Institut für Südasien-, Tibet- und Buddhismuskunde Universität Wien

 June, 
H B   H
Alexis Sanderson
Handout
Not to be quoted without the permission of the author
e Cakrasamvara/Śa
mvara
corpus:
.
.
. Mūlatantra: Herukābhidhāna, also called Cakrasamvara,
Laghuśamvara/Laghu.
.
samvara,
and Laghvabhidhāna
.
. Vyākhyātantras: Herukābhyudaya (only accessible in Tibetan; probably the earliest of these works; in some parts at least it is older than all the states of the
Herukābhidhāna now visible), Vajradāka
(drawing also on the Catuspī
Abhi.
. tha),
.
dhānottara, Yoginīsamcāra,
Caturyoginīsampu
.
. ta,
. Vārāhyabhyudaya, Samvarodaya,
.
Dākār
nava,
and Sampu
.
.
. ta
. (shared with the Hevajra)
Commentaries on the Herukābhidhāna:
. Four surviving in Sanskrit: by Jayabhadra, Bhavabhat.t.a, Kambalapāda, and
Śāśvatavajra (the last not yet accessible)
. Seven accessible only in Tibetan: by Bhavyakīrti, Devagupta, Durjayacandra,
Indrabhūti, Tathāgataraks. ita, and two Vīravajras
Major forerunners of the Herukābhidhāna, on which it draws: Sarvatathāgatatattvasamgraha,
Guhyasamāja, Sarvabuddhasamāyogadākinījālaśa
mvara.
.
.
.
Yoginītantras (/Yoganiruttaratantras) outside the Cakrasamvara
corpus, which are later
.
than the Herukābhidhāna, or probably so: Hevajra, Dākinīvajrapañjara,
Mahāmudrāti.
laka, Kālacakra, Mahāmāyā, Vajrāmrta,
Buddhakapāla,
Ca
n
damahāro
sa
.
..
. na.
.
Early Yoginītantra of uncertain relative date: Catuspī
. tha.
.
Some passages of the Herukābhidhāna and their sources:
Herukābhidhāna
. athāto rahasyam
. vaks. ye
samāsān na tu vistarāt
śrīherukasamyoga
m
.
.

rahasye parame ramye sarvātmani sadā sthitah. AbhU . param . . u lokes.  . trailokyam . vāmodbhavam . Sa v. dākinījālaśa mvaram . . rahasye parame ramye sarvātmani sadā sthitah. param . . . śāstram paramadurlabham . gatam dam tshig spyod pa’i mtshan nyid dang *samayācāralaks. jutvam . jagat sarvam . uttarād api cottaram . asau svayambhūr bhagavān eka evādhidaivatah. tris. Pauskara etc. u lokes. . . nādarūpam vini s krānta m . sukham . h. . sattvo . jāyate priye . manthyamanthānasamyoga. durlabham . tris.. Herukābhidhāna . .. u lokes. sukham asau hi svayambhūr bhagavān vīro dākinījālaśa mvaram .avigrahāc chāntāc chivāt paramakāranāt . . sarvabuddhasamāyogadākinījāśa mvara h.yon nas skyes pas byed pa yin *vāmodbhava. sarvabuddhamayah. Jayadrathayāmala. jagat sarvam . . Kubjikāmata . Herukābhyudaya . anam . u Cf. sacarācaram bhagodbhavam .ab: madhyamanthānayogena jñānāgnir jāyate kila yathā tathā mantrajāpadhyānādiyuktam . . sattvo vajrasattvah. t. Cf. . Picumata / Brahmayāmala samayācāragocarāh. Sarvabuddhasamāyoga . krāntā . VD.. sarvadākinīmaya h.sarvakāmārthasādhakam .c–: ’jig rten gsum na rnyed pa yin *durlabham . u g. durlabham . . samayācārapālanam Tantrasadbhāva mathyamanthanayogena r. nādarūpād vinis. tka . bhagamadhye layam . sambhavān . u ādimadhyāntasamsthitam . tris. . . Ādyayāgavidhipatala. adr. Cf. vajrasattvah.ab  . s. ere is nothing corresponding to .

ikām . tu madhyamottamachāgena gandhodasahitena tu Cf. padmasamyukta . svaretobindubhir buddhān vajrasattvāmś . atah.c: madhyamottamaśvāsena gandhokasahitena tu gulikām . pūjayen nitya kālaviśes. vat. samaye sadhāne caiva dravyālabhanakarmani . ca pūjayet darśanasparśanābhyām . Picumata . prāśayen nityam . dūtayah. madhyamottamaśvāsena gandhodakasahitena tu kulikām . kathayāmi mahādevi yat tvayā coditam . antargatena manasā kāmasiddhim . tantre nigaditam . ca pūjayet Guhyasamāja . . tu bhavayet . sahajā vīravandite . suvrate . śr. pūjākālaviśes. . . dvayendriyaprayogatah. and Herukābhyudaya . Abhidhānottara . cakram . prāśayen prājñah.ikām . : antargatena manasā kāmaśuddhim . . tasyaiva dūtayah. mucyate sarvapāpais tu Sarvabuddhasamāyoga darśanasparśanābhyām . *balam (?) yogaś caiva vidhijñānam . ca bhāvayan svaretobindubhir buddhān bodhisattvāmś . svavajram m . atah. vidhis tathā jñānam . . sarvapāpair vimucyante  . pūjākāle viśes. tu sadā yojyam . carvāhārena . . svaretobindubhir buddhān Sarvatathāgatatattvasamgraha .c yāgam . siddhā adhamottamamadhyamāh. vidhānam .cd: madhyamottamaśvāsena gandhokasahitena tu vat. kārayed dhīmān. siddhāh. ca śravanasmara nena ca .in the Herukābhyudaya’s version. sahajāh. ca śravane smara nena ca . ena . nu . ca śobhanam . yogam .

v: yogitvam .a: samayān pālayen nityam ubhayārthaphalepsayā Picumata . evam eva na samśaya h. – . Very common in the Śaiva scriptures. . Svacchanda . e term dīksāma n. except in Guhyasiddhi . paramam .–. t. Sarvabuddhasamāyoga ..havaktrābhyām . k . .ham . where the context is Śaiva rather than Buddhist Man.d *sarvocchis. f. dalam is standard in Śaiva texts.arasāyanam sarvavajrā˙nkacihnadhr. and Timirodghātana f. āman. pāpanāśanam . k (?) g.d *savajravāmacihnadhr. somapānavad āsvādya . ganamadhye pratis. srin lag dang ni mthe bo’i rtses lehayed yogavit sadā . ca tattvadhr. t. especially in the Picumata. var.a rang gi lha yi sbyor ldan pas / . dale siddhir avāpyate . sakarpūram . sidhyate japan mantram .a rang gi lha yi rnal ’byor ldan anāmā˙ngus. r: samaya pālayen nityam ekākārapadāsthitam sādhakah. pāpanāśanam . tu na dīks. Cf. t. tu tshogs kyi dbus su bzhag pa ni . : pūjyante Ed. .yon pa mtshan ’dzin rdo rje bcas madhu raktam . jāpena dhyānena ca samayān pālayen nityam .arasāyanam ra sa ya na kun slong ba . t.) sarvasiddhibhih. . sakarpūram .havaktrābhyām . k  .*yujyante (em. Cf. tam bhaved etat sarvvasiddhipravartakam . mantram . tathā yoginyo vīrādvayasamāpattisamāpannam . . Matasāra.c *somapānavad āsvādya zhi ba’i btung pa bzhin myangs na *siddhim āpnoti śāśvatīm rtag pa’i dngos grub thob par ’gyur siddhim āpnoti śāśvatīm pañcāmr. . t. dala . etat te paramam . It occurs nowhere else to my knowledge in Tantric Buddhist literature. t.han tu . pavitram .ab: samayām pālayet sarvvā˙n khānapānavisarjitām. raktacandanayojitam . catuhpūjā m . punya . *mahāraktam . . . dmar chen dang ni ga bur bcas *raktacandanayojitam . initiation. susamāhitah. bhedena samayānām . pavitram .b *anāmā˙ngus. tsa ndan dmar por byar ba dag *ganamadhye pratis. m . Only in the version in the Abhidhānottara: sarvocchis.

divyamānus. atha homavidhim . atha kāyatrayam . yadā bhavati sādhakah. ye śrīherukādvayayogatah. tadā jñānam pravadāmy aham || . m . • Herukābhidhāna . m . vaks. | tadā sambhoga m . . dīk r tya vajraka nikayā . which covers the Herukābhidhāna’s treatment of the initiation ceremony. For this parallel (Herukābhidhāna . sidhyante nātra samśaya . | . | tadā nirmānakāya m pravadāmy aham || . probably early in the th century: Herukābhidhāna . –. Śaiva Yoginīsamcāra . | . dharmakāyaśarīrānā m yadā bhavati sādhaka h. m . . . yatām . m> . u vā ādisiddhaśmaśāne ca tatra man. . ye avaśyam. yadā bhavati sādhakah.–. • e last section of the Herukābhidhāna as known to the earliest commentators. vāmahastena homayet Picumata . vāmahastena homayet  .es. śrīherukamāhātmānam h. nirmānakāyaśarīrā nā . śubham . < Jayadrathayāmala. saukhyam pin. .–. dala . pravartate . . .. pravadāmy aham || . tka . . surayālodya . sidhyate nātra samśaya . sambhogakāyaśarīrā nā ..– . || . yena samyag vidhānena āśu siddhih. . daśīm . . kalām nārghanti s o . • e only substantially Buddhist passage in the main body of the Herukābhidhāna: . vaśyakarmana . || . jñānasambhoganirmā na samāpnoti na samśaya h. . surayālodya . m . dalam ālikhet . pp. see S .es. . Sa . girigahvaraguhyes. | yena vijñātamātrena h. gomāmsa< . .. u mahodadhitat. u mahodadhitat. gomāmsa .–). h. u ca ādisiddhe śmaśāne vā ālikhen man. girigahvarakuñjes. . .. . . vaks. Yoginīsamcāra .

hīvanam . sadyoccāt. aih. param Cf. svakāyād ghr.c svecchāyus. anāt . nimbakās. kat. udramānus.hīvanam . svadehodvartanam . m . ’nekarūpadhr. nīyate . avadhūtena mantravit . trailokyam kar s. śakro ’pi vaśam āyāti kim . dantakās. tam udgīrya svakeśair homayen narah. . o mahāyogī krīdate . sadya-m ākars. ana . akr. keśaih. te rātrau kros.ukam . t. .utailena samyukta m . sadyas tv ākars. k . o sitā madhuh. chardirājikāgr. vāmahastena hotavyam . ayet ks. kākapaks. t.c nis. m . tasamyukta .d krīdate . o mahāyogī divyarūpadharo bhavet . o mahāyogī . . . mān. homayec cailam . sadya vidves. mudga mās. t. dhatūrakendhanair dīpte sadyoccāt. . keśaih. tathā nāmnā madyāktahomena trailokyam . āh.hāgnisamdīpte . svakeśair homayed budhah. . . a sagomadhu . t.ham . ca bhojanam . rajasvalāyā raktena bhuktodgīrna . . homayed balikriyā . t. . nis. nimbakās.hendhanair dīpte vahnau vidves. ghr. mānus.cd adhikāyu kus. punah. ’nekarūpadhr. . akr.anam uttamam .anamāranam . tam udgīrna . tathā . tathā . japamantrakr. āh. te home dhuttūrāgni samāhitah. m . hatamālapatrair mukhabandhanam . svakāyād ghr. . m . param kākapaks. . vaśam ānayet dantadhāvanam ādāya gokīt. ana . . yad icchet siddhim ātmanah. m . .ab: svecchāyus. ks. da . mukhabandhanam  . dantakās. ahomabalikriyā japen mantrakr. r: sadya-m utkramayet tanum .cd svecchāyus. ca bhojanam samyukta m mānu s. punah. r: sadya-m-utkrāntikārikā. ks. nāmnā madyāktahomena trailokyam . t. . da . aih. . f. t. chardirājīkr. param . Niśvāsaguhya f. t. bhaks. k Cf. to lepas trailokyam . ana m . buddho ’pi vaśam āyāti kim . gomāyumāmsamadyena . vaśam ānayet . ana .d svadehodvartanam .goraktam m . . m . te home mūtratailāktasamyuta m .c gomāyumāmsamadyena .arudhiram . te rāve kros. samyukta m . .uko nipate ’gratah. rajasvalāyā raktena bhuktodgīrna . m . m . mān. mudga mās.ham . āvikāmuktakus. tenāktam . udramānus. param .

sthiracalātmakam . Bha. Perhaps the text was first extended only up to this point. . same point (. yathoddis.cd: . | śrīherukamatiś cāyam es. ..     . athāparam .. śrutimān loke sarvam .hādi yoginī | śrīherukasyā˙ngā˙ngam . . matyopaks. gavadgītā .ham . .taprakāra m tu bāhyādhyātma m vicintayet. sarvatoks.. has also been incorporated (with some revision.–b.thati. . surdurjayā | dura˙ngameti melāyām acalasyopamelaka m || . todbhava . –: .. . .b). Here the text as known to the earliest commentators (Jayabhadra and *Bhavyakīrti) ends. . . āvrtya ti s thati. . p. beginning from . tatas tu sādhayet siddhīh. pīt. chandoham abhimukhī caiva upacchandoham . romukham | sarvatah. nipādādya . t. hitārthāya guhyatattvam udāhr. śrutimal loke sarvam āvrtya Subhāsitasa mgraha. . | śrīherukamahāyogam . . .: sarvata h pā nipāda m tat sarvatok siśi. ll. . sarvatoksiśiromukham | sarvatah.c–. a adhyātmabhūmayah. pravaks. | sarvata<h> śrūyate loke sarvam āv r tya ti s t hati || . . . || . . etrakam || . . Part of this passage. prabhum || . sarvata<h> m . sarvakāmeśvaram . .. . . Vāyupurā na . .b is found in Abhidhānottara .–b and ab > Sampu . sthiracalātmakam || .svecchakārī bhaved yogī yatra tatra vyavasthitah. śmaśānam . Cf. ere too the incorporated passage ends at this . .ham muditābhūmau papī t. . • e st chapter: In the rnam thar of Tilopā ascribed to Mar pa Chos kyi blo gros Jñānadākinī and . u pātāle vīrā˙ngam .ab > Sampu . . . . pullīrādi yathoddis. daśapāramitābhūmau mlecchā bhās. . sādhumatī caiva dharmameghopaśmaśānakam . • e passage from . todbhava . tis. . etram . sarvā˙ngam . Kūrmapurāna . || ... prabhākarī jñeyā arcis. dhyānayuktena cetasā | sādhakānām . tam || . tathā | ks. iśiromukham . antu yoginī | svarge martyes. . . her retinue are said to have taught Tilopā the fifty-first Pat. yāmi bhūmi pīt.ala together with the oral  . vimalam .. śrīśamvare ’py āha: sarvatahpā m. mainly the omission of the cruxes) in the Buddhist Yoginīsamcāra . pānipādānta . to .am bāhyādhyātme sa msthita m . .. . Śvetāśvataropani sad ..

ttim . yah. nivasanam pañcamudrādi gātrasya prajñā˙ngam . || . tapūrna . dayo . tka .transmission (ed. yathā bhān. . yāmi sarvayogiprasādhanam | yāgamantrasamopetam . e. ). . amr. pakaravyagrā nānādhvajapatākinam || . trailokye khecarīpadam. e rnam thar of Nāropā attributed to the twelfth-century author lHai’i btsun pa rin chen rnam rgyal says that Nāropā studied and mastered the Mūlatantra of Śamvara (bDe mchog) in fifty chapters. . | tatah. t. . itau | . nu .c–: śr. kālam . Kriyākalagunottara f. yoginījālaśamvaram | yena vijñātamātrena . . . kālam . .. divam yayau.g. sudvijo vāpi sarvavidyārthapāragah.cd: sarvapāpaviśuddhātmā gacchec ca paramām gatim. ca labhate bhūmi janmani janmani || . | tathā pāpam ca naśyati śrīheruketi nāmata h || . sarvapāpaviśuddhātmā tāthāgatīm . air nānāgītopahāratah.: tena punyaphalenaiva svargaloke mahīyate | svargalokāt paribhras. da . | mr.o rājā bhavati dhārmikah. . kīla pañjaram | ālikālīti-m uccārya hetvādiśūnyapūrvakam || . Sarvatathāgatatattvasamgraha §: sarvapāpaviśuddhātmā sarvaśuddhyā karoti sah. Mahā. japtvā vyomaśivasya tu | sarvapāpaviśuddhātmā kr. . . śrīherukādivīrā yoginī | nānāpus. .. | . kālāt ks. which misunderstands this as referring to the Abhidhānottaratantra. : gsungs nas rtsa rgyud le’u nga gcig pa bshad rgyud dang bcas pa dang snyan rgyud gnang ngo). sudurlabham | gopanīyam s. m . mahākavacena samrak | . ya imām dhyāyate nitya m sarvakāmeśvara ks. devi pravaks.  | yathā pūrvādipāpasya hīno sarvalaks. Jayadrathayāmala. | .  Cf. naśyati bhān. cyutikāle tu yogīnām . || . sampravak s. Śivadharma . samācarati narah. anai .. itam || . bhārata . svādhyāyalekhanāt | svargabhogam avāpnoti athavā cakravartinam . Niśvāsamukha . See .cd: sarvapāpa. prāpya rājā bhavati dhārmikah.c–b: pañcavi mśa sahasrāni . m . . śivalokam See. e expression is also common in the Epic and Purānas. . . dhyāne cintitamātram vā pāt. . Sa . . sa gacchati. . sa . ghr. . Niśvāsaguhya . the translation of G (. ttinādamādīni yāvat samhārayogata h.  Picumata . . dravate sarpih. Niśvāsamukha . | surūpah. athātah. . viśuddhātmā brahmalokam ca gacchati. gacchati. C . sarvakāryāni karmo ’yam iti bhāvena sidhyati. .cd: sarvapāpaviśuddhātmā rudraloka m . sa gacchati. Nātyaśāstra . t. r: sarvapāpaviśuddhātmā śivalokam . and . . etac caturdaśa tattvam sa mk s epe na tu bhā s itam || . . ya sarvamantrenārcanam . || . yati. h. tyur nāma vikalpasya nīyate khecarīpade ||  Cf. dravantam .ab:  . śres. h.hah. tasevo bhavis. nānātūryanirghos.: maheśvarasya carita m ya ida m sa mprayojayet | sarvapāpaviśuddhātmā .ham . p. . yāmi āmnāyam . . .. p. . Kūrmapurā na . pravr. mayā tantre vīrasamketabhā . rudraloke vyavasthitah. tu hastapūjābhisecanam . . sthāpitam agnimadhyake || . itim . s.c–: krīdate paramam . tathāgatakulotpadya rājā bhavati dhārmikah.cd: sarvapāpaviśuddhātmā dehatyāge . tāpyāyanivr.

tulayitvā tu na nindyā<t> sarvalaukikam | acintyo gatis tes. sambuddhā<s> tatsutā api || . . ām acintyo buddhanāt. is is where the text ends in the only currently accessible manuscript (Baroda. sarvavīrasya yoginyah. MS Acc. m . . are found elsewhere in the corpus only in the Yoginīsamcāra (YS) and the Samvarodaya (SU): . .cd: tatrārūdha .d. . palm-leaf. śrīherukamahārājam bhāvayeta parama m pada m || .. .akam . t.c--b. anmāsād utpataty eva sādhakah. . . || . Maharaja Sayajirao University.    . sadā bhavet || • . anutpāde pi vā sthitah. . . a nāham . yo jñātvāpi abhaktitah.hālamk . | . | jānanti te mahātmānah. . . incomplete. . smartavyācintyadharmmatā || . jānāmi dharmatām . . ity evam . h. | . Oriental Institute. | nānānayavineyānām . . . Dvayasampattivārtika cd: mārge nānena sa msiddhā labhante yoginīpadam. .isamhārakārakā h.c-b. . . || . . Kut. khecarīpadam. deva mahāvīra yoginyo bhuvi durlabham | • Verses from the remainder of the text.hikācūdakeyūra m .   . . according to all commentators other s. || .  . . ca | gauryāpatim samākramya vajragha n t ā˙ n gali˙ n gitam || . gambhīradharmanirdeśe nādhimuktir bhaved yadi | pratiks. . plaved devi praharāt khecarīpadam. t. śrīherukamahātantram . kan. ‘Herukavidhānatantra’. tasya nityam .d >SU .ab = . .ila script. dala . . | dāridryam du hkhasantāpa m . . caturvimśena sārdha sa myukta m vīrayoginiv r. taśiromālā mekhalāghurghurāravaih. || . t. r. YS . evam . sattvāś caryā nānāvidhoditāh. girimastakakiñjalke viśvapadmālikālyam . ddhivivarjitā || . nātra me vis. | dharmatā sarvadācintyā hānivr. sūtram kriyābhicaryā nā m yogaguhyan tu bhedatah.  . . nānādhimuktikāh. utpādam api buddhānām . .  . sattvāvatāranaśīla m tu tatra tatra ratā iva || . sa pars.. ayo hy es.c to the end. t. . Vāmanadatta. kun. undated). from . . . s. ndakaih. nānopāyāni darśitāh. anmadhye yogavān | sarve tus. .c--b = YS .ab. . brahmasūtrakam | kan. epo na kartavyam .-- >SU .ā vai bhūtā sr.

In Les sources et le temps. History rough Textual Criticism in the Study of Śaivism.than Jayabhadra and Bhavyakīrti. Publications du département d’Indologie . revised by Prajñākīrti [b. pp. pp. S´´ . vol. e Śaiva Age: e Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period. b. ––-. –. r–v. In Genesis and Development of Tantrism.ha is presented on pp. Review of G . –. . ––-. In Buddhism Into the Year . ] and Mar pa Chos kyi grags pa). University of Tokyo). Rgyud ’bum. –. ff. the Pañcarātra and the Buddhist Yoginītantras. –. –. and in the Tibetan translation (bDe mchog nyung ngu: Derge Kanjur. – January . Vajrayāna: Origin and Function. e dependence of the Buddhist Mantranaya on Śaivism is treated on pp. International Conference Proceedings (Bangkok and Los Angeles: Dhammakaya Foundation). P´eter-D´aniel. cycle on texts of the Śiva Vidyāpīt. edited by François Grimal. A Colloquium.  . edited by Shingo E (Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture. pp. . . Alexis. and evidence of the textual dependence of the texts of the Cakrasamvara . pp. ka. – of this publication. Sources and Time. B S. Pondicherry. Tantric Studies . Pondicherry: IFP / EFEO. by Padmākara and Rin chen bzang po [–].