Chronophobia: On Time in the Art of the 1960s by Pamela M.

Review by: James Meyer
The Art Bulletin, Vol. 88, No. 4 (Dec., 2006), pp. 781-783
Published by: College Art Association
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4 then. Giovanni Le vite de'pittori. of the Art History dispensed structuralism With New Chronophobia: On Time in theArt of the Mass. 2. For Communion.95 paper no insisted. important ichino affair? Giovanni the earliest Baglione. even and Artists. response of nineteenthand stepchild all the poor the of contemporary survey). images. Square East. that his readers will expectation re and appreciate the dialectical the recognize lation between text and model. Marino identified vously was thief intention inventions made of plagiarism charge ichino REVIEWS of to self explore . a evidently the fierce that dominated professional art the Roman the other once hand. seriously challenged" ing Domenichino's sions. of era's artistic once accounts and the Pablo of the 1960s of critical of practices. crazy the ver tory. (its very paradox slightly dubious name as much): to historicize the suggested ation: 1. and in fact plausibly pro in the last evolution could that the field's pose was decade instigated narratives Cambridge. the as a recovery This content downloaded from 202. he was. painting ing the refer of feature another of sort were the denuncia theft. dealers. was no authoritative perspective the historian Claude could write. objections longer a past was as legitimate topic of historical as any other. "the rules were as she would when. the Domenichino's rounding into the art historical altarpiece with literature the Domenichino on. regular rivalries scene. conditions meaning the proper To revealed. becoming of of her much have entered the on an for discussions de originality.3 its current and re art itself.BOOK words from with canonical established. a century raises a significance as Bellori's that the making the historical Bellori.41.: felt. (my transla tion) . predates hear no men for nearly half to have occurred bias away re too topics of the discipline. us who only for those of of sixteenthliterature and seventeenth-century Italy but for anyone as in imitation interested and innovation fundamentally synergistic forces texts cited to the the 1670s. around Marino sum and the of substance th?se exchanges?no contradic task. New York. of Domenichino's (and a writer biographers makes of and and attempt opposite noisseurs accused tions votes reflects marizes artist then (p. subvert the theory of imitation. tion of by Cropper none. it quickly publication a kind of canonical status. eyes By investigat in all its dimen handsomely sential reading to its extraordi study the not art and is es the book illustrated. Sculptors and Architects. as a identity field uncertain. prefer well-dis theft to imitation and proudly admit guised ted to stealing from a wide range of sources. the Last act of in a sense. a field without a field a protocols.. concerns the to haunt of the field. 12 Jan 2015 11:08:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions that started contemporary of modernism (Auguste now Matisse). exert an interpretative in other known family members un control happily To work with living fields. By openly category. and of art since Henri 1960s. PAMELA Pietro M. historical of sur of Bellori in 1672. at any Notes rate. whose inchoate personal contemporary aWild West prominence. $34. trans. (Rome. one area contemporary a more intense interest excited than any Within has the movements other: early One 1970s. are in con parameters chronological art felt to be contemporary flux. "true" history that historian's proper The recount. Domen against "I have unique: of sources. L?vi-Strauss 1960s 368 a contradiction. The or combinations ideas. pp. 100 Washington University 10003-6688]. gitimizing "theft" borrowing. 382 architetti. Domenichino cause because but be unfamiliar Romans. could such the of writing. Giovan and of and that it was the actual manifest history explicitly I think. it is supposed as to just how much question was attached to it at the time. 66 b/w ills. dialec "disciplined of plagia rancor at rism them more involved The the readers experience of art is accused not to claimed through work The always a that when 7gJ art history It was of contemporary emergence recent is a relatively phenomenon. it is due ill of it in any other able to speak being is indicative. and at times downright bal gamesmanship could get?and proposes easy notions of imitation ways of applying poetic to the visual arts."2 cannot the only time that one have been second in his literary closely achieved the semblance Domenichino affair. it. in general. on depends Lanfranco not theft of the work imitated Agostino's the borrowing thing borrowed. scandal. by giving two and contrast the versions of compare effect. . The one as is quickly by generation perceived historical prac by another (postmodernist tice is currently ripe for "historicization").1 Time alone.. not so long ago that tenure-track field were few and far between. art histo its nature is by There Rodin. 207). mentors matic mains was the Domen how Finally. stimulating ers the of her topic for the implications to and points study of art history generally con even its relevance for artists who today to with of author tinue concepts struggle vasia and Stendhal. Cropper to the after last chapter life of the episode. given how convoluted. Where the totems Picasso. Did Domen and originality ichino imitate or did he steal Agostino's idea? is contin the answer definition. merely acknowledg the Saint ferome as "a very beautiful in oil. off with 2004. to astonish in his effort and beguile his au as so much dience. he did not reject Thus. LEE time was art of one's The reservations. subscribed and institutionalized enrollments art no ceptual its integration. of them off the beaten many literary path. as took An hindsight work was at the out had a touchstone and imitation affair not it may cent. 385. a new main Cropper discourse critical arising between in large part from the literary battles She and Stigliani. continue history Despite proper whose stant a spe those on or con Pop a novel idea. held the artwork's fully even as she sophistication in for its critical argues compellingly place art history and theory. 2005). New York [303 Silver Center. with came as a form that history.2 from no the recent obtained. to it of commentators the responses examining and critics from Mal to Henry and Fuseli Crespi she consid coda. Domenichino's his framing tion. Graduate in other fields. importance set. The Lives of theModern Painters. sources. found hardly beautiful of passing off as his own mischie of others. to sully Domenichino's reputation a of by distributing printed reproduction work is likely to have had the Agostino's the con by introducing to Agostino's of Rome composi to them the opportunity tion. ship. is to enter practitioners namic without into established mains dy* For all re situ rules."1 Indeed. painting our she opens and beauty of ideas. as he even project of novelty.93 on Mon. by challenging out and identify his sources. at the conclusion perhaps. Luigi In a and ownership. 152). interpretative. or little-known from minor takes words with the the He himself with this his denying tic of imitation" to seek them he to envious [furto].95. theft book fascinating Cropper's one of those moments old their rian. this If his remark clearly way. MIT with reception.10. the (p. Louise make rice is associate professor of art in the Department of Fine Arts. as an act of le re imita who normally enjoyed no mention of a good scandal). his Ironically. 1649). But the precipitous rise study art history in recent of contemporary years to a demand. awareness which one Press. after sessment suggests. tropical. the current provide ground This is not the place definition. The the that fact incident that we in human creativity. From sumed dissertation would On controversy steered from in the jobs and prag be written history must "proper" sition of distance. scultori et Baglione. Elegantly produced nary students to be felt studies is above on focuses in the history of art have it. seems longer the exceed a dissertation twen is now modernist cialty. Alice Univer (New York: Cambridge Sedgwick Wohl sity Press. much of admired. $22. tains. Once a lecture art history (accorded tieth-century or two. NY. a po from a art history" appeared "contemporary a venture. By Marino's on or not whether Domenichino's audi gent was ence familiar status the for the fame he with of of accused the he imitated to most inaccessible of another ? work altarpiece..

posing "Quit The Air Time. xvi). time's unfolding self-awareness dissolves a reconciliation and Herbert Technology). glob art world is another the of connection point The and this one. one of a experience re of art and technology fiascoes number (1948). and others On Kawara. a cybernetic considerably during one is not a closed that is system entity but The demands feedback. and without of time that is constant sense conclusion. 259). We still inhabit the coming our own trou of the 1960s because horizon sense What Three nate form. contempo "being to this moment. was art and Op with the feminine Riley's The "Art and Ob made explicit. Affording conceptual impacts is prolep basis for interactivity. the veloped ciation and anxiety. during has been inextricably in the stories 1960s? 1960s? this sense invest the nects of "A tape loop" con moment and that (p. in 1969. is linear. Rainer comes to perceive of views. by anal a is equally and producer subject or her into the system receiver. imperatives seems not DECEMBER coincidental that Medalla the majority were children in the field scholars working nor its coincidence with students then). Lee we of our currents own this. open Beings and entity de in asso Kl?ver the another often Use was porate questionnaires RAND and Paper Wasting Force needs thinkers?where turns early-twentieth suitable of think defense sculptor rate with of commodity production. which move at a barely perceptible of Bachelardian are demonstrations pace. sped up. the past. multi the mainframe time and of to contain able this of forced Man summation along it altogether. previous a Bataillian Matta of Gordon book. rary" specific as such. Cage's metaphor To contemporaneity.6 writers lines. do respondent. being as a result of dramatic plied" advances technology?namely. experience reconstruct. the temporal Bergson and Gaston Bachelard. television. Bergson's or constant is of duration. facilitates Duration comprehen century still bled shape closes these com spread we are For of coupling of a dra in pessimism of the later dreams the productivist are cast aside. not a problem of contemporaneity The old. exemplified casts a much form. Chamberlain zlingly links between his future where associative. of Frankfurtian by E. Chamberlain's to you fit in?" dead. To my of contribution striking the most of her scope the Scientific and envisions science. likened John Cana by such critics to the passive. time of experience essay Revo which over its gestalt the course of this en counter.T. installed haplessly of hilarious. ordinarily lar interpretative mat.) chapter ric manufacturer jecthood" dash from This content downloaded from 202. questionnaire rather than one that demanded "an as cor questions. discon Her fine study of Bridget tinuity. Her account of John ing the tenure at the Southern Cali Chamberlain's "factory" and Chronophobia model?the to the the art of One lished is fragmented cannot grasp spectator within Somatic the piece. "Drop 19). that Lee Bury. "our contemporary recent (p. historian can more objectively the problem is ours alone. on an the work between hinges opposition of Jean Tinguely and Pol Bury and. and S?o Paulo. 12 Jan 2015 11:08:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions leads that the reader essay's famous in a breathless consideration .10. this of perpetual this feeling presentness. is potentially short the tank RAND. As pre of Human future the system's (the user can predict and recursive effect (the future loops A to impact back the current structure). to. to collabo efforts sculptor's company's employees At wit's end. of a move reconstruction Lee's is yet a third tendency. wisely the analysis. Bury's sculptures. Robert put the consider and treatments and of a temporal that epoch relay linking to the dual ambition the present of speaks a history is both Lee's project. tracing temporal in New York. of the current 1960s revival the political. her study con central problem a new of intersection old that moment between in their these cerns within of pacting than extend up in the the tell about we ation The 1960s and Michael Sculpture" bound the incipient Kawara. Lee claims. (As Lee points artists David of the nomadic her analysis wider fects all its disrup knowable: John the early and Trisha subject." replied disastrous (p. system folds together cybernetic tic form) loop. normally ex mass art For and their reception. past" the The tion temporal of our temporary" effects yet we observes. endeavors with mode an dis naught. art history's current (re globalizing impulse cent histories of contemporary and African art begin consider rather ment: 1960s). 231). grew the 1960s.93 on Mon. of time then. The viewer of one of Morris's speak malism its proliferation. in 1960s cannot because precisely in the streams "Standing inhabit as we happening relation to the (p. high art of kinetic her superb discussion ample. Studies of the of the the Pop. out a swers" Pol serial sented tactics in Weiner's 1960s The Human a book whose wrote counted The of formal analogy art. mind Hess day and Thomas of a feminine-coded numbing experience mass culture and Yorker cartoon." art and on is an science the by way 1959 C. narrative is daz style of Chronophobia Lee forges suggestive one would artists and thinkers or between works of equate. it the temporal Among is the models discussed by Lee recursion source most of chrono troubling?the deep To be "contemporary" disturbance. phobic is to suffer from since the 1960s. cybernetic and present. the is its deemphasis of the Minimal stable relatively temporality ist installation that has long dominated among As Pamela of Chronophobia. P. start from board for that weaves together connect. began is the approach of Chronophobia} modes domi rhetorical overlapping art history in its current contemporary mono The first is the "untraditional" is not surveyed the practice to finish but serves as a spring thematic The story interpretation. travel. a more proposes contemporary theory of Norbert cybernetic a more Weiner?as in Art Billy engineer in 1966. Lee delves Walter Benjamin of Snow's into the various pro applications time a time we can mentally fully. We them" Fried time" "real thinking. Chronophobia graphic ment an array of ef net. Lee ob serves: still live "The 1960s are endless. the global with which in of phenomena to terms. last decade are These I would in the of Morris 4 NUMBER and On alization (it of or Asian LXXXVIII models of Henri ogy. historicizing models these disciplinary of real time. explore know. tures that ask us to the imagine sculptor or a from metal tearing rolling particular a time we one moment to the next propose the period grasp we are in it: of contemporary cannot stabilize are we Acknowledging have would of one's Lee of Yvonne "con be center essays the discussion real tions.ART 782 BULLETIN 2006 VOLUME and psychological financial. (For Lee. concept the key to understanding moving Tinguely's fantastic whereas reliefs. reading entitled Clark's enterprise Object to Be De the current mono stroyed. It is about forty years chronopho is Lee's) bia of the 1960s (the neologism was less a fear of time than the of anxiety not im Rather shifts 4 Minutes geometric the proper a past we us of which lution. by Lee. Lee's our time" view is dif Time being was "fractured. change. Robert Rauschenberg estab and Technology program the Art is nothing how all of chronophobic 1960s the by with fornian its of Mini techniques the serial tactics allying (Experiments a New York-based at Tuchman by the curator Maurice of Art dur Museum the Los Angeles County same year. into of Marcuse's that devastating (1964).A.) equally of how the pulsing visuality Riley describes a queasy art elicited the painter's percep as tion. London. in art produced out in Paris. Lee relates is a cautionary tale. parodied the (When as such collector in a New and fab made up Larry Aldrich without dresses with Riley's designs printed of the association the painter's permission.41. Dimensional can sion. typically do. The archival artists also one would not a enlisting particu for is another approach. indeed. posal The unsettling. the work sculptures in a succession In the practices of Bridget Riley. in which graph. ferent: time. to." numerous to come. a rela art and at the respective "Art and Objecthood. input a this in turn.5 the nature of is it that our Why the raneity.) 1960s art is hardly debate of contempo and a half. and 33 Seconds. Snow's comparison: "The Two Cultures of critical "Notes limits matic performances and those early Richard Serra sculp Brown. cybernetics in a continuous came handed not influence endless. is to feel part subject. space and puter. Chronophobia of in time of art and Lee topos.

" in Rob ert Smithson: The Collected Writings. potentially of mere that the experience works of finite. james Notes 1. Smithson some find more 1960s. which places a stress on the 1960s." disrupting 1978). 1969).. terms. Caroline A. to make Burnham's por Jack and concludes aesthetics. literalist relational as Fried's prone and article Ad Jorge Luis to such Zeno. the aesthetic cal ground counter his reading. Atlanta. Jennifer L. 2001). Reinhardt. demonstrated. run aspects of the narrative interpretative the narrative's authority." trayal of "systems with Hans Haacke's early systemic projects. University. in the Studio: Constructing the Jones. temporality. don: Weidenfeld 1966). on the unfinished Smith's late-night joyride a ex New Jersey Turnpike. and Douglas Crimp. examples?suggests on Smithson's chapter The Infinities of As Lee main of Mind: How James to in his "Letter thinking with artist's engagement in his further developed of Fried's the Editor. traced a narra to Michael Heizer. bursts Eva Hesse. Mass. That mind up more is a sign opens Chronophobia it is able to answer tive power. Roberts. Machine Postwar American Artist (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1985) begins with Rodin and Picasso and con cludes with Sherrie Levine. 175-87. I refer toWhite's "proper history" and "metahistory.BOOK to the philosopher Stanley cinema and Rosalind of "presentness" Cavell's writings recent Krauss's Robert on notorious in his response to the Editor. The Short in Africa 1945 Century: Independence Movements 1994 (Munich: Prestel. of "real time" continues Robert Morris: An Aesthetics of Transgression D.: MIT Press. to Fried discussions Smithson's to the art critic to attack no plays needed the book's if Lee ran In a nutshell. this study reputation theoret art history it allows for the like none oth like Chronophobia. The Infi nite Line: Re-Making Art after Modernism (New Haven: Yale University Press. the philosopher as Donald and as the Tower icons Judd. 1977). was of lived the yet enough. Where "proper" history seeks to present a "pre of past cise and accurate reconstruction" "the explanatory and events. 30322]. See. the phenomenologi behind: tially Friedian en of his thought." Fried's in comparison. would make of than sustained late integral time of the to the "endless" time of Tony Sculpture").10.Alexander Alberro.: MIT Press. for example. Recent narratives of 1960s art and its contemporary salience in clude Thomas Crow. 257-62.C. claiming. "Notes on Sculpture" (1966) and Michael Fried. recent writing in the area feels lum much in To read Lee's elec bering comparison. the writing of inspired we leave the "Art and Objecthood. of Babel Museum. (Lon and Nicolson. Passages inModern Sculpture. With her estimable consolidates efforts Lee as one of the field's numerous to do. how the artist transfig the critic's horror of endlessness ured into of practice?the writings the films of and Virginia Woolf. that elicited Fried's the Minimalist sculpture system. modernist the dis work. Robert Rauschenberg's of the homoerotic censorship subject matter of his work. (Buffalo. Krauss's tive from Rodin The Originality of theAvant-Garde and Other Mod ernist Myths (Cambridge. The Rise of the 1960s: Amer ican and European Art in an Age of Dissent (Lon don: Lawrence King. particular The Wall: Reshaping Contemporary Chinese Art Art Gallery. "A Sedimentation Joyce Dziga Vertov few celebrated the wise. theory of history. Mortality Guggenheim dox are among the text's other themes. Gregory Battcock ton. as well as White's in analysis of this position Tropics ofDiscourse. we have commentators left something are essen 7g3 Press. as opposed previous one could ask? innovation.7 as he did sonized Fried. This content downloaded from 202. Chronophobia of sources enlists all manner and evidence REVIEWS Meyer is associate professor of art at Emory University and Robert Sterling history Clark Visiting Professor at Williams College. Conceptual Art and thePolitics of Publicity (Cam bridge.Y. Mass. 2004) . to such The gorical a architec and and the para core of Smithson's alle narrowing feels counterintuitive. 2003).: Albright-Knox 5. cussion of time to Fried's Lee two models between account: from the real indebted thread The essay thought. tween The Savage Mind 2. art felt paltry tains. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University be distinction 52. that instigated As an interpretative study. tural that chapter in recursive time Lee's study than questions of its interpreta with fresh overflows and unexpected perceptions conjunctures. Jack Flam of California Press. afraid If contemporary leaps. "Letter to the Editor. Yet we to the linked inextricably the world the white beyond to remember do well that the art of Donald and Morris. 1968). the "bad Roberts Jennifer is the foundation this to that earthly has recently of Smith he Smith In a word. History Department. Rosalind Krauss. ed. uncannily that the real time of the Minimal reflection. 2005). "Art and Objecthood" inMinimal Art: A Critical An (1967).. Mirror Travels: Robert Smith son and History (New Haven: Yale University Press. of of Space" places the Waning a few quotations by Weiner so as to elaborate the Kubler. 4. (Berkeley: University 67. Emory Ga." he wrote. Robert Smithson. to cite a and Charlie Chaplin. ed." in Art afterModern ism: Rethinking Representation. together. 12 Jan 2015 11:08:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . a field-in-progress. as explored by the art historian Jonathan Katz in a series of sensitive readings. Smithson's contemporaries and Lucas Samaras. 1973). reprinted (New York: Dut thology. Okwui Enwezor. Artforum. Krauss. N. of fresh narratives er?ideally.: Corcoran Gallery of Art. else everyone nearly he wrote with a dialectical about. that Fried perversity of endlessness Smith's tale Tony tacks saw in his own Fried at ("What Michael Lee gives us is. 2004). 1996). ed. (Washington. in History. 8. and Briony Fer. See Claude L?vi-Strauss. 222-35 and 116-47. on great and George claim introduced Well other "Quasi and stress is a fascinating collision of sensi Projects." When for that of pure realm of perception theory.41. 2004). and Gao Minglu. time of much satiric and precedes tenure as that. "Pictures. The refusal to grant permission duction of images is among the field's most insuperable barriers." in "Interpretation Tropics of Discourse: Essays in Cultural Criticism 6. 55-57. [Art Carlos Hall.93 on Mon. 7. son's mirror with in the Fried construed Smithson Earth infinity" of entropie endlessness humankind's postdates prophecy the state come. Passages inModern Sculpture (New York: Viking Press. Brian Wallis of Contemporary (New York: New Museum Art. he is what Smithson's perceived ist scenario time cube. to make trailblazing practitioners. in metahistory . intuitive remains possibility a nimble is to experience one that is not tric prose ical mind. and Judd Caro of Anthony practices and Jules Olitski. to bracket the practices its case. for the repro 3. as "theatrical" (the part to Morris's "Notes on perception Fried described text that shifts of a Minimalist his the "Art and Objecthood" in order a different of Friedian aspect through to open up will Readers arguments to is "chronophobia" specific cen twentieth and early twenty-first to moments of turies." as further in Metahistory: The Historical developed inNineteenth-Century Europe (Balti Imagination more: Johns Hopkins University Press. all his own. Hayden White.)8 a Fried who Fried. 1996). Robert Morris. The discussion in Annette Michelson. is an egregious example of this." theory of art as a social "Letter Luhmann's Niklas to of medium. 1984)." Lee recounts bilities. It is as part in this narrative. technological is that a sta The book's implicit assumption to the ble grasp of time reigned prior others. allusions?to Borges. spatiotemporal so so in perience extraordinary.