Universality – no separation of church and state, association between religion and

power, community and polity is part of the religion. It is concerned with the whole of
life, not limited but a total jurisdiction.
Central – ultimate basis and focus for loyalty, religion is what united and
distinguished people from one group to another.
“Why The Arab World Turned Away from Science”
Islamic Art
Freud and The Middle East
Ch. 8 Retrun of Islam – Islam and the West
Hassan al banna – brother hood, educational, social, charitable and religious work.
1) Islamic Venice
2) Venice and the Islamic world
3)Venice and Islam: an allegiance of paradoxes
4. Hi Venice, it's Instanbul, can you send a painter?
5) Sultan Mehmet II invites Gentile Bellini to Istanbul
Understanding IslamicFundamentalism
164-187 Armstrong
Fundamentalism first established by jews and Christians, then Christians last, when
modernization occurs too quickly and religion and modern culture are not able to be
merged, resort to fundamentalism.
First began in US
Deep disappointment and with modern experiment, fear of religion being wiped out,
look to golden age for inspiration, radical and innovative in interpretation,
Highly critical of democracy and secularism, because emancipation of women is
hallmark of modern movement, they over emphasize agrarian gender roles.
Muslim fundamentalists are in tune with the rest of the worlds fundamentalists.
Mawdudi (founder of jamaat-I- Islam) – saw power of west as gathering to crush
Islam, declared jihad central tenant of faith (an innovation, he believed justified by
the emergency of the situation)
Sayyid qutb – influenced by mawdudi, at first a reformer like the rest but when he
was in concentration camp and saw brothers being tortured / killed decided that
religion and secularism can’t get a long, declared contemporary muslim society as
Separate from society (make hijrah( then engage in violent jihad
Taliban – discriminate against women, selective vision of religion (reflective of
education in madrasas),ethnic patriotism,
Western Europe transformed itself from 1200-1500
Industrialization + need for markets -> colonization
Implant “modernity” superficially, something that had taken hundreds of years to
develop on colonized countries
Only richest could get a western education and appreciate modern practice
Divide, people not content, cities very apparently confused as old town became
museum pieces and replaced by modern cities by foreigners w/ laws and ideals they
didn’t understand
European technology (modern army) was experienced as an assault to muslims

not people. secularism = brutal attack upon religion and the religious (Muhammad ali. rashidun were elected by a majority vote) Democracy was tainted in practice. massacred political opposition. Cvil war in Lebanon as a result Some countries elite adopted nationalism. traditional punishments. who set up jewish secular state with support of UN and internation community. made Egypt bankrupt tho Because british colony as a result (safeguard interests of European stake holders) Western dominance posed many questions. shurah – democracy. European colonization from late 18th century to 20th century Lost Palestine in 1948 to Zionists. led away from Sufism. but not by masses.3 mill acres of uncultivatble land. legitimacy. build 900 miles of railways. wanted to modernize fully Islamic state based on reformed shariah. even more succuesful – paid for suez canal. introduced new tech. although some terrorism acts. brought with im corps of scholars. and printing press. Pahlavi monarchs) Nationalism – unity of ummah is treasured. madrasah reform. People previously identified with religious terms. scientific lab. his friend Muhammad Abdu believed education was the answer (didn’t believe western institutions could be transplanted into middle east. Hassan al banna (1906-49) – muslim brotherhood. jamal abad al Nasser. ijmah.Napoleon occupied Egypt in 1798. this is a symbol of humiliation of muslim world at ahnds of western power Sultan Mahmud II (ottoman) tried to modernize before colonization: abolished janissaries. modernized army. political and social reform. library. Jamal al din (al afghani) – wanted to reform. Muhammad Iqbal (indian poet) – islam is more rational than any western system. marginalized ulama. arbritarily drawn kingdoms and republics = muslims not used to thinking in terms of nations. . Muhammad Ali (Egypt) made Egypt independent of istanbul. modern legal and constitutions based on traditionals Islamic ideas that ppl could understand. taking away their power Ulama became more insular and close minded against modernity Grand son ismail pasha. by 1948 – millions of members.> Saudi govt based on literal interpretation of the Qu’ran – women are shrouded and secluded. Islamic law promoted shurah (consultation. set up modern schools for boys and girls. now forced to establish common “nationalism”. Rashid Rida. western science and technology must go hand in hand with a spiritual reformation. irrigated 1. 156-164 Secular ideologies and formation of nation states led to 2 wars. wanted to cut british route to india. Wahaabi . Democracy –in islam it’s Allah who gives a govt. In muslim world. confiscated religiously endowed property. 23k peasants killed. abdu’s contemporary – reformer. just as murderous as religious bigotry. go back to days of ijtihad and adapt islam to modern world. consensus. create college where studenets could study modern sciences + fiqh. western countries proclaimed democracy for its own ppl but expected muslims to submit to cruel dictatorships after elections were rigged. Muslims blame their lack of spirituality and connection with the religion to be the cause of their demise. before religious groups were always autonomous.

earns respect through natural abilities Happy ending 1) Arabic influences on European Literature (BB) Arabic language is very rich in terms of its clarity. ban burqa (france). Othello / prince of morocco. and eloquence Quran was used as standard. Atm prefer to refer to them as immigrants and foreigners. but one must capitalize on that good fortune through vigilance and cleverness Open sesame phrase from it Morgiana – hero. making muslims feel at home. secular + religious literature. precision. romantic. anti-minaret (Switzerland). Netherlands far right politicians call islam facist. entertaining. politicians link islam to terrorism. Highly popular among Europeans . calm in face of danger. which took into account variety of social. deep prejudice against Islam Christianity vs Islam Lots of European countries taking anti – muslim moves . polite literature Arab history is based on isnad – quoting all available authorities and establishing their reliability Ibn khaldun – father of mother historiography and sociology.1)Muslims in Europe #2 Increasing number of muslims coming to Europe now Policies focus on security and counter terrorism. Racism – assume Muslims don’t share European values At the end of the day. Arab elements often confused with Persian and indian . strong. economic. Dantes divine comedy takes a lot of details from isra + miraj and work of other arab (ibn arabi) Yearning for exotic imagery and language among Europeans Literature is lasting legacy of arabs in the west Thousand and One Knights (Arabian Knights) – collection of stories. Ghazal traditions. Wrote muqaddimah. combating radicalization Muslims viewed as “the other” . clever. exciting. until something big happens Treated similar to way jews were treated in Germany Ali Baba and 40 thieves Man rises to poor by means of lucky break Poorest man can come across good fortune (not because of anyone else’s action. amusing. Muslims in Europe are a very small minority (3%) Need to be inclusive and cohesive. lots of great literature followed Qasidah – long point. cultural factors into history writing Shakespeare was obsessed with Arabism. Maqamat – assemblies of amusing anecdotes Belles-lettres.> persisted through 19 th century. right place at right time to discover the thieves secret). recounted incidences from the poets own life or of his tribe Scholars during Umayyad period make effort to record the poetry Golden age of Islamic culture/commerce under harun al rashid. loyal. 2) Muslims convert churches into mosques 3) Europe sees no problem and that's the problem Try to ignore the fact that muslims are increasing.

France – Security issues – increase police power in dealing with terrorism. UK and Netherlands – Netherlands has integration of newcomers act. Divinely revealed. Italy and Netherlands (. Also supposedly will allow for unmonitored growth of ultra-conservative strains of Islam. from jurists. and most people are not well versed in classical views on this. therefore legislative power of humans is limited in theory.5). Modern issue of muslims immigrating to nonmuslim lands. greater access to records. Germany – Turkey) Immigrated to fill low skilled labor positions – higher unemployment rates / poorer educational outcomes (?) Forced expulsion or political turmoil Multiculturalism – failure because it just leads to pockets of separated communities/institutionalization of difference. UK (1. formed an alliance Central Arabia – mid 18th century Tawhid Destroyed tombs of husayn in karbala and of holy men in medina Very literal interpretation of quran and Sunnah Leader excercised political will to enforce conformity External appearance and behavior expression of inward faith .5). gulliver’s travels 2) Immigration and Islam in Western Europe (BB) Nearly all muslims in Europe are either immigrants themselves or children of immigrants. helped by necessity (darura) 4 schools of thought developed Non muslims under muslim rule – dhimmis – enjoyed autonomy but limited in some regards to protect order of state / primacy of islam Debate over muslims in non muslim land. Islam and the West) Law is integral part of islam. But rulers and jurists over past 1400 years have had to come up with laws. Discussion is necessarily tied to immigration Most muslim immigrants are low-skilled laborers 9/11 – national security and immigration issues have increased France (4. Germany (3). but those views are representative of the views of their homeland. UK – south asia. No violence / female circumcision / honor killing Turks in Germany. independent judgement -need consensus (ijma). reasoning. eavesdropping / wiretapping 1)Muslim populations under Non-Muslim rule ( chapter 2. Overall minority in terms of percentage (less than 10% in every country) Common immigrant origin in each country (France – Morocco.Romance of adventure Provided new set of themes for literature – inspiried robinson crusoe. or below Issue of interpretation – analogy. etc. shows them vids of gay ppl / naked women . whether from govt. Do they have to migrate to muslim land? Whose laws do they obey. 2) The Wahhabi Movement in Saudi Arabia (BB): Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab – scholar of fiqh -concerned with jahiliya practices of people -protection from local chieftain muhmmad ibn saud. Unprecendented problem. pages 43-57.5).

-treats women as third class citizens. opposes political freedom/expression. denies Saudi citizenship to non muslims -inspired Isis. imposes veil. separation of sexes. dancing. outlaws celebration of prophet muhammads birthday. until a few decades ago denied them public education and banned them from radio and tv -does not work well with progressive ideologies. sects like shi’ism and Sufism. or other religions. driving cars). abhors smoking. denies them basic human rights (freedom of travelling without permission or mahram. bans movie theaters. afghans got support from Wahhabis again soviet union . spread in Afghanistan in 1979. singing.