Srinivasa Ramanujan
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"Ramanujan" redirects here. For other uses, see Ramanujan (disambiguation).

In this Indian name, the name Srinivasa is a patronymic, not a family name, and the person should be referred
to by the given name, Ramanujan.

Srinivasa Ramanujan


22 December 1887
Erode, Madras Presidency (nowTamil Nadu)


26 April 1920 (aged 32)
Chetput, Madras, Madras
Presidency (now Tamil Nadu)


Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu





Alma mater

Government Arts College
Pachaiyappa's College


G. H. Hardy

Known for

Landau–Ramanujan constant

J. E. Littlewood

Mock theta functions
Ramanujan conjecture
Ramanujan prime
Ramanujan–Soldner constant
Ramanujan theta function
Ramanujan's sum
Rogers–Ramanujan identities
Ramanujan's master theorem

G. H. Hardy

Srinivasa Ramanujan FRS (

pronunciation (help·info)) (Tamil: ஸ்ரீனிவவாஸ ரவாமவானுஜன; 22 December 1887 – 26

April 1920) was an Indian mathematician and autodidact who, with almost no formal training in pure
mathematics, made extraordinary contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series,
and continued fractions. Living in India with no access to the larger mathematical community, which was
centred in Europe at the time, Ramanujan developed his own mathematical research in isolation. As a result,
he sometimes rediscovered known theorems in addition to producing new work. Ramanujan was said to be a
natural genius by the English mathematician G. H. Hardy, in the same league as mathematicians such
as Euler and Gauss.[1] He died at the age of 32.
Born at Erode, Madras Presidency (now Tamil Nadu) in a Tamil Brahmin family of Thenkalai Iyengar sect[2][3]

Ramanujan's introduction to formal mathematics began at age 10. He demonstrated a natural ability, and was

given books on advanced trigonometry written by S. L. Loney that he mastered by the age of 12; he even
discovered theorems of his own, and re-discovered Euler's identity independently.[5] He demonstrated unusual

The Ramanujan Journal. He joined another college to pursue independent mathematical research. was launched to publish work in all areas of mathematics influenced by his work. and also declared 2012 the National Mathematics Year.[7] Nearly all his claims have now been proven correct.1 Attention from mathematicians o 2. in recognition of his contribution to mathematics. the mathematical mainstream has been rather slow in absorbing some of his major discoveries. [10] In December 2011. and possibly liver infection in 1920 at the age of 32. Ramanujan died of illness.[6] In 1912–1913. malnutrition. such as the Ramanujan prime and theRamanujan theta function. He became aFellow of the Royal Society and a Fellow of Trinity College.[11][12] Contents [hide] 1 Early life 2 Adulthood in India o 2. he sent samples of his theorems to three academics at the University of Cambridge. [9] However. but lost it when he failed his non-mathematical coursework. H. [8] He stated results that were both original and highly unconventional. Cambridge. and these have inspired a vast amount of further research.1 Illness and return to India o 3. winning accolades and awards. working as a clerk in the Accountant-General's office at the Madras Port Trust Office to support himself. recognizing the brilliance of his work. G.2 Contacting English mathematicians 3 Life in England o 3. an international publication. Ramanujan independently compiled nearly 3900 results (mostly identities and equations). invited Ramanujan to visit and work with him at Cambridge. During his short lifetime. Ramanujan had conducted his own mathematical research on Bernoulli numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni constant. although a small number of these results were actually false and some were already known. Hardy. the Government of India declared that Ramanujan's birthday (22 December) should be celebrated every year as National Mathematics Day.2 Personality and spiritual life . By 17.mathematical skills at school. Ramanujan received a scholarship to study at Government College in Kumbakonam.

2 Ramanujan's notebooks 5 Ramanujan–Hardy number 1729 6 Other mathematicians' views of Ramanujan 7 Recognition 8 In popular culture 9 See also 10 Notes 11 Selected publications by Ramanujan 12 Selected publications about Ramanujan and his work 13 External links o 13.1 Media links o 13.1 The Ramanujan conjecture o 4.4 Mathematical achievements o 4.2 Biographical links o 13.3 Other links [edit]Early life .

Ramanujan performed well. to attend pujas at the temple and particular eating habits – all of which are part of Brahmin culture. From her. [15] They lived in Sarangapani Street in a traditional home in the town of Kumbakonam. His family enlisted a local constable to make sure he attended school. his mother took care of him as a child. [19] Since Ramanujan's father was at work most of the day.[16] He moved with his mother to her parents' house in Kanchipuram. On 1 October 1892. In November 1891. Ramanujan was born on 22 December 1887 in Erode. With his scores.[20] At the Kangayan Primary School. [18] Ramanujan and his mother moved back to Kumbakonam and he was enrolled in the Kangayan Primary School. and he tried to avoid attending. [19] When his paternal grandfather died. he stood first in . who died less than three months later. Tamil. When Ramanujan was a year and a half old. Komalatammal. Within six months. Ramanujan had smallpox and recovered. The family home is now a museum. He learned to sing religious songs. his mother gave birth to a son named Sadagopan. near Madras (now Chennai). he passed his primary examinations in English. [17] In March 1894. Ramanujan was enrolled at the local school. Just before the age of 10. who were now living in Madras. In December 1889. but both children died in infancy. worked as a clerk in a sari shop and hailed from the district of Thanjavur.[13] His father. After his maternal grandfather lost his job as a court official in Kanchipuram. he was sent back to his maternal grandparents. his mother gave birth to two children. in November 1897. K. at the residence of his maternal grandparents. he was moved to a Telugu medium school. and again in 1894. geography and arithmetic. Kumbakonam. Madras Presidency (now Tamil Nadu). Srinivasa Iyengar. He did not like school in Madras. unlike thousands in the Thanjavur District who died from the disease that year. he learned about tradition and puranas.Ramanujan's home on Sarangapani Street.[14] His mother. Ramanujan was back in Kumbakonam. He had a close relationship with her. was a housewife and also sang at a local temple.

[23] He completed mathematical exams in half the allotted time. Loney. he tried (and of course failed) to solve the quintic. Carr. L. Without a degree. heading towards Visakhapatnam and stayed in Rajahmundry [31] for about a month.[35] After the marriage. he had exhausted the mathematical knowledge of two college students who were lodgers at his home. Kumbakonam.[28][29] However. By 14. he had independently developed and investigated the Bernoulli numbers and had calculated Euler's constant up to 15 decimal places. losing his scholarship in the process. a village close to Marudur (Karur district) Railway Station. an abnormal swelling of the tunica vaginalis. Iyer introduced Ramanujan as an outstanding student who deserved scores higher than the maximum possible marks.[24][25] The book was titled A Synopsis of Elementary Results in Pure and Applied Mathematics and was a collection of 5000 theorems.[26] The book is generally acknowledged as a key element in awakening the genius of Ramanujan. [26] The next year. He was later lent a book on advanced trigonometry written by S. Ramanujan was shown how to solve cubic equations in 1902 and he went on to find his own method to solve the quartic. [23] He received a scholarship to study at Government Arts College. At this point in his life. Ranganatha Rao prize for mathematics by the school's headmaster. not knowing that the quintic could not be solved by radicals.[30] In August 1905. The following year. In 1903 when he was 16.[5][22] He completely mastered this book by the age of 13 and discovered sophisticated theorems on his own.[21] That year.[23] When he graduated from Town Higher Secondary School in 1904. he was receiving merit certificates and academic awards which continued throughout his school career and also assisted the school in the logistics of assigning its 1200 students (each with their own needs) to its 35-odd teachers. Ramanujan was married to a ten-year old bride. Ramanujan reportedly studied the contents of the book in detail. he lived in extreme poverty and was often on the brink of starvation. Ramanujan developed a hydrocele testis. [33] [edit]Adulthood in India On 14 July 1909.the district. S. Ramanujan obtained from a friend a library-loaned copy of a book by G.[21] By age 11.[34] She came from Rajendram.[36] The condition could be treated with a routine surgical operation that would .[32] He later enrolled at Pachaiyappa's College in Madras. Ramanujan was awarded the K. he left college and continued to pursue independent research in mathematics. he ran away from home. and showed a familiarity with geometry and infinite series. Ramanujan entered Town Higher Secondary School where he encountered formal mathematics for the first time. Ramanujan was so intent on studying mathematics that he could not focus on any other subjects and failed most of them. an internal membrane in the testicle.[27] His peers at the time commented that they "rarely understood him" and "stood in respectful awe" of him. He again excelled in mathematics but performed poorly in other subjects such as physiology. Janakiammal (21 March 1899 – 13 April 1994). Krishnaswami Iyer. Ramanujan failed his First Arts exam in December 1906 and again a year later. Ramanujan's father did not participate in the marriage ceremony.

persisted with Ramachandra Rao and tried to quell any doubts over Ramanujan's academic integrity.A.[37] After his successful surgery. Ramanujan replied that he needed some work and financial support. to "hand these [Ramanujan's mathematical notebooks] over to Professor Singaravelu Mudaliar [the mathematics professor at Pachaiyappa's College] or to the British professor Edward B. but in January 1910. Ramanujan mentioned a correspondence he had with Professor Saldhana. of the Madras Christian College. He feared for his health. which Rao said ultimately "converted" him to a belief in Ramanujan's mathematical brilliance. [43] Ramaswamy Aiyer sent Ramanujan. and even told his friend."[39] After Ramanujan recovered and got back his notebooks from Iyer. had his work published in the Journal of Indian Mathematical Society.[42] Ramanujan. V. [42] Some of these friends looked at his work and gave him letters of introduction to R. Ramanujan. a notable Bombay mathematician. he tutored some students at Presidency College who were preparing for their F.[44][45][46] Ramachandra Rao was impressed by Ramanujan's research but doubted that it was actually his own work. and his theory of divergent series. in which Saldhana expressed a lack of understanding for his work but concluded that he was not a phony. hypergeometric series. As Ramaswamy Aiyer later recalled: I was struck by the extraordinary mathematical results contained in it [the notebooks]. Ramaswamy Aiyer. Rajagopalachari. To make some money. Ross.[40][41] [edit]Attention from mathematicians Ramanujan met deputy collector V. a coastal city under French control. I had no mind to smother his genius by an appointment in the lowest rungs of the revenue department. who had recently founded the Indian Mathematical Society. Ramanujan was sick again. with letters of introduction. and he listened as Ramanujan discussed elliptic integrals. [38] In late 1910. Radakrishna Iyer. His family did not have the money for the operation.[48] One of the first problems he posed in the journal was: . Ramachandra Rao. to his mathematician friends in Madras. Rao consented and sent him to Madras. Ramanujan searched for a job. showed him his mathematics notebooks. He stayed at friends' houses while he went door to door around the city of Madras (now Chennai) looking for a clerical position. Rao agreed to give him another chance.[47] Ramanujan's friend. the district collector forNellore and the secretary of the Indian Mathematical Society. with the help of Ramaswamy Aiyer. He continued his mathematical research with Rao's financial aid taking care of his daily needs. possibly as a result of the surgery earlier in the year. C.release the blocked fluid in the scrotal sac. R. [47] When Rao asked him what he wanted. he took a northbound train from Kumbakonam to Villupuram. a doctor volunteered to do the surgery for free. exam. wishing for a job at the revenue department where Ramaswamy Aiyer worked.

and I beg to apply for the same.[52] In early 1912. Ramanujan wrote: Sir. (ii) the denominator of Bn contains each of the factors 2 and 3 once and only once. however. unaccustomed to such intellectual gymnastics. [54] .He waited for a solution to be offered in three issues. Using this equation. could hardly follow him. He also devised a method of calculating Bn based on previous Bernoulli numbers. he formulated an equation that could be used to solve the infinitely nested radicals problem. he got a temporary job in the Madras Accountant General's office. In a letter dated 9 February 1912. Ramanujan's methods were so terse and novel and his presentation so lacking in clearness and precision. I have passed the Matriculation Examination and studied up to the F. two corollaries and three conjectures. One property he discovered was that the denominators (sequence A027642 in OEIS) of the fractions of Bernoulli numbers were always divisible by six. On page 105 of his first notebook. that the ordinary [mathematical reader]. At the end. I can say I am quite confident I can do justice to my work if I am appointed to the post. over six months.[49] Ramanujan wrote his first formal paper for the Journal on the properties of Bernoulli numbers.[50] Ramanujan's writing initially had many flaws. [53] Toward the end of that assignment he applied for a position under the Chief Accountant of the Madras Port Trust. I understand there is a clerkship vacant in your office. but failed to receive any. In his 17-page paper. (iii) is an integer and consequently is an odd integer. I therefore beg to request that you will be good enough to confer the appointment on me. One of these methods went as follows: It will be observed that if n is even but not equal to zero. but was prevented from pursuing my studies further owing to several untoward circumstances. T. Ramanujan supplied the solution to the problem himself. Ramanujan gave three proofs. As Journal editor M. Narayana Iyengar noted: Mr. with a salary of 20 rupees per month. "Some Properties of Bernoulli's Numbers".A. (i) Bn is a fraction and the numerator of in its lowest terms is a prime number. the answer to the question posed in the Journal was simply 3. He lasted for only a few weeks. I have.[51] Ramanujan later wrote another paper and also continued to provide problems in the Journal. been devoting all my time to Mathematics and developing the subject.

he lacked the educational background and foundation needed to be accepted by mathematicians. returned Ramanujan's papers without comment. Ramachandra Rao and E. who wrote that Ramanujan was "a young man of quite exceptional capacity in Mathematics". Middlemast.[60] On 16 January 1913. Compared to Ramanujan's work on integrals.[55] Three weeks after he had applied. and some ability". and was derived from a class of functions called a hypergeometric series which had first been researched by Leonhard Euler and Carl Friedrich Gauss. Ramanujan easily and quickly completed the work he was given. Ramanujan's boss. H. Coming from an unknown mathematician. the nine pages of mathematics made Hardy initially view Ramanujan's manuscripts as a possible "fraud".[61] Hardy recognised some of Ramanujan's formulae but others "seemed scarcely possible to believe". so he spent his spare time doing mathematical research. [edit]Contacting English mathematicians In the spring of 1913. One mathematician. commented that Ramanujan's papers were riddled with holes. M. Grade IV accounting clerk. Middlemast tried to present Ramanujan's work to British mathematicians. a colleague who was also treasurer of the Indian Mathematical Society. W. Narayana Iyer. Hobson. making 30 rupees per month. W. Hardy found these .[62] One of the theorems Hardy found so incredible was found on the bottom of page three (valid for 0 < a < b + 1/2): Hardy was also impressed by some of Ramanujan's other work relating to infinite series: The first result had already been determined by a mathematician named Bauer. Ramanujan wrote to G. W. and S. Ramanujan learned that he had been accepted as a Class III. a mathematics professor at the Presidency College.[59] The first two professors. [57] He said that although Ramanujan had "a taste for mathematics. Narayana Iyer. on 1 March.Attached to his application was a recommendation from E. Ramanujan drafted letters to leading mathematicians at Cambridge University. F. The second one was new to Hardy. Baker and E. encouraged Ramanujan in his mathematical pursuits. he did give thorough and serious professional advice on his work. Hardy. Sir Francis Spring. M. With the help of friends. Hill of University College London. [56] At his office. H.[58] Although Hill did not offer to take Ramanujan on as a student. J.

[66] On 8 February 1913. a former mathematical lecturer at Trinity College. Hanumantha Rao. [69] Meanwhile. a man of altogether exceptional originality and power". the mathematics student of Madras University”.[71] As a result of Walker's endorsement. asking his . to take a look at the papers.[68] In accordance with his Brahmin upbringing.[65] One colleague. E. I had never seen anything in the least like them before". Ramanujan refused to leave his country to "go to a foreign land". later commented that "not one [theorem] could have been set in the most advanced mathematical examination in the world". Ramanujan continued to submit papers to the Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society. whom Ramanujan had met a few years before. In one instance. if they were not true. [72] The board agreed to grant Ramanujan a research scholarship of 75 rupees per month for the next two years at the University of Madras. B. "I have found a friend in you who views my labour sympathetically. Ramanujan sent a letter packed with theorems to Hardy."[70] To supplement Hardy's endorsement. Ramanujan.results "much more intriguing". Hardy wrote a letter to Ramanujan. Narayana Iyer submitted some theorems of Ramanujan on summation of series to the above mathematical journal adding “The following theorem is due to S. Hardy also added that it was "essential that I should see proofs of some of your assertions". E. expressing his interest for his work. urging him to spend time at Cambridge. looked at Ramanujan's work and expressed amazement. Hardy concluded that the letters were "certainly the most remarkable I have received" and commented that Ramanujan was "a mathematician of the highest quality.[64] Hardy asked a colleague. J. British Professor Edward B. [64] He figured that Ramanujan's theorems "must be true.[67] Before his letter arrived in Madras during the third week of February. because. a mathematics professor at an engineering college. Ramanujan". invited Ramanujan's colleague Narayana Iyer to a meeting of the Board of Studies in Mathematics to discuss "what we can do for S. Gilbert Walker. Littlewood was amazed by the mathematical genius of Ramanujan. stormed into his class one day with his eyes glowing. Neville. writing. Later in November. Littlewood. Ross of Madras Christian College. H.[63] After he saw Ramanujan's theorems on continued fractions on the last page of the manuscripts. no one would have the imagination to invent them". Cambridge. Secretary Arthur Davies of the Advisory Committee for Indian Students met with Ramanujan to discuss the overseas trip. After discussing the papers with Littlewood. Hardy commented that the "[theorems] defeated me completely. Hardy contacted the Indian Office to plan for Ramanujan's trip to Cambridge.[73] While he was engaged as a research student.

Neville.[76] Neville asked Ramanujan why he would not go to Cambridge. Ramanujan formulated generalisations that could be made to evaluate formerly unyielding integrals. Working off Giuliano Frullani's 1821 integral theorem.students. Ramanujan had anticipated the work of a Polish mathematician whose paper had just arrived by the day’s mail. E. H. Hardy enlisted a colleague lecturing in Madras.[75] Hardy's correspondence with Ramanujan soured after Ramanujan refused to come to England. Ramanujan's mother had a vivid dream in which the family Goddess Namagiri commanded her "to stand no longer between her son and the fulfilment of his life's purpose". as Neville put it.[66] Ramanujan then set sail for England. to mentor and bring Ramanujan to England. “Does Ramanujan know Polish?” The reason was that in one paper.[74] In his quarterly papers. [edit]Life in England Ramanujan (centre) with other scientists at Trinity College .[66] Apparently. "Ramanujan needed no converting and that his parents' opposition had been withdrawn". Ramanujan drew up theorems to make definite integrals more easily solvable. leaving his wife to stay with his parents in India. Ramanujan apparently had now accepted the proposal.

He became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1918. Ramanujan moved out of Neville's house and took up residence on Whewell's Court.A. but there were many more results and theorems to be found in the notebooks. Hardy tried his best to fill the gaps in Ramanujan's education without interrupting his spell of inspiration. Hardy remarked that this was one of the most unusual papers seen in mathematical research at that time and that Ramanujan showed extraordinary ingenuity in handling it. Neville took him to his house on Chesterton Road in Cambridge. He was elected "for his investigation in Elliptic functions and the Theory of Numbers. becoming the second Indian to do so." On 13 October 1918. he was elected to the London Mathematical Society. whereas Ramanujan was a deeply religious man and relied very strongly on his intuition. Ramanujan was awarded a B. Hardy saw that some were wrong. others had already been discovered. and at 10 o'clock in the morning. he became the first Indian to be elected a Fellow of Trinity College.[77] He arrived in London on 14 April. beliefs and working styles. the first part of which was published as a paper in the Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society. Their collaboration was a clash of different cultures.[82] . Four days later. [79] Ramanujan left a deep impression on Hardy and Littlewood. with E. Cambridge. Littlewood commented. [78] Hardy and Ramanujan began to take a look at Ramanujan's notebooks. Hardy and Ramanujan had highly contrasting personalities.S."[81] Ramanujan spent nearly five years in Cambridge collaborating with Hardy and Littlewood and published a part of his findings there. the ship departed from Madras. just a five-minute walk from Hardy's room. and he was one of the youngest Fellows in the history of the Royal Society. following Ardaseer Cursetjee in 1841. Trinity College.Whewell's Court. After six weeks.[80] while Hardy said he "can compare him only with [Leonhard] Euler or Jacobi. Cambridge Ramanujan boarded the S. While in England. Ramanujan immediately began his work with Littlewood and Hardy. Nevasa on 17 March 1914. [citation needed] On 6 December 1917. The paper was over 50 pages with different properties of such numbers proven. degree by research (this degree was later renamed PhD) in March 1916 for his work on highly composite numbers. "I can believe that he's at least a Jacobi". Neville waiting for him with a car. Hardy was an atheist and an apostle of proof and mathematical rigour. Hardy had already received 120 theorems from Ramanujan in the first two letters. while the rest were new breakthroughs. H.

Narasimha.B. Young concluded that it was much more likely he had hepatic amoebiasis.[84] and claimed to dream of blood drops that symbolised her male consort." [86][87] Hardy cites Ramanujan as remarking that all religions seemed equally true to him. unless it represents a thought of God. Janaki Ammal. a dignified man with pleasant manners. but once diagnosed readily cured. perhaps exacerbated bystress and by the scarcity of vegetarian food during the First World War. and obsessively involved with his mathematics. [edit]Mathematical achievements In mathematics. Namagiri of Namakkal. he remarked on Ramanujan's strict observance of vegetarianism.[83] He lived a rather Spartan life while at Cambridge. "An equation for me has no meaning. It is said that Ramanujan's discoveries are unusually rich and that there is . He looked to her for inspiration in his work. [6] a difficult disease to diagnose. He had two episodes of dysentery before he left India. [35] A 1994 analysis of Ramanujan's medical records and symptoms by Dr.[6] [edit]Personality and spiritual life Ramanujan has been described as a person with a somewhat shy and quiet disposition. Ramanujan's first Indian biographers describe him as rigorously orthodox. not practice—by Indian biographers. moved to Mumbai. living in a country far away from home. Ramanujan returned to Kumbakonam. Ramanujan credited his acumen to his family Goddess. Ramanujan's health worsened in England. At the same time. where she lived until her death in 1994. He was diagnosed with tuberculosis and a severe vitamin deficiency and was confined to a sanatorium. Ramanujan's talent suggested a plethora of formulae that could then be investigated in depth later. When not properly treated. there is a distinction between having an insight and having a proof. [88] Hardy further argued that Ramanujan's religiousness had been romanticised by Westerners and overstated—in reference to his belief. after which he would receive visions of scrolls of complex mathematical content unfolding before his eyes. where Ramanujan had spent time.A. D. His widow. dysentery can lie dormant for years and lead to hepatic amoebiasis. S. Madras Presidency in 1919 and died soon thereafter at the age of 32.[edit]Illness and return to India Plagued by health problems throughout his life. a parasitic infection of the liver widespread in Madras.[85] He often said. but returned to Chennai (formerly Madras) in 1950.

He was sharing a room with P. Ramanujan thought about it and gave the answer with a twist: He gave a continued fraction. As a by-product. One of his remarkable capabilities was the rapid solution for problems." Ramanujan replied.often more to them than initially meets the eye. Truncating the sum to the first term also gives the approximation for π. The unusual part was that it was the solution to the whole class of problems. C. I asked myself. new directions of research were opened up. 396=4×99) and is related to the fact that Compare to Heegner numbers. such as . Mahalanobis was astounded and asked how he did it. The minute I heard the problem. "Imagine that you are on a street with houses marked 1 through n. There is a house in between (x) such that the sum of the house numbers to left of it equals the sum of the house numbers to its right. Examples of the most interesting of these formulae include the intriguing infinite series for π. Ramanujan's series for π converges extraordinarily rapidly (exponentially) and forms the basis of some of the fastest algorithms currently used to calculate π. which is correct to six decimal places. Which continued fraction. what are n and x?" This is a bivariate problem with multiple solutions. If n is between 50 and 500.[89][90] His intuition also led him to derive some previously unknown identities. "It is simple. which have class number 1 and yield similar formulae. Mahalanobis who had a problem. Then the answer came to my mind. I knew that the answer was a continued fraction. one of which is given below This result is based on the negative fundamental discriminant d = −4×58 = −232 with class number h(d) = 2 (note that 5×7×13×58 = 26390 and that 9801=99×99.

in 1937. In particular. the connection of this conjecture with conjectures of André Weil in algebraic geometry opened up new areas of research. and gives some deep identities for the hyperbolic secant. It was finally proven in 1973. but they are now known to be the holomorphic parts of harmonic weak Maass forms. Worked on some of the interesting magic square [edit]The Ramanujan conjecture Main article: Ramanujan–Petersson conjecture Although there are numerous statements that could bear the name Ramanujan conjecture. . as a consequence of Pierre Deligne's proof of the Weil conjectures. That Ramanujan conjecture is an assertion on the size of the Tau-function. Expanding into series of powers and equating coefficients of . was able to refine their formula to find an exact convergent series solution to this problem. Hardy and Ramanujan studied the partition function P(n) extensively and gave a non-convergent asymptotic series that permits exact computation of the number of partitions of an integer. Berndt. In 1918. This is probably the origin of the misperception that Ramanujan was unable to prove his results and simply thought up the final result directly.[92] For many years these functions were a mystery. there is one statement that was very influential on later work. called the circle method. Mathematician Bruce C. where is the gamma function. Hans Rademacher.for all . Ramanujan recorded the bulk of his results in four notebooks of loose leaf paper. in his review of these . which has as generating function the discriminant modular form Δ(q). Deligne won a Fields Medal in 1978 for his work on Weil conjectures.[91] He discovered mock theta functions in the last year of his life. a typical cusp form in the theory ofmodular forms. The reduction step involved is complicated. These results were mostly written up without any derivations.[93] [edit]Ramanujan's notebooks Further information: Ramanujan's lost notebook While still in Madras. Ramanujan and Hardy's work in this area gave rise to a powerful new method for finding asymptotic formulae.

notebooks and Ramanujan's work. was rediscovered in 1976 by George Andrews. These were produced from scanned and microfilmed images of the original manuscripts by expert archivists of Roja Muthiah Research Library.[6] Notebooks 1. Using a slate was common for mathematics students in the Madras Presidency at the time. H. which stated results without proofs. S. the so-called "lost notebook". Mumbai. Ramanujan would do most of his work and perhaps his proofs on slate. The second notebook has 256 pages in 21 chapters and 100 unorganised pages. Wilson. but chose not to. with the third notebook containing 33 unorganised pages. This was a photocopy edition of the original manuscripts. TIFR republished the notebooks in a colored twovolume collector's edition. N. 2 and 3 were published as a two-volume set in 1957 by the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR). says that Ramanujan most certainly was able to make the proofs of most of his results. it is possible that Ramanujan considered his workings to be for his personal interest alone. The results in his notebooks inspired numerous papers by later mathematicians trying to prove what he had found. [94] The first notebook has 351 pages with 16 somewhat organized chapters and some unorganized material. and Bruce Berndt. M. Finally. in his own handwriting. as part of the celebrations of the 125th anniversary of Ramanujan's birth. Hardy regarding a visit to the hospital to see Ramanujan. In Hardy's words:[95] . Hardy himself created papers exploring material from Ramanujan's work as did G. Since paper was very expensive. Watson. B. He was also quite likely to have been influenced by the style of G.[94] A fourth notebook with 87 unorganised pages. India. Chennai. In December 2011. and therefore recorded only the results. [edit]Ramanujan–Hardy number 1729 Main article: 1729 (number) The number 1729 is known as the Hardy–Ramanujan number after a famous anecdote of the British mathematician G. Carr's book studied in his youth. This style of working may have been for several reasons. and then transfer just the results to paper.

" [97] He also stated that he had "never met his equal. beyond that of any mathematician in the world. stated that over the last 40 years. we quote Bruce C. Littlewood 30. to orders unheard of.“ The two different ways are 1729 = 13 + 123 = 93 + 103.. J.[98] "As for his place in the world of Mathematics. Srinivasa Rao. during a lecture at IIT Madras in May 2011. Hardy gave himself a score of 25. intuition. Coincidentally. and had indeed but the vaguest idea of what a function of a complex variable was. of which he was entirely unable to give any coherent account... Berndt of the University of Illinois. [edit]Other mathematicians' views of Ramanujan Hardy said : "The limitations of his knowledge were as startling as its profundity. Generalizations of this idea have created the notion of "taxicab numbers".'" Professor Bruce C.[96] When asked about the methods employed by Ramanujan to arrive at his solutions. Berndt: 'Paul Erdős has passed on to us Hardy's personal ratings of mathematicians. Suppose that we rate mathematicians on the basis of pure talent on a scale from 0 to 100. Hardy said that they were "arrived at by a process of mingled argument. and can compare him only with Euler or Jacobi.."[97] Quoting K.. David Hilbert 80 and Ramanujan 100. and induction. Here was a man who could work out modular equations and theorems. 1729 is also a Carmichael number. who had found for himself the functional equation of the zeta function and the dominant terms of many of the most famous problems in the analytic theory of numbers.. whose mastery of continued fractions was. and yet he had never heard of adoubly periodic function or of Cauchy's theorem. as I remember on .".E.

It is celebrated by the Department of Mathematics by organising one-. every year 22 Dec. as a native of Tamil Nadu.nearly all of Ramanujan's theorems have been proven right. His achievements were to be fully understood much later. [edit]Recognition Further information: List of things named after Srinivasa Ramanujan Ramanujan's home state of Tamil Nadu celebrates 22 December (Ramanujan's birthday) as 'State IT Day'. whose great mathematical findings were beginning to be appreciated from 1915 to 1919.K. research scholars. he stated Ramanujan's work was now pervading many areas of modern mathematics and physics.[101][102] Since the Centennial year of Ramanujan. his work on the highly composite numbers (numbers with a large number of factors) started a whole new line of investigations in the theory of such numbers. two-. Nigeria and elsewhere. For example. noted physicist Jayant Narlikar spoke of "Srinivasa Ramanujan. or three-day seminars by inviting eminent scholars from universities/colleges. well after his untimely death in 1920. and participants are mainly students of mathematics." During his lifelong mission in educating and propagating mathematics among the school children in India. is celebrated as Ramanujan Day by the Government Arts College. A stamp picturing Ramanujan was released by theGovernment of India in 1962 – the 75th anniversary of Ramanujan's birth – commemorating his achievements in the field of number theory.[100] and a new design was issued on December 26. Kumbakonam where he had studied and later dropped out. Further. by the India Post. discovered by the Cambridge mathematician Hardy. 2011. and professors from local colleges. It has been planned to celebrate the 125th birthday in a grand manner . there had been a greater appreciation of Ramanujan's work and brilliance. P.[92][99] In his book Scientific Edge. Srinivasan has continually introduced Ramanujan's mathematical works. memorializing both the man and his achievements.

2011. around Ramanujan's birthday.[103] Dr Manmohan Singh also declared that the year 2012 would be celebrated as the National Mathematics Year. Madras in Chennai. having nevertheless still achieved many accomplishments. Ramanujan's work and life are celebrated on 22 December at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT). The Department of Mathematics celebrates this day by organising a National Symposium On Mathematical Methods and Applications (NSMMA) for one day by inviting eminent Indian and foreign scholars. in cooperation with the International Mathematical Union. This prize has been awarded annually since 2005. A prize for young mathematicians from developing countries has been created in the name of Ramanujan by the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP).' The declaration was made by Dr. 22 December. as 'National Mathematics Day. [edit]In  popular culture A film. is being made by Edward Pressman and Matthew Brown with R. The age limit refers to the years Ramanujan lived. based on the book The Man Who Knew Infinity: A Life of the Genius Ramanujan by Robert Kanigel. and Bruce C Berndt. at an international conference conducted by SASTRA in Kumbakonam. Manmohan Singh in Chennai on December 26. Madhavan playing Ramanujan.by inviting the foreign eminent mathematical scholars of this century viz. December 22. who are very familiar with the contributions and works of Ramanujan. India declared the birthday of Ramanujan. On the 125th anniversary of his birth.[104] . has instituted the SASTRA Ramanujan Prize of $10. which nominate members of the prize committee. Science. Ramanujan's hometown. Technology & Research Academy (SASTRA). based in the state of Tamil Nadu in South India. The Shanmugha Arts.000 to be given annually to a mathematician not exceeding the age of 32 for outstanding contributions in an area of mathematics influenced by Ramanujan.. G E Andrews.

starring actor Siddharth. best known for his James Bond film Tomorrow Never Dies. "The Man Who Loved Numbers" (Season 15.com honored him on his 125th birthday by replacing its logo with a doodle on its home page. the PBS Series Nova aired a documentary about Ramanujan.  Popular internet search engine Google. is working on the film version. On 16 October 2011. it was announced that Roger Spottiswoode. Like the book and play it is also titled The First Class Man.[109]  Ramanujan is mentioned in the Hollywood Blockbuster Good Will Hunting starring Matt Damon a film based on an orphan genius living in the rough part of South Boston.[110] . Episode 19).[106]  A Disappearing Number is a recent British stage production by the company Complicite that explores the relationship between Hardy and Ramanujan.[105] was based on David Freeman's First Class Man.[107][108]  On 22 March 1988. A play.  The novel The Indian Clerk by David Leavitt explores in fiction the events following Ramanujan's letter to Hardy. First Class Man by Alter Ego Productions. The play is centred around Ramanujan and his complex and dysfunctional relationship with Hardy. the film's scripting has been completed and shooting is being planned from 2012.