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Surviving the Next Economic Crisis: Corporate

entrepreneurship strategies of Thai automotive SMEs

Dr. Laddawan Lekmat, School of Business, University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce, Thailand
Dr. John Chelliah, Business School, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

This paper examines the antecedents to corporate entrepreneurship (CE) in Thailands auto-parts
manufacturing industry in the post Asian financial crisis era using a mixed-method approach. There is a
lack of research on CE strategies of SMEs in response to the Asian financial crisis in developing Asian
countries. This paper presents a model based on existing CE theory where organizational strategy,
culture and the environment impact on CE and organizational performance. Structural Equation
Modeling was used to analyze data collected from 220 chief executives/deputy chief executives who
participated in this research. The results suggest that environmental and organizational factors impact on
CE which in turn influences firm performance in terms of both financial and non-financial aspects.
Significantly, non-financial performance was found to influence financial outcomes. This paper
demonstrates that CE is important not only for wealth creation but also for efficient processes and
operations, all of which reflect on overall performance. As there is a dearth of empirical research in this
area, this paper makes a useful contribution to knowledge by highlighting the CE initiatives of Thai SMEs
to survive future crisis and stiff competition in the Asian region.
Keywords: corporate entrepreneurship; financial crisis; emerging economies; antecedents; mixedmethod research.
Entrepreneurship is an important feature of organizational and economic development as well as
wealth creation (Antoncic and Hisrich, 2004). Researchers and practitioners have increasingly been
interested in the concept because of the positive effect on revitalization and performance of firms
(Antoncic and Hisrich, 2004).
In recent years globalization and advances in technology have forced Thailand to re-evaluate its
economic strategies and policies (BOI 2006). Thailand suffered significantly during the Asian financial
crisis in 1997 when about one-third of the Thailands publicly listed companies were wiped out (Sebora,
Theerapatvong and Lee, 2010). During the crisis, individual entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship or
corporate entrepreneurship (CE) suffered significantly. In the aftermath of the crisis, entrepreneurs must
now compete more intensely against foreign competitors in the Asian region such as China (Looney,
2004). Thailand aims to improve its productivity and up-skill from low-cost high-productive labour as an
investment attraction to a knowledge-based economic system driven by innovation and cutting-edge
technology. Given that Thailand is undergoing economic transformation, cultivating entrepreneurship and
facilitating organizational transformation are therefore fundamental to economic growth and the wellbeing of many individuals (Pearce and Robinson, 2009). In Thailand, private business enterprises such
as auto-parts manufacturing firms play an important role in economic development, contributing to

employment, production, and national income as well as providing opportunities to lessen poverty
(Limsavarn, 2004). Thus, the focus on upgrading the capabilities of the Thai auto-parts manufacturing
companies is critical. As such, exploring CE may be one way to increase awareness of the auto-parts
manufacturing sectors competitiveness.
However, there has been very little research in antecedents and performance of CE in developing
countries and emerging economies, particularly Thailand (Sebora and Theerapatvong, 2010; Sebora et al.,
2010). Thailand is worthy of research in this area because it has one of the fastest growing economies in
South-East Asia. In addition, CEperformance relationships have been examined mainly based on
financial aspects, particularly growth and profitability, while non-financial criteria have not been
explicitly examined (Mair and Rata, 2004). Further, the literature has a quantitative bias ( Zahra,
Jennings, and Kuratko, 1999) which gives rise to the possibility of enriching the body of knowledge with
more qualitative research. This paper aims to fill these gaps in the literature using a mixed method
approach. The paper attempts to address these problems by investigating and exploring both external and
internal environments that stimulate entrepreneurship inside organizations, and entrepreneurial activities
outcomes in terms of both financial and non-financial performance.
CE is defined as entrepreneurship in an existing organization (Antoncic and Hisrich, 2001). CE is
viewed as an internal process in an existing firm that leads to a variety of innovations such as the renewal
of operations, and the creation of new products, services, processes and markets, resulting in sustain
growth and competitive advantage (Yiu and Lau, 2008). Thus, CE has been highlighted as a key factor for
economic transformation and development to foster innovation and wealth creation (Kontoghiorghes,
Awbre, and Feurig, 2005). Zahra et al. (1999) argue that CE is a knowledge-creation process. Dess et al.
(2003) support this view suggesting that CE promotes organizational learning and develops new
knowledge. CE is therefore recognized as an effective means for emerging-economy firms to revitalize,
reconfigure resources and transform into knowledge-based or innovation-oriented firms that are ready to
compete in the global economy (Antoncic and Hisrich, 2004; Yiu and Lau, 2008). This suggests that the
development and enhancing entrepreneurial mindset could also be of benefit to the Thai auto-parts
manufacturing firms.
Antoncic and Hisrich (2001) developed a multidimensional CE construct by integrating previous
research studies (Covin and Slevin, 1989; Knight, 1997) and found that their redefined measure of CE is
more complete due to a combination of four dimensions in a single study and is more parsimonious in
eliminating redundancy in the innovative dimensions, and is valid in a cross-cultural setting. Antoncic
and Hisrichs (2001) study was conducted in the United States, a developed country and Slovenia, a
transition economy. According to Antoncic and Hisrich, their research classified CE into four
characteristics. First, new business venturing refers to the creation of new business within the existing
company that are related to the firms current products and markets. Second, innovativeness involves
creation of new products, services, and technologies. Third, self-renewal refers to strategy reformulation,
reorganization, and organizational change. Finally, pro-activeness reflects top management orientation to
take risk and aggressively and proactively compete with industry competitors.
This paper extends the CE literature by integrating previous research findings of researchers such as
Antoncic and Hisrich (2001), Covin and Slevin (1991) and Zahra et al. (1999). Based on the works of these
researchers, the rationale for the development of a theoretical model of CE antecedents and performance for the

auto-parts manufacturing sector in Thailand is detailed and the relationships are illustrated in Figure 1. The
theoretical model is based on the simple premise that conditions in the environment and the organization
influences entrepreneurial activities in the firm which affects organizational performance.
Figure 1: The theoretical model of CE antecedents and effects

The external environment has historically been the focus as the predictor of CE (Covin and Slevin,
1991; Dess et al., 1997; Morris et al., 2008). Environmental conditions are viewed as a multidimensional
concept (Zahra, 1993b), which provides initial conditions that either facilitate or constraint a firms
entrepreneurial behaviour (Kollmann and Stockmann, 2008; Zahra, 1993a).
Environment variables including dynamism, hostility and heterogeneity, based on Miller and
Friesens (1983) study, are widely used in literature and are found to influence CE (Covin and Slevin,
1989; Kollmann and Stockmann, 2008; Lumpkin and Dess, 2001). Dynamism refers to the perceived
instability and continuing changes in the firms market. Organizations often respond to challenging
conditions found in dynamic or high technological environments by adopting an entrepreneurial posture
(Antoncic and Hisrich, 2004). Hostility, on the other hand, represents the degree of threat to the firm
posed by the intensity of the competition and the downswings and upswings of the firms principal
industry. It is more likely that firms will be entrepreneurial when competitors products change rapidly or
when customer needs fluctuate (Kollmann and Stockmann, 2008; Zahra and Garvis, 2000). Further,
heterogeneity encompasses variations among a firms markets that require diversity in production and
marketing orientations. Firms operating in many different markets are likely to learn from their broad
experience with competitors and customers. Thus, it is likely that entrepreneurial behaviour will follow
(Entrialgo et al., 2001; Morris et al., 2008). Therefore, environmental dimensions are expected to be
predictors of CE and the following hypothesis is put forward:
Hypothesis 1a: Environmental dynamism will have an impact on CE.
Hypothesis 1b: Environmental hostility will have an impact on CE.
Hypothesis 1c: Environmental heterogeneity will have an impact on CE.

The firms strategy is another variable influencing CE. The literature is highly supportive of the use
of the Miles and Snows (1978) typology in both small and large companies, and confirms that their
typology influences entrepreneurial activities (Moreno and Casillas, 2008). Miles and Snows strategic
orientation focuses on the direction and influence given by the top management to the firms overall
vision and direction. Four different strategies are identified based on organizational adaptation to the
changing operating environment: Prospector, Analyzer, Defender, and Reactor.
The Prospector type frequently adds to and changes its products and services and markets, consistently
attempting to be first in the market. Growth primarily arises from the development of new markets and the
expansion of product offerings (Shortell and Zajac, 1990). Unlike the Prospector, the Defender type tends to
emphasize maintaining market share through low cost and efficiency in narrowly defined market segments.
Firms adopting this orientation are non-adaptive, defensive, non-innovative and risk-aversive). Moreover, the
Analyzer type is an intermediate hybrid, combining the strengths of both the Prospector and the Defender into a
single system. Firms adopting this orientation protect existing products and markets through efficiency-oriented
strategies while cautiously penetrating new markets through intensified product or market innovation. Finally,
the Reactor type lacks a consistent strategy. Thus, because the Reactor strategy responds inappropriately to
environmental change and uncertainty, performing poorly as a result, and is then reluctant to act aggressively in
the future (Miles et al., 1978: 557) many researchers have tended to exclude the Reactor strategy (Conant et
al., 1990; Kald et al., 2000; Matsuno and Mentzer, 2000). Thus, this paper uses only three feasible strategy
types, Prospector, Analyzer and Defender, for evaluating the determinant effects on CE. The following
hypothesis is therefore put forwarded:
Hypothesis 2a: Prospector strategy will have an impact on CE.
Hypothesis 2b: Analyzer strategy will have an impact on CE.
Hypothesis 2c: Defender strategy will not have an impact on CE.
A general consensus in the literature is that corporate culture plays a critical role in shaping CE
(Morris et al., 2008; Russell and Russell, 1992). Culture that supports innovation tends to stimulate
organizational members to take CE initiatives (Kuratko et al., 2001; Russell, 1999).
Organizational culture characteristics such as management support, autonomy and work discretion,
reward and reinforcement, time availability, and loose organizational boundaries (Hornsby, Naffziger et.
al, 1993) are critical to foster an entrepreneurial culture in organizations (Antoncic and Hisrich, 2001,
2004; Antoncic and Scarlat, 2005). In Antoncic and Hisrichs (2001, 2004) studies, the organizational
support dimension is measured by items from Hornsby et al. (1993), and the findings indicate that
organizational support can be an important predictor of CE. In addition, Gray et al. (2003) also suggest
that culture influences the management style and shapes entrepreneurial behavior of individuals and
groups in the company at all levels. Based on this understanding, the following hypothesis is put forward:
Hypothesis 3: Organizational culture will have an impact on CE.
The literature highlights the importance of CE for improving a companys performance. The most
common measures of performance in CE studies are growth and profitability and the research findings

support a positive association between CE and financial performance (Antoncic and Hisrich, 2001, 2004;
Covin and Slevin, 1989;Wiklund and Shepherd, 2005; Zahra 1993b). On the other hand, measuring
performance employing non-financial criteria has been recognized recently in the CE field and some
researchers argue that non-financial criteria can be insightful in the early years of an entrepreneurial
project (Dess et al., 2003; Zahra, 1993a). Thus, non-financial criteria such as customer satisfaction,
employee satisfaction, quality of product and service and new product and service development can be
useful in evaluating the performance of CE (Carton and Hofer, 2006; Dess and Lumpkin, 2005). Research
findings support a positive association between CE and non-financial performance (Holt et al., 2007;
Mair and Rata, 2004). Therefore, CE is expected to be related positively to performance. The following
hypothesis is put forward:
Hypothesis 4a: CE will have a positive influence on financial performance.
Hypothesis 4b: CE will have a positive influence on non-financial performance.
This paper employed a mixed-method research, where both quantitative and qualitative methods
were used. The questionnaire survey was originally developed in English then translated into Thai and
then back-translated into English (Brislin, 1970). The questionnaire was pre-tested with six CEOs of Thai
auto-parts manufacturing firms (not included in the final sample) in order to ensure the integrity of the
translation and to improve the understanding of the questions.
400 companies were randomly selected from the Thailand Automotive Industry directory
20062007. CEOs or their deputies of the sample firms were selected to participate as they would be
most knowledgeable about the overall situation, activities and orientations of the firm (Fitzsimmons,
Douglas et al., 2005). Although the generalizability of findings of single-industry-based studies is limited,
a desirable feature of such studies is that they provide a greater degree of control over market and
environmental characteristics (Snow and Hambrick, 1980).
220 questionnaires were returned with 207 useable responses, yielding a 52% response rate. The
responses yielded 59.9 % small-sized to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and 40.1% were large
companies. Firms below 200 employees were classified as SMEs and 200 and above employees as large
companies. The firm size (number of employees) ranged from 12 to 27,500. The companies had been in
business for between five and 56 years with a mean of 17.99 years (SD = 10.80) and a median of 16 years
(N = 207). This shows that some of the companies covered in this study were not early start-up businesses
but could be considered to be in the later stages of business development.
In addition to the quantitative data from the mail survey, 10 CEOs or their deputies who participated in
the survey were selected for the interviews. Since quantitative and qualitative methods have different strengths
and weaknesses, it has been argued that researchers should try to use multiple research methods to provide
broader insights into issues being studied (Creswell and Clark, 2007). Therefore, in pursuit of broader insights
in relation to CE in the Thai automotive industry both quantitative and qualitative methods were deployed in
this study. The data was collected from February to November 2008.
A seven-point Likert-type scale was used in the research and specific reference was provided for
each measure. This is discussed below.

Environmental Conditions
13 items were used to measure environmental conditions. This instrument consisted of five items
measuring environmental dynamism, five items measuring environmental hostility, and three items
measuring environmental heterogeneity. This scale was developed by Miller and Friesen (1982, 1984).
Organizational Strategy
This measurement instrument for organizational strategy was developed by James and Hatten
(1995) based on the Miles and Snow (1978) classification. Descriptions for Prospector, Analyzer,
Defender and Reactor were used to measure organizational strategy. This approach enables firms to give
an objective response and avoids any unnecessary bias, where firms might try to give preferable
responses. The responses of the respondents were tabulated using three dummy variables. The Miles and
Snows typology was chosen in this study for three reasons. First, it is widely recognized in the
theoretical and empirical research in the literature on strategy, strategic management and entrepreneurship
(O'Regan and Ghobadian 2005;Vajanapoom, 2005).
The Prospector and Defender types classified by Miles and Snow exhibit similar attributes to
strategy archetypes identified in other studies, including the entrepreneurial and planning mode
(Mintzberg, 1973), the innovator and dominant type (Miller and Friesen, 1978), differentiation and cost
leadership (Porter 1980), and build and harvest (Gupta and Govindarajan,1984). Second, it is able to
measure strategy at a level of abstraction sufficient to apply across a wide variety of organizations and
industries, as research provides strong support for the perceptual measurement validity and reliability of
Miles and Snows strategic orientations (Shortell and Zajac, 1990). Moreover, the measurement
instrument is logically appealing since top managers perceptions largely define strategy, and it allows
rapid collection of substantial data (James and Hatten, 1995). Third, it focuses on the dynamic process of
adjusting to environmental change and uncertainty (Miles and Snow, 1978). Organizational adaptability
corresponds to an entrepreneurial orientation (Miller and Friesen, 1983).
Entrepreneurship is traditionally considered as a proactive process influenced by the external
environment. Thus, Miles and Snows (1978) typology is useful for analyzing the ways in which
organizations respond to changing environmental conditions; that is, the rate at which an organization
changes its products or markets to maintain alignment with its environment, and the subsequent
innovative-driven strategies it adopts. Miles and Snows (1978) typology focuses on the direction and
influence given by the top management to the firms overall vision and direction. Four different strategies
are identified based on organizational adaptation to the changing operating environment:
Prospector, Analyzer, Defender, and Reactor. This nature of this typology makes it appropriate for
study of CE in developing countries which are transitioning from the use of inputs from resource
mobilization to technical progress and efficiency.
Organizational Culture
12 items were used to measure organizational culture. Seven items measured management support,
autonomy/work discretion, and reward/ reinforcement. These items were developed by Hornsby et al.
(1993). One item that measured training was developed by Zahra (1993b), reflecting support activities for
creativity and innovation. Another four items were participative decision making, being open and
cooperative and teamwork. These items were developed by Christodoulou (1984).

Corporate Entrepreneurship
A 23- item instrument was used to measure corporate entrepreneurship. Four items measured new
business venturing, eleven items measured self-renewal, three items measured pro-activeness and five
items measured innovativeness. All these items were developed by Antoncic and Hisrich (2001) by
integrating two key measures: ENTRESCALE from Knight (1977) and the CE scale from Zahra (1993).
Firm Performance
An 8 item instrument measured financial performance. This instrument was developed by Hart and
Quinn (1993) and consisted of three items measuring financial performance, three items measuring business
performance and two items measuring organizational effectiveness. These scales addressed both financial and
non-financial aspects, providing a more holistic conceptualization of performance. To capture different aspects
of small and private enterprises business performance, CEOs perception of organizational performance
compared to their main industry competitors over the past three years were used (Dess et al., 1997).
Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for the quantitative data analysis as it allows for
simultaneous estimation of multiple and interrelated dependence relationships and provides a
conceptually appealing way to test theory and assesses how well the theory fits reality as represented by
data (Kline, 2005). SEM with AMOS 16 followed a two-step approach. Firstly, each of the measurement
models was evaluated and refined by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) prior to testing the full model.
When the models were validated, the results suggested high validity and reliability of the measurement
models. Then the assessment path analysis was performed to test relationships between CE and its
antecedents as well as its effects. In addition, content analysis was employed for qualitative data analysis
in the interpretative framework. Both data sets were integrated for the interpretation.
Based on the CFA results, the problematic items were removed in order to improve the fitness of
the model. 39 items were retained and these with the scale reliabilities are listed in Table 1. The results of
the measurement models showed good fit for all the constructs as follows:
environment construct 2 (17) = 22.48, p = 0.17, SRMR = 0.03, RMSEA = 0.04, GFI = 0.97 and CFI = 0.99;
culture construct 2 (48) = 87.99, Bollen-Stine Bootstrap p = 0.18, SRMR = 0.05, RMSEA = 0.06, GFI =
0.93 and CFI = 0.97;
CE construct 2 (84) = 116.73, Bollen-Stine Bootstrap p = 0.13, SRMR = 0.05, RMSEA = 0.04, GFI =
0.93 and CFI = 0.98; and
firm performance construct 2 (8) = 18.15, Bollen-Stine Bootstrap p = 0.05, SRMR = 0.04, RMSEA =
0.08, GFI = 0.97 and CFI = 0.98.
Table 1: Confirmatory factor analysis results and scale reliability
Constructs and items
Factor Loadings
Environmental Dynamism
Degree of change in technology
Degree of change in product and service
Degree of change in marketing practices
Environmental Hostility
Government policies



Constructs and items

Environmental Dynamism
Degree of change in technology
Degree of change in product and service
Competition in product quality
Environmental Heterogeneity
Degree of diversity of customers buying habits
Degree of diversity of competitors activity
Degree of diversity of required methods of production and service
Management Support
Management encouragement for creative and innovative activities
Support for small experimental projects
Seeding money to get projects off the ground
Training employees for creative and innovative activities
Allowing employees to make decisions about their work processes
Avoiding criticizing employees for making mistakes
Recognition the ideas of innovative people
Providing rewards contingent on performance
Participative decision-making processes in and between different
organizational levels
Widely communication of the companys mission, strategy and
objectives to employees
Communication and co-operation between different department
Teamwork rather than individual contributions
New business venturing
Broadening business lines in current industries
Pursuing new businesses in new industries that are related to current
Finding new niches for products in current markets
Entering new businesses by offering new lines and products
Companys spending on new product development activities
The number of new products added by the company
Product lines
Product changes
Revising the business concept
Reorganizing units and divisions
Coordinated activities among units
Adopting flexible organizational structures
Competitive posture (undo-the-competitors posture)
Decision-making style (bold, aggressive posture)
Risk-taking proclivity
Financial Performance
Profit in comparison with the major competitors in last 3 years
Cash flow in comparison with the major competitors in last 3 years
Sales growth in comparison with the major competitors in last 3 years
Non-financial Performance
New product/service development in comparison with the major

Factor Loadings



Constructs and items

Factor Loadings
Environmental Dynamism
Degree of change in technology
Degree of change in product and service
competitors in last 3 years
Quality of product/service in comparison with the major competitors in
last 3 years
Employee satisfaction in comparison with the major competitors in last
3 years
Note: 39 items were retained and 17 items were removed during confirmatory factor analysis


The results of the measurement model showed that all the items are loaded in their specified
constructs, with standardized loadings from a low of 0.32 to a high of 0.94. Most items were significant
with strong evidence of convergent validity. Then discriminant validity was assessed where the
construct are interrelated. Large correlations between latent construct (greater than 0.85) suggest a lack of
discriminant validity (Anderson and Gerbing, 1988; Hair et al., 2006). All factor pattern coefficients and
factor inter-correlations were significant, ranging from 0.41 to 0.52 for environment construct; from 0.50
to 0.84 for culture construct; from 0.37 to 0.74 for CE construct; and r = 0.59 for firm performance
construct. Thus, all factors display discriminant validity.
After the acceptable convergent and discriminant validities of the measurement models were
specified, the full structural model of CE antecedents and effects was tested. The model was found not to
fit the data well, 2 (82) = 228.85, p = 0.00, CMIN/DF = 2.79, SRMR = 0.07, RMSEA = 0.09, GFI = 0.88
and CFI = 0.89. The 2 value, GFI and CFI were a less satisfactory fit. An inspection of the modification
indices with theory justification suggested that adding structural paths from environmental hostility to
financial performance, Defender strategy to non-financial performance and non-financial
performance to financial performance could improve the model, CMIN/DF = 2.45, SRMR = 0.06,
RMSEA = 0.08, GFI = 0.90 and CFI = 0.91. Thus, the adjusted model is preferable, as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2: Final model of CE antecedents and performance

The model accounts for 68 % of the variance in CE, 43 % of the variance in non-financial
performance, and 33 % of the variance in financial performance. All antecedents are found to be

significant predictors of CE, and CE is a significant predictor of firm performance. The Analyzer strategy
is the most important determinant of CE, followed by the Prospector strategy (H2a and H2b supported)
and organizational culture (H3 supported). The standardized coefficients of all paths range from 0.53 to
0.67, p < 0.001. As expected, the Defender strategy does not have an impact on CE (p = 0.06) (H2c
supported). The other paths found to be significant at the 0.05 level; environmental dynamism and
heterogeneity have a significant impact on CE (H1a and H1c supported) but a negative effect on
environmental hostility (H1b partially supported). In addition, CE has the most important impact on nonfinancial performance, with a standardized coefficient of 0.71 (p < 0.001) (H4b supported). CE was also
found to have a significant influence on financial performance, with a standardized coefficient of 0.22 (p
< 0.05) (H4a supported).
There are three additional results from the model. The study found non-financial performance to
have a significant impact on financial performance. Furthermore, a significant result was that
environmental hostility has a direct negative impact on financial performance and also perceived to have
a negative relationship with CE as an intermediating construct to organizational performance. The
Defender strategy was also found to be a significant factor influencing non-financial performance directly
and has no influence on CE.
The findings of the qualitative study not only validate the results of the quantitative study but also
uncover unanticipated findings (see Table 2 below) For example, shortage of skilled labour and customer
satisfaction are found as variables that should be included in environmental hostility and non-financial
performance respectively.



Table 2: Quantitative findings confirmation of qualitative findings

Indicator Variables
Degree of change in technology

Degree of change in products and

Degree of change in marketing

Competition in product quality

Government policies

Skilled labor
Degree of diversity of customers

buying habits
Degree of diversity of competitors

Degree of diversity of required

methods of production and service

First in the market

Broad product-market domain

Rapid response to opportunity

Aggressive product and market

Take calculated risks

Monitor the actions of major

competitors for new ideas

Relatively stable product-market

Careful new product development













Indicator Variables
and market penetration only after
their feasibility has been proved
Risk-adjusted efficiency
Limited and narrow product-market
Tight control
Emphasis on efficient operation for
lower cost
Seldom change their technology,
structure, and production method
Management encouragement for
creative and innovative activities
Support for small experimental
Seeding money to get projects off the
Allowing employees to make
decisions about their work processes
Avoiding criticizing employees for
making mistakes when being
Recognition of the ideas of
innovative people
Providing rewards contingent on
Participative decision-making
processes in and between different
organizational levels
Wide communication of the
companys mission, strategy
objectives to employees
Communication and cooperation
between different departments
Teamwork rather than individual
Profitability level/return on assets
Cash flow
Sales growth
New product/service development
Quality of product/service
Employee satisfaction
Customer satisfaction



Note: Table 2 illustrates the confirmation of the quantitative findings by the qualitative results. The results confirm that the linkage
between the constructs in Thai auto-parts manufacturing firms, measuring CE and performance, is well supported statistically and
conceptually. They can be seen or considered to be key characteristics that help drive the Thai auto-parts manufacturing firms to
cultivate and implement entrepreneurial processes and behaviors in order to achieve excellent performance and competitive

This paper tested a model of CE antecedents and performance in auto-parts manufacturing firms in
Thailand. The interview findings of this research help clarify the role of determinant variables in
entrepreneurial orientations and activities and the effects of these activities on firm performance.
Therefore, data collection based on quantitative and qualitative approaches can help improve both the
reliability and validity of CE research, and provide better understanding of the antecedents and
performance of CE in Thai context.
The results of this paper from both qualitative and quantitative data showed that the external
environment is an important determinant of CE. This affirms that from environmental management and
entrepreneurship perspectives, the external environment cannot be separated from the entrepreneurial
process (Dess et al., 2004; Zahra, 1993b). Environmental dynamism and heterogeneity offers
opportunities that can be derived from the development of new products and technologies and from
access to new markets. The findings from interviews support the arguments that entrepreneurial firms not
only respond to the challenges in those environment variables but also create changes in such
environments (Lumpkin and Dess, 2001; Miller and Friesen, 1982; Wheelen and Hunger, 2008). For
example, changes in technology such as electronics systems require firms to commit to research and
development and to develop new products and technology if they do not want to be surpassed by their
competitors. Furthermore, consumer demands such as for smaller and energy efficient cars require firms
to develop new products and technology. New product, market and technology added by the firms also
create changes in the environments, since those leading firms create new competition in the market.
The Thai auto-parts manufacturing firms were found to become conservative rather than
entrepreneurial in a hostile environment. The respondents in this research see a hostile environment as a
threat rather than an opportunity for entrepreneurs. This has been the response of both the SMEs and the
large companies. This is contrary to the arguments in the literature and findings reported in past research
(Covin and Slevin, 1989; Zahra and Garvis, 2000). Industry and country specifics as well as measurement
issues may be the reasons for different research findings reported in the literature. The interviews
suggested that firms are more cautious in unfavorable conditions, such as unstable political conditions and
complexities caused by the international financial crisis impacting both domestic and international
markets. In a volatile environment, they emphasize marketing (e.g., strength of brand and image),
customer service, product quality, and operational efficiency for survival rather than high growth and
profit. The respondents perceive being innovative in hostile environmental conditions as too risky and
involving high cost for any innovation and change; this is consistent with the argument of Russell (1999).
Miller and Friesens also support (1983: 223) this perception by suggesting that extensive risk taking,
forceful pro-activeness, and a strong emphasis on novelty can be very hazardous when competitive
conditions are becoming more taxing.
Further, this paper found that environmental hostility has a negative impact on financial performance.
The effect of external environment on performance is consistent with the strategic management theory and
market-based view, where the external environment plays an important role in explaining an organizations
financial performance (Dess et al., 2004; Ricceri, 2008). The interviews suggest that when environmental
hostility intensifies, profits might decline because the cost of a firms operations can increase due to its attempts
to build a stronger market position, establish its brand name recognition, and develop customer loyalty, as was
found in past research (Zahra, 1993b; Zahra and Garvis, 2000).
Furthermore, the results from the interviews indicate that a lack of skilled labor impedes the

development of entrepreneurial projects. The qualified workforce, particularly technicians, engineers and
management personnel, are insufficient to meet the needs of the Thai auto-parts manufacturing
companies. The scarcity of labor has not been widely measured in past research. However, this finding is
consistent with studies of Miles and Friesen (1982) and Zahra and Garvis (2000), which measure labor as
an environmental hostility construct.
In relation to the impact of organizational strategy on CE, interestingly, the Analyzer strategy
exhibits a slightly greater impact on CE than the Prospector strategy; however, a high degree of similarity
between the Prospector and Analyzer strategies in determining CE was revealed. This high degree of
similarity is consistent with past research (e.g., Matsuno and Mentzer, 2000; Shortell and Zajac, 1990),
indicating that the Prospector and Analyzer strategies are similar to each other but are significantly
different to the Defender strategy. Furthermore, Matsuno and Mentzer (2000) suggest that firms that
adopt the Analyzer strategy may engage in an equally high level of market orientation to avoid falling too
far behind companies that pursue the Prospector strategy. The Analyzer strategy has potentially greater
applicability to CE firms in this paper since competitive advantage in the auto-parts industry is
determined by lower cost, high quality and innovation. The interviews supported that the global
competition has intensified the need for cost-based strategy whilst advances in technology are requiring
Thai auto-parts manufacturing firms to become innovative. This result corroborates the argument of Dess
et al. (1999) suggesting that a combination of low cost and innovation is an important aspect of successful
strategies in the context of CE and is becoming common management practice of the worlds leading
companies, such as IBM and Procter and Gamble (Wheelen and Hunger, 2008).
In contrast, the Defender strategy does not have an impact on CE. Results from the interviews
indicated that the firms embracing the Defender strategy are more likely to rely on more traditional
products in their industry, rather than emphasizing newer technology and product types. They focus on
overall low cost by improving the efficiency of their existing production and operations while
maintaining quality. These firms, particularly SMEs, do not have resources and access to modern
machines and new technologies. This outcome is consistent with prior studies stating that firms using the
Defender strategy show a tendency to avoid risk in favor of protecting the companys market (Kald et al.,
2000; Miles and Snow, 1978; Miller and Friesen, 1982). Such firms tend to be non-entrepreneurial
(Brown et al., 2001).
This paper found additional insights into the effect of the Defender strategy on non-financial
performance. Miles and Snow (1978) suggest that any of the three strategic styles (Defender, Prospector
and Analyzer) tend to perform equally well if they respond consistently to the challenges in all areas of
operation. The findings of Conant at el. (1990) supported this notion. Although the influence of the
Defender strategy on market competencies is comparatively weak, overall performance is comparatively
favorable. Conant et al. found that the Defender strategy possesses distinctive operational competencies
such as knowledge of customers and effectiveness of cost control. They further explain this finding
regarding the concept of equifinality suggested by Hrebiniack and Joyce (1985) and propose that the same
outcomes can be accomplished in multiple ways with different resources, diverse transformation
processes, and various methods or means.
In terms of influence of culture on CE, the variables, including management support, autonomy, reward
and involvement are found to facilitate organizational members to engage in entrepreneurial initiatives and
efforts. This finding corroborates the previous study (Antoncic and Hisrich, 2004; Cohen, 2002; Russell, 1999;
Covin and Slevin, 1991). This paper supports that a firms success in engaging in CE occurs when the spirit of
entrepreneurship permeates every part of the organization (Dess et al., 2004).

Furthermore, findings from the quantitative and qualitative data of this paper showed that CE has
positive and significant influences on both financial and non-financial performance. CE has greater direct
impact on non-financial performance than on financial performance, which is consistent with the study of
Mair and Rata (2004). Mair and Rata suggest that performance measurement based primarily on financial
performance measures lacks the focus needed for internal and management control. Thus, there is a strong
need for the multidimensional nature of the performance construct when exploring the CEperformance
relationship (Kollmann and Stockmann, 2008). Some CE ventures require extensive investments and may
take several years before they pay off. It is possible that short-term profitability may suffer from engaging
in entrepreneurial activities in the early phase of a project (Kollmann and Stockmann, 2008;Wiklund and
Shepherd, 2005). Therefore, the primary advantage of using non-financial performance measures in
conjunction with financial performance measures is when they provide information about opportunities
that have been created, but not yet financially realized (Carton and Hofer, 2006).
Importantly, the findings of this paper indicate that non-financial performance has a positive and
significant effect on financial performance, which support the argument of Atkinson, Waterhouse and Wells
(1997: 28), asserting that a companys success is created by monitoring and managing its performance on the
secondary objectives, since success in achieving performance on the primary objectives follows from the
secondary objectives. The primary objective of a firm is usually financial aspects relevant to maximizing
shareholders wealth such as profit, whereas the secondary objectives are usually non-financial aspects and
involve process performance such as quality, product and process innovation, customer and employee
satisfaction (Dess et al., 1999; Venkatraman and Ramanujam, 1986). In regard to this approach, this paper
therefore suggests that a company must focus on both results and causes.
Furthermore, the findings from the interviews reveal that customer satisfaction is very important
regarding non-financial performance. The interviews indicate that customer satisfaction is the primary
justification resulting from entrepreneurial initiatives. Customer satisfaction reflects the overall
performance because it can impact on financial performance in terms of profitability and growth. This
confirms prior studies suggesting that all relevant stakeholders such as satisfied customers and satisfied
employees are prerequisites for a firms performance (Atkinson et al., 1997; Mair and Rata, 2004; Zahra
et al., 1999; Sebora et al., 2010).
This paper tested empirically the impact of environmental and organizational factors on CE as well as
the relationship between CE and firm performance in the auto-parts manufacturing firms in Thailand, a
developing country. This paper suggested that both external and internal environments influence CE.
Internal organizational factors, particularly strategy and culture, have a greater impact on CE than external
environments, suggesting that internal environments of firms are the main drivers of CE. CE is a complex
phenomenon that involves the entire firm, rather than exclusively individuals or parts of firms, acting in
entrepreneurial ways. Therefore, clear and effective strategies for innovation from top management and an
entrepreneurial culture shared among organizational members tend to cultivate CE successfully. Although
external environmental conditions have less impact on CE, they are also important because external forces
influence a companys choice of direction and action and, ultimately, the firms internal process. Moreover,
the results of this paper demonstrated that CE is a good direct predictor of firm performance in terms of both
financial and non-financial aspects. This paper enriches CE literature by showing that CE is important not
only for wealth creation but also for efficient processes and operations, all of which reflect on overall

performance. Therefore, CE is an effective means by which Thai auto-parts manufacturing firms can
improve their performance and achieve competitive advantage. Thailands economic growth has been built
on the use of inputs from resource mobilization rather than technical progress and efficiency (Seebora and
Theerapatvong, 2010). This weakness can only be overcome by continuous innovation and creation of new
ideas. Building Thailands long run competitiveness and increasing efficiency would lead to more
sustainable growth for this country in the Asian region.
This paper makes several contributions to the CE literature. First, the findings of this paper,
contributes to the theory development of CE and provide a foundation for further research in this field in
developing countries. Second, the results of this paper support theoretical and empirical evidence from
the US and other developed countries that CE is an effective means for superior performance in the Thai
context. In addition, this paper empirically tests CEperformance relationships, which include various
aspects of financial and non-financial performance, which may be necessary to represent the overall
performance construct as well as contribute to a better understanding of complex CEperformance
relationships. Finally, this paper provides insights into the impact of non-financial performance on
financial performance as it is found in the adjusted model. To the authors best knowledge there is no
existing empirical research in this area in CE.
The findings of this paper support the management and strategic management theories that nonfinancial performance may be a critical factor in improving financial performance. Non-financial
outcomes may be useful in assessing short-term outcomes, and could then be used with longer-term
financial measurements to assess potential causal relationships (Carton and Hofer, 2006; Dess et al.,
1999; Zahra, 1993a). Thus, this paper helps distinguish the two performance constructs and delineates the
relationship between them in CE. Also, the results in this paper establish new ground for further research
to study the relationship.
This paper offers some implications that inform managerial practice. Top management should
shape and activate CE; especially to improve performance in a rapidly changing business environment
and uncertainty in the global economy. In 1997, Thailand was among the countries worst affected by the
Asian financial crisis. Consequently, growth, particularly growth via innovation, is viewed as the key
priority for Thai SMEs long-term survival and prosperity. CE is viewed globally as a key driver of
sustainable growth and competitive advantage in companies and of economic development in nations. It
is therefore crucial that for Thai SMEs to understand the forces that drive CE.

Since this study focuses only on one industry, future research would be useful to test the model of the
antecedents to and effects of corporate entrepreneurship in other industries in order to validate measures, test
hypotheses, and develop theories. Moreover, future researchers need to explore the stability of the results, how
environmental and organizational factors affect the rates and types of firm-level entrepreneurship and the
resultant outcomes of entrepreneurial activities by collecting data from other countries.
Secondly, a survey research design that relies on a single informant per organization has reliability
concerns, one being common method bias. The use of multiple informants and multiple methods should
be considered in the future to enable researchers to examine closely the extent to which such a bias is
present (Matsuno and Mentzer, 2000) so that greater measurement accuracy might be achieved and the
validity of findings confirmed (Bierly and Daly, 2007). Further, perceptions of senior managers obtained
from self-reported questionnaires create functional biases and an inability to identify sources of variation

in responses. Top management team members from different functions such as production, marketing and
finance might perceive the dimensions of corporate entrepreneurship differently (Lyon et al., 2000). As
such, different views might lead to inconsistent findings when corporate entrepreneurship is assessed
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