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Vol. 1, No. 4

www.pels.org

December 2014

For your engineering success

Features

16

Power Electronics at the Grid Edge

23

Dynamics and Modeling
of Rechargeable Batteries

The key to unlocking value from the smart grid
Deepak Divan, Rohit Moghe, and Anish Prasai

What electrochemists’ work tells
the electronic engineers
Nihal Kularatna
On the cover
Unlocking value from the smart grid—
The benefits of applying power electronics at
the edges of power grid are highlighted in our
first feature article, “Power Electronics at
the Grid Edge.” The authors illustrate how
grid-edge control using distributed power
electronics solutions can transform the
way the grid is planned, built, and controlled.
Several companies are now offering
grid-edge solutions, with the number
expected to grow in the years ahead.
IMAGE LICENSED BY INGRAM PUBLISHING

16

Departments
& Columns
4
6
9
10
12
35
36
42
44
48

From the Editor
President’s Message
Patent Reviews
Happenings
A Look Back
Entrepreneur Viewpoint
Society News
Member News
Event Calendar
White Hot

©ISTOCK PHOTO.COM/JGROUP

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MPEL.2014.2365132

December 2014

]IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE

1

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IEEE Power Electronics Magazine
Editor-in-Chief
Ashok Bindra
12 Magnolia Ave.
Nesconset, NY 11767 USA
+1 631 471 5895
bindra1@verizon.net
___________
Deputy Editors-in-Chief
Ira J. Pitel (Industry)
Magna-Power Electronics, Inc.
39 Royal Road
Flemington, NJ 08822 USA
+1 908 237 2200 ext. 102
ipitel@magna-power.com
_____________
John Shen (Academic)
Grainger Chair Professor
Department of Electrical
and Computer Engineering
Illinois Institute of Technology
10 West 35th Street, Suite 1600
Chicago, IL 60616 USA
+1 312 567-3352
zjohnshen@gmail.com
____________

Magazine Advisory Board
Don F.D. Tan
President
IEEE Power Electronics Society
Philip T. Krein
University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign
Robert N. Guenther
NWL
John M. Miller
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Ira J. Pitel
Magna-Power Electronics
Prasad Enjeti
Texas A&M University
John Shen
Illinois Institute of Technology
Bob White
Embedded Power Labs
William A. Peterson
E&M Power
IEEE Power Electronics
Society Officers
Don F.D. Tan
President
dong.tan@ieee.org
__________
Braham Ferreira
President Elect
J.A.Ferreira@tudelft.nl
____________

Deepak Divan
Sr. Past President
ddivan@varentec.com
____________
Dushan Boroyevich
Jr. Past President
dushan@ieee.org
_________
Alan Mantooth
VP Operations
mantooth@uark.edu
___________
Braham Ferreira
VP Meetings
J.A.Ferreira@tudelft.nl
____________
Prasad Enjeti
VP Products
enjeti@ece.tamu.edu
___________
Jian Sun
Treasurer/Member-at-Large
jsun@ecse.rpi.edu
__________
Peter Wilson
Standards Director
prw@ecs.soton.ac.uk
___________
Andreas Lindeman
Awards Chair
a.lindemann@ieee.org
____________
Mario Pacas
Constitution and Bylaws Chair/
Member-at-Large
pacas@uni-siegen.de
___________
2014 Members-at-Large
Jose Cobos
jcobos@ieee.org
_________
Annette Muetze
muetze@tugraz.at
__________
Ira Pitel
i.pitel@ieee.org
________
Toshihisa Shimzu
shimizut@tmu.ac.jp
__________
Peter Steimer
peter.steimer@ch.abb.com
______________
Jian Sun
jsun@ecse.rpi.edu
__________
2015 Members-at-Large
Frede Blaabjerg
fbl@iet.aau.dk
________
Bob Guenther
RGuenther@nwl.com
___________
Paolo Matavelli
paolo.mattavelli@gmail.com
_______________

Joao Pinto
joaonofre@gmail.com
____________
Maryam Saeedifard
Women in Engineering Liaison
maryam@purdue.edu
___________
John Shen
Distinguished Lecturer Chair
zjohnshen@gmail.com
____________

Advertising Sales
Walter Chalupa
United States, Africa, Asia,
Canada, Central and South
America, and Europe
Telephone: +1 973 835 7015
Fax: +1 973 835 1602
wchalupa@aol.com
__________

2016 Members-at-Large
Vladimir Blasko
blaskov@utrc.utc.com
____________
Silva Hiti
silva.hiti@gm.com
__________
Dan Kinzer
dan.kinzer@fairchildsemi.com
________________
Mario Pacas
Consitution and Bylaws Chair
pacas@uni-siegen.de
___________
Pat Wheeler
Pat.Wheeler@nottingham.ac.uk
_________________
Zhengming Zhao
zhaozm@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
________________

IEEE Power Electronics
Society Staff
Mike Kelly
Executive Director
m.p.kelly@ieee.org
__________
Donna Florek
Technical Community
Program Specialist
d.florek@ieee.org
_________
Jo-Ellen Snyder
Technical Community
Program Specialist
j.e.snyder@ieee.org
___________
Michael Markowycz
Technical Community
Program Specialist
m.markowycz@ieee.org
_____________

Technical Committee Chairs
John Hawkins
Communications Energy Systems
jmhawkins@ieee.org
___________
Henry Chung
High Performance and Emerging
Technologies
eeshc@cityu.edu.hk
___________
Brian Welchko
Motor Drives and Actuators
bwelchko@ieee.org
__________
Yan-Fei Liu
Power and Control Core
Technologies
yanfei.liu@queensu.ca
____________
Seth Sanders
Power Conversion Systems
and Components
sanders@eecs.berkeley.edu
______________
Liuchen Chang
Sustainable Energy Systems
lchang@unb.ca
________
Anand Sathyan
Vehicle and Transportation
Systems
sathyan.anand@chrysler.com
_______________

IEEE Periodicals
Magazines Department
445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ
08854 USA
Jessica Barragué
Managing Editor
Geraldine Krolin-Taylor
Senior Managing Editor
Janet Dudar
Senior Art Director
Gail A. Schnitzer
Assistant Art Director
Theresa L. Smith
Production Coordinator
Felicia Spagnoli
Advertising Production Manager
Peter M. Tuohy
Production Director
Dawn M. Melley
Editorial Director
Fran Zappulla
Staff Director,
Publishing Operations

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______

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MPEL.2014.2371091

2

IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE

MISSION STATEMENT: To educate,
inform, and entertain our community of
IEEE Power Electronics Society members
on technology, events, industry news, and
general topics relating to consumer
electronics and to further serve and
support our Members in professional
career development through tutorials and
raising awareness of engineering tools
and technologies.

]December 2014

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Typhoon HIL

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Concurrently. with the advent of The three regular columns. Since their first introduction in 1969 Similarly. As a result. even though my article “Three-Terminal Linear the concept of the SST continues to Regulator Revolution Continues be very appealing and is the focus of Unabated” focuses on the evolution much research.” “Entrepreneur and backup systems. current design approaches.2361473 Date of publication: 18 December 2014 4 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE try to further push their performance edges of the power grid. and no-field-service on the internal electrochemistry of the objectives is very demanding under rechargeable batteries. Consequently. “Power Electronics at the Grid Edge.” is written by Deepak Divan. real products has not yet occurred. there is Viewpoint” column describes relatively a massive research effort in the indus- ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . better and more precise models based fault-current. While pacitors are growing rapidly. available. Although envelope while newer chemistries many researchers have proposed the are in development use of solid-state simultaneously. ond feature. its translation into of three-terminal linear regulators. This article low-power converters (under current investigates major milestones along technology) to impractical levels. And experts believe that this can only be accomplished with semiconductorbased power electronic solutions that can be deployed precisely along the grid edge for the fast and granular control of voltage and VARs at hundreds of points along the feeder. In fact. of grid-edge control. it requires a decentralized approach with distributed and dynamic control capabilities.1109/MPEL. As a result. some tips on protecting and safeguardnickel–metal hydride.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® From the Editor by Ashok Bindra Bringing Power Electronics to the Edges of the Grid W e know that the rapid proliferation of renewable energy sources and microgrids is making the power grid more vulnerable to voltage fluctuations and variations. the “Entrepreneur have made significant progress. linear regulators basic impulse level requirement drahave weathered many storms and matically impacts the size and cost of continue to progress.” bring is gaining popularity.e. Rohit Moghe. the authors.” and “White Hot. The first article in this issue. in the form of LM309 by National the need to conform to the 100-kV Semiconductor. Lately. substantial data are now available from the field that support the benefits delivered by these solutions. mobile devices. i. emphasizes the need for tion. and Anish Prasai of Varentec and discusses these challenges in detail and also provides a solution. by Nijust starting to behal Kularatna of the come commercially University Waikato. have emerged to offer there is a tremendous it is challenging and grid-edge power need for models that requires high-voltelectronic solutions can accurately preage wide-bandgap to solve this new set dict the behavior of devices that are exof challenges—and batteries. The secpensive and are only the list is growing.. As transformers (SSTs) Several companies these chemistries for the ultimate level are being advanced. electric vehicles (EVs). Though the “Patent Reviews” column presents mature chemistries such as lead–acid. In essence. energy storage Viewpoint. according to the article. their journey of 45 years. argue In the “A Look Back” column. several companies have emerged to offer grid-edge power electronic solutions to solve this new set of challenges— and the list is growing. meeting thermal-management. In addiNew Zealand. the results demonstrated in the article highlight the benefits of applying power electronics at the Digital Object Identifier 10. interesting and valuable information rechargeable batteries and supercato the readers of the magazine.2014. “Patent Reviews. and lithium ion ing trade secrets. Managing these variations with older electromechanically switched centralized command and control systems is no longer practical and defeats any energy conservation goals.

It highlights the IEEE’s First International Conference on DC Microgrids (ICDCM). To bring you R&D activities from research centers around the world. Likewise. Time really flies. So to get you involved in this improvement process. In addition. satellites. Thanks for your support! Enjoy the holidays and all the best for the coming year. CKE also offers:  Selenium Surge Suppressors  Silicon Rectifiers  Custom Assemblies  Silicon Carbide Varistors $!% #$#%$%" %%%  %%" "  $ ! $$#!$%% # ! $$#!$ _____________________ _____________________ #". and her research interests include electronic power converters. we build to OEM specs or provide direct replacements. Similarly. for the first time. which. control systems. we need your comments and feedback. including significant power electronics-related technology developments in the industry. Typical recovery times of 75ns or faster. and we have published four stimulating issues of IEEE Power Electronics Magazine. renewable energies. has been awarded to a female doctoral candidate from the University of Coimbra in Portugal. To keep improving IEEE Power Electronics Magazine with every issue. Her name is Eunice Ribeiro. instrumentation. I look forward to bringing even more invigorating content next year. I am looking forward to your feedback. the “Member News” column highlights the 2014 Joseph J. and we want to keep the momen- tum going. which will take place in Atlanta.” Its debut is in this issue. where it uncovers solid-state transformer R&D at North Carolina State University’s Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center. 7–10 June 2015.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® simple processes that lead to a minimum viable product definition. we are introducing a “Letters to the Editor” column starting with the January 2015 issue. the “Society News” column contains an interesting announcement in this issue. From low voltage radial lead styles to high energy packages. CKE manufactures a wide range of metal oxide varistors (MOVs) for your unique requirements.  1 kV to 600 kV  Fast Recovery down to 35nS  Average Forward Current up to 10 Amps HVCA diodes are ideal for use in high voltage power supplies. author Robert V. it truly is an exciting time for power electronics. White reveals some of the design and development tools in his engineering toolbox. This column also features the IEEE Power Electronics Society (PELS) 2014 Best Chapter Award presented to the Fukuoka Section’s Japan Chapter as well as recipients of the PELS 2014 award. in the “White Hot” column. voltage multipliers and military applications. I can’t believe that the year is ending. and energy systems. As the “President’s Message” column clearly indicates. ICDCM 2015 will bring together specialists and researchers in the field of dc microgrids and related technologies. which will help us make the magazine a must-read for all power electronics engineers around the world. we have created a new column called “Happenings. Georgia. Suozzi Fellowship Award. medical equipment.

#.

#"  December 2014 ]IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE 5 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® .

Japan. Together with the recent announcement of Prof. our ECCE global series also enjoyed record attendances at the 2014 ECCE Asia–IEEE International Power Electronics Conference (IPEC) in May in Hiroshima. Furthermore. During the PELS Administrative Committee (AdCom) meeting on 19 September.77 million impressions on IEEE social media and 17. Increasing industry participation is a challenge for PELS. a full-time editor-in-chief (EiC) was appointed. The LongRange Planning Committee set up a goal of establishing an industry advisory board in 2012 as a strategic action in meeting this challenge. Pennsylvania. All in all.1109/MPEL. Besides our global ECCE series of meetings. We signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the Chinese Electro-Technical Society for mutual ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . it is truly an exciting time for power electronics. National Academy of Engineering (NAE). The competition calls for the design and hardware demonstration of a high-density inverter to elevate the state-of-the-art performance. Google is offering a US$1 million prize for the winner. One of the first initiatives taken  by the board was to refocus our new magazine to be fully application oriented. The Executive Committee has recruited industry experts to form an Industry Advisory Board. PELS now has a total of six NAE members in its ranks. It is equally exciting to report that the IEEE Power Electronics Society (PELS) has teamed up with Google to host Google’s Little Box Challenge.2014. to ensure its success. I reported the following top ten accomplishments: 1) established the industry advisory board in May 2013 2) increased our collaborations with various global partners 3) initiated a membership drive 4) improved organizational effectiveness 5) celebrated our 25th anniversary in 2013 6) launched the new IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics (JESTPE) in June 2013 7) launched the new IEEE Power Electronics Magazine (PEM) in March 2014 8) succeeded in providing an administrative home for t he IEEE Transportation Electrification Community (TEC) 9) in final preparation to launch IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification (TTE) in March 2015 10) in final preparation to launch the Southern Power Electronics Conference (SPEC) in December 2015. and with the approval of the AdCom. Likewise. I am extremely pleased to report the tremendous progress the Society has made in the last two years under my leadership. With this year’s addition of two of our members to the U. The competition has so far attracted 0. It is a great honor and a great privilege for me to have led a prestigious technical organization like PELS for the past two years. Jayant Baliga as this year’s recipient of the IEEE Medal of Honor.2361474 Date of publication: 18 December 2014 6 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE as of September. Finland.S. indicating that this series may very well be at the cusp of taking off.D. Tan It’s an Exciting Time for Power Electronics I started preparing my fourth-quarter message on the plane flying back home to California from the IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE) 2014 in Pittsburgh. I am excited to report that the ECCE conference enjoyed yet another record year.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® President’s Message by Don F. The Advisory Board has now evolved into two groups: the Industry Advisory Board to increase industry participation and 2) the Magazine Advisory Board to guide editorial policies and procedures for our magazine so that it is fully application oriented.7 million “likes” on various Google media Digital Object Identifier 10. We have doubled the frequency of the EPE and more than doubled the total attendance. PELS is actively engaging our colleagues around the globe. PELS has been enjoying unprecedented publicity and awareness from the IEEE at large. and at the 2014 ECCE Europe–European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE) in August in Lappeenranta. The EPE was the very first conference in an even year in the EPE’s entire history.

With PELS being selected to provide an administrative home for the TEC. which featured a special logo. Our souvenirs. At the Society level. we successfully launched our new journal. thanks to the committee’s effort. Our power electronics ties were well liked by our volunteers. high accuracy and unbeatable price-performance ratio the Bode 100 is the perfect toolset for measurements from 1 Hz to 40 MHz. ߮m Gm ş Perform control loop stability analysis on SMPS ş Measure transfer functions of electronic systems ş Analyze impedance and parasitics of passive components ş Test transmission/reflection of filters and antennas December 2014 ]IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE 7 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . We are continuing to streamline our processes and procedures to provide more agile support to our global volunteers as we appoint more international volunteers to our leadership positions. We will significantly enhance our Chapter activities as a way to bring more benefits locally to our members throughout the world. a senior membership drive. In 2013. we have significantly enhanced our staff support as PELS engages increasingly in more important activities on the global stage. Specific plan details include the 100 # 100 student membership drive. We also signed an agreement with the China Power Supply Association to cosponsor a new power electronics applications conference in China late this year. We cosponsored the International Future Energy Electronics Conference in 2013 with the Taiwan Power Electronics Association. and with the approval of the AdCom. We hired an executive director to help focus our strategic efforts and coordinate with the IEEE Technical Activities Board (TAB) staff. The preparations for the 2015 and 2017 conferences are well under way.omicron-la b. and so on. together with the current PELS president. In June 2013. With its great usability. the IEEE Division II director. We have signed an MOU with the Brazilian Power Electronics Association to launch the first SPEC in 2015. Chapter chair meetings. outreach by our key conferences. and preparations for the 2016 conference are already under way. We will continue with our efforts to serve student membership better. were very popular with our members at various global conferences and events. JESTPE. we will look into growing our professional staff further. and the preparation for 2016 is ongoing.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® membership development and for enhanced technical collaborations. The committee also launched our senior membership drive with strong positive responses. We successfully launched the even-year EPE in August 2014. It is worth noting that all the PELS past presidents were in attendance. and the IEEE president. Our Membership Development Committee has created a detailed plan to grow our membership to match pace with the growth of power electronics. Our Society staff launched the first 100 # 100 campaign in April. Our membership in China has doubled since 2012. who have been wearing them at all PELS events ever since. we celebrated our 25th anniversary in Denver. Colorado. The September 2104 issue wa s Get handson experience w ith the Bode 100! www. We had our first Chapter chairs meeting at the IPEC–ECCE Asia in Hiroshima 2014.com/lab Do you use the best tools? The Bode 100 vector network analyzer is the optimal choice for any small signal measurements in electronic or electromechanical systems. with an ECCE social dinner and cake-cutting ceremony.

com 8 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE IEEE Transportation Electrification Initiative is transitioning to the TEC. In addition to maintaining our tradition of excellence. the AdCom.S. We are also preparing for the launch of TTE. They are PELS. The SPEC will rotate its location throughout the southern hemisphere. For that. the IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Society. I would like to thank our executive team. JESTPE will start its Best Papers Program in 2015 and is expecting its citation index soon in 2014–2015. The preparation for 2016 SPEC is well under way. we have received 577 manuscripts from 49 countries/areas.mersen. In 2014. there are a total of 12 Societies that will be affiliated with the IEEE TEC. our Society has been growing rapidly. we are also exploring potential opportunities of publishing PEM in other languages to serve our non-U. the advisory board. In addition. The production of the inaugural issue was done in fewer than three months thanks to the efforts of the EiC. The TEC comprises seven core Societies. Our plan to cohost the inaugural SPEC with the Brazilian Power Electronics Society is solidifying quickly. In summary. The submitted manuscripts have almost doubled in just two years. and the IEEE Vehicular Technology Society. as of the writing of this column. our staff. the IEEE Industry Electronics Society. This represents a great opportunity for PELS since this is a TAB-level effort and is global in nature. the IEEE Industry Applications Society. SPEC will serve its members in this area for years to come. Wilkins. As the Society’s president. and our members. In 2013. members better. we had 311 manuscripts submitted from 29 countries/areas. with an anticipated launch date of March 2015. Brad Lehman and Arnold J. ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . It was impressive and well done. and PEM to build its reputation for quality and technical prestige. In March 2014. with many articles appearing in IEEE Xplore’s top-100 downloads list. I wish our Brazilian colleagues great success in this effort. IEEE Power Electronics Letters. and the Society and IEEE Magazine Department staff. JESTPE has started to gain recognition. we launched PEM. A steering committee has been established to facilitate site selection and quality assurance for this conference series.” by Prof. The article “Designing to Mitigate the Effects of Flicker in LED Lighting. We had more than 500 copies of the magazine picked up by the ECCE attendees. It is even more telling to note that the recent issue on modeling and control of sustainable systems received 181 submissions.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® published ahead of schedule. the IEEE Power & Energy Society. It is exciting to report that we have been selected by the IEEE TAB to provide an administrative home for transportation electrification as the One source for your power electronics protection components Mersen Power Electronics Bundle t Fast-acting fuses for the protection of semiconductor devices t Power electronics cooling systems t Laminated bus bar ep. the IEEE Consumer Electronics Society. This new journal will follow the footsteps of its PELS sister publications TPEL. which is the second-largest submission in the entire PELS publication history. the September issue has just been published. The inaugural conference will be in early December 2015. our volunteers. With the impending launch of TTE. As I write this column. JESTPE. including IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics (TPEL) and JESTPE. This portfolio of publications will serve PELS well as a major technical society within IEEE TAB. The setup of Manuscript Central and the editorial board is progressing smoothly. was well received. The articles on technology trends together with specific “tricks of the trade” have resonated with our readers very well. PELS will be the home for five archival IEEE publications. PELS is also a cosponsor of four other IEEE journals. I am proud of what we have accomplished in such a short time. It continues with our focus on applications and with practitioners as the prime readers that we are targeting to serve. We will enhance our efforts in this area by putting our best people forward to face this challenge.

then trade sewithholding documents and the like. software. industrial processes.2360359 Date of publication: 18 December 2014 keep the information secret and only closed doors. it is usuIf trade secrets are so great. it is a secret. However. These ucts.1109/MPEL. For those comsecret license is a contract with anpanies. Inventions start out as secrets: later they may become patents. and it can last longer than a patent if the information remains valuable and is kept secret. this is often the case with a competitor is one of the most comelectrical circuits and components. It is advantageous to ers into their facility for plant tours work out ahead of without requiring time who will own secrecy or nondisthe trade secret and closure agreements. manufacturing techniques (sometimes called “know-how”). along with tax on the open market. cret protection is not suitable. when ally a good idea to have employees would anybody ever want to get a who might learn trade secrets sign patent? Some products cannot be nondisclosure agreements ahead of protected as trade secrets for several time. away from the public. and financial information. protection is to be haphazard with seTrade secrets may also arise when cret information. mon ways trade secret disputes arise. The key to trade secret protection is to keep the secret information secret. It May Be a Trade Secret P atents come to mind first when most of us think about intellectual property (IP). and even commercial information such as customer lists. in which the trade enting instead. marketing plans. trade that is required to have an effective secrets can also be licensed. trade secret owner. use it in connection with whatever the The surest way to lose trade secret contract permits. but it’s not impossible. If the secret can be discerned agreements are often signed as part by examining a product purchased of the hiring process. An invention comes from somebody having an idea or discovery. A company’s internal information may be protected as a trade secret by having its operations done behind Digital Object Identifier 10. Companies have lost working with vendors in developing trade secret rights by inviting customnew products. The key to trade secret the respective obligaThe law normally protection is to keep tions of the parties to imposes a duty on the secret information keep the information employees to keep secret. it. some companies do not In addition to protecting a comwant  to exercise the degree of care pany’s competitive advantage.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® Patent Reviews by Art MacCord Before It Is a Patent. Within that one person’s mind. but trade secrets are an important part of any company’s IP portfolio. Notice that the definition is not limited by the type of information. Electrical circuits are harder to protect as trade secrets. A trade trade secret strategy. First. machinery. One definition of a trade secret is information used by a company that gives it a commercial advantage over competitors who do not know the secret. secret and only use it the company’s inas permitted by the for mation secret. the law allows comthat certain information is not to be petitors to reverse engineer prodshared outside the company. This is a good way to teach them reasons. 43) December 2014 ]IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE 9 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . It becomes a trade secret when used to help the company competitively. although encapsulated or potted inExit interviews are useful to remind tegrated circuits may provide protecemployees of their obligations to not tion by making it impossible to anause or disclose their former employlyze the circuit without destroying er’s information. secret owner discloses trade secret information in exchange for royalties and a promise that the recipient will (continued on p. it may be better to opt for patother company. UnforFormer employees going to work for tunately. Second.2014. The range of things that can be trade secrets include chemical formulas (such as the recipe for Coca-Cola).

the paper presents the design of an ac–dc rectifier and dc–dc converter.8-kV distribution grid is a three-level neutral point clamped (3LNPC) converter built using the 15-kV SiC IGBTs.” at the IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition 2014 in Pittsburgh. Three-Phase. The Front-End Dual Active 800-V Low-Voltage Converter 22-kV dc Bus Bridge dc Bus Side Inverter 480-V. It comprises a medium-voltage ac–dc rectifier.6-kV High-Performance SolidState Transformer Based on 13-kV SiC MOSFET and JBS Diode. high-current SiC MOSFET and junction barrier Schottky (JBS) diode. As shown in Figure 1. says Huang. It will also offer higher isolation between input and output with the ability to interface to a 7.2361444 Date of publication: 18 December 2014 10 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE FIG 1 The TIPS system schematic along with the 15-kV SiC IGBT copack module. Three-Pha 60-Hz Grid Gr 15-kV/40-A SiC n-IGBT Copack Digital Object Identifier 10. small size and weight due to SiC devices. controlled bidirectional power flow capability. Aiming to achieve nearly 97% efficiency. the researchers are now developing generation three (G III) SST technology for better reliability.1109/MPEL. under project leader Dr.8-kV.2-kV distribution grid. The front-end converter (FEC) tied with the 13. According to Bhattacharya. it offers three power-transfer stages. Subhashish Bhattacharya. The high-voltage 15-kV 13. under the supervision of Alex Huang. and renewable energy integration. medium-frequency dc–dc converter. improved efficiency. and lower power dissipation. In addition to 15-kV SiC IGBTs. Pennsylvania.200-V. The results were presented in a paper titled “Design and Operation of a 3. reactive power compensation to improve grid voltage profile under necessary conditions. researchers. the SST also uses 1. the key advantages of TIPS include unity power factor operation. Designed to be interfaced to a 3. high-frequency dc-link-based isolation. three-phase utility grid (Figure 1). three-phase distribution grid with a 480-V. and a low-voltage inverter. researchers at FREEDM Systems have demonstrated a transformerless intelligent power substation (TIPS) using a three-phase SST to interconnect a 13.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® Happenings Solid-State Transformer Research and Development at North Carolina State University’s FREEDM Systems Center R esearchers at North Carolina State University’s (NCSU’s) Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) Systems Center have successfully developed and partially tested a second-generation 13-kV silicon carbide (SiC) metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET)-based solid-state transformer (SST). According to Huang. medium-voltage. High-voltage SiC devices will be developed by Cree in collaboration with FREEDM Systems.8-kV. ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® .6-kV high-performance SST. Three-Phase. the G III SST design will incorporate improved circuit topology in addition to improved SiC MOSFETs and diodes.6-kV distribution grid. Besides the characterization of the high-voltage SiC devices.2014. Using this high-voltage. hree-Phase. Three-Phase SST Concurrently. 100-A SiC MOSFETs. 60-Hz Grid SiC insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) was developed by Cree for this application. have demonstrated a 3. the SST provides both a 400-V dc and 240/120-V ac output. It is basically a boost rectifier with a 22-kV dc bus on the output and switched at 3–5 kHz.

a reduction in the overall filter size with general TIPS efficiency of 98%. The SiC devices have been designed. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy (Department of Energy) through U. developed.8-kV ac. Bhattacharya. says Bhattacharya. and the evaluation of softswitching methods for further optimized performance. Krishna Mainali. The NCSU team comprises Arun Kadavelugu. Next. and packaged by Cree and Powerex. with 15-kV isolation voltages. Sachin Madhusoodhanan. the key challenges that researchers are trying to address for the SST applications include size and weight reduction using ultrahighvoltage SiC power devices. Besides studying the switching characteristics of 15-kV SiC N-IGBTs and 10-kV SiC MOSFETs and their usage in medium-voltage grid-tied applications. The three low-voltage/high-current converters using 1. The device testing and system hardware demonstration of 13. researchers at FREEDM Systems have also designed and developed gate drivers for the high-voltage SiC IGBTs and MOSFETs. ______________________________ ________________ December 2014 ]IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE 11 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . Dhaval Patel. 100-kW TIPS is being carried out at FREEDM Systems.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® FEC dc bus (22 kV) is isolated from the low-voltage side dc bus (800 V) using a high-frequency link.S. The output stage is connected to the 480-V utility grid or threephase loads. mitigation of electromagnetic interference resulting from fast switching. the researchers are developing a three-phase SST with the same ratings with 15-kV SiC MOSFETs (newly developed by Cree) and also with 10-kV SiC MOSFETs (already de- veloped by Cree and being qualified under the new national network for manufacturing innovation institutebased wide-bandgap initiative). three-phase grid. Each converter is switched at 17–20 kHz and interleaved to achieve an overall switching frequency of 50–60  kHz and. Bhattacharya says that researchers are currently in the process of demonstrating 3L-NPC converterbased multistage SST interfaced with a 13.200-V/100-A SiC MOSFETs are connected in parallel at the output stage of the TIPS. In short. The research and development of the TIPS project has been supported by the U. Awneesh Tripathi. Samir Hazra. government funding.8-kV grid-tied. and Kamalesh Hatua under the supervision of Dr. The DAB is softswitched at 10 kHz with three singlephase HV transformers. hence.S. multistage control. which is a dual active bridge (DAB)-isolated dc–dc converter.

) ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . it was not possible to build an adjustable-output three-terminal linear regulator with good performance. this bipolar device was housed in a TO-5 or TO-3 Can package (Figure 2). As a young engineer. Bob Dobkin joined National Semiconductor to work Digital Object Identifier 10. three-terminal linear part.2014. Second. First. young and dynamic Dobkin was undeterred and continued to pursue his vision. Therefore. alongside Widlar in the development of linear regulators. First introduced in 1969 by National Semiconductor.1 K D4 6. Fairchild Semi. it required bypass filtering capacitors at the input and output and a silicon diode at the output to keep the positive output from being pulled too far negative by the high current supply. the output voltage was not adjustable. was designed by the late Bob Widlar at National Semiconductor in 1969 (Figure 1).Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® A Look Back by Ashok Bindra Three-Terminal Linear Regulator Evolution Continues Unabated D espite severe competition from switching regulators for decades. The first three-terminal buck linear regulator. But National’s linear guru Widlar Input Q18 R15 10 K Q16 Q17 D1 D2 6. there were several limitations.3 V R12 130 R14 0. the three-terminal linear regulator has survived for over 45 years and continues to make progress. National Semiconductor/Texas Instruments. In early 1969.2361596 Date of publication: 18 December 2014 12 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE was not supportive because he was convinced that with the floating n-p-n pass transistor at the output.3 V Q9 Q6 R4 1. A fixed +5-V output with 200-mA or 1-A output current. and a few others continue to improve the device and serve the applications whose performance requirements are stringent and cannot be met by the switching alternatives. However. It continues to hold its niche space because backers like Linear Technology.3 V R11 3.1109/MPEL. he had many ideas about improving the fixed-output linear device.3 Q2 Output Q13 Q1 Q3 4X Q12 R1 3K R8 24 K R2 2.4 K C1 30 pF + Q4 Q11 R3 25 Q5 R5 12. he suggested that the fixed-output regulator must be redesigned as an adjustable-output.1 K R10 200 Q15 Q14 Q19 R13 2K D3 6. Third.2 K R9 4K R7 4K Q7 R6 1K Q10 Q8 Ground FIG 1 The LM309 was the first three-terminal linear regulator introduced by National Semiconductor in 1969. the three-terminal linear regulator has not been given up. these regulators were not suitable for paralleling. Despite efforts at that time to make them simple to use. (Figure courtesy of Texas Instruments. LM309.

+ 1 nF “Because the n-p-n pass transistor at the output was 121 X floating and there was no 2. 75 kW 100 kW to 2.2 Adc to 0-600 Adc 0-1. www.000 Adc Power Levels Package Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . In addition. Carl Neloverload protection.25 V.) Adjustable Output Based on Dobkin’s design and development work.2 Adc to 0-2.” he said.000 Vdc Current Range 0-1. Soon after. 37-pin isolated analog-digital I/O and a computer interface. who was working for National Dobkin left National SemiconducSemiconductor. Both the line and load adjustable output voltage range was regulation were better than standard −1.700 Adc 0-7.com SL Series XR Series TS Series MS Series MT Series 1.5 Adc to 0-250 Adc 0-0. Its PROGRAMMABLE DC POWER Magna-Power’s high frequency IGBT-based programmable DC power supply line spans 1. 8 kW. Available worldwide. Using a Magna-Power supply is as simple or sophisticated as the application demands with front panel control. National Semi released the first adjustable three-terminal positivevoltage linear regulator. introduced the fixed output powating-area protection. 4 kW. he added. the output transistors had to FIG 3 The adjustable three-terminal linear regulator be protected using foldback LT317 uses only two external resistors to adjust positive output voltage. designed the adjusttor in July 1981 to start his own linable three-terminal linear regulator ear IC company. and it implemented −1.000–9. thermal for National Semiconductor. IVI driver and SCPI command set over RS232. According to LM317 Designer Dobkin.000 Vdc 0-5 Vdc to 0-10. to make the device robust. 6 kW.) current limiting. Linear Technology with negative output.5 kW to 2000 kW+ with hundreds of models to target a variety of different applications.6 kW. 45 kW. which was the reference voltage. there were several barriers LT317A VIn he had to overcome to real5V VIn VOut ize the first adjustable threeADJ 121 X terminal linear regulator.500 Adc 0-24 Adc to 0-24.5 A. in 1976. It was housed in the metal TO-3 can.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® FIG 2 LM309 in a TO-3 can package. 10 kW 5 kW to 45 kW 30 kW. The output was adjustable from 1.000 mil2 and could handle about 1. Pease. Designed and manufactured in the USA.000 Vdc 0-5 Vdc to 0-4.5 kW. IEEE-488 GPIB and USB. (Figure courtesy of Texas Instruments. Implemented in a 7-μm bipolar process. LM317 offered a die size of 8. er negative regulator series LM320. and safe operson. 60 kW.magna-power. TCP/IP Ethernet. It legendary analog guru the late Bob was widely adopted in the industry. and the minimum low-output voltage was limited by the on-chip bandgap reference voltage. Another analog guru working on-chip current limiting. of Models 54 70 80 80 65 Voltage Range 0-5 Vdc to 0-1. (Figure courtesy of Linear Technology.000 kW+ 1U Rack-mount 2U Rack-mount 3U to 9U Rack-mount Floor Standing Floor Standing No.000 Vdc 0-5 Vdc to 0-4. the LM337. the LM317. to 37 V using only two external resistors (Figure 3). Remote programming is supported through a variety of development environments by a provided National Instruments LabVIEW™ driver.5 A of output current.2 Adc to 0-4.2 to −37 V with an output current of fixed regulators. 4 kW 2 kW. I had to ensure that any feedback did not LT1009 produce oscillations to make the regulator unstable. 2.5 V ground pin.000 Vdc 0-16 Vdc to 0-4.

Per Dobkin’s explanation in [3]. Furthermore.5 V at maximum output current. the newly founded precision analog company unveiled high-output-current positive adjustable regulators with very low dropout and pin compatible with older threeterminal regulators [1]. The low power dissipation also enabled the company to offer these regulators in surfacemount packages. linear regulators were focused on general-purpose applications. which was introduced in 2007.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® VIn IRef R1 In + - Vcontrol + Output VOut = IRef : R1 - AN142 FD1b VIn FIG 4 The new architecture replaces bandgap reference with a current source and uses a voltage follower for the output amplifier. which was substantially lower than the previous generation and continued to use only two external resistors to set the output voltage. a part that was released in February 2003. the three-terminal linear regulators were going 14 LT3080-1 + - 25 mX Out* Set 165 k VOut 3. The second-generation parts offered lower noise and faster transient response. “In the 1980s and 1990s. [3] (Figure 4). The first member in this line was LT1121. adjustable and fixed outputs. (Figure courtesy of Linear Technology. low noise.) through another major boost. In 1995. and 30-μA quiescent current. The market for linear regulators has grown as has the market for switching regulators. a 250-mA version (LT3013) was added to this line in 2006. the reference-voltage-dependent adjustable output could not go below the 1. which required low voltage and high current. transient response is ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . A new architecture was needed to end the low-voltage limitation of three-terminal linear regulators. the company also improved the input voltage capability. driven by the portable PCs and portable electronics markets. the LT1529. During this period.” he asserts. Linear Technology answered the call by replacing the bandgap voltage reference with a current source and using a voltage follower for the output amplifier [2]. A good example is the LT3010. Also. explains Dobkin.25-V reference voltage. it did not require protection diodes and was available in multiple package choices. A few years later. According to Dobkin. using bipolar technology. both the bandwidth and the regulation are constant. Transition to Current Source Ever since the introduction of the first three-terminal adjustable linear regulator in 1976.5 A with higher efficiency and a maximum dropout of only 1. Concurrently. because the output amplifier always operates at unity gain. the architecture has more or less remained the same.8 V–28 V Set 25 mX Out* LT3080-1 Vcontrol 1 nF Corporation.) IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE In 4. the switching regulators were encroaching the linear turf.2 A 10 nF 30801 TA01 FIG 5 The internal ballast resistor eases paralleling of LT3080-1 for higher output current. By the early 1990s. “Switching regulators began to grow significantly in the late 1980s and early 1990s. 0. In addition. As a result. a 3-A version. which he cofounded with Bob Swanson. was introduced. linear regulators are used when designers want reduced complexity. Linear regulator applications were limited to 5–25 W. (Figure courtesy of Linear Technology. Linear introduced the first-generation p-n-p micropower low-dropout linear regulators with adjustable output voltages in 1992. Around 1986 or 1987.3 V 2. and lower solution cost. the architecture delivers two key benefits: the ability to operate down to 0 V and to allow paralleling of regulators for more output current. Now. It was implemented in LT3080. The result was very low dropout and high robustness with low quiescent current and a ground pin. low power.” Switching regulators were initially used primarily in offline applications and later moved to point-of-load applications. “A lot comes down to a designer’s individual preference. and handles a wide input voltage range of 3–80 V. Therefore. making it unsuitable for powering low-voltage integrated circuits that were emerging in the market based on low-geometry complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor processes. Though LT3010 supported only 50-mA output cur- rent.” notes Dobkin. The n-p-n pass transistor in the output stage of the design was replaced by its p-n-p counterpart. The LT1083 series was designed to provide up to 7. Dobkin’s linear team at Linear Technology created another milestone in this area. with 150-mA output current.4-V dropout. The company continued to add members with higher output current capabilities.

Associate and Assistant Professor and Post-doc levels for the above center. New linear regulators solve old problems. Rep. 2013. Rep.com/docs/en/appli___________________ cation-note/an142f. internal current limiting. Highly competitive salary will be offered depending RQ TXDOL¿FDWLRQV DQG VFKRODUO\ UHFRUG .” Application Note 140. and RF Design. analog/RF technologies. [3] B. Milpitas. Guangzhou. The new laboratory covers 300 sqm and an initial budget of 9. CA. low-dropout linear regulator. Ashok Bindra (bindra1@verizon. They will continue to play an important role in applications where noise. Bipolar has enough juice left to keep pushing the performance of these devices at lower cost and adding new bells and whistles as needed by the market. He has worked for leading electronics trade publications in the United States. Last June. &DQGLGDWHVZLWKEDFNJURXQGLQDOO¿HOGVRISRZHU electronics or related areas are looked for. any output voltage can be obtained from zero up to the maximum defined by the input power supply.000 allowed for purchasing the most updated equipment.ioinovici@gmail. Oct. stable with or without input/output capacitors. 1. (2013.net) _____________ is the editor-in-chief of IEEE Power ______________________ ____________ Electronics Magazine and a veteran writer and editor with more than 30 years of editorial experience covering power electronics.. The new faculty will be able to develop a highly visible research program. three-terminal linear regulators have come a long way since they were first introduced in 1969. Electronic Design. “Basic concepts of linear regulator and switching mode power supplies. Williams. and a wide input voltage range of 1. Adrian Ioinovici. CA.. In summary. Milpitas. Other features include an extended safe operating area.1-A adjustable single-resistor.” Application Note 2. [Online]. situated in a dynamic region aiming to future technology innovation.QGXVtrial experience in companies or participation at industrial projects will be an advantage.5-A maximum output current. allowing each one to obtain international reputation. the company started adding monitoring functions to the adjustable single-resistor.com December 2014 ]IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE 15 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . they continue to be used in general-purpose applications of a wide variety. [2] H. Since these devices can be paralleled directly on a surface mount board. The LT3080 specifications from the data sheet show that this 1. As can be seen. Power Electronics Technology. P R China announces several openings at Full. The LT3081 was introduced with current and temperature monitoring functions and built-in protection circuitry for reverse input protection. J.pdf ____________ Power Electronics Vacancies in the newly established National Center for Power Electronics and Energy under the leadership of Prof. About the Author Linear Technol. low-dropout linear regulator incorporates an internal ballast resistor that eases direct paralleling of these devices for higher output current. and semiconductors. Corp. reverse-current protection.000. Linear Technol. As a result. Tech. Tech. Milpitas. and simplicity are important. The evolution continues..). 1984. CA.linear. It aims to be one of the ZRUOG¶V ODUJHVW FHQWHUV LQ WKH ¿HOG SHUIRUPLQJ cutting-edge research in energy conversion. Aug.: Sun Yat-sen University. as shown in Figure 5. thus allowing regulation to be specified in millivolts rather than the traditional percentage of output. cost. Corp. Available: http://cds. References [1] J. Aug. Application Note 142.2–36 V. a board layout is simple and easy. Zhang. “Performance enhancement techniques for three-terminal regulators. Corp. Linear Technol..Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® independent of output voltage. Submit CV to ___________________ a. The Sun Yat-Sen University is a top university in China. and thermal shutdown. Dobkin. including EETimes.

have played a visible and key role in power-grid control for over 60 years. mainly on the transmission side for the management of bulk power flows [1]. flexible ac transmission system devices. solutions. and Anish Prasai ©ISTOCK PHOTO. Digital Object Identifier 10. Several companies are now offering grid-edge power-electronics solutions to solve this new set of challenges.2014. In recent years. low-voltage ridethrough. The key control objective is the fast and granular control of volts and vars at hundreds of points along the feeder. key requirements have emerged for grid support.1109/MPEL. and dynamic capabilities required can only be achieved with semiconductor-based power electronics solutions that are deployed appropriately along the grid edge. with substantial data from the field validating the benefits that such solutions can provide. and some of the results that point to the benefits that power electronics at the grid edge can provide for utilities. wind and solar energies have seen explosive growth. in the form of high-voltage dc systems and. [4]. This article discusses the challenges. as the penetration of renewable resources has grown. these inverters are typically not utility-owned-and-operated resources. However. distributed photovoltaic (PV) inverters today still cannot be effectively used for dynamic voltage support [3]. a functionality typically associated with static synchronous compensators (STATCOMs) and unified power flow controllers (UPFCs). In the area of generation. However.COM/JGROUP Power Electronics at the Grid Edge The key to unlocking value from the smart grid U tilities implementing diverse grid modernization initiatives are observing greater volatility at the grid edge that cannot be managed using traditional electromechanically switched centralized command and control solutions. such as detection and disconnection during islanding. Rohit Moghe.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® by Deepak Divan. albeit in a distributed manner and at lower voltage levels. There is an emerging need for dynamically controllable utility-owned assets to help meet the new challenges that utilities are facing as a result of grid modernization initiatives 2329-9207/14©2014IEEE Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . more recently. distributed. The use of power electronics on the distribution grid has been much more limited. and dynamic voltage support [3].2360811 Date of publication: 18 December 2014 16 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE ]December 2014 Power Electronics on the Distribution Grid Power electronics. but they have a primary function of delivering energy/power to the grid. [2]. The decentralized. with inverters providing the controlled interface to the grid.

grid American National Standards Institute (ANSI) specifies integration of distributed PV. tion of nontechnical losses. plex system with extremely limited controls has worked as Rather than starting from the available power-conwell as it has. Grid design principles were established over 100 years particularly distributed solar. identifying that it billing and provides a lever to effect time-of-use rates and represents a major constraint for key grid modernization load-demand management as well as data to help with diobjectives. peak demand management. widely discussed and is being investiThis has to be done with a few control gated  as a replacement for the 60-Hz Several companies are levers—the only analog control in the distribution transformer—a device now offering grid-edge system is the generator excitation and that costs US$25/kVA (US$1. December 2014 ]IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE 17 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . the voltage and quality.250 for governor control. causing voltages along the netthemes. ergy-storage devices. It and manage 4. enwork to vary in turn. In addition. drops across the line. This article looks at the the heart of many modernization initiatives. including energy conservation.000  A (240-V  base) of is a testament to power systems engineers that such a comfault current to coordinate with downstream protection. and shows how power electronics can provide verse applications. line voltage reguout any service or maintenance in the new set of challenges. which. It also provides an unprecedented visibility to the edge of Issues on the Grid Edge the network.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® rents while delivering voltage within a specified band [the such as energy conservation.  with many of these targeted at distribution volttion–load as well as controlled injection of vars to maintain age levels of 4–24 kV [5]–[9]. it can handle a 100banks have augmented the control cakV basic impulse insulation level (BIL) pability to support grid operations. but it is now beginning to fray at the edges. The SST based on the dualvoltage levels all along the network active bridge converter is the most and at the thousands of served loads. con50 kVA at 13 kV/240 V). reduca critical piece of the overall solution. including solid-state transformers (SSTs). In recent years. The rapid growth of renewable resources. Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). as shown in Figure 1. and switched capacitor field. and distribution STATCOMs and Grid operations require a continuous balance of generaUPFCs. it is perhaps more useful to that are changing the way they view and operate their understand the requirements from the grid level and then networks. in turn. and outage management. version technology approaches and forcing them to fit Utilities currently face a number of new initiatives into a perceived application. and transformer reactance and A review of the literature shows several common resistance also change. and improved service reliability +/-5%] to many consumers. lators (LVRs). has 1% losses. Volt and var control are the basic tools used by planunidirectional power flow on distribution feeders and ning engineers to design distribution feeders that operate introduces rapid variability linked to cloud cover. automates behavior of the grid at the grid edge. The over a specified range of source voltages and load cur- Substation Transformer Line Drop Power Flow Line Drop Leakage Drop VSub z IL VLoad Simplified Phasor Representation Leakage Drop Vs2 Vs1 XLILcosz XLILsinz Service Transformer Time-Varying Service Loads Transformer Time-Varying Loads FIG 1 A typical feeder with time-varying loads with changing power factor (PF). changes the paradigm of ago. and voltage drop along lines and distribution transformer impedance. load level indicated by current I L. at to develop a solution concept. and lasts for 40 years in ambient temsolutions to solve this electromechanical controls with load peratures from -40 cC to +55 cC withtap changers (LTCs). As loads vary. power-electronics trols vars and watts.

along with their operating constraints.98–0. when the substation voltage is set at 1. X L = line and leakage inductance. the real goal is to manage the secondary-side voltage for thousands of customers to be within ANSI limits. thereby putting volt–var control assets in nonoptimal locations. as the PF decreases below 0. This is a highly distributed problem that centralized command and control based on electromechanical controls with slow response time and limited actuation life cannot fully solve. the voltage drop across the transformer is >10 V. only infrequently going below the ANSI band.8. I L X L 1 . triggering massive investments in integrated volt–var control. as per the equation below. and is not aligned with the average loading or PF measured at the feeder: A near-term need for utilities is a cost-effective distributed voltage control at the grid edge. predicted load and sunshine. well below the ANSI band. The voltage drop DV across distribution transformers. This has still been treated as a centralized command and control problem where AMI or other data drive complex nonlinear optimization computation.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® need for higher reliability is driving fault-location identification and system restoration.035 pu. this has been treated as a primary-side problem. The data show high variability and completely uncorrelated behavior from node to node. depending on transformer loading and instantaneous power factor. (b) The minimum voltage occurs at node 29 at 11 p. Figure 3(b) shows the same feeder on a similar day. as shown in Figure 4. IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE DV . decentralized manner to decouple local secondary-side voltage issues. Figure 2(a) and (b) show the real measured secondary-side voltage data for a typical feeder at 10 p. where the substation voltage is reduced by 3% for energy conservation. where network topology. Figure 3(a) shows the actual measured voltage profile along a feeder over an 8-h period.PF 2 + I L R L PF.m. Further. PF = power factor. The dynamics of subcycle voltage volatility and continuously varying correction suggest that an electromechanical solution may not work and a power electronics solution is needed. It is interesting to note that almost without exception. the substation voltage would have to be raised to a1. For real transformers.. However. and grid assets. mainly 245 2V Volts 13 V 240 235 230 5 10 15 20 25 30 Nodes (a) 245 Volts 10 V 6V 240 235 230 5 10 15 20 25 30 Nodes FIG 2 (a) The minimum voltage occurs at node 13 at 10 p. Distribution transformers in North America are rated 15–100 kVA for ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® .04 pu. where DV = line and leakage drops. this has created a very complex operating environment. is unexpectedly high (2–13 V on a 240-V base—more than half the ANSI band). Further. this voltage varies continuously and rapidly with load current ^ I Lh and power factor (PF). resulting in commands to switch assets to achieve an overall cost function. The green line shows an estimate of the primary-side voltage. For a 25-kVA transformer at 1-pu loading and PF = 0. the voltage drop across X L becomes dominant. More than 50% of the measured nodes now see persistent low voltages. and R L = line and transformer resistance. I L = line and load current. What is needed is an additional layer of control at the grid edge that acts in a distributed.m. If centralized command and control were to be used for ANSI compliance.m.m. are all integrated into a massive optimization program. it can be seen that the drop across the distribution transformer keeps changing over time and has a large range of 2–13 V. completely defeating the energy-conservation objective and raising the possibility of overvoltage for a lightly loaded feeder with high PV penetration. Grid-Edge Control Using Power Electronics (b) 18 because of the drop across the transformer leakage reactance. The node voltages are generally within-band. showing that the lowest-voltage node is not at the end of the feeder and that it moves continuously with local load.99. allowing autonomous decisions on changing the network topology following a fault. and again at 11 p. a normal practice that allows utilities to keep low-voltage points within the ANSI band. The AMI data are revealing an unexpected surprise. providing actionable commands to LTCs and capacitor banks. Overall. always assumed to be minimal. allowing the overall centralized command and control assets to achieve the targeted system-level objectives. and the dark blue line shows the measured secondary-voltage profile along an actual feeder with 33 nodes.

0 pu. 00 a. 5: 00 a. the rating for the power converter needed. End of Line phase loads. Outdoor installation near the transformer Dual-Active also suggests that the unit must be able to operate over an Bridge ambient temperature range of -40 cC to +55 cC with no planned service or maintenance over the life of the converter. 00 a. 215 m . more than half of the 24 monitored locations have a persistent low-voltage issue. followed by a high-frequency galvanically isolated dc– for the customers. 6: 00 a. diagnostics and communidc step-down or step-up conversion stage. giving an idea of V Sensor.035 pu FIG 3 (a) With the LTC tap at 1. 225 m . 1: 00 12 : 00 11 : m .Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® Substation Voltage on 240-V Base Secondary Voltage at 24 Locations LTC Tap at 1. single-phase loads and could Primary Distribution Network be rated higher for three— LTC. 230 235 230 1: 235 p. 220 m . 00 a. which the converters will need to manGrid-Edge Secondary-Side Assets age. 00 a. etc. Supervisory these transformers can operControl and ate at 150% loading for exData Service Transformer tended periods of time and Acquisition will source thousands of amperes of fault current for downstream faults. December 2014 ]IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE 19 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . The transformers isolate Controllers Provide Control at the Grid Meter the converter from the 100-kV Head End Edge BIL rating. 4: 00 a. 00 5: m . 3: m .or three-phase SST with a rectifimissioning should be achieved without service interruption er stage. and an inverter stage. m . 00 12 : 00 11 : a. but normal lightning-strike protection is still Rooftop Solar PV required. 00 a. m . m . 3: 2: 00 a.0 pu ANSI Low Limit 250 245 245 240 240 Voltage 250 Time of Day Time of Day (a) (b) m . m . 220 m . 215 m . (b) With the LTC tap taken down to 1. with a dual-active bridge. 6: m . ensuring lers could be used. Voltage LTC Tap at 1. the converter must operate in FIG 4 A distribution feeder single-line schematic showing where distributed grid-edge controla fail–normal mode. 225 a. weight. Furthermore. a. 4: m . and cost of the required power converters. This suggests the use of passive thermal management MVAC MVDC LVDC LVAC and poses severe challenges for the size. that service to the load is not interrupted in case of a converter failure. The installation and comFIG 5 An example of a single. However.035 pu. a. To ensure reliability. 2: 00 a. m . infrequent ANSI violations are observed. LVR. typically realized cations are critical to manage a fleet of distributed assets. 00 p. Capacitor Bank.

20 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE In addition. ENGO-V Setpoint Input Historical Data Output Smart Switch Smart Switch f Controller Communication Module (a) Smart Switch Command and Health Status Smart Switch Input Power Terminal ENGO-V10 (b) FIG 7 (a) The internal architecture of the ENGO-V10 device. m . except in certain niche applications.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® Vs Vs Shunt Converter Series Converter Load Shunt Converter (a) Load (b) FIG 6 A typical diagram of low-voltage (a) series and (b) shunt devices used for voltage regulation. 00 1: 00 12 : 11 : 00 p. a. m . 00 3: m 2: 00 a. the need to conform to the 100-kV BIL requirement dramatically impacts the size and cost of low-power converters (under current technology) to impractical levels. this must all be compatible with specific utility processes and must happen at a price point that provides an attractive return on investment for the utility. 220 Time of Day Substation Voltage on 240-V Base Secondary Voltage at 24 Locations ANSI Low Limit FIG 8 The impact of a fleet of 24 ENGO devices on a single phase of a feeder with a voltage set point of 240 V and LTC tap set at 1 pu. 7: 00 a. With ENGOs LTC Tap at 1.0 pu 250 245 Voltage 240 235 230 225 . Figure 5 shows a block schematic of an exemplary galvanically isolated SST system for a single-phase 12-kV–120/120-V application. its translation into real products has not yet occurred [10]. and no-field-service objectives is very challenging using the current design approaches. At the system level. m . The wide-bandgap high-voltage semiconductor devices necessary for the front-end converter are beginning to be commercially available but are still too expensive. the aforementioned SST specifications are extremely challenging. m . Many in the research community have proposed the use of SSTs that can provide the ultimate level of gridedge control.) ENGO-V10 is installable on a pole-top next to the service transformer. fault-current. . (b) The distributed shunt var injection device realized with an ENGO-V10 device capable of injecting up to 10 kvar of vars on a single-phase basis at 240 V. 4: 00 a. m . distributed control poses a unique set of challenges. (Image courtesy of Varentec. Even without the cost constraint of US$25/kVA. even though the concept of the SST continues to be very appealing and is the focus of much research. m . m a. Most power converters are designed with the ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . m a. a. 00 6: 5: 00 a. As a result. Finally. Meeting the thermal-management. 215 .

tional technical losses for the utility . Nodes . . and is from Varentec. (a) A better solution may be to use secondary-side shunt var injection. p.m 2 220 1 : a also flow onto the primary side and . manage to improve the overall voltage p. y .0 pu shown in Figure 6(b). Figure 8 shows the same feeder as Figure 3 tion. is to prevent a large number of (b) such shunt connected units from fighting each other. controlled with smart switches for injecting varying levels A swarm of these devices can be operated with a simple of reactive power in the grid. Shunt vars 5 6: 3:0 4:00 :00 00 a 0 a. A challenge. to improve the ENGOs ON voltage profile both locally and across the entire feeder. The device is rated at 0–10 kvar (single phase) and is on a similar loading day with a substation voltage reduced directly connected at the grid edge on the secondary side by 3% for energy conservation but with ENGO-V10 units of distribution transformers [12]. December 2014 ]IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE 21 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . 230 as they draw additional power in the 225 shunt to achieve instantaneous power 225 balance.m. a Nodes 00 0 a a. . How235 ever. a. . response. and the objective is not only to improve the voltage at a ENGOs OFF 250 specific end point but also to improve 245 the voltage profile across the entire 245 feeder. Again. Time of course. [11].m .m 220 load kilovoltamperes appear as addi1 m. Power losses of 2–4% of the 5:0 6:00 7:00 3 4: 1:0 2:00 :00 00 a 0 a.m . m.m.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® 20 15 20 15 10 5 10 5 goal of delivering conditioned power to the end user. requiring no peer-to-peer a voltage set point as an input and dynamically injects the communication to achieve multiple control objectives at right amount of reactive power to achieve voltage regulathe feeder level.0 pu tomer is the utility.m . In this case.m a. var-injection device: the ENGO-V10 features low loss (35  W) and low weight (35 lb). However. FIG 9 The impact of fleet of ENGO-V10 devices on the voltage profile of a real utility Figure 7 shows an example of an feeder when (a) these devices are turned off and (b) when they are turned on over LVR built around a distributed shunt two similarly loaded days. 11: 2:0 0 .m . impacting all other customers 220 negatively.m . 235 secondary-side shunt vars act locally 235 to offset the voltage drop across trans230 formers that are seeing high loading 230 levels or poor power factor. series solutions make the voltage 230 profile worse for the rest of the feeder.m a. the cusLTC Tap at 1.m . of Da profile for the entire feeder. . The ENGO-V10 unit is built using capacitors designed with a long life (15 years). 00 0 a a. . conventional 245 245 wisdom suggests that a high level of reactive vars (as high as 100 kvar/V/ 240 phase) may be needed to raise the 240 feeder voltage even modestly. y . Analysis DV = 7 V 225 and field data validate that significantly lower control effort (2–3 kvar/V) may be 225 220 sufficient to correct sagging voltages at 7:0 a specific low-voltage node. as LTC Tap at 1.m a. the unit corrects 2–13 V at an individual node. Conventional wisdom suggests 240 that series power electronics solutions 240 that can inject or absorb voltage [Fig235 ure 6(a)] are the best solutions to fix the end-use voltage problems [2].m. .m . Featuring subcycle operating to maintain the feeder voltage at 240 V.m . of Da and must be factored into the total cost Time of ownership. The ENGO-V10 device takes broadcast of a voltage set point. 11: 12:0 :00 00 a 0 a. [13].

Q. Huang. 1991. H. Kincic. pt. and grid analytics. Preda. [Online]. degrees in electrical engineering from Virginia Tech in 2004 and 2006. F. Available: http://www. 2. pp. and R.varentec. [10] M. His research interests are in dynamic grid control.S. [6] A. and integration of high-penetration distributed solar. [2] C. 2013. D.. B. Rohit Moghe (rmoghe@varentec. W. Capell. Intelligent power management. Lasseter. 2014. Available: http://www. E. D. pp. “CERTS microgrid demonstration with large-scale energy storage and renewable generation.D. and A.” U. pp. sustainable energy. L. pp. Power Delivery. Hefner. We believe that grid-edge control using distributed power electronics solutions can transform the way the grid is planned. “Review of solid-state transformer technologies and their application in power distribution systems. He completed his M. and A. and grid integration of distributed solar. president. Expo.S. 120 A SiC half H-bridge power MOSFET modules suitable for high frequency. Nasadoski. vol. with the number expected to grow in the years ahead. Minear. built. 937–943. specializing in power electronics for utility and industrial applications. Conf. References Conclusions [1] C. J. A. Adamson and N. 1530–1535. Edris. N. M. enabling high value in diverse applications. A. (2014. K. This ability to correct local and feeder-level voltage and var profiles has been demonstrated over many different utility feeders. 12). IEEE Application Guide for Standard 1547. Prasai. E. Schauder. and controlled. M. no. and D. Topics Power Electron.” in Proc. 12). Aug. (2014. DeDoncker. vol. 2011. Nordgard.S. [5] X. He is the cofounder. and a shunt mode of connection that utilizes key parasitics.com) received his _______________ Ph. 20.” in Proc. Expo. Sept. degrees in electrical and computer engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology in [9] R. 1219–1226. sustainable energy. Burgos. 2. Deepak Divan (ddivan@varentec. with all the ANSI violations eliminated. Anish Prasai (aprasai@varentec. She. such as fail–normal operation. 2. 2689–2692. A. C. [Online]. T. Varentec was his third start-up company. he was a professor at the Georgia Institute of Technology from 2004 to 2011.D. S. H. May 2012. R.” IEEE About the Authors Trans. Divan. Keri. [Online]. in 2007. Smart Grid. Kovalsky. Patent 5 027 264 A. “Voltage support by distributed static VAr system (SVS)..” in Proc. medium voltage applications. His research interests are power electronics converters for utility applications.2-2008.pdf ___________________ [13] ENGO-V: Varentec. Leslie. E. Conf.” IEEE J. In fact.com/resources/#whitepapers [12] ENGO-V: Varentec. with a focus on power electronics. 1. and G. along with the ability to enhance programs such as conservation voltage reduction (CVR). A. a company focused on grid-edge control and funded by the green-tech venture capital firm Khosla Ventures and investor Bill Gates. “10 kV. Aug.” IEEE Trans. Mehraban. no. T. 1541–1549. L. commissioning and operation of the ±160 MVA STATCOM (phase I). M. no. Transmission. “Dyna-C: A topology for a bi-directional solid-state transformer. and advanced power electronics. Kheraluwala. Galiana. Oct. peak-demand management. Das. June 25.. such as distribution transformer leakage reactance.S. (2014. pp. “Power conver- 22 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE sion apparatus for dc/dc conversion using dual active bridges. T. 1998. and M. [7] E. Apr. Gyugyi. Applied Power Electronics Conf. CIRED Workshop. while working at the Center for Power Electronics Systems. 5. “AEP UPFC project: Installation. McGillis. J. Ostop. Sept. Ooi. The grid-edge approach was shown to realize unprecedented levels of volt–var control in real feeder-scale deployment to enable key value streams such as CVR. to improve the local and feederlevel performance. and D. Divan. as shown in Figure 9. 2005. and chief technology officer of Varentec. M. respectively. 186–198. where he was awarded the Institute Silver Medal. smart sensors. Dynamic grid edge control. He has published more than 250 papers and holds 50 issued and pending patents. 2014.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® The voltage profile at each node is dramatically improved. he received his B. [3] IEEE Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems. respectively. 12). D. and R. High Voltage Direct Current Power A case has been developed for the use of distributed power electronics along the grid edge to augment and enhance the operations of conventional primary-side electromechanical control assets. pp. Aug. G. IEEE Energy Conversion Congr. [11] Resources—Gridco Systems. Lund. Raju. Mar. Uhlen. vol. degree in electrical engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 2011. and Ph. 2009. Chen. K. Grider. leading hardware development for existing and nextgeneration products. This may provide a more practical and viable method for adding dynamic and distributed control to the existing grid. Joos. Prior to launching Varentec. Chandra. Emerging Select. Hingorani. 3.com) received his _______________ bachelor of technology degree in electrical engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology. H. Schutten. E. peak demand management. London: Garraway. Alegria. “An overview of the present grid codes for integration of distributed generation. Roorkee. 13.com/static/uploads/2014/01/14-01-VarentecDynamic-Grid-Edge-Control-0127. X. 1–4. 2010 and 2012. Mar. he has been working as a principal engineer at Varentec.” IEEE Trans. [8] S. T.pdf ___________ ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . Prior to that. Critical new concepts have been introduced. an additional 7-V margin has been created that allows an unprecedented level of control for the feeder voltage. Available: http://gridcosystems. India. Wan. Brown. Apr.com/static/ uploads/2013/10/13-09-Varentec-TechBrief-Low-Voltage-Pockets-on-Distribu_______________________________________ tion-Feeders-0930.varentec. 1960. providing surgical correction of voltage problems as well as correction of voltage profiles across the entire feeder. [4] T. He is currently with Varentec. Several companies are now offering grid-edge solutions. pp. Managing low voltage pockets on distribution feeders. and D. Stacey.com) ______________ is an IEEE Fellow and past president of the IEEE Power Electronics Society. The typical deployment of such distributed shunt var units ranges from 20 to 100 units per feeder. Power Delivery. vol. decentralized control with no peer-to-peer communications. Since 2012.

electrochemists who strive to improve chemistries or Digital Object Identifier 10. Batteries as Complex Dynamic Systems To understand the fundamentals of battery dynamics.E. and the porous separator. The system input receives a time-dependent excitation signal and. when it December 2014 ]IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE 23 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . the electrolyte.2014. and backup systems. massive research efforts continue to improve their capabilities.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® Dynamics and Modeling of Rechargeable Batteries What electrochemists’ work tells the electronic engineers © ISTOCKPHOTO.COM/D3DAMON by Nihal Kularatna E nergy storage is a hot topic in power electronics due to the steady progress of electric vehicles (EVs).1109/MPEL. where variables are dependent on time.2361264 Date of publication: 18 December 2014 2329-9207/14©2014IEEE develop new devices have contributed hugely to predicting the behavior of batteries. we should start with dynamic systems. nickelmetal hydride (NiMH).B. and Li-ion are mature chemistries. Starting from the early models by J. such as in Figure 1(a). and how more accurate models can be developed based on the internal electrochemistry processes within the electrode pair. Rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors are two complementary device families that are growing rapidly. This review aims at explaining why the simple constant voltage source and a fixed resistance is not adequate as a model. Despite the fact that lead-acid. Randles [7]. portable devices.

000 4.5 1 0. (b) an example of an Li-ion battery: cell phone battery operation showing its dynamic behavior.E 1. SOC Effect Reversible Effect Acid Stratification.35 1.E - - 1. SOH. Load Profile 4.E 1.61 ms 1. from a dynamic viewpoint.5 Voltage (V) 0 1.3 1. it gets modified and/or converted to another output signal that is also time dependent.45 1. 3) state of charge (SOC). (Figure adapted from [1]. and other design parameters) as well as external parameters (such as ambient temperature.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® System (With Time-Varying Parameters) Excitation u(t) u(t) propagates through the system.1 1.E 1.) 24 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE (1) The input and output signals u ^ t h and y ^ t h are generally vectors. As ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® .E 1. these additional output signals yield only limited additional information. A dynamic system can be described by a set of differential equations Response y(t) y(t) t t (a) . While other parameters such as internal resistance and open circuit voltage are also useful output signals.E 1. A simple example in a battery pack is shown in Figure 1(b). A battery’s dynamic performance can be influenced by both internal parameters (such as SOC.25 1. an NiMH battery undergoes a pulsed discharge after a charging period.E I. the dynamic characteristics contain information on these parameters.65 1.55 1. if the system is nonlinear.000 8.E 1. and 4) state of health (SOH).E 1.E 1. and the history of the battery).000 12. and (c) the times in battery dynamics. The discharge current profile resembles the load applied to a battery in applications using the Group Special Mobile (GSM) standard.5 577 ns Pulse Current (A) 2 y (t) = f [y (t).E + + - - + 1. Memory Electric Double-Layer Effects Mass Transport Effects Microseconds Milliseconds Seconds Minutes Aging Effect Hours Days Months Years + + + + + + 1. 2) temperature.5 1. There has been a significant amount of research done on battery dynamics [1] that is applicable in SOC/SOH estimation.6 1. dc current. and. The output signals could be 1) terminal voltage.2 1. it is common to define the current and ambient temperature as input signals.7 1.000 6. 2.4 1.E 1. Conversely. For batteries. dc/ac components of internal resistance. (1) will also be nonlinear.000 Time (ns) 10. Here.E 1.000 GSM Discharge 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time (min) 80 (b) Electric and Magnetic Effects Cycling.E 1.E 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 Time (s) (c) FIG 1 (a) A dynamic system. u (t)] .05 Charge 0 10 2.15 1.

8 mHz -10 21.1 mHz -30 -20 289.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® Diffusion in Porous Electrode Diffusion in Free Electrolyte Diffusion of Active Mass Porous Composite Porous Composite Negative Separator Positive Electrode Electrode (LiCoO2) (Graphite) External Connector M+ X- Ls Ln External Connector Lp Negative Electrode Electrolyte (a) Anode Positive Electrode (b) Separator Cathode Anode Separator Li+ (c) (d) -60 163 mHz 217.7 mHz 10 285.7 Hz 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 Re Z (mX) (e) FIG 2 The Li-ion cell sandwich: (a) the basic structure (adapted from [3]). and the December 2014 ]IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE 25 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . The temperature effects are not shown in the figure. dynamic effects occur within a wide range of time (from microseconds to years) and are a combination of several cases: 1) electrical and magnetic 2) electric double layer 3) mass transport 4) cycling and SOC 5) reversible 6) aging. shown in Figure 1(c). and the dynamics of the battery temperature depend on the heat capacity of the pack.7 Hz j = 25 °C 0 20 100% SOC 80% SOC 50% SOC 30% SOC 21. (c) Li-ion electrodes based on identical multiple particles (adapted from [3]). (b) the diffusion process in such a cell (adapted from [1]). (d) a single particle representation of an electrode pair (adapted from [3]). the dissipated heat. and (e) a Nyquist plot (adapted from [25]).3 mHz -50 2.1 mHz Im Z (mX) -40 2.

42 A. which are Aging influences the battery performainly responsible for the chemical mance and the output parameters sigand supercapacitors are reactions. tude signal of a voltage or a current to estimate the small During the cycling process. If we assume that there will be only Joule loss. are summarized in [24]. vented lead-acid such a simple schematic. the battery heats up due signal impedance of the cell. due to pulse transmission. standing of battery dynamics. In Aging. which can be cleared by can take place. Inside a battery. which is the heat generated due to the rms current chemistry-based impedance models for battery chemistries. which is equivalent to two capacitors in series. When two elecPloss = R int I 2eff . due to the action of the electrolyte. with a Most electrochemical storage systems porous negative electrode made of show reversible effects. and these cases may act in different directions. Mass Transport Effects Within a battery. reversible. In thickness. are discussed in [3]. In such a case. For example. With a form factor of Recent research publications [6] indicate that electro1. depends on the electrolyte concentration. Time fusion within the porous electrode and within the active constants of a few hours to one year are effective in mass occur in both electrodes. and their dynamics occur within transport. These occur graphite and a porous positive electrode with a polypropylduring cyclic operations and can be regenerated by special ene separator immersed in the electrolyte. the diffusion these processes. heating power can be estimated by Double-Layer Effects The electrical double-layer (EDL) effect is a phenomenon present in supercapacitors and batteries. As per the GSM example in Figure 1(b). (2) trodes are placed in an electrolyte. The ohmic heat can be heavily port effects [1]. The time domain of SOC change or trochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). two electrodes. its SOC is changed. More details of charge–discharge regimes. occurring can be described by Fick’s first law [1]. the memFigure 2(b) portrays the three locations where diffusion ory  effect is another example. two charged layers develop on both ends of the where Ploss is the power dissipated due to ohmic resiselectrolyte. Figure 2(a) shows a Reversible Effects typical case of an Li-ion cell. 26 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . Cycling and SOC Effects The time constant representing the diffusion also If a battery is charged or discharged. tances due to an overall internal effective resistance of R int and this is called a double-layer capacitor. As the battery has two electrodes. and temperature is a key influencing factor. A and the average current is 0.73 double-layer effect [5]. [24]. the charge More discussion on the subject of waveform parameters transfer reaction happening on the electrode/electrolyte can be found in [2]. They are the positive and nificantly. [4]. is frequently used to analyze to internal heat sources such as ohmic heating or any the dynamic behavior of the batteries due to mass transother chemical reactions. In nickel–cadmium cells. the root face layer is formed next to the electrodes and creates the mean square (rms) value of the current is estimated as 0. Diffusion occurs at different inside locations of minutes to years of time durations. there are three Aging Effects Rechargeable batteries separate primary parts. or measuring cycling depends on the operational conditions with a time the response of a battery to an excitation of a small amplidomain from several minutes to days. These are related to the an electrochemical cell: more details operation regime of the battery. with typical addition. A porous separator is in the months to years. and SOC effects are considered most cases. it generates 3# bigger power. Migration is Long-Term Effects often hindered by solvated molecules that cover the ion. an extended charge. the electrode and this itself is a dynamic characteristic of a battery. The dynamics of these temperature variations can range from seconds to several hours. diffusion is largely responsible for the mass longer-term phenomena. cycling.73. middle of the battery between the growing rapidly. In this process. influenced by the charge/discharge current profiles. such as Li-ion. Due to the large and the I eff is the effective current based on the wave surface areas of porous electrodes. the open circuit or the terminal voltage itself is a time constants in the range of seconds to minutes [1]. Elecfunction of the SOC. a high-capacitance surshape.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® heat generated within the battery. used in the estimation of capacity batteries show acid stratification that can be removed by fade models for Li-ion batteries. and the structure to a great degree. can be developed to achieve a better undercalculated based on the average current of the waveform. the difapplying one or more full charge–discharge cycles. the transport of ions is due to diffusion caused by the gradient in concentration and migration due to forces of electric fields within the chemical system. The time domain for battery two complementary negative electrodes and the elecaging is typically in the range of device families that are trolyte.

This results in a reduction in the porosity during discharging. In addition.4 to 1 F/ Ah. leads to lower diffusion. 3) The electrodes are of perfect conductivity. In many systems. and current collectors are lumped pure resistors. As can be seen. the porous structure changes 1.1 Results for a 12-V Vented Lead-Acid Battery Positive Electrode 0. 1) Electrodes are multiple spherical particles of identical size and dynamics 2) The particle material is spatially homogeneous. n RHF Lp Ln - Zw. while. p Rt.01 x R2 f=1 x f = 0. f = 0. For a lead-acid cell. indicating that alternative currents with a frequency above 100 Hz do not flow through  the charge transfer reaction due to filtering by the double-layer capacitor.000 (a) Cdl. the conductivity of the discharged active mass differs from that of the charged active mass. separator. December 2014 ]IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE 27 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . n Im (Z)/mX (b) 4 f = 0. n Zw. The diffusion of ions through the porous electrodes is one of the main limiting factors in batteries. the typical double-layer capacitance of the positive electrode divided by the battery capacity (in Ah) is from approximately 7 to 70  F/Ah. In general. and (c) a Nyquist plot (adapted from [4]). respectively. much faster phenomena are found in a rechargeable battery. This Compared with the slow effects of mass transport and the EDL.1 x RHF x 2 R1 4 Re (Z)/mX (c) FIG 3 An automotive battery: (a) the frequency response of the two electrodes due to the double-layer effect (adapted from [1]). p Rt. Such a set of simplifications allows us to simplify the cell based on identical particles. and an overview on different dynamic effects is given in [1]. (b) the equivalent circuit (adapted from [4]).Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® 1 Negative Electrode 0. the active mass of the electrode depends on whether it is the cathode or the anode. as shown in Figure 2(c) and (d). The analytical details are available in [6].01 0. 4) The film growth caused by aging only happens on the anode surface.001 x fc 2 f = 10 x f = 100x Effects Caused by Porous Electrodes during discharging. cutoff frequencies for the positive and negative electrodes are approximately 10 and 100 Hz. as the volume of the discharged active mass in most systems is much higher than the volume of the charged active mass. This simplification allows for the development of a set of mathematical relationships between the internal dynamics and external measurements to include the EDL effect. in turn. it is from 0.000 10. which. Figure 3(a) shows the frequency response of the two electrodes of a lead-acid batter y caused by the double-layer effect. 5) The electrolyte. p Cdl. for the negative electrode.1 1 10 100 Frequency (Hz) Porous electrodes are complex components. Normalized Battery Current surface can be simplified by several assumptions.

At high frequencies. This inductance limits the slew rate of the current. this inductance can be of interest above 1-kHz frequencies. This is in addition to the wiring of the cell. The generally applicable equivalent circuits for various dynamic effects are shown in Figure 4. much faster phenomena are found in a rechargeable battery. For small batteries. the active mass. in large packs. and. current collector. (b) the EDL capacitor effect. particularly in large lead-acid systems. Battery Equivalent Circuit Models and Modeling Techniques From an electronic engineer’s viewpoint. and the transition resistance between the active mass and the current collector) and the serial inductance (based on the geometry of the cell). and (d) high-frequency operation. (Figure adapted from [1]. These effects result in an inhomogeneous discharge of porous electrode. For a lead-acid battery. which can come into play depending on the depth of the materials in the current collectors [1].) 28 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE Compared with the slow effects of mass transport and the EDL. (c) the porous electrode case. it is most useful to have an equivalent circuit for a battery ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . With increased frequencies. show the effect of inductive components. much higher frequencies. such as 10–100  kHz. the penetration depth of the ions decreases and the electrodes act like planar electrodes. A typical value of this high-frequency interelectrode capacitance for a lead-acid cell is around 10 nF/cell [1]. This is due to the total ohmic resistance (the sum of the resistances of electrolyte. values between 10 and 100 nH/cell for 100  Ah cells are reported [1]. Another important high-frequency effect is the skin effect. especially at higher currents. (a) Electric and Magnetic Effects CDL ID IBattery ICT (b) Positve Electrode RCT Electrolyte Negative Electrode (c) Cp RB LB Impedance of Electrodes (d) FIG 4 The equivalent circuits applicable to different dynamic effects: (a) diffusion effects.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® changes the ohmic resistance of the active mass during discharging. the electrode pair becomes a simple plate capacitor equivalent.

n + JFD.) December 2014 ]IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE 29 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . i ZFD. However. The following discussion is an A battery’s dynamic apply the Randles circuit to each half attempt to discuss battery equivalent cell. electrochemical half cells with rela- Cl RC Rr /Cr Double-Layer Capacitance Electrolyte Resistance Electrode–Electrolyte Reaction Cd Rd W Ri Rr Cl Cr Cd Double-Layer Capacitance Charge Transfer Resistance Warburg Impedance Electrolyte Resistance Ri´ Rc Rd W (b) (a) Cdp CdN Ri´ Rdp RdN Wp WN (c) Anode Particle 4I. p Cathode Particle Rp ZFD. i Jdl. (Figure adapted from [6]. p Jdl. i Cdl. In this circuits in relation to internal chemiperformance can case. the diffusion-related perforcal processes. Randles proposed a circuit with four components as temperature and SOC. n JFD. we can ments. i 41. n ZFD. n Jdl. (b) the basic equivalent circuit of the electrochemical half cell. as shown in Figure 5(b). p + JFD. i /42. In with any dependencies on important parameters such as [7]. n + JFD. [8] and Warburg Elements parameters. (c) a full cell with two electrodes. Since a is very hard to propose simple equivpractical cell has two electrodes sepaalent circuits with linear circuit elerated by a single electrolyte. p JFD. p Cdl. it per the details in Figure 5(a). n Cfilm Rn Li+ o Cdl. n Rfilm Li+ o J dl. due to dynamic effects. n 42. p JFD. p 41. i Cfilm Faradaic Current Density Due to Charge-Transfer Reactions Faradaic Impedance of Electrodes Potentials on the Two Sides of the Electrode/Electrolyte Interface Double-Layer Current Density Double-Layer Capacitance Capacitance Due to Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI) Film Insulation on Anode Jfilm Current Density Through SEI Film Rfilm SEI Film Resistance (d) FIG 5 The Randles model extended to two electrode half cells: (a) the Randles circuit.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® tively identical circuit elements but with different values. be influenced by mance is indicated by the chargetransfer resistance R d combined with Randles Equivalent Circuit both internal the Warburg diffusion element [1]. to model the diffusion process occurEvery battery can be treated as two ring at the electrode. and (d) the current flow. n + Jfilm Jdl. p Jfilm Jdl. n 42.

The impedance of the electrolyte. such as EIS.04 -Im (Z)(X) -Im (Z)(X) 15 10 5 Proposed Model Randles Model Test Data 0 -5 0. n (a) 20 # 10-3 0.02 0. electrolyte resistivity. The amplitude of the ohmic resistor R 0 placed between the anode and cathode. (Figure adapted from [6].1 0. A Warburg impedance ment techniques. i = n for the elements. and the effect of surface ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . the values for these parameters of the cell. but most individual model elements provide more information in the frequency domain.06 0.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® The Warburg diffusion element is a More Detailed Models common element that can be used to Based on Electrochemistry Due to dynamic model semi-infinite linear diffusion. the test data. and Fick’s second (phase independent of frequency) and with a magnitude inlaw related to the process summarized in Figure 5(d) are availversely proportional to the square root of the frequency by able in [6]. A sion element ^ Z W h is a constant phase more detailed discussion and the mathematical derivations based on the Butelement. where the suffixes N and P show the negative and positive comparing results from the model. based on the circuit structure shown in Figure 6(a). current to propose simple element can be difficult to recognize flows. one can estimate Randles model. tery chemistries. Using EIS methods [9]. Warburg element is given by At a high frequency. could be indiwith a charge-transfer resistance and a cated by Figure 5(d).05 0. p Rfilm ZFD. which is represented by a pure ~ inductor L.. and current collector are represented by a pure and ~ is the angular frequency 2rf. Figure  3(b) indicates the equivalent circuit based on the combination of the two half cells with Warburg elements.e.08 0. and the effects at the anode and equivalent circuits because it is nearly always associated cathode under discharge.2 FIG 6 The Li-ion cell: (a) an overall impedance model of the cell. In a case such as an Li-ion cell. R HF is the effect of connections. A physicist’s explanation of the processes and v v related mathematical relationships can be found in [10].03 0. Zw = . The Warburg diffuanode and i = p for the cathode. the Nernst equation.1 0. Figure 6(b) and (c) shows the Nyquist plots for the cell after 200 and 800 cycles of charge.01 0. (4) introduce inductance. p R0 Cdl. unrestricted diffusion to a large plaeral assumptions as used in measurenar electrode. sepwhere v is the Warburg coefficient (or Warburg constant) arator. (b) Nyquist plots after 200 charge cycles. with a constant phase of 45c ler–Volmer equation. respecFigure 5(c) shows the combination of the two half cells tively.12 0. with an anode impedance and a cathode impedance connected in series.05 0. designers take measurements mostly in the time domain. with seveffects. n ZFD.01 Proposed Model Randles Model Test Data 0 -0. In the table associwith linear circuit double layer. but it is common in all batated with Figure 5(d).) 30 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE In general. -j (3) ~ ~ Figure 6(a) shows the circuit structure of an Li-ion cell. the separator. and Figure 3(c) shows the shape of the Nyquist diagram of a typical lead-acid battery [4]. it is very hard i. and the electrode effects. and (c) Nyquist plots after 800 charge cycles. Cfilm L Frequency Domain Behavior of Battery Models and Components Cdl. battery current collectors and cables v Zw = 2 .15 Re (Z)(X) Re (Z)(X) (b) (c) 0. The plot in Figure 3(c) identifies the values of the ohmic resistance of the battery ^ R HFh and the effect of the small capacitive loop of size R 1 of the battery.

To achieve much simplified and less algotion [12]. In prea phenomenon present dicting the state of function (SOF) of in supercapacitors and such batteries. In commercial batteries.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® nominally rated at 45–50 Ah [12]. The chemical aspects of lead-acid battery degrithm-intensive models. many simplifications are used with radation are discussed in [13]. 3) irreversible formation of lead sulfate in In addition to the automotive area. using the London Heathrow airport [11]. modified. 2) positive plate active mass degradation and loss of adherSimplified Models for Lead-Acid Chemistry ence to the grid. Using certain # 12-V valve-regulated lead-acid batteries of capacity coverage by crystallized lead sulfate. online. it is difficult to use these models directly is inferred by observing a significant change in C b over in practical systems to estimate the SOC. VCs Iin Ri 1 Cs Ri Iin C 1 Rn Rt Cb VCb 2 Rd Cp Vo VCp Rp Cn VCn 3 2 (a) 3 (b) Approximate Value in ULTRA Parameter Explanation Cb Represents Main Charge Storage 1 # 105 F Rd Self-Discharge Resistance 5 kX Ri Battery Terminal and 5–100 mX Interconnection Resistance Rt Mass Transport Effects Related Resistance 10–500 mX Cs Mass Transport Effects Related Capacitance 1. teria are only partially valid. Also with nonlinear components. and the maximum charging current may be around 50  A. and (d) a model showing gassing. and remaintime due to aging effects such as active mass degradaing useful life. A large loop of size R 2 at lower frequencies depends on sulfation reactions due to mass transport of Pb 2+ ions [ 4]. and remapped equivalents of the Randles Practical Simplifications of Battery batteries. such as double-layer effect is 150  A.000–20. these crivalues of the components shown in Figure 7(c). Figure 7 shows the are quantified based on many assumpmodified version of the Randles circuit with the typical tions and simplifications. SOF estimation Models for Engineering Applications (combined SOC and SOH) is done on The dynamic effects inside batteries a real-time basis. the battery pack could be The electrical discharging at a high rate. such as in Figure 7(b). lead-acid chemistry is the active mass. SOH. A small capacitive loop is related to the porosity of the electrodes. (Figure adapted from [12]. Major aging processes electrochemistry-based models.000 F L CPE1 Ri R1 Rgas Uterminal CPE2 R2 Uo cell = (c) = Uo gassing (d) FIG 7 The modified Randles circuits for a lead-acid battery: (a) a basic model.) December 2014 ]IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE 31 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . (b) a remapped circuit. whereas the SOH ble-layer capacitor. and 5) loss of water. and most of the components in The voltage across the capacitor C b is considered the models cannot be accurately estimated. 4) short circuits. In this case. This vehicle relies on 4 star-delta (or Pi-Tee) transformation [12]. still frequently used in EVs such as airport light transport The Randles model can be remapped into a difsystems like the urban light transport (ULTRA) system in ferent equivalent circuit. model are used. such as the Warburg element and the douto be a suitable indicator for the SOC. (c) the typical component values. leading to a gradual loss of performance and eventually to the end of service life are 1) anodic corrosion.

) 32 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE Conclusions Electronic engineers who wish to develop useful equivalent circuits for design work should be able to ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . In general.6 In [20].Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® approximations. as shown in Figure 7(d). An analysis of the uncertainties in an EIS measure(8) ment for a lead-acid battery is given in [16]. electrochemical system.8 and artificial neural networks [22]. a nonisothermal model 0. quasiNiMH Battery Models used in EVs. more accurate electrolyte transport models are used [14]. In such situations.000) at C/20 rate. In these situations. Fractional SOC Voc = Vo + Vh The commonly used impedancebased models assume that the battery is in a quasi-stationary state during measurements. battery packs such as those in EVs are subis still frequently jected to very high continuous. 2) a generalized dc voltage source. While bat0. a combination of numerical and 1 experimental approaches [15]. NiMH hysteresis can Voc (V) be developed to include both the double-layer effect (b) and the diffusion effect.4 tery models and equivalent circuits similar to the case 0. 0.2 plexities in these publications. Cdiff Cdl1 Cdl2 charge transfer kinetics at the electrode/electrolyte interface. However. one important charac0. using a simplified model. including the case of Randles parameter variations over service life. isothermal models [20]. 0. Rn = Hybrid Models to Consider Mass Transport Effects are required. plex proton insertion and the hydroimproved impedance-based nonlinear simulation models gen deinsertion electrodes occur during discharge and vice versa during charge. the doubleautomotive area. including the finite rate of solid-state diffusion inside the + Vdl+ Vdiffactive material particles of either one or both electrodes. where comto accurately estimate the SOC/SOH. and ohmic drop through the electrolyte phase. 0 11 12 13 14 15 16 10 such as that shown in Figure 8(b). In addition. or medium-term disAn NiMH cell is a dual-intercalation charge processes. and 3) a parallel current path for (6) gassing. (Figure adapted from [23]. As discussed in [23].7 is provided in [24]. particularly for Ret1 Ret2 Rdiff electric and hybrid-EV batteries [17]. As a result. layer capacitance keeps decreasing lead-acid chemistry over the service life [16].9 [19]. Any RX of these factors may result in too low a cell potential before the active materials loaded in the cell are completely used up. such as an (a) impedance model [18]. 0. continuous. FIG 8 An NiMH battery equivalent circuit for hysteresis estimation: (a) the circuit used and (b) the measured hysteresis of a 12-V NiMH battery module (COBASYS Series 1. a lumped model for NiMH cell is developed with attention to many important characteristics. Modeling of the NiMH devices uses different approaches. the inefficient utilization of Vo active materials becomes a critical issue. fuzzy logic modeling [21].1 teristic of NiMH cells for EVs is the hysteresis behavior [23]. while resistances in a Randles’ equivalent In addition to the circuit keep increasing. discharge or charge of an NiMH cell is controlled by a number of factors. A summary of these 0.3 of lead-acid chemistry are developed with various com0. it can be shown that C2 C n = C +b C b s Cb Cs Cp = C + C b s R t (C b + C s) 2 C 2b R p = Rd + Rt . Equivalent circuit commencing from the Randles model is extended to show the (5) effect of 1) generalized capacitance elements. Double-Layer Effect Diffusion Effect Vh Figure 8 schematically illustrates these processes in + V an NiMH equivalent circuit form [17].5 including the hysteresis potential behavior. The use of EIS for dynamic modeling of a lead-acid battery to estimate this (7) equilibrium voltage that depends on the SOC is discussed in [15].

vol. Jossen. Sources. Karden. nos. 4. 2004. Srinivasan. Alloys Compounds. 530–538. C. 1997. R. M. More details are available in [24]. Karden. 2000. “Über das Verhalten sogenannte unipolarisierbare Electroden gegen Wechselstrom. M. United States. vol.nz) ________________ is a senior electronic engineering lecturer in the School of Engineering at the University of Waikato. 1. Power Sources. E. “A review of impedance measurements for determination of the [23] X. “Devel- on artificial neural network for surface temperature simulation of nickel opment of first principles capacity fade model for Li-ion cells. Technol. and R. nickel metal hydride battery hysteresis for SOC estimation. vol. 2002. 2008. Power [2] N. 44. Fennie. Conf. 2004. Prognostics Health Management. Mu. pp. Syst. “Fundamentals of battery dynamics. chem. 4525–4541. Apr. 258. 85. Huet. Karden. 2008. 7. Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity Basics.” References J. vol. New York: Elsevier. Karden. W. 67..” J. pp. and B. Bingham. 101. pp. White. Y. Brigham. pp. 742–747.” J. 69–84. B. R. S. Two US/NZ/PCT patents were granted (2011/2014) for his work on supercapacitor-based efficiency improvements of linear power supplies and the use of supercapacitors in surge protectors. In addition. May 1997. Sunde. no. no. pp. vol. Buller. 2006. [17] W. 2004. vol. “Modeling and estimation of state-of-charge or state-of-health of secondary batteries. Zhang.” J.. for providing permission to publish this summary based on Chapter 3 of my book. S. and X. H. Power Sources. R. 208. 144. 1. New Zealand. P. Buller. E. charge and available capacity of nickel/metal hydride batteries. vol. Martinsen. M.” J. Available: http://www. [4] F. Mohammed.” J. Doncker. Buller. [18] L. Gu. Power Sources. Tairov. Wang.” IEEE Trans. New York: Elsevier and Academic Press.” J. 59–69. vol. [7] J.” J. pp. and S. S. Popov. 33–44. 761–768. vol. pp.” J. Y. Power Sources. X. [Online]. [10] S. 113–162. Doncker. pp. 41. vol. [9] E. 58. 25.” IEEE Trans. 149–157. S. Power Sources. December 2014 ]IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE 33 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . no. vol. 1947. His most recent book. 2. W. 378–382. M. Energy Storage Devices for Electronic Systems (2014) [24]. G. Tang. London: IET. 127. “Aging mechanisms and service life of lead acid batteries. Stone. Jan.. Peng. 471. Warburg. Fang. and the transient propagation and power conditioning area in power electronics. “Parameter identification and analysis of uncertainty measurements of lead-acid batteries. pp. “Impedance based [6] S. B. power supply topologies. 1–2. Koch. 3. pp. Grimnes and O. M. no. pp. 14–19. and E. Sauer. Power Sources. electronic applications. Kularatna. 1998. Li. [20] Y. Digital and Analogue Instrumentation. Florida). June 2012. 1–12.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® gain a lot from various papers authored by electrochemists detailing the modeling and analysis of battery chemistries and future directions. Mag. Power Acknowledgments I would like to thank the editorial and publishing staff of Elsevier Publishers. [16] L. no. pp. 136. Phys. D. Veh. C. 72–78. 4. Ramadass. [22] K. V. 2005. [5] J. Power Sources. H. no. Soc. pp. pp. D. Oct. Ruetschi. Pan. pp. 461–466.” J. 322–333. Wu. pp. “A prediction model based [3] P.” in Proc. no. “An electrochemistry-based simulation models of supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries for power impedance model for lithium-ion batteries. 112. and D. [21] P. V.” J. Y. vol. 1899. 2001. Stevanatto. “Hybrid modeling of lead acid batteries in frequency and time domain.. 3905–3916. Mauracher and E. 1. 2014. W. Faraday Soc. 2. Power Sources. Chen. Elder. July 2014. 63. J. Hu. no. Electron. 2.” J. A recipient of the 2013 New Zealand Engineering Innovator of the Year Award. R. 1992. Thele. and D. 8. 9–18. Energy Storage Devices: Rechargeable Batteries and for energy storage applications. E.” J. B. B. and R. Liaw. C. 656–659. M. and F. p. Apr. Reisner. vol. [15] P. he has authored and coauthored several books in power electronics. U.” Discuss. O. “Dynamic modeling of lead/acid batteries using impedance spectroscopy for parameter identification. Sources.. 253–254. 298–306. Brusamarello. Wu. Gould. Kularatna. M. com/?page_id=24 _________ [12] C. He is an honors graduate in electrical engineering from the University of Ceylon (1976). 151.” IEEE Aerosp. Acta. 11–19. pp. Li. Haran. Applicat.” Ann. Gomadam. Ind. [13] P.ultraglobalprt. [8] E. 2008. Nihal Kularatna (nihalkul@waikato. B. Rose. “New battery model and state-of-health determination through subspace parameter esti- About the Author mation and state observer techniques. White..ac. “An impedance model for electrode processes in metal hydride electrodes. 2. A196–A203. [14] M. Valoen. was published in 2012 (CRC Press. he was the chief executive officer of the Arthur C. vol. “An experimental and modeling study of isothermal charge/discharge behavior of commercial Ni-MH cells. 67. and E. IEEE vol. D. Wu. Thele. Power Sources. Int. Supercapacitor Applications. Tunold. Wang. Randles. no. “Kinetics of rapid electrode reactions. C. no. pp. vol. “A method for measurement and interpretation of impedance spectra for industrial batteries. Singh. and R. Doncker. “Fuzzy logic modeling of state-of- 154. “A nonisothermal model of a nickel-metal hydride cell. vol. B. Before immigrating to New Zealand in 2002. vol.” IEEE Trans Instrum. DC Power Supplies: Power Management and Surge Protection for Power Electronic Systems. [25] S.” Electrochim. 2.. and P. vol. 2014. Wang. nos. A. pp. and C. pp. ch. “High energy density double layer capacitors [24] N. and N. R. 1–2. Bentley. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE. 70. Meas. [11] Ultra Global PRT. [1] A. He is currently active in research in supercapacitor applications. Electro- metal hydride battery during charging. pp. S. 2009. Geng. 493–499. Frisch. Lai and M. [19] B. vol. “Modeling discharge and charge characteristics of nickel-metal hydride batteries. F. no. Chem. He has contributed more than 100 papers to journals and international conference proceedings. Clarke Institute for Modern Technologies in Sri Lanka. 2005. 1999. pp. his electronic engineering career spans 38 years. S.

). etc. the wide adoption of grid-interfacing converters also brings unprecedented opportunities for future more active and flexible distribution systems with both AC and DC networks. etc.1109/MPEL. and hybrid AC/DC systems ‡ Resilient power electronics and grid integration ‡ Power quality control and disturbances ride through ‡ Ancillary functions of sustainable energy systems ‡ Sustainable energy integration standards and policies Deadline for Submission of Manuscript: January 15. or even small networks (e.ie) Digital Object Identifier 10. ‡ Modelling and control of interfacing converters ‡ Energy storage for sustainable energy applications ‡ Energy harvesting and energy management ‡ Microgrids. The main objective of this Special Section is to collect the latest developments in sustainable energy integration technologies. June 2015 Today. and greenhouse gas emissions. etc.hurley@nuigalway. energy security. National University of Ireland (gerard. 2015 Contacts: Yunwei (Ryan) Li. To operate such a system with high penetration of sustainable and renewable energy sources. a number of power electronics technologies are essential: topology and pulse-width-modulation (PWM) of grid-interfacing power electronics. the gridinterfacing power electronics are critical links that essentially integrate the energy source. active distribution systems. Topics of interest include but are not limited to: ‡ Sustainable energy sources ± PV. smart grids. University of Alberta. multilevel and modular converters. more sustainable and renewable energy sources are being integrated into power systems to address the increasing concerns of energy costs. inverters.li@ualberta.2367660 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . energy management. Canada (yunwei. As this sustainable energy integration (especially for dispersed and small capacity sources) is mostly at the distribution level. the sustainable energy systems can also help to provide ancillary functions to the power systems. wind.g. For these sustainable and renewable energy based power generation systems. power flow regulation. filters and PWM.2014.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® Call for Papers IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics Special Issue on Sustainable Energy Systems Integration. microgrids) to the main grid. voltage/current control strategies.ca). If designed and controlled properly. energy storage. Gerard Hurley. wave. power quality control. ‡ Interfacing converter topologies (bi-directional DC/DC converters.

at this point. This is a very challenging time in a start-up. with many opportunities to make mistakes. his third start-up. needs to be modified. market size and access. perhaps the most important question. at scale? Finally. this phase must bring increased clarity on the value that your solution brings to your customers. and chief technology officer of Varentec. In addition. Furthermore. and what is the adoption process within their organizations? In addition. a very low burn rate. it raises doubts about the abilities of the startup team. competitive threats. what is the timeline over which they can purchase your solution. you have gone through the challenges of outlining a business opportunity and have understood your target customer’s unarticulated needs. president. In fact. you have to be sincerely honest with yourself in assessing if your vision holds. In essence. and access to sufficient funding at acceptable terms. to raise funds. The intent is to move rapidly and frugally to a point where you can test your product and its fit against the latent market needs as well as understand whether your original business concept can make money at the scale envisioned or whether it requires changes in direction. or do they constitute a more limited niche market that may be interesting technically but cannot scale commercially? A common mistake during this process is to be so convinced that you have the winning solution that you stop listening to the signals the market is sending you. In subsequent columns.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® Entrepreneur Viewpoint by Deepak Divan Validating a Business Model for a Minimum Viable Product A s an entrepreneur.1109/MPEL. confirm that the solution does address a serious problem and/or a compelling need. Clearly. the idea is to show not only that the product works but that it delivers value to a large potential market in a way that can be monetized by your start-up. Part of the exercise of deciding to move forward involves a realistic risk assessment in terms of technology gaps. com) ___ ]IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE 35 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . or if a complete pivot is needed because the MVP and the original vision do not translate into December 2014 a scalable business opportunity. It is your job to take that input in the context of your vision and see if your MVP can deliver on the value promised. He is the cofounder. Digital Object Identifier 10. and to set about developing the product and the company. or technology. and how motivated are they to do it? Likewise. a company focused on grid edge control and funded by the clean-tech venture capital firm Khosla Ventures and investor Bill Gates. These are relatively simple processes that lead to a minimum viable product (MVP) definition. the market does not know exactly what is needed—this is a white space after all—but your test customers can respond to adoption concerns and can help you better understand what the unintended consequences of your solution might be. strategy. gross profit margins achievable. you have done the market research and analysis to define a preliminary market requirements document leading to a preliminary product requirement document. what is the risk to them. Prior to launching Varentec. it is time to build a business plan that sets out to implement the now invariably modified vision. does this limited set of customers represent a large market opportunity. Once the MVP and the value delivered into a specific market are validated. If the need to pivot is identified after significant funds have been spent on a vision that has been sold to the venture capitalists or angel investors. That is why this stage must be reached with a minimal team. the columnist will share learning and experiences. Remember. About the Author Deepak Divan (ddivan@varentec.2014. and a fail-fast and failoften strategy and should be positioned as an integral part of how a start-up in a white space has to operate. he was a professor at the Georgia Institute of Technology from 2004 to 2011. Fundamentally. ____________ is an IEEE Fellow and past president of the IEEE Power Electronics Society. as well as discuss challenges of obtaining venture capital funds.2360360 Date of publication: 18 December 2014 it must have answers to questions like what are the truly defensible advantages that your solution can offer against what the customers are using today? What are the compelling reasons for customers to switch to your solution. ability to scale.

com or Technical Chair Prof. Questions pertaining to 2015 ICDCM can be addressed to General Chair Dr. The continuous decrease in the cost of photovoltaicsgenerated dc electricity is now making it possible to provide electrical energy to over 1. please go to the ICDCM Web site. Rajendra Singh of Clemson University. 31 March–1 April 2014.1109/MPEL. ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . There is also a growing interest around the world to harness electricity from cleanburning gas using advanced engine and turbine technologies. and natural gas power. wind. For more details. The conference. Georgia. power electronics.edu. The ICDCM is being organized by an IEEE committee comprising General Chair Dr. Krishna Shenai at _____________ kshenai@yahoo. visionaries have proposed a new conference to bring together specialists and researchers in the field of dc microgrids and related technologies. Technical Chair Prof. which is sponsored by the IEEE Power Electronics Society Digital Object Identifier 10. to be held at the Sheraton Atlanta Hotel. like solar. While the deadline for a two-page extended summary submission is 5  January 2015. the 2015 IEEE First International Conference on DC Microgrids (ICDCM). the deadline for six-page full paper submission is 31 March 2015. papers are being solicited on the following topics related to the dc microgrid: ■ performance analysis and optimization ■ reliability and resiliency techniques ■ powering residential and commercial buildings ■ dc-powered active and passive smart solar houses ■ dc-powered appliances ■ advanced power electronics ■ storage technology ■ dc-powered plug-in hybrid electric vehicle/electric vehicle charging ■ real-time monitoring and control ■ manufacturing and cost-reduction approaches ■ protection schemes ■ distributed energy generation and integration ■standards and policies.2014.5 billion people who previously have had no access to electricity. the notification of acceptance/rejection decision will be mailed by 16 February 2015. will consist of both oral presentations and poster sessions. As this transformation unfolds in the ac-dominated world. is a follow-up to the First Conference on Local DC Electricity held in Charleston. Currently. http://www. and control and communication provide the much needed interface with the grid and loads. to meet the growing power demands of utilities as well as to counter the devastation caused by superstorms like Hurricanes Sandy and Katrina. South Carolina. the ability to generate. It will also offer panel sessions and vendor exhibits. Krishna Shenai of Argonne National Laboratory. Rajendra Singh at ______________ srajend@clemson. sensors. and use dc electricity locally without the need for a longrange transmission and distribution network enables the possibility for transformational changes in the electricity infrastructure.co. According to ICDCM’s organizers. It is primarily driven by the need to create local grids using renewable energy sources. and dc microgrids powered by distributed clean-energy sources can sustainably power the needs of all human beings equitably around the world.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® Society News Atlanta Hosts First International Conference on DC Microgrids G enerating and distributing dc power through a local grid is an old idea that is currently gaining new momentum.icdcm.2360631 Date of publication: 18 December 2014 36 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE and will be held in Atlanta. Subsequently. Various studies have shown that the use of dc electricity enhances system-wide efficiency. store. In this evolving infrastructure. 7–10  June 2015. and Technical Vice Chair Wunder Bernd from the Fraunhofer Institute in Germany. In fact.

ieeeghn.org Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . IEEE Global History Network www.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® Members share fascinating first-person stories of technological innovations. Come read and contribute your story.

the intent is to spur innovation that can drive a 10× or greater reduction in the size of power inverters. ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . In reality.2014. and the use of the PELS supporting capabilities. has launched an open dc–ac power inverter design competition called the “Little Box Challenge. These include the number of members. Pennsylvania (14–18 September). using several criteria. By designing a much smaller.” said IEEE PELS President Don F. the Little Box Challenge plans to make a big impact on the future of power electronics. and final tests of the entrant devices and select a winner.” The prize is US$1 million and will be awarded to an individual or a team that can design and demonstrate a kilovolt-ampere-scale dc–ac inverter with a conversion efficiency of >95% and a power density of 50 W/in3 or higher. Those who have registered must submit a technical approach and testing application by 22 July 2015. leading to higher efficiency. “We are very pleased to present this important initiative together with Google to encourage innovation. individuals selected by the IEEE and Google will judge the submissions. such as the Distinguished Lecturer Program. In addition. this year. Up to 18 finalists will be notified of their selection for final testing at the testing facility. the number of technical activities. The Little Box Challenge supports the IEEE’s mission to foster technological innovation and excellence for the benefit of humanity.2360632 Date of publication: 18 December 2014 creased reliability.D. in cooperation with search engine giant Google. the Chapters are evaluated based on activities such as organizing conferences. In addition. technical approach. As part of the competition. For example.2361539 Date of publication: 18 December 2014 38 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE that is ranked the best. held in Pittsburgh. By participating in this challenge. The grand prize winner will be announced sometime in January 2016. members of industry and academia can play a pivotal role in a technological innovation that could have a major impact on the world. to achieve higher power densities and efficiencies. They are required to bring their inverters in person to a testing facility in the United States by 21 October 2015. the Little Box Challenge Web site pushes the use of wide-bandgap (WBG) semiconductors.1109/MPEL.2014. and lower energy costs. in- Digital Object Identifier 10. Since Google is an investor in GaN supplier Transphorm. operating a Web site. Accordingly. it provides a list of WBG device suppliers. It is awarded annually to the Chapter Digital Object Identifier 10. a smaller inverter could help create low-cost microgrids in remote parts of the world or allow people to keep the lights on during a blackout via their electric car’s battery.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® The IEEE and Google Launch DC–AC Inverter Design Competition T he IEEE Power Elctronics Society (PELS). and promoting power electronics technology. the award was given at the IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition 2014. its Web page describes how Transphorm’s GaN power switches can be used to compete in the Little Box Challenge. Tan. Fukuoka Section’s PELS Japan Chapter Wins 2014 Best Chapter Award T o recognize the excellent service of the IEEE Power Electronics Society (PELS) Chapters or joint PELS Chapters in the power electronics community. higher-efficiency inverter. the PELS Best Chapter Award is presented during one of the major PELS conferences. Interestingly. Traditionally. such as gallium nitride (GaN) and silicon carbide. for the overall Chapter activities in 2013 and plans for 2014.1109/MPEL. the Best Chapter Award was established in 2000.

www.” – Leading Technology Company From Imagination to Market IEEE Standards Online Your Direct Connection to IEEE Standards Offers you and your organization continuous access to the comprehensive and growing collection of IEEE Standards used throughout the industry today.ieee.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® “IEEE Standards Online gives us access to up-to-date standards with minimal effort. Access tomorrow’s draft standards first and get a jump on the competition Find a standard quickly with fast and comprehensive search and retrieval features Immediate updates and automatic email alerts Substantial savings over purchasing standards individually Increased productivity with immediate 24/7 access for all employees Free Trial! Experience IEEE – request a trial for your company.org/standardsonline IEEE Information Driving Innovation Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® .

the PELS Distinguished Lecturer. Kagoshima. The members of this Chapter demonstrated their high capabilities in organizing many Chapter meetings. Jr. ______________________ IEEE 2014 PELS Awards: Recognizing Innovators T he IEEE Awards Program is a peer-recognition program of achievement that has recognized leaders and visionaries who have paved the road of discovery for over 100 years. and multiobjective optimization of power electronic converters. ■Prof. for the first time. Bass Outstanding Young Power Electronics Engineer Award for innovative work on efficient yet small and inexpensive power converters. The recipients were as follows: ■Prof. especially in functioning as the main organizer of the Tenth IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems and a technical seminar on the state-of-theart research topics in high-frequency switching power converters and highspeed digital control. Owen. ■Prof. Switzerland. the IEEE Technical Fields Awards were presented by IEEE Past President Peter Staecker at a luncheon. Fujio Kurokawa. Germany. Johann W. In addition.D. the Japan Chapter hosted Prof. who gave several lectures at the Universities of Nagasaki. These were the Argentina Section’s joint IE13/CS23/RA24/ IA34/PEL35/VT06 Chapter. Toliyat. Prof.1109/MPEL. Texas A&M University. Ralf Kennel. After very careful consideration of all activities. was recognized with the 2014 IEEE William E. Robert D. Zurich. The recipients were as follows: ■Prof. congratulated Prof. ETH Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. received the Richard M. The names of all other previous recipients of this award are available on the PELS Web site at: http://www.2361540 Date of publication: 18 December 2014 40 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE electric motor drives and coordinated drive systems. Newell Power Electronics Award for contributions to power electronics in renewable energy and adjustablespeed drives. At the luncheon. College Station. Prof. Vladimir Katic. Frede Blaabjerg. and the Serbia and Montenegro Section’s joint PELS/IAS/ IES Chapter. Urbana. Lorenz. Katic wished them further success in promoting PELS activities and serving to the needs of the PELS members.2014. Aachen University. Rik de Doncker. the IEEE Power Electronics Society (PELS) awards were presented by PELS President Don F. IEEE PELS Chapter development chair and a member of the Faculty of Technical Sciences at the University of Novi Sad. Novi Sad (Serbia). Last year’s recipient was the joint PELS-IES Delhi Chapter (India). and control of fault-tolerant multiphase electric machines. This year at the IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition 2014 in Pittsburgh. the Chapter vice chair. received the IEEE PELS Harry A. Serbia. Madison. ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . Aalborg University. analysis. Distinguished Service Award for contributions to PELS. received the 2014 IEEE Richard Harold Kaufman Award for contributions to the development of methodologies and sensors for precision control of Digital Object Identifier 10. as well as Chapter Treasurer Tadashi Suetsugu and Chapter Secretary Tadashi Suetsugu for receiving the award for their exceptional PELS contributions. the winner of the PELS 2014 Best Chapter Award is.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® Six very successful Chapters were considered for final evaluation and comparison. University of Wisconsin. Furthermore. David Middlebrook Achievement Award for circuit innovation. the Delhi Section’s joint PELS/IES Delhi Chapter (India). Pennsylvania. the Dayton Section’s joint IEEE Power & Energy Society/Industry Applications Society (IAS)/PELS Chapter (United States). the Fukuoka Section’s Japan Chapter.org/chapters/chapter-awards. received the IEEE PELS R. Kolar. ■Prof. and Fukuoka. and Masahito Shoyama.ieee___________ pels. Hamid A. it was also the technical cosponsor of the Japan–Korea Joint Workshop on Semiconductor Power Conversion. the Japan Chapter chair. the Germany Section’s joint PELS/IAS/IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IES) German Chapter. Tan. Denmark. ■Prof. was presented with the 2014 IEEE Nikola Tesla Award for contributions to the design. modeling. Robert Pilawa-Podgurski. to promote PELS activities. University of Illinois. Texas. the Fukuoka Section’s PELS Japan Chapter. control.

ieee.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® 5IJTQVCMJDBUJPOPčFSTPQFOBDDFTTPQUJPOTGPSBVUIPST *&&&0QFO"DDFTT1VCMJTIJOH What does IEEE Open Access mean to an author? t5PQRVBMJUZQVCMJTIJOHXJUIFTUBCMJTIFEJNQBDUGBDUPST t*ODSFBTFEFYQPTVSFBOESFDPHOJUJPOBTBUIPVHIUMFBEFS t"DPOTJTUFOU*&&&QFFSSFWJFXTUBOEBSEPGFYDFMMFODF t6OSFTUSJDUFEBDDFTTGPSSFBEFSTUPEJTDPWFSZPVSQVCMJDBUJPOT t(SFBUXBZUPGVMmMMBSFRVJSFNFOUUPQVCMJTIPQFOBDDFTT Learn more about IEEE Open Access Publishing: www.org/open-access Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® .

and other similar equipment. she adds. In essence. four different dc–dc converters were selected for interfacing PV- battery and wind-battery power systems. renewable energies.” The main goal of her project is to develop faultdiagnostic methods for the power interfaces applied to telecommunications power supplies based on renewable energies and energy-storage device technologies. ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . and energy systems. the Joseph J. the winners so far have all been male electrical engineering graduate students. Suozzi Fellowship has been awarded to a female doctoral candidate from the University of Coimbra in Portugal. these fault-diagnostic techniques use only control variables and do not require extra sensors. i. Ribeiro’s essay identified nonisolated dc–dc converters as key powerconversion interfaces between small and medium wind and photovoltaic (PV) power-conversion systems and the dc telecommunication power supplies because they optimize the energy generation from renewable sources. Therefore. predicting malfunctions. For the first time since its commencement. data/Internet systems. and the 2012 fellowship went to Hamid Behjati of the Univeristy of Texas at Arlington. improving the converter design. Based on her doctoral thesis. the fault analysis has provided enough data for her to develop four novel fault-diagnostic techniques for the above-mentioned dc–dc converter topologies. but. sponsored by the IEEE International Telecommunications Energy Conference (INTELEC) executive committee and given in honor of the late Joseph John Suozzi. and bidirectional half-bridge dc–dc converters. both the analyses are the basis for optimizing the converter operation. preventing damages. and applying fault-tolerant strategies. Last year. Suozzi Fellowship Award. However.” As per Ribeiro’s essay for this competition. for Telecommunications. The dc–dc converters are comprehensively studied both under normal healthy operation and fault conditions such as the power switch open circuit. “the study of such faults is very important for preventing their potential destructive consequences. Her name is Eunice Ribeiro.2014.e. Ribeiro believes that self-diagnosing power converters incorporating this methodology will ease the introduction of fault-tolerant control strategies in the telecom power supplies. “A power switch fault might not result in the stoppage of equipment operation. Because the proposed faultdiagnosis method is easy to implement. video systems. satellite communications.2361445 Date of publication: 18 December 2014 42 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE Eunice Ribeiro. three-level boost dc–dc converters. has been presented to an electrical engineering graduate student whose proposed project is expected to make a significant difference in powering communications systems such as wireline and wireless systems. developing fault-diagnostic methods. Suozzi Fellowship in Power Electronics E very year since 2001. The complete list of winners is in [1]. developing simulation models. when not diagnosed in time. Also. it was Ankan De of North Carolina State University.1109/MPEL. But the 2014 winner has made history. and her research interests include electronic power converters.” says Ribeiro. its consequences can be far more devastating and can result in high repair costs or even complete replacement. According to Ribeiro. which increase cost and complexity and concurrently decrease the converter reliability.. three-phase interleaved dc–dc converters. the Joseph J.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® Member News Eunice Ribeiro Wins 2014 Joseph J. Ribeiro’s entry for this competition was “Fault Diagnosis in Energy Systems Digital Object Identifier 10. building fault-protection devices. unidirectional single-ended dc–dc converters.

applying nondisclosure agreegreat. Available: http://www. which is a costly proposal and takes up more space.” A grant of US$15. when would for a patent. says Ribeiro. Keep believing Patent Reviews <-k VC1 VC2 AND + - OR >k vPV Filter vPV (t) > vPV (t . Canada.000 was presented to Ribeiro at INTELEC in Vancouver. Reference [1] IEEE Power Electronics Society Web site. Ribeiro is a 2008 electrical engineering graduate of the Universidade de Coimbra. pitch for funding. where she is presently completing her doctoral work. so in making a ever. folio. Essentially. mason.1) iPV Filter iPV (t) < iPV (t . newness requirement. Traditionally. [Online].ieee-pels. A Member of the IEEE. invention will no longer satisfy the thus sacrificing the required secrecy. offers a cost-effective solution while using a reduced number of components. Her message to aspiring young girls is “Believe in yourself. Investors also often prefer to see patTrade secrets can be a valuable ents rather than trade secrets in the component of the company’s IP portstart-up company’s portfolio.1) PPV Filter PPV (t) < PPV (t . it may anybody ever want to it is probably too be necessary to disclose get a patent? late to apply for a information otherwise patent because the kept as a trade secret. and tradesecret law for over 35 years and is a graduate of the University of Virginia and George Washington University Law School. at that stage. based on reconfiguration and modularity. He currently practices with MacCord Mason PLLC of Greensboro. Angel and then. such as Fourier analysis or mean values. About the Author Art MacCord (amaccord@maccord______________ has practiced patent. North Carolina. Unlike redundancy. The strategy includes keeping Trade secrets may not be suitable for the product as a trade secret. trademark. but that can be December 2014 sus trade secret strategy and take the measures needed to implement the chosen strategy. there is a desire to use both conscious choice as to a patent verforms of protection. The proposed fault diagnostic techniques (Figure 1) do not deal with complex calculations. the proposed techniques incorporate basic mathematical calculations that can be easily implemented in common digital signal processors (DSPs) or field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) available in the market for PV or wind applications. 9) risky. fault-tolerant strategies are based on redundancy. copyright. Howments. in telecommunications power supplies. Ribeiro’s fault-diagnosis strategy. and start-up companies either.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® explains Ribeiro.com) ________ ]IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE 43 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® .org/ awards/suozzi-intelec-fellowship ________________ (continued from p. if and when venture capital investors the secret is refrequently refuse to sign If trade secrets are so vealed. and keep trying and you will be rewarded for your efforts. and companies should make a Often. she notes. which require relatively harder computational efforts and more processing time.1) S1Off AND Fault S2Off AND FIG 1 The proposed fault-diagnostic method incorporates basic mathematical calculations that can be easily implemented in common DSPs or FPGAs.

South Korea IEEE 9th International Conference on Power Electronics and ECCE Asia (ICPE–ECCE Asia) 7–11 September 5–6 June 20–24 September Daejeon. Quebec. Taiwan IEEE 2nd International Future Energy Electronics Conference (IFEEC) Digital Object Identifier 10. United States IEEE First International Conference on DC Microgrids (ICDCM) 3–6 May 14–17 June Chicago. Idaho. United States IEEE International Workshop on Integrated Power Packaging (IWIPP) Dearborn. United States IEEE International Electric Machines and Drives Conference (IEMDC) Aachen.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® Event Calendar 2015 Events 15–19 March 7–10 June Charlotte. Michigan. North Carolina. Japan IEEE International Telecommunications Energy Conference (INTELEC 2015) 1–4 November Taipei. British Columbia. United States IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo (ITEC) 10–13 May 22–25 June Coeur d’Alene.2360630 Date of publication: 18 December 2014 44 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . Switzerland IEEE 17th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE ECCE–Europe) 18–22 October 7–8 June Sydney. United States IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC) Atlanta. Canada 16th IEEE Workshop on Control and Modeling for Power Electronics (COMPEL) 1–5 June Seoul. Georgia. Illinois. South Korea IEEE PELS Workshop on Emerging Technologies: Wireless Power (WoW) Montreal. Australia IEEE Symposium on Sensorless Control for Electrical Drives (SLED) Osaka. Germany IEEE 6th International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG) 10–14 May Hong Kong IEEE 27th International Symposium on Power Semiconductor Devices and ICs (ISPSD) 12–15 July Vancouver. Canada IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE) Geneva.1109/MPEL.2014.

www.org/proceedings Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® .Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® Are you keeping up with technology— Or falling behind? You know how important it is to stay up-to-date with cuttingedge technology breakthroughs. it’s easy to get comprehensive coverage on key ideas and discoveries. From outlining new uses for existing technology to detailing innovations in a variety of disciplines. you’ll find the breadth of content and depth of knowledge that only IEEE can provide. Stay connected to technology—subscribe today.ieee. With Proceedings of the IEEE.

48) I have a colleague who really likes Maple and encourages me to give it a try. two terms as technical vice president. There are some problems that just seem to be solved best using a program to do the calculations. Simulink. the experimental results exactly matched our simulations. He is currently pursuing a Ph. org) __ ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . such as the direct and transposed forms of the digital filter used as a compensator. Mathcad has built-in programming functions.E. and checking it out is somewhere in my very long to-do list. so it is the right tool from time to time. systems and applications engineering. Presently. like my professors. and as a Chapter chair.S. We were also able to study the performance of the compensator with various bit lengths. Octave has most of the capability of MATLAB but at no cost. He has been an active volunteer with the IEEE Power Electronics Society. and technology development. As I understand. serving several years on the Administrative Committee.E. One area where MATLAB is really useful to me is control design using add-ons like the control toolbox. a power electronics consulting company. He has worked in product design. There is a version of Octave compiled for Windows.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® White Hot (continued from p.D.E. I do recognize its power and flexibility.white@ieee. About the Author Robert V. degree from Worcester Polytechnic Institute. At one time. At this point. which will be the topic for my next column. in- cluding some slightly chaotic behavior during extreme load transients. We used MATLAB and Simulink to study various algorithms and implementations. I generally use MATLAB when I need to solve a problem by writing a program. and I mainly use Windows. such as both the Bode and Nyquist plots.S.E. degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and an M. but I still find it a little difficult to use. The usefulness of MATLAB is extended when the graphical interface. With the design complete in MATLAB and Simulink. he is the chief engineer of Embedded Power Labs. ___________ is an IEEE Fellow and has over 30 years of industry experience as a power electronics engineer. I would write programs in C for more complicated engineering calculations. the client was able to directly generate a programming file for an FPGA. In one project. When we ran the converter using the digital controller in the FPGA. Maybe while I am still a student I should buy the student version and see how Maple works for me. He earned a B. is added to the mix. has been very useful to me in several projects. by talking about Simulink. I collaborated with a client on the design of a digital controller for a point-of-load converter. One drawback for me is that Octave is best on a Linux platform. degree in power electronics at the University of Colorado–Boulder. we have crossed the boundary from calculation to simulation. I have looked at Maplesoft’s Web site and have to admit it looks very interesting. 46 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE Also available for those who like MATLAB is the open-source program GNU Octave. White (bob. I know there are engineers that love MATLAB. The ease with which it can work with transfer functions and plot results in various ways. and I use those from time to time for small programs (like ten to 12 lines of code). Today.

ieee. Africa.plexim. Find out more–visit www.deantechnology. SALES CONTACT Walter Chalupa Associates Walter Chalupa United States. based on your full-time enrollment and degree programs. smaller colleges can subscribe to the same IEEE collections that large universities receive.com CVR 3 Plexim GmbH www.com +1 800 523 9478 5 CKE/Dean Technology www. A N D Y O U C A N A F F O R D I T . and wants students to have access to the information that will put them on the path to career success. Canada.com ___________ PAGE ADVERTISER URL PHONE CVR 2 Acopian Technical Company www.mersen. N O W T H E Y C A N H AV E I T .com 8 Mersen ep.2371092 YO U K N O W YO U R S T U D E N T S N E E D I E E E I N F O R M AT I O N .Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® Advertisers Index The Advertisers Index contained in this issue is compiled as a service to our readers and advertisers: the publisher is not liable for errors or omissions.com 7 Omicron Lab www.omicron-lab.PaytonGroup.com 15 Sun Yat-Sen University +1 954 428 3326 +1 301 841 7445 Digital Object Identifier 10.powersimtech.magna-power. Central & South America and Europe Sales Manager  Phone: +1 973 835 7015  Email: wchalupa@aol.com/lab 11 Payton Planar Magnetics www. Inc.com +1 800 981 8699 13 Magna Power Electronics www. www. although every effort is made to ensure its accuracy.1109/MPEL.irf. but at a lower price. IEEE RECOGNIZES THE SPECIAL NEEDS OF SMALLER COLLEGES.com/trial 3 Powersim. Now.2014. Asia.org/learning December 2014 ]IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE 47 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . Be sure to let our advertisers know you found them through IEEE Power Electronics Magazine.acopian.com +1 972 248 7691 CVR 4 International Rectifier www.

among others. the lengths are very limited and arithmetic just does not work. I also have a physical toolbox with tools like screwdrivers. while generally possible. Mathcad also has a symbolic solver. step by step.1109/MPEL. sheet metal worker. I laid out the blocks of the computations on the grid of the spreadsheet. I spent hours writing a C program to do a Monte Carlo analysis of a particular circuit.2014. auto mechanic. for the equations I ask it to solve symbolically. my first choice of software tool is a spreadsheet program. For example. I could then enter a new error value at the input of the compensator and watch. One thing I really like is entering equations the way they appear on paper. Many years ago. I find that using the various tools to format charts. (continued on p. however. and I am always on the lookout for an alternative. I also use my spreadsheet program to track the time I work on projects for clients. prepare invoices for clients. Mathcad is good for evaluating and plotting complicated equations and for equations with complex variables. It also has a pretty good solver. I have a Mathcad worksheet that solves for the leakage inductance.” It is not that a great tool turns a mediocre journeyman into a master craftsman. I have another kind of toolbox: a computer loaded with software tools. In this “White Hot” column as well as the next. and a soldering iron. I was able to precisely simulate the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation. and hand crimpers. rather than just accepting the program defaults. but no one can do their best work with inferior tools. I often turn to Mathcad.” With those lessons in mind this month. there are things it does not do well for me (like cryptic error messages). Today. which I have been using since Version 4.2360358 Date of publication: 18 December 2014 48 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE when I traveled. However. Calculations with complex numbers. White A Look in My Toolbox M y father held many jobs that required working with his hands: meat cutter. I still keep a trusty HP 32SII calculator on my desk. wire cutters. Very useful to me is the ability to easily make meaningful plots of data and results with my spreadsheet program. For basic numerical calculations. and maintain parts lists and bills of material. There is a lot I like about Mathcad. It does not get used as much as in the past because of easy access to computer-based calculation tools. this was a very easy way to get a good understanding of issues like integrator windup and numerical stability. are not as convenient or easy to do in a spreadsheet. although my spreadsheet program can format numbers as binary or hexadecimal. I also used to carry a 32SII with me Digital Object Identifier 10. He taught me some important lessons about tools. as the values updated through the calculation and storage elements. For quick number crunching. I do not get a useful result. As much as I like Mathcad. and welder. Recently. On my laboratory bench. but more often than not. I could do that analysis in a few minutes with a spreadsheet. magnetizing inductance. By carefully formatting the values as integers of fixed length. which ran on DOS. multimeters. I am going to talk about some of the tools in my engineering toolbox. The first lesson was “always to buy the best quality tools you can afford. For example. there are some calculations that do not work for me in spreadsheets. I have equipment like an oscilloscope. I actually have a couple of apps on my laptop that do a nice job of working with binary and hexadecimal numbers. Beyond basic engineering calculations. For me. I used my spreadsheet program to simulate a digital compensator. and effective turns ratio (coupling) of a transformer from some simple inductance measurements.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® White Hot by Robert V. 46) ]December 2014 Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® . The second lesson was “take care of your tools and your tools will take care of you. makes a huge difference in how easy it is for someone to understand the report or presentation. When a spreadsheet is not the right tool for a calculation. I am going to talk about the software tools I use for calculation and simulation. but now I have calculator apps on my smartphone. In my office.

plexim.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® electrical engineering soft ware THE SIMULATION SOFTWARE PREFERRED BY POWER ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS MODELING DOMAINS KEY FEATURES Electrical Fast simulation of complex systems Control Code generation Thermal Frequency analysis Magnetic Available as standalone program Mechanical or Simulink blockset Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page __________ carabinbackhaus.com/tri M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® .com se Get a free test licen al w w w.

5 4 1.3 1.4 3.4 2. Reliable MOSFETs Specifications Package PQFN 5x6 DirectFET Med.34 1.4 3.8 2.3 1.6 2 2.3 56 52 58 50 134 92 65 51 141 120 150 90 86 150 236 89 86 300 216 150 90 62 274 300 UÊ1ÌÀ>ʏœÜÊ.Can D2-Pak D2-Pak 7pin D-Pak TO-220AB TO-247 Features: BVDSS (V) ID @25°C (A) RDS(on) max @Vgs = 10V (mȍ) Qg@ Vgs = 10V (nC) 25 25 30 30 40 40 40 30 40 60 40 40 60 40 60 40 60 40 40 40 40 40 60 40 100 100 100 100 100 85 85 192 90 114 195 120 120 195 240 90 90 195 195 195 120 118 195 195 0.6 1.0 1.5 1.8 5.95 1.1 1.4 2.5 3.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® StrongIRFET™ Rugged.3 2.05 1.3 1.3 1.

-­œ˜® Part Number IRFH8201TRPbF IRFH8202TRPbF IRFH8303TRPbF IRFH8307TRPbF IRFH7004TRPbF IRFH7440TRPbF IRFH7446TRPbF IRF8301MTRPbF IRF7946TRPbF IRF7580MTRPBF IRFS7437TRLPbF IRFS7440TRLPbF IRFS7540TRLPbF IRFS7437TRL7PP IRFS7530-7PP IRFR7440TRPbF IRFR7540TRPbF IRFB7430PbF IRFB7434PbF IRFB7437PbF IRFB7440PbF IRFB7446PbF IRFB7530PbF IRFP7430PbF Uʈ}…ÊVÕÀÀi˜ÌÊV>«>LˆˆÌÞÊ Uʘ`ÕÃÌÀˆ>ÊµÕ>ˆwi` UÊ Àœ>`Ê«œÀÌvœˆœÊœvviÀˆ˜} Applications: UÊ.

com Distributors : ® THE POWER MANAGEMENT LEADER Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next Page M q M q M q MqM q THE WORLD’S NEWSSTAND® .ˆ˜}ʜÀÊœÌÃÜ>« UÊ >ÌÌiÀÞÊ*>VŽÃ for more information call 1.981.800.8699 or visit us at _________ www.irf. ʜ̜Àà UʘÛiÀÌiÀà UÊ1*UÊ-œ>ÀʘÛiÀÌiÀ UÊ".