplanetary Proton-Cumulated Fluence Models. ESTEC contract report P35284-IM-RP-0013. J.

The sun plays a vital role in renewable energy production productio on Earth and for powering satellites in Earth E orbit. Station. The predominant source of thermal effects within our solar system is the sun. 2) Radiative Zone—solar Zone solar energy is transferred outwards via thermal radiation (also generates a magnetic dynamo which creates the suns magnetic field). 2]:: the 1) Core. 5) Chromosphere. which are [1. It is composed of 74% hydrogen. There are 9 different regions within the sun. 22 . 6) Corona. 2. nitrogen. which include ude satellites. 3) Convective Zone—thermal hermal columns carry hot material to the surface (photosphere) by convection. 3) Convective Zone. 7) Sunspot. 4) Photosphere—the Photosphere the visible surface of the sun.1 Electromagnetic Radiation from the Sun The sun is a G2V star designated as a yellow dwarf and is located in the center of our solar system m about 150 million kilometres away from the Earth. it can also have adverse effects effects to both space systems and humans.. silicon and sulphur [1]. carbon. neon. Thermal Sources in Space 2.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section III: Thermal Effects Section III: Thermal Effects 1. Figure 10. however. The sun is approximately 109 times the size of the Earth arth and it accounts for 99% of the the mass within our solar system [1]. 8) Granules and 9) Prominences (Figure 10). probes and the International Space Station. 24% helium and the remainder is a mix of oxygen. 2) Radiative Zone. ever. The Sun has 9 different regions which include: 1) Core— Core—where nuclear fusion occurs. 4) Photosphere. Introduction Thermal effects can adversely affect both humans in space and space systems. arth. iron. magnesium.

500. infrared radiation. On the other hand. 2. X-rays and gamma rays. it has a temperature of 1. whether it is at the perihelion or the aphelion. microwaves. The solar wind has a slow component and fast component. The change in energy output is governed by an 11 year solar cycle. Another phenomenon known as the Milankovitch cycle plays a more important role in which the energy variance perceived by the Earth is dependent on Earth’s position. The intense energy that is given off by the sun is fuelled through a fusion reaction in the core of the sun. visible light. The mass of the fused atom is less than the sum of the two individual hydrogen atoms and this missing mass is converted to energy through Einstein’s theory of mass-energy equivalence [3]. Electromagnetic (EM) radiation exhibits a wave-like characteristic when travelling through space and consists of electric and magnetic components. 23 . 7) Sunspot—created by magnetic activity that inhibits convection. which are in low Earth orbit (LEO) feel a perceptible change as a result of the solar and Milankovitch cycles.000 K and travels at 400 km/s [8]. the latter three being the most harmful to humans [4]. ultraviolet (UV) radiation. it’s composition is similar to that of the photosphere (convection cells) and the solar material is released from coronal holes [8]. This variation in the orbit results in a change of approximately 25% in the energy that is received in certain areas on Earth [6. which oscillate in phase perpendicular to each other. The fusion reaction that occurs in the core is driven by a proton-proton chain in which hydrogen is converted into helium (two fused hydrogen atoms) [3]. 8) Granules—convection cells of gas and 9) Prominences—loop of plasma that extend from the sun’s surface to the corona.846*10 W (luminosity) 2 of which we receive approximately 1366 W/m in the outer Earth’s atmosphere [5].© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section III: Thermal Effects composed of granules 5) Chromosphere—layer above the photosphere 6) Corona— composed of ionised gas (plasma). satellites and the ISS. The excess energy then diffuses through the successive layers of the sun to reach the solar photosphere where it escapes as electromagnetic radiation. 26 The solar energy output from the sun at any given time is 3. The slow solar wind originates from the sun’s equatorial region. which reaches temperatures of up to 13. which predominantly contains ionised gas [8].6 million Kelvin (K) [2]. which causes cyclic changes in total solar irradiance resulting in a variance of 1. Thus. the fast solar wind travels an order of speed faster.2 Solar Wind Heating Solar wind heating is another source of thermal energy throughout the solar system. EM radiation includes waves of different energies such as radiowaves. The composition of the slow solar wind resembles that of the corona. 7]. which serve as a precursor to coronal mass ejections (CMEs) (Source: NASA).3W/m2 [4].

in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The stirring of the solar wind produces swirls and eddies which breakdown overtime and the thermal energy is dissipated as result of the mixing process [9. In addition. This occurs through fusion reactions from the ionised mixture of hydrogen and helium gas in the sun’s core [11]. As the gas in the sun’s core is at very high temperatures. the ionisation capacity alone is not enough to describe the thermal conductivity of the sun [13]. An improved method to describe the conductivity of the sun takes into account the density of the various particles. Thermal Effects 3. 10]. corona and prominences are not in radiative equilibrium (the heat generated from fusion is entirely transferred as electromagnetic radiation from the sun into space). In these regions the electron temperature can exceed the local radiation temperature and as result ionisation is greatly reduced [13]. As the sun is not entirely in equilibrium since the solar chromosphere. this causes turbulence and the generation of thermal energy [9]. 3. Γ3=conductivity of negatively charged particles 24 . Overtime. thermal collisions between atoms will ionise them resulting in the ejection of electrons that will co-exist with atomic ions [11]. Γ2=conductivity of positively charged particles. 1 Governance of Thermal Output from the Sun Thermal radiation from the sun occurs through the release of visible light and infrared radiation [11].© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section III: Thermal Effects Although. Thermal Conductivity from the Sun.1 3. N=electron density. the sun releases a stream of electrons and protons that escape due to their high kinetic energy. Ionisation can be determined using the Saha ionisation equation [12]. as the high-energy particles released from the sun mix with one another in space. heat conduction by neutral atoms plays a key role when the system deviates from thermodynamic equilibrium in solar prominences and the chromosphere. heat conduction by charged particles across lines of force is greatly reduced and as a result the thermal conductivity is determined mainly by the remaining neutral particles (unionised form of He and H) [13]. The thermal conductivity of the sun is dependent on the degree of ionisation of the atoms. Γ1=conductivity of neutral particles. T=temperature. The thermal conductivity is determined as follows [13]: Figure 11. Furthermore. Where λ1=thermal conductivity. these particles are not the primary source of thermal energy of the solar wind. however this equation is ideally applied in cases when the system is in equilibrium. the temperature and the ionisation energy of the atoms [13].

2 Launch Vehicles Spacecrafts are subjected to extreme temperatures as a result of direct sunlight or shade and to regulate these extreme temperatures. As the sun has a large magnetic field. showed that the battery system on board a nano-satellite operating for about two years was sub-nominal until the satellite was yawed 180°.82*10 ) * (TN2 /H ) * (Γ2 +Γ3) = 0}. resulting in a change of the battery pack position in the satellite reference frame (and relative to the sun). 25 . the conductivity of the neutral atoms is primarily what governs the thermal conductivity of the sun since the term that accounts for the conductivity of positively and negatively charged atoms approaches 24 2 2 zero. which requires conductivity of neutral and charged particles. electron density and the strength of the sun’s magnetic field. humans in space are exposed to extreme temperatures as a result of the sun and as such also require a protective thermal system. 4. a thermal protection system (TPS) is required.1 Satellites The ISS and all other satellites in space make use of the abundant solar energy from the sun. However. {(8.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section III: Thermal Effects The thermal conductivity is determined using the equation in Figure 1. there is an abundant amount of thermal energy that is released and a milieu of energetic particles that adversely affect the ISS and its inhabitants. 4. A study by Bekhti et al. in addition to the temperature of the chromosphere. Examples of Thermal Effects 4.3 Humans During extra-vehicular activity. 4. This caused the temperature to be restored to the nominal level and the cell performance increased appreciably as determined through the charging/discharging process [14]. The ISS is also affected by thermal energy from the sun resulting in increased cabin temperatures [15]. during the release of solar flares and coronal mass ejections.

As a result. 17-19]. There are two parts to the TCS. there is a thermal control system (TCS). cooling satellites can be a difficult task as many of the cooling systems we use on Earth utilise convection. there is also an external thermal control system to cool the hardware associated with the photovoltaic arrays. 26 . the satellite can then lose its capacity to ensure optimal power generation and thus it is important to consider the orientation of the satellite prior to orbit insertion. cold-plates and multilayer insulation to keep hardware within the specified temperature limits [17]. which would necessitate the use of airflow. On the ISS. which include the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IACTS)—a water based system that works with the External Active Control System (EACTS). Mitigation of Thermal Effects 5. The passive system works by using thermal coatings. distributing and rejecting heat. By changing the pitch. The TCS system is comprised of both active and passive conditioning measures for maintaining thermal control. this alters the angle of incidence at which the sunlight hits the satellite and in the long term it would have a large effect on the power generation capacity [14]. In contrast.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section III: Thermal Effects 5. As space is a vacuum. 3) moderate and low temperature cross strapping for failure redundancy and 4) rack flow control valves to provide additional temperature control at the racks [17].1 Satellites In order to regulate the temperature of satellites. In addition. orientation changes that are expected to occur throughout the satellites lifetime should be rigorously assessed and modelled prior to orbit insertion to minimise any insidious thermal effects. these successive changes in temperature cause the protective coatings on the satellite to breakdown. the active system uses: 1) externally mounted water/ammonia heat exchangers. This includes the batteries. 3) precluding condensation and 4) maintaining structural interface temperatures [15]. The two layers together create a “cold material” that allows solar light to freely pass through the quartz outer layer and then reflect off of the metal layer resulting in decreased absorption by critical components on the satellite [16]. Overtime. If the satellite undergoes large temperature fluctuations as it could be exposed to direct sunlight or shade. optical solar reflectors are commonly used which are composed of quartz or Teflon followed by a metal layer (silver). 2) water pumps for providing moderate and low temperature coolant to racks and cold-plated hardware. which is an ammonia based system [17]. The implementation of the TCS on the ISS allows for the successful maintenance of thermal energy fluctuations that occur as a result of exposure or a lack of exposure to the sun. yaw or roll of the satellite. which is used to regulate heat fluctuations [15. The TCS is responsible for: 1) collecting. DC converter units and DC switching units [17]. 2) meeting intra/extra-vehicular touch temperatures. battery discharging/charging units.

to protect it from the heat during re-entry and against the large fluctuations of thermal energy while in orbit. wings. LRSI tiles were originally used on the sides of the craft and the tail wing which have been retrofitted with flexible insulation blankets (FIB) composed of a white low density fibrous silica material that requires less maintenance than the earlier LRSI tiles [21]. side hatch. As the shuttle’s base structure was o constructed from aluminium it was not able to withstand temperatures over 175 C without a thermal protective system (TPS) [20]. were placed at several locations throughout the shuttle (leading edge of foreward fuselage. a white flexible fabric that could withstand temperatures up to 371oC [21]. These panels along the wing are between 6 to 13 mm thick and can withstand temperatures up to 1510oC [21]. toughened unipiece fibrous insulation (TUFI) and low-temperature reusable surface insulation (LRSI) [21]. speed rake. The outer skin of the shuttle was composed of seven different materials that are found on different regions of the shuttle [21]. The upper surface and aft fuselage of the shuttle were coated with FRSI. the gap fillers. body flaps and on the heat shield around the main engines) to minimise heating by preventing the formation of vortices in areas where surface pressure gradients would result in a cross-flow of air within the gaps [21]. the HRSI tiles were replaced with either FRCI or TUFI tiles. 27 . rudder. nose caps. durability and resistance to cracking. Nomex felt reusable surface insulation (FRSI) and gap fillers [21]. Lastly. On the shuttle the TPS was divided into a tile based and non-tile based system. On the shuttle. The wings of shuttle are lined with reinforced carbon-carbon—a composite material made from graphite rayon cloth and impregnated phenolic resin [21]. windshields. had a thermal control system for two purposes. The non-tile materials used on the shuttle as part of the TPS included flexible insulation blanket (FIB). both of which provided increased strength. fibrous refractory composite insulation tiles (FRCI). During subsequent repairs of the shuttle.2 Launch Vehicles The shuttle developed by United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and recently retired. vertical stabiliser. reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC). the HRSI tiles were composed of high purity silica fibers and cover the under-side which are able to withstand temperatures up to 1260oC [21]. There are four different tile types. composed of alumina fibers. The four tile types include high-temperature reusable surface insulation (HRSI).© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section III: Thermal Effects 5. all of which are very poor conductors in order to prevent heat transfer [20. 22].

The Russian Federal Space Agency (ROSCOSMOS) also has a launch vehicle known as Soyuz-TMA.3 Humans Due to extreme thermal conditions an astronaut will face during extra-vehicular activity (EVA). The descent module carries eight thermal blankets held by the apex and base rings which are released when the modules are separated for re-entry [25]. 24]. at the NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field. The spacesuit consists of a hard upper torso assembly [27]. an extravehicular mobility unit is required to withstand the harsh conditions. This Soyuz launch vehicle is a segmented craft consisting of an forward orbital module (holds crew). 5. Shuttle Thermal Protection System (Source: NASA). California.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section III: Thermal Effects Figure 12. 28 . which allows it to reflect a significant portion of the thermal energy from the sun and is able to sustain temperatures from -156oC to 121oC [26]. along with a multi-layer vacuum-screen thermal insulation [24]. there are additional studies ongoing to develop Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) that can be used on future re-entry vehicles [20]. In addition. International Latex Corporation Dover and NASA [26]. The suit is primarily white. The exterior thermal protection on a Soyuz-TMA craft involves service module radiators [25]. a center descent module and an aft service module (contains instruments and engines) [23. The American spacesuit—Enhanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is jointly developed by Hamilton Sundstrand.

The other spacesuit that is commonly used on the ISS and for EVA’s is the Russian Orlan-MK suit developed by NPP Zvezda [28]. This is then followed by putting on the lower torso assembly [27]. Figure 14. The Enhanced Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (Source: NASA). Orlan-M Spacesuit (Source: Russian Space Federation). the weight is twice as much. The Orlan-MK can also withstand extreme temperatures. the latter of which incorporates tubing through which chilled water is pumped for temperature regulation and ventilation tubes for waste gas removal [27].© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section III: Thermal Effects primary life support system and a lower torso assembly [27]. radiation and micrometeorites equivalent to that of the EMU [29]. 29 . Figure 13. Astronauts have to wear a thermal control undergarment and then the liquid cooling and ventilation garment. The enhanced EMU can support an astronaut for 8.5 hours with a 30-minute reserve in case there is a failure with the primary system. the Orlan suit is a one-piece semi-rigid model that requires only 5 minutes of preparation time as it has a rear hatch entry [28]. Although. It has primary life support time of 7 hours and weighs approximately twice as much as United States EMU.

The Coefficient of Thermal Conductivity in the Sun's Atmosphere. Durante. Physical review letters. 2003(8677295430675503475related:c5mITDjya3gJ).L. 52(21436608): p. Evidence of a cascade and dissipation of solar-wind turbulence at the electron gyroscale. 2009(18168762412411035511related:d5864CZpJPwJ). Nuclear processes at solar energy. [11] Broggini. and N. et al. Available from: http://history. 2007 [cited 2011 May 14]. A New Sun: The Solar Results from Skylab. M. [10] Sahraoui. The Journal of Chemical Physics. Electrophoresis. 126-46. Foray. 2011. SOLAR SYSTEM GEOMETRIES AND TERRESTRIAL CLIMATE. Sun's fickle heart may leave us cold. D.. 2007. 1979 [cited 2011 May 7]. C.A..htm.gov/planetary/factsheet/sunfact. References [1] Williams.M. 2010(related:8eIJdxXsVPYJ). 30 . Available from: http://solarscience. Arxiv preprint astro-ph. Helioseismology and solar abundances. [8] Hathaway. The Astrophysical Journal. [4] Maalouf.. 2008(3553695456915610782related:ntxflTBDUTEJ). B. R.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section III: Thermal Effects 6. 1961(6645977447091387690related:Kr0jt0ZBO1wJ). [6] Doormann. Available from: http://nssdc.S. [14] Bekhti‚ M. F. 1999(3889806379195337319related:Z4r89Epe-zUJ). 2010(related:IO8F2VPSRr0J). 2007(7883744296578191625related:CRGO-aqvaG0J). and P.nasa. S. Approximate formulas for the viscosity and thermal conductivity of gas mixtures. Temperature effects on satellite power systems performance. Sun Fact Sheet. Journal of radiation research.org. 1958 (10584108522416325608 related:6EPPxp9O4pIJ).‚ European conference of systems. M.shtml.msfc.. Plasma Processes and Plasma Kinetics. [9] Hassler. Solar Physics. [5] Basu. [12] Brokaw. V. Goldstein. volker-doormann. J.gov/feature1. [3] Smirnov. Solar wind outflow and the chromospheric magnetic network.... D. [7] Clark..Q.M. [13] Orrall.nasa. [2] Eddy.. advances and outcomes. 2004 [cited 2010 May 12].gsfc.nasa.gov/SP-402/contents..html.. Biological effects of space radiation on human cells: history. A. F. M. Physics Reports. New Scientist. Science.. D. S. Robert.

sae. Development of high‚Äêperformance flexible optical solar reflectors. A.© SSS Educational Series 2012 Section III: Thermal Effects [15] Morrison‚ R. 2004 [cited 2011 May 7].nasa. K.S.A... K. [20] Dunbar.html. US Spacesuits. and Communications in Japan.ca/eng/educators/resources/spacesuit-donning.. The International Space Station ECLS and thermal control systemsOverview.com/soyuz. T. 2001 [cited 2011 May 9]. 2008.html.asc-csa.. 2003. Russian Spacesuits. and J..H.L. Rocket and Space Technology: Soyuz. [29] McHale.htm.T. Spacecraft: Manned: Soyuz. R.braeunig. Thermal Protection System (TPS) and Materials. 2006. [19] Rector. 1982: Ballantine Books. ISS IATCS Coolant Loop Biocide Implementation.I. Ballinger. [23] Soyuz spacecraft: Made to measure. [21] Kennedy. 1986. 2002 [cited 2011 May 14]. Available from: http://www. 1997. Chichester: Praxis Publishing Ltd. Chichester: Praxis Publishing Ltd. [28] Skoog. Available from: http://www.a.html. International space station internal active thermal control system: An initial assessment of the microbial communities within fluid from ground support and flight. [27] Donning the Spacesuit. [17] Reysa.org.us/space/specs/soyuz. [26] McMann. 2005. [22] Information Summaries: Countdown! NASA Launch Vehicles and Facilites (NASA PMS 018-B). Sasaki..H. [25] Association. Steele.J.html.gov/centers/ames/research/humaninspace/humansinspacethermalprotectionsystem.int/esaMI/Delta_Mission/SEMWWK57ESD_0.esa.a. papers. and R. Orlan-MK. SAE transactions. J.a.sae. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project-2006 Update.org. 1991. papers. Space Shuttle Operator's Manual.G. Available from: http://www.asp#tphp. I. Available from: http://www..com/ruspace/orlanmk.gc. J. 2006. 2008 [cited 2011 May 9]. 2001. 2010 [cited 2011 May 15]. [24] Zak. Available from: http://suzymchale. [18] Benardini.russianspaceweb. S. Available from: http://www. N. B.T.. [16] Ichino. 31 . T. and S. Space Environmental Control Systems.. Crawford.

org www.org +43 1 718 11 18 30 Fax: +43 1 718 11 18 99 .Schwarzenbergplatz 6 Vienna A-1030 AUSTRIA info@spacegeneration.spacegeneration.