Society for Comparative Studies in Society and History

Conceit of the Globe in Mughal Visual Practice
Author(s): Sumathi Ramaswamy
Source: Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 49, No. 4 (Oct., 2007), pp. 751-782
Published by: Cambridge University Press
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Studiesin Societyand History2007;49(4):751-782.
Comparative

0010-4175/07
forComparative
$15.00 2007Society
ofSociety
andHistory
Study
U'DOI: 10.1017/S0010417507000758

ConceitoftheGlobein MughalVisual

Practice

SUMATHI RAMASWAMY
History,University
ofMichigan

WhenI becameking,itoccurred
to meto changemyname... An inspiration
fromthe

hidden
world
itintomymind
inasmuch
as thebusiness
ofkingsistheconthat,
brought
oftheworld,
I should
thenameofJahangir
andmake
trolling
givemyself
[world-seizer]
ofhonor
Nurud-Din[light
ofthefaith],
sincemysitting
onthethrone
coincided
mytitle
withtherising
andshining
ontheearth
ofthegreatlight.I
The increasing
ofthescholarly
inrecentyearswith
preoccupation
community
and
globalization
appearsto have leftits impacton postmodern
geographers
historians
of cartography
as well,severalof whomhaveturned
theirattention
to thehistory
andpoliticsoftheimagethatis at thecenterofthisnew
recently
the
problematic,
namely, terrestrial
globe.2As Denis Cosgrovenotesin his
of
of Earthin theWestern
provocativeanalysis cartographic
representations
"Whether
as
a
networked
circulaimagination,
pictured
sphereof accelerating
tionoras an abusedandoverexploited
it
is
from
body,
imagesofthespherical
earththatideas of globalizationdrawtheirexpressiveand politicalforce"
(2001: ix). Itsveryubiquityas a symbolof thetimesin whichwe liveunderscoresthepreoccupation
withtheimageoftheglobeinthelatemodemimagination.However,as Jerry
Brotton
observes,itspervasiveness
mayalso pointto
an increasing
ofitsappearancein ourtimes,andtheimageofthe
redundancy
Earlierversionsof thisessaywerepresented
at seminarsat theUniversity
of
Acknowledgments:
of Chicago,and theUniversity
of Michigan.I am grateful
to theaudiences
Delhi,theUniversity
at all threevenuesfortheircomments.
Thanksespeciallyto MuzaffarAlam, SusannBabaie,
MonicaJuneja,AzfarMoin,ParulDave Mukherjee,
and to
MartyPowers,and Tom Trautmann,
Ebba Kochforhercomments
on an earlierdraft.
I am grateful
to thestaff
attheAmerican
Institute
of IndianStudiesLibrary
in Gurgaonforhelpwithsourcescitedhere.This
(Artand Archeology)
and generousfriend,
forsharinghis knowledgeof
essay is dedicatedto Asok Das, gentlementor
Notethatcolorversionsof theimagesin thispapercan
Mughal,especiallyJahangari,
painting.
be viewedonlineat: http://www.joumals.cambridge.org/jid_css.
1,2-3, entryfor24 October1605,quotedin Okada 1992:47.
Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri,
2 Even in Western
Europe,deemedto be thesiteof its"invention,"
theterrestrial
globe as a
materialartifact
was arguablya noveltypriorto thesixteenth
ancientclassicalinstances
century,
beforeMartinBehaim's"earthapple"from1492,theearliestsurvivhavingbeenlargelyforgotten
ingexampleoftheform(Stevenson1921).

751

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752

SUMATHI

RAMASWAMY

whatmightbe called"a waningofaffect"
globehas suffered
(1999: 73). This
leadshimto a studyoftheearlymodemperiodinEuropewhenthe
argument
terrestrial
as "a sociallyaffective
globefirst
emergedinhisassessment
object"
considers
howtheterres(ibid.:72). In his TradingTerritories
(1997), Brotton
trialglobe cameto notjust reflect
an increasingly
"global"worldbutalso to
itoverthecourseofthesixteenth
constitute
Itspowerlay"intheideocentury.
of
the
world
it
to
describe.
Itslackofcognitive
logicalrepresentation
purported
was
not
its
weakness
but
its
becausethe
specificity
ultimately greatest
strength,
of
distance
and
which
the
terrestrial
veryperceptions
spaceupon
globerested
stressedspeculation
and conjecture
overtheextentand possessionof distant
territories"
(1999: 87-88). Fromthe earlyyearsof the sixteenth
century,
evenas theCopemicanrevolution
was slowlyundoingmedievalChristian
cosof theuniverse,
terrestrial
mologicalconceptions
globesbecameincreasingly
crucialto the exerciseof statepowerin Europe,as well as to the surging
search for new marketsand tradablegoods. As importantly,
as prestige
and
became
of
a
new
of
objects,globes
maps
part
gifteconomy circulation
and exchange,andweresoughtafterlike"thespices,pepper,silkandprecious
metalsto which[they]appearedto givedirectional
access"(Brotton1997:25;
see also Jardine
1996:295-309, 425-36). In theprocess,theyhelpedfashion
newbourgeoismodalities
oftheself,mostlybutnotexclusively
male.Notsuras Brotton
notes,"It is uponthefigureoftheglobe,as botha visual
prisingly,
imageand a materialobject,thatmanyof thesocial and culturalhopes and
anxietiesoftheperiodcameto be focused"(1997: 21).
revisionist
scholarshave begun to criticallyscrutinizethe
Accordingly,
social and symbolicsignificance
of theterraqueous
globe.As Brottonpoints
of scienceand cartography
have hitherto
out,historians
largelytended"to
divested
of anywider
reifyworldmapsand globesas proto-scientific
objects
social significance,
and havelimitedthewaysin whichtheseobjectscameto
be utilizedbothpractically
and imaginatively
withina rangeof social situations"(ibid.:19). Theserevisionist
studiesclearlyandvisiblyextendtheconceptualfieldwithinwhichwe maythinktheglobe,andwriteaboutit.Andthe
small but growingscholarshipon cartographic
traditions
and practicesof
societiesand culturesoutsideEurope,priorto and intothemodemcenturies,
offers
in,and eventhemanufacture
of,terrestantalizing
glimpsesof interest
trialglobes,howeverepisodically,
in regionsfarawayfromitsputative
homelandin theWest,suchas theArabworld,India,China,and Japan.Theyalso
alertus to the important-but
or erased-roles played
frequently
forgotten
astronomical
and
from
otherpartsof theworld
by
geographical
knowledges
inthenewscienceofcartography
in
modem
emerging early
Europe(Karamustafa 1992: 221-22; Needham1971: 586-87; Raj 2006; Schwartzberg
1992:
397-99; Unno 1994: 390-92, 466-71).
thisessay is locatedin earlymodemIndia,
Buildingon thisscholarship,
when the terrestrial
globe became visibleforthe firsttimein the Mughal

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century andSanskrit inArabic. (Sarma shops that ball"(bhugola) ofa metal 1992:45-49). period.93 on Mon."To achieve imaginative theglobalview is to loose thebondsof theearth. Workinto thecolonial theendofthesixteenth from atleast andIslamic science.power religiousaspiraspeculation.4As important. have documented scholars where most in the home metropole us that the historyand reminds a however.thisessaysetsouttonotjusttrackthevisualusesoftheglobe whatdoes a postcolonial in theMughalcourt. in the cosmos a ize Earthas an integrated totality..map knowledge"(Wood theimageof Earthas a spherecomesto evenseizesthehumanimagination.. Persian. court.3 a visualact. Whilewe mayneverbe able to graspthe in theterrestrial fullextentof theMughalinterest globe broughtintotheir as it courtby sundryEuropeans.assumed earth.E. suggeststhat"desiresof ordering the object of vision" propelthe visualizationof Earthas and controlling as closelyto lustformaterial posglobe. inscribed and to be surface a mapped. history (1999: 76).Whileastronomers understandtheorthodox a spherical millennium ofthefirst themiddle C.10.andthatsuchdesiresare"connected as to and session. according in artifacts ofEuropean theearliest to1571c. explored encompassing geometric visualandauthority" withcontent.). In Cosgrove'sreading. forit is "a figureof enormous tuallyreign(albeitnot withoutresistance). 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .:5).E.CONCEIT OF THE GLOBE IN MUGHAL VISUAL PRACTICE 753 "To imaginetheearth As Denis Cosgrovewrites.41. power"(Cosgrove2001: 3). authority metaphysical tion.yetsurprisingly.butto ask morefundamentally I achieve? of the suggestthat such a history terraqueousglobe history social and politicallives of this the and to us complicate pluralize compels outside its putativeoriginary icon of modemWesterncartographic practice it.it is "hard-won rally.or poeticsentiment" (ibid.sphericalentitysuspended is also networkof latitudesand longitudes. Such a gaze is implicitly as a globe is essentially imperial. Heressayclearlysuggeststhattheappearanceoftheglobeevenin modernEuropean This content downloaded from 202. represented "The globeis one ofthemostfrequently 4 KristenLippincott on thissubject thereis verylittlescholarship ofart"in themodemrn West.especiallypictorially.Fora discussion Smith "earth represented Savage seeGole1989:26. religious a flat diskorinthe either asbeing ofEarth intheir Puranas theSanskritic conception ingfollowed 1990).is that postcolonialperspective intothesubcontinent by Europeans. and griddedby a mathematical thatdoes notcomenatuan actthatrequiresan enormousleap of imagination knowlmanner.It has to be learnedand in a disciplined But once such 1992: and Fels knowledge 5). shapeofa lotus(Pingree objectsin the writes.northern globewas introduced 3 Althoughtheterrestrial ofArab under theinfluence ofcelestial fortheproduction India wasoneofthekeysites globes.thebhugola cartographic presentation predates in (Hindu)India fromat least 1580 by Jesuitvisitorsto the Mughalcourt. (2001: 15-16).to escape theshacklesof of dailylifefora universalmoment time.. To masterfully knowledge.and to dissolvethecontingencies He also of reverieand harmony" (ibid. labeled suchglobes manufactured inLahore 1994. Dated toHinducosmological oftheearth theregions conceptions. Inspiredthoughby theworkof WalterMignolo(1995: 219-23) and Laura Hostetler (2001). edge.we can chartitscomplexvisualtrajectories came to be deployedby artistsin theimperialatelierfromtheearlyyearsof theseventeenth century..

In an elegantdiscussion unequaltimes-ofcontingent. stable theproauto-destruct to produceexcessesof meaningunrecoverable through identity-formations blematicof 'recognition'" (ibid.A relocation to regions outsidetheWestfacilitates. imperializing Europeand opposinga singularreadingof forconfronting providesan opportunity thegloballivesandtimesofthis"universal" objectand symbol. Nadir al-Zaman["The wonderof theepoch"]). Manyscholars.responding artcannotbe reducedto a singular discussionofthe meaning.6Around1618... goodsand images. sign.by demonstrating theglobe-form enablesat leastone partofthenon-European worldtodestabilize a Europe-centered mappingofEarth. through century. shifting thatchartsthe"unpredictable effect" ofintroducing Europeanartto Indiancourtsintheeighteenth she concludesthat"as theWestgetseverywhere. The principal.10. This content downloaded from 202.754 SUMATHI RAMASWAMY politicsoftheglobe(as concept.the challengeof understanding also reflect andconstitute difference. symbolofunityanduniversality-might In considering thedifferent that this Western invention trajectories putatively am take outside I not to exoticize for might Europe. pointto thegrowing 170-75. Instead. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .41. (Chakrabarty provisional implication a revisionist. butthrough theentanglement of disjuncture andstableorderings" (2004: 819). globes maps paintings appearance that"Alterity is bestunderstood notthrough I followNatashaEatonhereinmyunderstanding thenarrative betweentwopre-existing essences..:843-44).arguablythemostfavoredimperial artistin the atelier of the Mughal emperorJahangir(r.following in theMughalcourtfromaround1615 thatmighthave influence of Englishallegoricalpaintings inspiredthiswork. 6 Thereis muchpublishedon Abu'l Hasan.andsymbol)as apparatus. is thattheglobe itself-a historyof cartography post-colonial material of a and key secularizing. it travelsaway fromits putatively naturalhabitatis notnecessarilya mere rehearsalor repetition of thepathstakenin theWest.butsee especiallyLosty1991. and a postcolonialperspective encouragesus to how the globe-this much-touted pursue. attempting alterity itsown a and Manichean Orientalist between sake.thisessay positionsitselfwithintherecentvein of ing theterrestrial thatinsiststhatthestudyof alterity and difference scholarship post-colonial to the theoretically contributes fertileprojectof "provincializing Europe" ofmyreadingfor 2000).k.a.93 on Mon.. AN EMPEROR'S GLOBAL DREAM My entry pointintothisotherhistory-andtheanchorimageforthisessay-is and much-discussed a much-reprinted paintingby Abu'l Hasan (a."sNordo I wishtominimize theimportance ofunderhistories" "connected ofearlymodemcartographic standing intersecting practice and scientificknowledge-production that recent scholarshiphas underscored with how theencounter (Raj 2006).and Okada 1992: thelead of Milo Beach (1981: 29-31). representation. therebyreproducing dichotomy "theWest"and"theRest. 1605-1627) to whatthepainterhimselfrefersto as (Figure1). sign globalizing.See also Welu1975fora marvelous in of and Vermeer's fromaround1657..as wellas pluralizewaysofvisualizrealm.

economy work).intoa complexassertion imperializing of the as the advancedhegeofpowerin another world.CONCEIT OF THE GLOBE IN MUGHAL VISUAL PRACTICE 755 SafavidrivalShah'Abbas "a dream"ofhisimperial patroninwhichJahangir's appearedto theMughalruler. This content downloaded from 202."theattitude of theMughalemperoris thatof a an inferior rival" (Das 1978: 217).93 on Mon. portedby than his is and brighter dark-complexioned only Jahangirpaintedlighter racial rival (alertingus to the prevalenceof a non-European/pre-colonial than who frail and at but he is also the Shah.theSafavid'svastempireis reducedto somepaltryterritories aroundtheMediterranean.10.Abu'I Hasan paintedwhathas beendeclaredto fromanyculture" be "oneofthegreatest ofpoliticalpictures (Losty1991:81). bigger appears man he seeks to meek. on Europebeginsto undermine openingup possibilitiesforan oppositionalbiographyto emergeforthis Westernimport.7 In Jahangir's dream.8As tellingfor this oppositionalbiographyis that this much-touted product-and sign-of the newly-emergent Europeanscience at thistime)was drawn. dreamthatis pictorialized BeingJahangir's reachas represented on Abu'l Hasan's globe is much theMughal'sterritorial vaster.In turn. monicclaims.on theeve of (itselfunderradicalreconfiguration thatcontinent's andglobalizing mission.is notcentered rarity the apparentEuropean-ness of thisobject. facestheviewer"(1999: 83). part Mughalemperor overhis rivalSafavid'sterritory.his armsunableto graspthe majestyof the great embrace. leaving and figuratively).as capturedpictorially by Abu'l Hasan. 7 The historicalbackdropwas the growingtensionbetweenthe Indianand Persiancourts.soonafterthispainting (Okada 1992: 54-55.albeitunsuccessfully. 8 Lippincott Dutch notesthatina largenumber ofsixteenth andseventeenth-century revealingly "artists so thatthenorthern tendto positiontheglobein theircompositions hemisphere paintings.Thatin namedtheterritories overwhichtheirmastery in thispainting theglobe.stillan utter India around1618.On theotherhand. Europehuggingthemarginsof thepicture(bothliterally hereby a painterin his atelier. 170-75). 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .a partoftheworldthathadbeenundertheswayofhisancestor Timur. townof Qandaharthatwas finallycapturedby theSafavids especiallyoverthevaluablefrontier was completed in 1622. the two rival emperorsare shown embracingeach otheragainstthe backgroundof an crescentmoonsupimmensehalo composedof a radiantsunand a beautiful have notedthatnot two celestial Numerous commentators putti.41. greatmonarchgenerouslypatronizing is made to This impression is further by thefactthatJahangir strengthened standon a largelionwhilehis Persianrival'sfeetreston a smallerlamb.The lion on whichhe standssprawlsacross a good partof Persia (whichis labeledas suchunderitspaw) as wellas muchofwhatwe recognize as centralAsia. foundational foranyhistory of modem Whatmakesthisparticular painting in that the on which the two are India is animals emperors standing cartography in turnreston a partiallyvisibleglobe on whichare clearlydelineatedand is imaginedto prevail.

Purb.Kuchmaysignify thelargeKochtribeofnortheastern exception Indiaortheetymologically relatedstateofCooch Behar. see also Gole 1989: 28-29. whichwas copiedfromthe 1619 Baffin onthebasisofinformation mapdrawn byWilliam provided byRoe. thatIsfahani'smid-seventeenth-century Habib.Agra.hasno obvioustoponymic ent.Delhi.Mercators[sic] last editionof the maps of the 9 Schwartzberg mentions thatamongtheSouthAsianplace-names inscribed on Abu'l Hasan's globeareMultan.Surat. and Schwartzberg 1992: 390-91. derivefromEuropean the Europeindicated maps..Africa. Emperor.Mac Kingdom.Goa. Forotherinstancesin whichmapsweregiftedto the see Foster1990: 44-45. wherehe analyzesa seriesof thirty-three maps of the "InhabitedQuarter" halfoftheEasternHemisphere) thatwereincludedinan encyclo(thenorthern in 1647 by one Sadiq pedic PersianworkcalledtheShahid-i-Sadiqfinished IsfahaniofJaunpur.756 SUMATHI RAMASWAMY In JosephSchwartzberg's authoritative analysisof SouthAsiancartography.41.thelongriverextending acrosspeninsular Indiais theKrishna"(1992: 410).I referto a fortuitous representations meetingat thetem1617betweenJahangir andSir poraryMughalcampinManduon 9 September ThomasRoe.'1 Whilewe knowlittleaboutotherMughalmapssuchas Isfahani'sto which Abu'l Hasan mighthavehad access. forexample. theEnglishambassador betweenlate 1615 and early1619 from thecourtofJamesI to MughalIndia.Bijapur. 82-87...filletedand gilt.. Therecanbe no question thatthegeneral ofAsia.Calcutta.10.Judging fromthepositionofBijapurandGolkonda. Theseappear to be notably moreaccurately alignedthanon roughly contemporaneous European muchmoreso.Thismuchis also nothing clear fromIrfanHabib's briefanalysisof cartography in Mughal India..Havingbeeninformed beforehe setout on hismissionthat"thegreatMogull"made"moreestimation" ofworldmaps thanof "all otherpresents. withthepossible Golkonda.93 on Mon. (1992: 409).infers maps are muchmoredetailedand accuratethaneitherearlierArabicand Persianrepresentations of Indianterritory or contemporary Europeanones (Habib 1979). "All arereasonably wellplacedand easilyidentified. and shapesoftheportions on theglobe. " Quotedin Beach and Koch 1997: 139. 400-5. 84.and Karnataka. andPurb.Mac Kingdom. thanthemapof theMughalEmpire maps-certainly in the 1625editionof PurchasHis Pilgrimes. ofKuch. This content downloaded from 202. referPurb.thedelineation of riverslooksintriguingly distinctive. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Mac Kingdompresumably relatesto the thenreigning Mac dynasty ofVietnam..Lahore. o10On Sadiq Isfahani.whichsignifies east.we can turnto an important cartographic in theMughalcourtto speculateon theconditions encounter underwhichthe emperor'spaintermighthave gainedknowledgeof contemporary European oftheknownworld.9 therefore concludesthatAbu'l Hasan musthave had access to Schwartzberg all mannerof Mughalmaps of theempirethatappearto have not survived intothepresent.Kuch. one of thefewthatconsiderstheterritorial of theglobein this configurations he writes: painting. andthatwe knowvirtually about. Butwithin areaof India..""'Roe giftedthe emperor"a fairebook well bounded.too.

time. The 1569worldmapin whichtheMercator projection the"triumph oftheWest"at theexpenseoftherest. Jahangir This content downloaded from 202. I shouldhave it againe.. thought onthevisionof"Europeanglobalterritoriality" andTaylor2004.therefore.I answered:at his pleasure. butto a world.13 ofMercator's moretosayon either thepresentation Roe himself hasnothing return the of the or the assessment to Atlas Jahangir.it is clearthat.and no mancouldreadenorunderstand it. rahmanyam Atlas.93 on Mon. besidehim.10. TheMogolfeedsandfeasts Lord thathewastroubled a when I conceive andtherefore Ambassador.whichI presented theworld. Whilewe knownothing itis worthnoting theirvisiblepresenceinthegifted-and-then-returned orhisatelier. empty 12 Roe mighthave been referring to the 1613 editionof theAtlasin thiscontext(Gascoigne bothMercator editionthatalso includeda doubleportrait 1971: 149). wherethe turn to Roe's was not all that welcome. andcartographic Atlason Europeangeographical butsee especiallyCrane2002 practice...and toldme had had shewedit ifI would.gave me fivebottles. that heisConqueror himself withthisconceit.and I am sure greatone.12 oftenlayinghishandonhis "theKingtookeingreatcourtesie. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ..and answering: Everything thisparticular However. Journal.: 392). I ever send forfivemore. Ifso. thisis thefirst featuring ata table.in whichhe had so greatand richa part" greatkingI offered On being"offered theworld"inthiscarto(Foster1990:380.myemphasis). 1" TitledAtlassiveCosmographicae Meditationes Mercator's ofthefabrick'd).especiallyinrelation first appearedsignifies geographically 69). King.the fattest in that court it is a saw . andhaving without somepresent handed. my upon thereis no coming untothatKing withhim(anduponthoseterms havingbusiness left atthattimenothing orother) .see especiallyMitchell(2000) and Subfeatothecartographic encounter neither oftheseworksattends (2002). I Englishgift wished that I had been sicke and "The for this dayreads.on 25 September. writesaboutitwitha sense ofthe"mapbooke.The terrestrial a seatedAtlasholdinga globewithanother Atlasfeatures globeresting withhis of Mercator fortheAtlasis a striking (1574) by FransHogenberg engraving frontispiece whiletheotherholdsa as theAmericas.CONCEIT OF THE GLOBE IN MUGHAL VISUAL PRACTICE 757 withan excusethatI had nothingworthy. meditations on thefabricoftheworldandthefigure orcosmographic in 1595inDuisburgandwentintoseveraleditions influential workwas first publishedinitsentirety andtheimpactofhis ThereareseveralfinestudiesofMercator overthecourseofthenextcentury.to forwine. turingMercator's de FabricaMundietFabricatiFigura(Atlas. Jerry totheequatorialregions(1997: 153Europeappearlargerthanitactuallyis.and commanded.. For recentdiscussionsof Roe's missionto theMughalcourt. Atlas. graphicmanner. his mulaies. I tookethisas a signeof favour. whoacquiredtheplatesfortheAtlasin 1604)sitting andJodocusHondius(thepublisher terrestrial theirhandsholdingdividerspoisedovermounted globes(Crane2002: facing115). Thenhe sentforthemap-booke.and so it was returned" (Ibid. Significantly. emperor's subsequent gift."ButhischaplainEdwardTerry satisfaction: of displeasure butalso barely-hidden oftheWorld.two weeks later. In additionto themapsoftheworldandofthevariouscontinents.and so as I wanted:and a fathogge. DennisCosgrovehascommented as thesewereon Europe(2001: 131radicallyre-centered inaugurated byatlaseslikeMercator's. makes thatMercator's thewell-established Brotton hascomplicated projection argument 33).especiallytheOrient(Brotton and politically thetitlepageofthe 1997: 169). a landidentifiable handon a terrestrial globehalfcovering abouttheimpactof thesepictureson either pairof dividers(Figure2).hearing entry whenI had endedthose.41.). breast. thatcamefrommee was welcome"(ibid.

foesliketheSafavidsandtheOttomans. andfinding no moretofalltohissharebutwhathe first saw. as well rivals. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . hewastoldTartaria andPersia.In another Eurasiancontactzone.andanxieties in of the world In its it is also modem artifacts.andhe callinghimself oftheWorldandhavingno greater theConqueror sharein it.Fromaroundthistimeandforthenextfew and his successorShah decades.demonstrates forMignolothe powerof the cartographic deviceof the"movablecenter"(1995: 219-23).Ricci's own 1602 map. around the of time thisfateful encounter.telling (whichtheAmbassador Cosmography theMogolthatthat bookdescribed thefour oftheworld.notallowinghimto be lordand commander of thoseprovinces which properly belonguntohim(Foster1990:382-83n.41.whichre-centered themap on thePacificand Asia insteadof the Atlanticand Europe.758 SUMATHI RAMASWAMY whichhe thought fitto givehim. andallseveral parts countreys inthem contained. yetcivilytoldtheAmbassadour [sic].boththemoretraditional as newarrivalsliketheEuropeans. peopledidunderstand he further toldhimthathewouldnotrobhimofsucha jewel.Andthetruth is thattheGreatMogolmight verywellbringhis actionagainstMercatorand otherswhodescribetheworld. theterrestrial comes to be globe deployedin someof themostinnovative of the It atelier. whichwereimmediately shewen untohim.15 tone. grandfather Ortelius'sTheatrum OrbisTerrarum whentheMughalemperor "askedwherePortugal apparently see Qaisar(1982: 148). unleashedwhentheSelfconfronts an hopes.14 oftheseemingly encounter betweenJahangir Terry'sreporting inconsequential andMercator's Atlasechoesexamplesfromothertimesandothercultural contextsofthefantasies.andtherefore returned ituntohimagain.desiring pretoseehisownterritories. TheMogolatthefirst seem'dtobemuchtaken withit. produced maybe seenas an imperial retort-apainting back-to thefamousEuropeancartographer whohaddared to confinethegreatMughalto onlya smallsectionof theworldon his maps (Gascoigne1971: 152).93 on Mon. similarencounter betweenJahangir's Akbarand an earlieratlas. andbecauseso.10. See also note24.OthershavenotedthatAbu'l Hasan'sprovocative painting with re-centered on confined to its and cally Jahangir's empire Europe margins.Walter was.butstreighten himvery muchin theirmaps.andreturned withRoe to Englandin 1619 andwroteabouthis experiences in 1622 inA Voyageto East India. image cartographic sugthatbecomesall toofamiliar fromsubsequent centuries in gestiveofsomething itsanticipation oftheumbragethatcolonialstypically when the native display radispeaksback.andwherehisownkingdom.andthencausing thebooktobe turn'd all over.he asked sently wherewerethosecountreys aboutthem. Ricci's learned Chinese visitorswere seemingly"astonished"by its representation of the earthand thatit de-centered China. 15 For another.thatneither thelanguage inwhichthatbookwaswritten.presented himwithMercators [sic]greatbookof hadbrought thither forhisownuse).underthedirectpatronageof bothJahangir Jahan(r.seemedtobe a little himself noranyofhis troubled.myemphasis). Such a readingis strengthened by thefactthatthisis nottheonlytimethatAbu'l Hasan and his colleaguesresorted to theglobeformto praiseandflatter theirimperial andto disparagehis(potential) master. This content downloaded from 202. 1628-1658). as thenames oftherestwhichconfine withhim." MatteoRicci's missionin Mignolosuggeststhata mapthatadornedthewall of theJesuitfather 1584 in Cantonwas likelya printof Ortelius'Tipusorbis terrarum (1570). is used in ways that paintings Mughal 14 1617afterthelatter's Terry joinedRoe in February previouschaplainhaddied.

curiously. andtoskillfully responsean alternative in support ofagendasthathad littleto do withEurope. and Verma2005. althoughtheglobe's "universaliconographic legibility" in waysthatthesepaintings alter (Lippincott1999: 78). Ettinghausen 1992. in visual situations in orderto elicititsworkas a socially a of globe range and politicallyaffectiveobject in the Mughal court. Ebba Koch's fortheattention are noteworthy theygive to theMughal"'globepaintings. deployments modemIndia.Qaisar including Mughalai. benefited fromEbba Koch's valuablediscussionofthemannerin whichMughalpainters adapted rather thansimplyreproduced. Okada 1992.My goal here. Das 1978. I havefoundimportant discussions of theappearanceof theterrestrial 1961. misintroduced intoearlymodemIndiabyJesuit andfortheinfluence uponthemofsacredpictures sions(Koch 2001.93 on Mon. seventeenth-century And yet.17 As forhistorians. oftheemperor" in theMughal charts"slippedeasilyintotheportraiture peanglobesandmaritime I have thattherewasnoeasypassageorstraightforward court(Sen 2002: 64).16 thegrowingEuropeanartistic "influence" Frequently.therefore. deploytheglobe-form has been noted So. J. and transformed. about Mughal cartography and (1982).in particular.butthattheyweresophisticated enough paintback in andmoresatisfying visionandversion.by contrast. whileseveralof thesepaintingshave been skillfully studiedat lengthby historians of Mughalart.41. 5). authority map Even the astuteSanjay Subrahmanyam the and returnof ignores gifting on how one mayinterpret Mercator'sAtlasin his insightful reflections such cross-cultural encountersas Roe's withJahangir(2002). propose grasp to thisnew language. see also Bailey 1999:ch. I am moreinterested itsmeaningandmessagebeyondwhatmighthavebeenintended byEuropean orartintheirparticular ofitsformin early science. Inarguing translation." rendering it to demonstrate IrfanHabib (1979) and A. coursefroma recentanalysisthatassertsthatEurothisessaychartsa different 17 In thisregard. Srivatsava2000.the visual appearanceof the in them has elicited occasionalcomments.I wouldliketo suggestthatRoe andTerry thatJahangir and his courtcouldnotreador understand thenewcartographic his were that Mercator and tofashionindistant colleagues beginning language I in what follows that not did the artists only emperor's Europe. Skelton1988.CONCEIT OF THE GLOBE IN MUGHAL VISUAL PRACTICE 759 in conventional new-fangled suggestthatit becamean intriguing ingredient court. This content downloaded from 202. globe only usuallyto illustrate in theMughalcourt. is how the Mughal artistsmade it "theirown. theglobe is dismissedas a "European"object." essays. novelEuropeanmotifs(Koch 2001).cosmography. I discusstheappearanceof theterrestrial In therestoftheessay. Buildingon his weretoo hastyin concluding work. they have largelyignoredthese strikingexamples of an early fromIndia to appropriate fromEuropetherepresentational modemattempt to the known world on and withcartographic instruments. Findly globe in Beach 1981. who have writtenthoughtfully science.as wellas forthefashionregimesofpraiseandadulationintheimperial in ing of the royal Self and the visible assertionof imperialauthority India. Leach 1995.10. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .I considerhow the 16 Fromthevastcorpusofscholarship on Mughalpainting.

andphotographs showmonarchs.41. theworld-seizer. andVerma2005).d.But in theclosedcircuits of Mughalartisticculturewherefewoutsidetheemperor'scircleof choice assertions of imperiallordship. (see especiallyChatterjee 19 Forothersimilarassessments.19orwhether "theygivemeaningto the[Mughal]dreamofuniversality. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . worldwas notnecessarily centered on Europeor matters European.as in the variousworksof artbeingimported intothecourt.At the same time. 43-50.andinpictorial of the Self.760 SUMATHI RAMASWAMY oftheimperglobe's"calculateddisplay"(Brotton1999:82) intheproductions ial ateliermaymarknewwaysofmarking thesingularity oftheroyalpersonage and of workingoutcomplexlocal and trans-regional assertions of powerand back to Europe'snewlyprestige. travelers. Tellingly.Okada 1992.as hisnamesuggested.. theworld-holder. thereis no evidenceto suggestthatthesedramatic theglobe portraits featuring This content downloaded from 202. inparticular. given regimes mimicry thatcometo be institutionalized in colonialIndia.eliteIndiansrarelyusedthe in portraits or photographs. To return to one finalpointregarding Roe's returned that gift.Terryreports theencounter withMercator's Atlasdestroys "theconceit"on whichJahangir "feedsand feastshimself"thathe is "Conquerorof theWorld. and Okada 1992:27.thesepaintingsretort to increasingly circuemerging waysofmappingtheearththatwerebeginning lateintheseventeenth-century world. inthecompanyoftheterrestrial ghers. These globe in theirvisual self-presentation the are in this as featuring globe quiteprecocious Mughalpaintings regard well.18 Whether or notthesepaintings specifically through "theunrealisticfantasiesof a benigndemagogue"(Findly1992: represent 208). theycertainly in India of individuals themexamples historically-known visuallypresenting selveswithmodemcartographic artifacts as partoftheirpublicidentity. see Leach 1995: 353. sometimes by evenhis most favoredartists. use of theglobe-form. tapestries. pincott1999). theworld-king. so the Manyscholarshaveinsisted infashioning oftheemperor forhimself interventions a Selfthrough cannotbe minimized painting n.93 on Mon. orderand eternity" offerthemoststriking (Mukhia2004: 86). paintings.It is the visualiconoftheworldly(male)selfuntilthepastcentury paradigmatic (Lipthe of of the West however. workedcloselywithhisartists.I inthisessaybydemonstrating thatthisconfronhopetosuggesttothecontrary tationwithseemingly novelEuropeanwaysofrepresenting theterrestrial world enablesJahangir andhisartists to(re)present as the him. can us to whatkindofSelfthe understand presentations They help Mughalemperorwas seekingto fashionforhimselfand projectforothers. we mighthave had access to thesepainterly mustask who and whereis theaudiencethatwill beholdhimas masterof theglobe?20Whereandwhois "theworld"thatJahangir." 18 thatJahangir."Obviously. andthatthis world-gripper. 20 Although theMughalemperor routinely gave awaypaintings.Thesepaintings inthat arealso important of thedeliberate theyare arguablytheearliestinstancesin thesubcontinent visualassociationoftheterrestrial with the human globe body.10. portraits.andeducatedgentlemen globe. "theworldcapturer. In the Westfromatleasttheearlysixteenth until century relatively recently. burmerchants.

4cm. 23.8 x 15. Opaque watercolor.Smithsonian F1945.C. gold and inkon paper. Institution.9. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .FIGURE1 The St.FreerGalleryofArt. 1618. This content downloaded from 202.41.10. Petersburg Album:AllegoricalRepresentation of EmperorJahangir and Shah 'Abbas of Persia.93 on Mon. purchase Washington.Paintedby Abu'l Hasan.ca. D..

ROG. FIGURE 2 This content downloaded from 202.?co~? ii LJ~lf ( . 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .41.Vf AGTNrTA. 1595.i ~1~31111~8L~~ ?. 1574.C~j~llCi~sl~B~% :.?Royal Geographical SocietyPictureLibrary. From Atlas sive cosmographicaemeditationes London.10.~~i~-:1~qlPe~Bg~~~CI I :I gt~ I~t~q I r 3.EngravedbyFransHogenbergin Portrait ofMercator holdingand measuring de fabrica mundiet fabricatifigure. I3.g-a XJ-: ?~S' r ~~J :::: ~i~~l~"~?~~SZ~l~'BEIrs~~i~c~~ MER-CATrORIS RVPE-LMVNDANI GERARDI EEMGJf oA"NOkR :::?t. LXXWV: a globe. ZT SEX - CAVSAINGEX1CV cv s I)v0Y".93 on Mon. CID.S0005093.SVI E3RGLATIPSVM STVDII rFRANC.

10. 25. 1620. FIGURE3 Jahangir Dublin. This content downloaded from 202.Gouacheon paper.ShootsMalik 'Anbar. 15. ?TrusteesoftheChesterBeattyLibrary.41.8 x 16.5cm.Paintedby Abu'l Hasan. CBL In 07A.93 on Mon. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .ca.

1620-1625.28.10.24cm.ca. gold.MuseumAssociates.75. This content downloaded from 202.93 on Mon.purchaseM.Los AngelesCountyMuseumofArt.4. Jahangir Triumphing Opaquewatercolor.FIGURE4 Emperor overPoverty. attributed toAbu'l Hasan.41.81 x 15. Nasli andAlice Heeramaneck Collection.andinkonpage. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .23.

Institution.3cm.ca.C..28.gold.16.93 on Mon. 1615. purchaseF1946.Smithsonian D.41.FreerGalleryofArt. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . andinkonpaper. Washington.Opaquewatercolor.9 x 12.DurbarSceneofJahangir. FIGURE5 This content downloaded from 202.10. PaintedbyAbu'l Hasan.

ca. CourtesySotheby's PictureLibrary. 1617.210.5 x 143 cm. Gouachewithgold on finecotton.93 on Mon. This content downloaded from 202.FIGURE6 The MughalEmperor withRadiantGold Halo.Paintedby Jahangir Abu'l Hasan. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .41.10. London. Holdinga Globe.

1620.41.14. This content downloaded from 202.Figure7b: 20. CBL In 07A.()TrusteesoftheChester byBichitr. CBL In 07A.8 x 13 cm.TheMintoAlbum.5.5 x 12. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . BeattyL 21.93 on Mon.FIGURE7a (left)ShaykhMu'inal-DinChistiHoldinga Globe.FIGURE7b (right)Jahang ca.10.7cm.Gouacheonpaper.

12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Washington.41.8cm.Smithsonian Institution. purchaseF1939. FreerGallery Sovereignty. This content downloaded from 202.1629.FIGURE8 The EmperorShahJahanStandingupona Globe. Color and gold on paper25.49.10.C.AngelsBearingInsigniaof Paintedby Hashim.93 on Mon.1 x 15. above.. of Art. D.

or is thisanothercase of theappropriation forspecificlocal and regionalagendas?The calculateddisplayof the artifact notevencareaboutan assumedsubject-audience might globeinthesepaintings thattoo is partof theconceitof theglobein thathas to be readilyimpressed. practice Mughal MUGHAL GLOBAL CONCEITS21 globe is drawnintothe artisticactivitiesof the By the timethe terrestrial it had begun to circulate."theworldruler.23 artifacts fromEuropeanaccounts.in a tantalizing to Abid. and mentof manyscholarsthatmanypaintingsare now eitherlost or remainun-catalogued and contingent. Mughal in India. HarbansMukhiahas recently albeitepisodicallyand ephemerally. see Binney1973: 100. weredesignedas illustrations miniatures to noteis thesoberingassessAlso important calledmuraqqa'fordepositin theimperiallibrary.he carry'das hisparticular lordofthree-quarters andhaditinhisSeal" (2004: 60-61). arenecessarily so judgments un-archived. paintingdatedto mighthave used theglobe in thisfashion. too.10.22Whilethereis Ensigna Golden-Globe.whicha greatmanypeople assertto be immovable"(Bailey 1999: 116). 1 am indebted 23 Fora reproduction of thispainting.It is also used disparaging todiscussJahangir's inthearthistorical (e."the first Ortelius'TheatrumOrbis Terrarum. theterrestrial or seeing globe? Is Europeeven listening and shadowypresencein therealpothem?Moretellingly. intheregimesofgiftthatwereendemictoMughalcourtly circulated or wereretainedin exclusivealbums formanuscripts. FatherJeromeXavier A majority ofMughal culture.Bailey 1999: 141allegoricalpaintings scholarship 42. that we must visual consider."forthisreason. to the maps severaltimesin the decade betweenits initialpublicationand its presentation This content downloaded from 202. to Asok Das foralerting and Desai 2006: pl. 24 is fromBrotton1997: 175. givenitsmarginal litikand everydaylife of seventeenth-century India. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .and othercartographic fromthe timethe first were soughtafteras prestigeobjectsof prestation withAbraham theemperor Jesuitmissionin 1580 to Akbar'scourtpresented "The Theatreof the World.CONCEIT OF THE GLOBE IN MUGHAL VISUAL PRACTICE 769 orShahJahan. late-sixteenth-century toan admiring Thequote.. 73. thatshowsAurangzebin thecompanyofa terrestrial 22 Fora rarepainting globe.thatmaps.g. provisional 2 comments I borrowtheterm"conceit"fromTerry's quotedearlier.almostexclusively in front of and belowthethrone. whichshows Shah Jahanseated in the circa 1639 and attributed terrestrial so-calledPeacockThrone. and additional withminorvariations was reprinted Europeforthesecondhalfof thatcentury).however.a mounted globeis prominently displayed We do learn. accountof JohnFrancisCareriin which to a tantalizing drawnourattention theItalianwritesthatbecauseAurangzeb(or Alamgir)believedthathe was oftheworld.globes. atlasto "have made theearthportable.24 Around1611.93 on Mon. in court the earlyseventeenth century.41. reader. scantevidencefromtheMughalarchivethatAurangzeb'spredecessors. and Leach 1995: 389). is Europe even the of a European intendedaudience.attributed firstpublishedin 1570 (and themostexpensivebutalso thebestsellingbook in The Theatrurm." seekstoaddressthrough suchdeployments of to theseassertions.see Schmitz me to this.

Habib 1979: 94. This content downloaded from 202.26 A remarkable fromtheOttoman courtshows late-sixteenth-century painting severalmenstudying variousscientific a instruments.see also Brotton1997: tinents.770 SUMATHI RAMASWAMY thattheJesuits used one yearat theChristdescribessomeofthedecorations "an ape whichsquirted waterfromitseyesand mas cribin Agraas including.93 on Mon..in none of the ally represented object of curiosity. Qaisar 1982: 35-36. 1998. N. See Minnisale2000 fora valuablediscussionofhowmotifs foundtheirwayfromthelatesixteenth Europeanmapsandatlases. on how the circulationof the terraqueousglobe was receivedin Mughal India.10.suchas theTheatrum. including mountedterrestrialglobe on which Africa. and as we have see fromRoe and Terry'swritings. . reminds us thatTavernier cameacrosssomeBrahmans Thus.K.andfeminized representations Africa. gift)to Shah Jahanin 1656 (Verma2005: 66). SusanGole notesneither "TheirIndiaOrientalis includedthewholeofAsia. .Asia... in theknown (Brotton1997:pl.letters companiesfromtheirservantspostedin Indiarecordrequestsforand receiptof as giftsfortheMughalemperor and his governors globesand mapsintended in and subordinates different of the posted parts empire(Beach and Koch 1997: 139.and thathe was calleduponto pointoutthepositionofFranceuponthem(1990: thereis hardlyanyinformation 35)." (ibid. anda globeoftheworld andaboveita birdwhichsangmysteriously mouth.Thisis yetanother or so paintings reasonthatthethirty oftheimperial thiscartographic atelierfeaturing instrument are so important foranyhistory of how theglobecomesto be apprehended outsideEurope. and Europe are clearlydelineated 1992: 27-28). of theglobeis also striking 26 The Mughalartist' sinceitappearsthatin singulardeployment noneoftheprovincial courtswhereEuropeanspresented globesdoes thisappearto haveresulted intheircalculatedvisualdisplay. to somederisionas well.seatedon a grandthrone with Mughalemperor.25 Seventeenth-century Europeanaccountsalmostalwayspresentthesighting bynativesofthesecartographic objectsas givingriseto wonderand surprise. But otherthansuchEuropeanreportage. 169-79). By contrast. herrighthandon a rudder attached toa terrestrial ofAsia and globe.whichthey calledIndiaExtreme" from (1976: 50). Chaudhuri andnoblespuzzlingovertwoglobes(presented bytheDutch)inVaranasi. Ortelius'satlasnorMercator's includedseparatemapsofIndia. Jahangir's of Mercator'satlasis all themoreremarkable rejection reported givensuchaccounts. hitherto-documented Mughal paintingsfeaturingit does the globe ever Itsmagnificent titlepage showsEuropeas queen. 148).The atlasalso features a mapofthewholeworld. 25 We also learnfrom InayatKhan'sShahJahanNama thatan elaborate jeweledorb(kaukaba) was presentedas peshkash(tribute.: 123). Savage-Smith oftheMughalateliertheglobedoes notappearto havebeenvisuproductions as a scientific Indeed. evenwhenthesecourtsweretrying tofashion themselves inoppositiontothecenterbyappropriating hitherto exclusiveMughalprivileges suchas theviewingatthe jharoka(balcony). 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .individual mapsofthefourknownconanda mapdedicatedtotheEastIndies(vanderBroeckeetal. From at least supportedon the backs of two elephants receivedby boththeEnglishandDutchtrading November1615. 8. century intoMughallandscapepaintings..sometimes as faras OuterMongolia.41.

geograexplorers.resting fromMuslimholymen.andjoins theranksof suchexclusivesignifiers thepreciousgem.in a motifthatbecomesverycommon.theplumeor turbanornament.contemporary Europe.standingon it. captains. frequently In visual towardit(e.Instead.whereall manner sea of (male) grandees-navigators. even imperial it(Verma2005: 66). The imperialartist'smonopolyovertheglobe'srepresentation theexclusionof others'capacityto mimicor similarly deployit suggeststhat andthe theMughalaloneclaimedthevisualcapacityto owntheglobe-form." to 1998: 128).theglobe visuallyappearsonly in imperialcontextswherethe Emperorinvariablyoccupies centerstage.forunlikethese.theterrestrial par globeappearsas an imperialprerogative of imperialsoverexcellence.27 shownbeinghandedoverby theemperor never of alienation and an of as separation.reducingit to an entitythatis literally inhishand.41.was generally associatedin Mughalportraits withtheemperor'sbodyfromJahangir's timeon.in conformity the cartographic artifactover logic of hieraticarts. princesand holymenonlyoccasionallymeriting This content downloaded from 202. Mughal practice on theotherhand. He is frequently sumptuously 27 In thisregard. Figure2.How muchmoreeffectively thathe canholdlightly andaffectively could his artistssuggestthepowerof theirimperialpatronthanby visually thathe may be a man of the world.always subordinates at his feetor whichhe looms large.CONCEIT OF THE GLOBE IN MUGHAL VISUAL PRACTICE 771 visuallydisplayedinthecompanyof appearinisolation. and ambassadors-hadthemselvespaintedin nobles.but was also suggesting above it?So. This is in contrast to. theglobe is likethehalo. elaboratelybejeweled and clothed.which. fewnotableexceptionsthatI will flaglater. object imperial possession. eigntysuch as thecrown.sometimesvague and unspecified) markedon its surfacewhile his body. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .theglobe is never It is always to lesserpersonages..interestingly.itis invariably mostoftenphysically tohisbodyinsomefashion:he is theEmperor.10.the on theglobe. connected his feeton it. in severalexamples. phers.and the ceremonialrobe of honor(Okada 1992: 30-33).philosophers. however. forexample.astronomers. see also Lippincott 1999). of to signify. a proprietary attitude to thepointofasserting theglobe'scompany.soars gloriouslyinto the cosmos.g. painted an artifact thatmighthavecomeinquitehandyforshoring as befitted up a wellof establishedMughalconceitof "theEmperor'spersonas an embodiment in than world itself and this more the case. This is themoststriking manifestation worldthatit purported theemperor'sconceitwithregardto thiscartographic apparatus.Witha fromeitherhis predecessors or.his feetrestinglightlyon landforemperoris paintedstanding mations(sometimesdistinctively delineated.as signifier of divinelight. in globe is also underscored Imperialconceitin relationto theterrestrial withthe theseportraits by the factthatthe emperor'sbody.or waitingto receiveit eitherholdingit.it seemsto have been excluwith the identified sively imperialbody. the falcon. Even moreso thantheseotherperquisites.93 on Mon. (Richards empire-the Empire.so to speak.

It is tellingthatthe artist to enactthesecomplexvisual dramaswiththe aid of thoughtit significant thenewlyintroduced terrestrial globeas imperial stageprop.singhtwins."30In EllisonFindly'sreading.htm. 2005: 87-89). 63).moral. In one. Desai 1993).occasionallywithvariations.itis hardtothinkoftheenactment ofthese theglobe'spresence. As thisportrait suggests. 32 Thanksto SaleemaWaraichforthis. a cal. n.In thesecondpainting. 1988: 185. 29 Fordiscussionsofthis see Leach 1995:400. 1615)attributed visuallyunderscored much-analyzed painting 28 Foranalysesofthispainting. clientele intothenineteenth century by thoseworkingfora newpost-Mughal (Das 1978: 226. as theglobe is drawnintoall manner ofvisualdramasthathisartists enactedonhisbehalf. This content downloaded from 202.10. he nails downthe cringingfigureof povertypersonifiedwhile astridea terrestrial globe theterrestrial (Figure4).possiblyRajputprince (ArnoldandWilkinson1936:pl. andVerma2005: 71. Leach 1995: 398-405.paintedwithconsiderableattention to detail. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Bichitr.Otherartists dramaswithout appearto havefounditso.29Bothpaintings conscript globeintocomplexpolitioftheroyalself. carefullypaintedinscription "Blessed portrait of His SupremeMajestywho dispatcheshis eager shafts intoPovertyand who.uk/galpage2. Shah Jahanreceivingthe submissionof a Hindu. as ina portrait byanother oftheemperor's favorite whichhas beenwidelyinterpreted as artists.772 SUMATHI RAMASWAMY shownobviouslyexercising hislordship overothers. Skelton complexportrait." by thetalenteddiasporapaintersAmrit and RabindraKaur Singh in England.andpersonalenvisionings over the haloed head of the emperorreads. In ourown times. as demonstrated of one of the Jahangir by his vanquishing best-known bravesof his time. 31 www.through his rectitude and fairness. and Skelton1988: 179-82.Themoststriking attributed to Abu'l Hasan.Jahangir pletedperhaps standing at theheadof a swornenemy. 35.theirthemehas been carriedforwardin "The Greatest.Indeed. comexamplesof theseare twopaintings around is shown on theglobeshooting 1620. by the same artistit is clear thateventhoughhe maybe a righteous andjust sovereign.generallydatedto 1620-1625.butone who additionally has themoralcharacter to fightpovertywithmartial-like in while the 1620 effort justice"(1992: 208).93 on Mon.Malik 'Anbar.Jahangir is set up here as "a divinelylegitimate monarchrulingoverall theknownworld.41. 30 Quotedin Okada 1992: 51-52.31and in worksby the Pakistani Karkhanacollective(ImranQureishiet al. Okada 1992:51-52.co. is layingnew foundationsfortheworld.theDeccaniAbyssinian overlordMalik'Anbar (Figure3). forthesetwo paintingswere much imitated.moreis goingon in thesepicturesthanjust the bestowalof a cosmicpersonaon theemperor.32 Thattheknownandinhabited attheemperor's worldwas literally feetis also in another to (ca.28 In theother. thisdid notmake less of a warrior. see especiallyDas 1978:220-21.

bywhatappearsto be theequatoranda seriesofsevenconcentric This content downloaded from 202. Ettinghausen 1961. they kings timesat a glimpseof his face.in aroundthesame betweenMarchandOctober1617. as "north-central in whatFindlyidentifies strategically in his hand. beendeclaredtobe thelargest bySotheby's inLondoninOctober1995.placed ing key India" (1992: 206). by anotherin paintingsin which they paying reducedto a smallorb-in the holds theemperorlightly world-frequently his capable hands. Thisconceitofhavingtheworldat his feet. sitting Europeanstyle.Jahangir undera redcanopy. 13).itskeyin hisbelt.Bichitr paintings Chandin 1620 (Arnoldand Wilkinson1936: pl. 13).10.roughly Mandusometime atlas. 1992: 56-58."Withthewholeworldat in his hands.Thiswas also paintedbyAbu'l Hasan.41. datedto 1637-1638 andbyan unknown circles(Topsfield1994:pl. and Hashim/Abu'l ShahJahanholdinga globemarked whichfeatures artist. clothedbut with unshod feet.he occupiesthe his feetand thefateof Indialockedup tightly centralpositionwithinhisuniverse"(1992: 206). forinstance. elaboratelybejeweled.See also a striking painting. 1988:pl. byAbu'lHasandonein 1623(Welchetal.34The mostmagnificent exampleof the latterhas also auctioned knownMughalpainting. themargins inance"(Beach 1981:203). treating literally emperors(such as thePersianshahand theTurkishsultan)are relegatedto ofhisworlddomhasbeenreadas "a clearstatement ofthepicture.thistime.holding an orbin thepalmofhis lefthand(Figure6). It has been the markers on theglobe represents suggestedthattheabsenceof territorial 33 For see especiallyDas 1978: 217-19."reads "The key of victoryover the two worldsis entrusted is shown Thattheemperor Abu'l Hasan's inscription. Okada analysesof thisportrait. rival whilefiguresrepresenting the worldas his footstool. as he does in his later. theterrestrial thatfeatures and is arguablytheearliestknownMughalportrait theemperor globe (Findly1992:206).In ittheemperor withtheMercator encounter fateful timeas Jahangir's nimbusaroundhis chairwitha magnificent sitsin a European-style radiating head.93 on Mon. in 34 See. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Persianversesbordering unmarked and note that"if a the picturedeclarehis "visage as world-illuminating.1618 venture.CONCEIT OF THE GLOBE IN MUGHAL VISUAL PRACTICE 773 throne is shownseatedon a rectangular Abu'l Hasan." all prostrate themwould the came to like Alexander hundred World. Dated by mostscholarsto 1615 and paintedin Ajmeras a companionpiece to of theMercatorAtlasto thisportrait anotherwell-known precedesRoe's presentation painting.he resortsto is showncarrydevicetovisualizeglobalmastery. another Jahangir interesting the the which fits into of in his a cummerbund.while his unshodfeetreston a delicatelypaintedglobe placed on a golden stand (Figure5).loomingoverothersassembledin his courtand virtually ignoringthemas he gazes beyondthemto a distanthorizon. 1620 (Okada 1992: frontispiece). In thiswork. Hashim/Ami Hasanin 1620(Gascoigne1971:facing115).33 AlthoughAbu'l Hasan does nottroubleto nametheterritories markedon the globe."and that"thekingsof Rum selvesa hundred [Turkey]and Chinawaitat thegate"(Sotheby's1995: 74-83). InEllisonFindly'swords.andpotential aroundhimin a mannerthatsuggeststhat rivalsdistantand foreignarranged is matched to court are him. keyhole globe. 61).

in 1620. thecrownin turnis placedon a globeon whichthelandmasses markedwhile prideof place is givento an escutcheon are indistinctively theglobe is inscribed with platesurmounted by a key(Figure7a).an inscription on the comerof the workdeclares. or to foreseethe attainment of a throneby suchmen"(1990: 75).since.who occasionallyarepicturedoffering theworlditselfto him. But thistimethe crownis again withindistinctive missingandthekeythatwas perchedatoptheescutcheon plateis nowinserted in thelock (Figure7b). lam] (Leach The conceitthattheMughalemperorwas masterof bothworlds-widely or"thevisible"('alam-i-suri)and"thespiritual" as "thetemporal" interpreted us rolein whichtheglobeis ('alam-i-ma'navi)-brings to another productive as it comesto participate in thepoliticsof cast in severalof thesepaintings. andfordiscussing thepainting withme.which toAsokDas forsharing thisreference.10. holdingtheglobewhilestanding with his hand restingon the hilt of his sword." (1988: 183). also by Bichtr. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."kalid-i-fath-i dau 'alambi-dastast [musalworldsis entrusted 1995: 388-89) (Figure7b). The bearded shaikhhas beenwidelyinterpreted as thetwelfth-century KhwajaMu'inuddin Chistiof Ajmer. whatthearthistorian Jeremiah refers to as "the dervish-oriented Losty kingand rule fromthe thirteenth ship" thatwas criticalto sovereignty century (1991: 76).once territorial delineations.774 SUMATHI RAMASWAMY overboth"thetemporaland spiritual worlds"(Sotheby's emperor'striumph In another 1995: 79). In theartistic productions oftheMughalcourt..Mu'inuddinis placed withinthesametemporal as the thatsepspace emperor."ClearlyJahangir has unlockedthesecretsof thevisibleand invisibleworlds..41. the stockphrase:"The key to the conquestof the two worlds['alam] is entrusted toyourhand"(Leach 1995:398). A companion piecetothispainting.35 magnificent portraitproducedaround 1620 by showstheemperor whichsimilarly Bichitr.showsa resplendent standing Jahangir holdinga globe.who Akbarreveredand to whosetombhe wenton frequent pilgrimages.Bichtrpainteda beardedmanpassingtheTimuridcrown to Jahangir.as theRegent of God. Tellingly. 5 I am indebted This content downloaded from 202.93 on Mon.theemperor is frequently the pictured receiving blessing andendorsement ofall manner ofholymendrawnfromdifferent butthe faiths. he shareshis Creator'somniscience . As Simon Digby observes. Thatit is notJahangir alone butalso ShahJahanwho wishedto have his of the worldendorsedby other-worldly men is confirmed overlordship by the severalpaintingsin the mid-seventeenth-century Padshahnama. Althoughlong dead by Jahangir's time.Sufi shaikhsheld "the power to bestowkingshipupon individuals whomtheyencountered. In RobertSkelton'sanalysis.So."thekey to conquestof both upper-left-hand to yourhand. erasingthecenturies aratedthem. in those Mu'inuddin Chisti globefigures especially paintings featuring Khwaja and Khwaja Khizr.

and accordedit prideof place on thewalls of the imperialpalace fromas earlyas 1608 (Bailey 1999: 134.93 on Mon.. 41). 38. The figurehas been interpreted .:pl.10.Khwaja Khizr offersthe elixirof life in a toreceiveitis a figure whohasbeenidentchalicepoisedatopa globe.It is almostas ifthesaviorof the worldhimselfis endorsingJahangir'sworldlyrule (Beach and Koch 1997: pl. Petersburg Album. Petersburg Albumis exceptionalin thisregard. In an earlierpaintingfrom1617.: 204). 37).invariablyshown associationwiththe and power.an "emblemof fertility would cause natureto becomegreenand lush" (ibid. 39 fora similarappearancein a paintingby Payag).Waiting ifiedas ShahJahan'sson.is emperor'sbody or his wieldingof authority anyoneotherthanthe emperorhimselfshown handlingthe globe or in contactwithit.ShahShuja."a similarpaintinghangsstrategically above This content downloaded from 202.theirimperialfather St. waitingto greethis mountedfigure.Theshrineis paintedinthebackground whilein theforeground. in a clear imitation are envisioned the angels bestowing globe upon theemperor(Okada 1992: 31 and As we learnfromEuropeanmissionaryvisitorsto the 246). theroofof itsgallery.41.celestial passingon theglobe.is a holyman formations a (Beach offering globe clearlymarkedwithvariousterritorial as the mythical and Koch 1997: pl.recently as ofBengal appointed governor 1996:pl. (Akimushkin visualpracticeis a I notedearlierthattheterrestrial globeinMughalimperial in royalprerogative par excellence. pls.Shah Jahanis picturedvisitingtheshrineof attributed KhwajaMu'inud-DinChistiatAjmer. Similarly. whichhas been called "Jahangir and Prince Khurram feastedby NurJahan.Khwaja Khizrholdsoutan orbto Jahangir holdingcourtin thejharoka (viewingbalcony)above himas wholaterwenton tobecomehissuche waitstogreethissonPrinceKhurram.playinga similarrole. In a 1640 paintingin the Padshah Nama by Murar. In a glorious1656 work to a Kashmiriartist.and on theleftthatof Christin his familiar guiseas SalvatorMundi.To theright mountedbetweenthebracketssupporting of theimperialgroupis theimageof theVirginMary. cessorShahJahan(ibid. Khwaja Khizr as well.Evenwhenhis sonsappearin thecompanyoftheterraqueous invariably accompaniesthem. published as the St. The emperor'sdominion-signified hereby the globe-seems to be receivingthe holy man's endorsement (ibid.if ever.or.The otherexceptionin the knownarchiveof Mughal paintingsis when Sufi elders are shown of Europeanmodels. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .CONCEIT OF THE GLOBE IN MUGHAL VISUAL PRACTICE 775 theachievements of Shah Jahanand whichhas been masterfully documents discussedby Milo Beach and Ebba Koch (1997).The paintingin the globe..Jahangir an orb. 199). see also Verma2005: 131-43). see pl. [whose]veryappearance mysticKhwaja Khizr.: in a paintingrecently from what is referred to 198-99).Rarely. was particularly fondof a paintingof Christholding Mughalcourt.thejharoka (viewing balcony) in which Jahangiris seated is flankedby Europeanpaintings.in a imageby Abid datedto 1635. appearsin otherShahJahaniperiodpaintings For example.

evenChristhimself.however.imperial in the resentthe constitutive role of the atemporaland the transcendent of a new imperialselfand newmodalitiesof wieldingroyalauthemergence to recognizethatas thisnewfangled artifact ority."arthistorian Richard fromthe analyzedseveralof theso-calledallegoricalpaintings Ettinghausen late Jahangiri period to concludethatthe emperor'sclosing years were withspiritual markedby a progressive and mysticalconcerns preoccupation to thepointof disdainforthetemporal world.a youthful Christat thecross sharestheframewithJahangir. theartistic has not productions very Ettinghausen particularly of an ideology emphasizedtheroleplayedby theglobe in theconstruction of Sufi-sanctioned kingshipthatapparently privilegesthe spiritualover the temporal. withdrawal fromworldlyaffairsas depictedin thepaintingsof theMughal courtare also markedby theincreasing presenceof theterrestrial globe in of that atelier.donepossshows a in costlyclothesand around haloed 1615.the mysticover the warrior. 5. butitis noteworthy thattheterrestrial globeis intothesemoreconventional of sovereignty regimesof transfer incorporated (Okada 1992:30-32). "the sacred personis depictedon the same level of "the realityas the livingemperor.776 SUMATHI RAMASWAMY themis-en-scene (StanleyClarke1922: pl."and also thatthe paintingsubstitutes of a Christianpaintingforthe personof the emperor sacred protagonist (Koch 2001: 10-11).datedto circa 1620. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Thisawarenessis signaledinnumerous paintings thatshowthecrownortheturbanclaspora preciousjewel beinghandedover fromone sovereign to another.93 on Mon. who is above him within the frame of the Of interest here is as that. And in a jointworkof Hashimand Abu'l Hasan.10.holdinga framed of his father. no. Jahangir awareofthepowerofdemonstrating thelegitimacy of successionin temporal termsas well.by notingthat.But it is ironicthatthe terrestrial artifact and visual icon thatwas beingdeployedin globe-the cartographic earthliness. thepalmofwhosehandrestson an orb(Gashalo is muchmoredistinctive. in similarportraits. richlyattired valuablejewels. even as coigne 1971: facing115).41.I wouldliketo complicate this thesesameyearsofapparent reading.lookingold and painting This content downloaded from 202.especiallyso giventhefraught in whichhe had circumstances ascendedtheimperial throne. maybe shownoffering globes to theemperor. ibly Jahangir. and his was fully sanctioning endorsing sovereignty. placed painting. and. reach-is mobilizedintheseMughalartistic torepproductions ingly. Jahangir's Christ'simageis clearlysubordinated to thatof theMughalemperor. Thusa painting byAbu'l HasanandHashim.itunleashed moral-cum-political relationship a different for the trajectory globein earlymodemIndiathantheone itinhabitedin contemporary Europe.It is also important coming in from Europe was incorporatedinto an older regime of the betweentheSufiand thesultan. Akbar. In hisinfluential 1961 essay"The Emperor'sChoice.paradoxically. 7). Whileshaikhsandputti.increasearlymodemEuropeanartto suggestworldliness.

Thiswasprinted inAntwerp titlepageillustration by toAkbar.Intriguingly.atother orbs.38 now andthenthey ingsmay may display Every as indistinctive with sometimes a band acrossthem. usuallya lion. appear running timesbearingobjectssuchas an escutcheon crown.in the same way as in the earlierpaintingby Abu'l Hasan and Hashimhis father was depictedoffering theworldto him.he is in theact of handingovertheglobe to his son.and disaron thesurfaceoftheglobe(1999: 83).Ebba Koch has written potential generally eloquently aboutthisimagery ofdad-o-daam.lyingdownpeaceablywithits victim(daanm). Okada 1992:27painting.41.Jahangir holds a globe on whichis inscribeda clusterof buildings. This content downloaded from 202. whichfeatures eer's TheAllegoryof Faith (1669-1670) and The Geographer(1668) thatreproduceJodocus Hondius'1618 production (Welu 1975).ora cup plateortheTimurid ina 1629portrait theelixiroflife. 1988: This substantiates earlier (Welch pl. 31. 38 Lippincott observesthatEuropeanartistsas well were"oftencavalier. inwhoseshadowthepeacefulexistence of menunfolds" et al. bearing byHashimofShahJahan donesoonafterhe succeededto thethrone.preservethisking. As I havenoted. and Lowry1983. a lamb. mostwide-spread motifusedby imperialartists to adornglobes:theimageof a ferocious beastof prey(dad).who holds out his handsin frontof him. Nonetheofterritories intheirdepictions minglyinventive" in termsof the less.36 Similarly. Jesuit Christian images. my of theglobe intoan olderideologyof kingship pointabouttheincorporation sanctioned butthisportrait also illustrates whatmightbe the by Sufimystics.10.in a paintingproducedby an unknownartist around1645. the"ruleroftheworld"is shownon topoftheworld. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .eachholdingscrollson whichareinscribed a prayer: "O God.orVermidentifiable Behaimglobemanufactured thehistorically (1533).216.1 December1969. 37 Sotheby'sCatalogue. backtotheinfluence exerted on Mughalartists ofthe bythecirculation imagery oftheRoyalPolyglot Bible. "thepoweroverdad-o-daam demonstrates thepoweroftheuniversal rulerwhobyhisregalcharallegorically ismareverses thelawsofnature andbringsinimical theoppressor andthe nature. toa peacefulco-existence" (2001: 116).37 Thereis a lastconceitforwhichimperial artists resorted totheglobeinorderto flatter theirroyalpatrons.theglobesthatfigure in thesepaintor not identifiable territories. 62) (Figure8).93 on Mon.careless.While Akbarholds an ornamented jewel and looks at Shah Jahan.lot 152. andcomments. Akbaris on displayalong withhis son and grandson. as thelattergazes uponhim(Okada appearsto be handingoverto Jahangir 1992: pl.Koch writes.CONCEIT OF THE GLOBE IN MUGHAL VISUAL PRACTICE 777 and dressedin purewhite.ExamplesincludeHolbein'sThe Ambassadors distribution in 1492.Shetracestheimpulseofthis oppressed.alongwitha hostof Plantin between1568and 1572andwas presented missionto his courtin 1580.whichis inturn represented bya globeadornedwithtwogroups ofholymen.thisfriend ofmystics. 27). in manyinstancesartistssoughtto pictureglobesand maps meticulously of land and wateron theirsurface.by thefirst of suchimagesfortheirown "theMughalswerequickto realizethepotential 36 Foranalysesofthisintriguing see especiallyDas 1978: 147.holdsa darkgreenorbin his handthathe fragile.

116-29. perhaps kindofempireis enabledbythejustandmoralrulerofthesovereign.. WhatMignolocharacterizes as the"geometric rationalization of space" thatmodemscientific was beginning to inaugurate in cartography the Westaroundthe same timeis magnificently countermanded by such an enchantedimageryin whicha verydifferent kindof dominionis asserted (1995: 222-23).41. withina fewdecadesintothevisualproductions of theMughalworkshopto forthe imperialpatrons. The successof this[motif] in Mughalartwas based on thefactthatit relatedgenerally to therolethatanimalsymbolism tradition . one "wherethelionhas sipped milkfrom theteatofthegoat"(Koch2001: 19).orevenerasethedelineated on itssurface.blur..generatedcertainly Mughal theirimperialpatrons.. [I]trepresented a visualexpression playedin theIslamicpictorial oftheancient ideathatpeaceamongtheanimalswasbrought abouta justrulerabove all by theKoranicmodelof rulership.. Solomon-whichhad beenused to eulogizeMuslimprinces.It generatean aura of grandeurand singularity remainedthoughan elusiveand exclusiveprestigeobjectuntilwell intothe colonialperiod. globetohide. lies in deploying theterrestrial as the on globe ground whichto play out thisgoldenage dramaof peace and plenitudeamongthe beastsas a signof idealkingship andrule(Koch 2001: 1-11. ..93 on Mon. the atelier's that a and even Mughal deployment suggests verydifferent. In earlymodemEuropeanarttheterrestrial globeis in many casesmeticulously as so to dominion overspecific terpainted signify (intended) ritories(Lippincott 1999: 76-77. Welu 1975: 541-44). By contrast.Thedad-o-daam as a visualsupadded to theterrestrial plement. territories is perhapsthemostpowerful reminder we haveof an ofdifference andalterity. Verma 2005: 67-71). theglobedoes notstandas a sovereign sphere This content downloaded from 202. 83. Fornow. The extensively artistic innovation withthe complicity of here.. discussedearliertopointouthow.evenintheMughal Abu'l Hasan'spaintings whentheterrestrial entered century. Hasan'spainting ofcirca1620. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . India. superior one in whichthestrong andweakcan co-exist.10.itwas neversimplytaken globefirst on boardorcirculated inthemannerintended In Abu'l byitsoriginalcreators.whenmissionaries and colonialeducatorsattempted to introduce it intothe schoolroom.778 SUMATHI RAMASWAMY themselves withChristian purposesand surrounded symbolsto enhancetheir auraas semi-divine rulers." (Beach andKoch 1997: 137).I have demonstrated elsewherethatthenative nonethelesscontinuedto put this pride of the new Europeanscience to affect-laden and enchanted uses alongsidethemoreprofaneand seculartasks ofpedagogyandassertions ofstatepowerforwhichitwas dominantly destined letmeconcludebyreturning totwoof (Ramaswamy 2003).whereJahangir is envisioned the slaying AbyssinianMalik'Anbar(Figure3).. emergent cartography GLOBAL CONFRONTATIONS Theterrestrial was onlyintroduced into globeas an objectandas representation India in the lateryears of the sixteenth but it was incorporated century.however.

followas Europeancartography untoitself. Arnold. he placedEarthon thebackofa bull.TheIndianConquest Art:TheMughals.almostin defianceof the purposesforwhichthe free- fromthe1490sbymenlikeMartin Behaim.the directions.. tellshowinthefirst on a support. fixing place from the Sufipoet and he ofGod'screative twelfth-century power.thebullon a fish. ofToronto Press. Peterburg Muraqqa'. This content downloaded from 202. theJesuits 57. God usedthemountains Faridal-Din'Attar:"Atthebeginning Earth's facewiththewaters ofOcean. REFERENCES Akimushkin. ofCatholic 1998." theearth DivineShadow'scoming. In some partsof the whichrestsupona fishswimming theearthis imagined as a hybrid Muslimworld.Then andwashed as nailstofixtheearth. Oleg F. Arton theJesuitMissionsin Asia and Latin America.then.S.whichinturn the paintingreads.CONCEIT OF THE GLOBE IN MUGHAL VISUAL PRACTICE 779 ofthedaywouldhaveit. Beatty:A 3 vols.I larity thankAzfarMoin fordiscussingthispointwithme. TheLibraryof ChesterA.whowas savedfromthegreatfloodby it has beenspeculated as Matsya. meana capitulation to European Mughalvisualpracticedid notnecessarily and defiworldviewsbutinsteadprovokeda complexassertionof difference themediation ance through oftheimperialatelier.:Albumof Indianand Persian Miniatures fromthe 16th throughthe 18th Centuryand Specimensof PersianCalligraphy by 'Imadal-Hasani. ed.thattheearthis suspendedin theunidemonstrate thatgoingglobalin thesepaintings versefreeofexternal supports.even Hindulaws are respected"(1988: suggest. of Instead 185).in the slightlylaterpaintingby the same artist (Figure4). "Through is raisedup ontheFish-bull. 12 Jan 2015 13:07:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . toIran (traced bysomescholars conceptions cosmological ingclassicalIslamic backtoIndia). on Aninscription ona largefishwithscales.theox hasbeenreplaced bya manwho supported turn is Manu. standing spherewas designed of the thedivinefelicity and GerardMercator.ThomasW.41. ArtJournal andImperial MuralPainting. "ziyumn-i zill-iillahizamingashtasamkbargav-mahi" (Leach1995:400)..sincetheearthwas oscillating resting God createdan angelwho tookiton his shouldersand graspeditwithhis hands. Bailey.. accepting.the fish. 1:24-30. maqdam-i in is earth one ofthemysteries "The of the As Skelton observes. 1996. 1999. London:OxfordUniversity Press.This leads Skeltonto Vishnuin his firstincarnation the Just "Under King.V. itselfborneupon a giantbull angel had as his supporta rectangular in thewater"(van Donzel 1978: 401). and J. CatalogueofIndianMiniatures.Wilkinson. rockof greenhyacinth.Milan:LeonardoArteSrl.andthefishon theair" (1988: 182). Toronto: University inclassicalMuslimcosmologywas torepresent theworldas a flatdisc 39 A dominant tendency inall "A tradition . theearthlyglobe whichsupportsthegrandMughal'sbodyis in onthebackofa fish. ages.GauvinAlexander.1542-1773." quotes ofthecenturies.itismadetorest andeventually andancient perhaps Babylonia.1936.10.93 on Mon. Similarly. The St.theanimalthatsupports ofbullandfish.39 stands onanox. primafacie.Instead. GemmaFrisius.Thepopuofthisbeliefis also obviousfromitsdiscussioninthewidelyreadShahnamahbyFirdausi.

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