RESEARCH PROJECT

FOREGN IMMIGRATION IN SPAIN

PRINCE OVIEMUNO EKPOLO
TEACHER:
00/00/000

INDEX

1. INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................1
2. IMMIGRATION........................................................................................................... 3
2.1 Definition o meaning of the word immigration.......................................................3
2.2 Causes of the immigration....................................................................................4
2.3 The concept of Integration....................................................................................6
3. TYPES OF MIGRATIONS..........................................................................................8
3.1 Internal and external migrations...........................................................................8
3.2 Temporary and permanent migrations..................................................................9
4. HISTORY OF THE IMMIGRATION IN SPAIN..........................................................10
4.1 The need to design Integration policies..............................................................11
4.2 Labour incorporation and the current Economic crisis........................................12
5. THE OBSTACLES FOR THE IMMIGRANT..............................................................15
5.1 In the country of origin........................................................................................15
5.2 In the country of reception..................................................................................15
6.CONSEQUENCES OF THE IMMIGRATION.............................................................16
6.1 Demographic cosequences................................................................................16
6.2 Socio-cultural consequences..............................................................................17
6.3 Economic consequences....................................................................................18
6.3.1 Positive visions..........................................................................................18
6.3.2 Negative visions.........................................................................................19
7. THE POLITICS OF ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGNIMMIGRANTS OF SCARCE
RESOURCES..........................................................................................................20
7.1 Problems and needs of individuals and families.................................................20
7.1.2 The work....................................................................................................20
7.1.3 Housing......................................................................................................21
7.1.4 Education...................................................................................................22
7.1.5 Health........................................................................................................ 24

8. CONCLUTION......................................................................................................... 25

.........................................................26 10.......................................... ANNEXES.........................................9.................25 ...................................... BIBLIOGRAPHY....................

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if it’s to choose which of these immigrants can be established in the country and those that cannot. so as of the immigrant people and the population of the city. if it’s to be divided among different countries. what relations do they 1 . if it is to take them back directly to their country of origin or welcome them with open arms. But I have had more problems with the time since I have entertained myself in doing other things and I neglected the research work. although it was difficult to select the information to ensure that it is clear and understandable. thematically focus on the human point of view. I wanted to treat immigration from the social area. in a general way. adapt to a new climate. Objectives As I have said before. INTRODUCTION The topic I chose for my research project is learning about the foreign immigration in Spain. In my research project I am not trying to find out a solution to the problem of immigration. where they have to change housing. Not because it is problematic to receive immigrants in our country. the focus has been on controlling the flow of immigrants and combating illegal migration. to be able to know how the immigrants feel here. Note that these people have to come and start a new life without knowing anyone. but for the mass of the influx of immigrants. the objectives of my research project consist in learning about the foreign immigration in Spain and the social conditions and labor life of the immigrants. but to learn about immigrants that come to our country because the situation that they are is very different from the people in the host country. limitations with regard to the information I have not found too much.1. From the beginning. Therefore. I chose this topic because I thinkIt seems interesting to analyze the current situation of these people when they arrive in another country and also to know the degree of willingness. and easiness of integration and adaptation of immigrants when they arrive in the new country. No one knows how to fix this issue: if it comes to closing the door to immigrants who are coming now. Immigration has been a problem for the host society Spanish.

migratory movement. and their first impressions of this country. Later I focused on the practical part of the research which includes surveys to immigrants from the two neighborhoods in the city of Tarragona. 2 . political. one of which I live Campoclar and the other Torreforta (Torreforta Institute) in which I am studying. etc. which includes the interview to the immigrant’s students and parents asking about their decision to migrate. etc. what intentions they have with regard to their future. books. Finally the practical part of my project. articles. if they want to remain here permanently or only temporarily. First of all. etc. I started to work on it.maintain with the non-immigrant people of his locality of reception.). Methodology To be able to find the information I had to consult several sources of Internet (Google. I started with the introduction and secondly I find all the information about immigration. and what would they like to know from here and what not. the causes. what they feel living here. I realized that a research project on immigration can be quite complex if you study it from all areas such as economic. social. Wikipedia. in what difficulties they are. consequences. So as I got the idea of how the research would be. After I have raised these issues.

It represents one of the two options or alternatives of the word migration. web pages. which is applied to the movements of people from one place to another and that these transfers involve a change of residence either temporary or permanent. books. 3 . IMMIGRATION 2.2. as I have said before that is the entry into a country.1 Definition o meaning of the word immigration Collecting information from different bibliographic sources: dictionaries. region or determined place proceeding from other parts. region or determined place to go to a different one and immigration. which is the departure of people from a country. The two options of the migratory movements are: emigration. We could say that the currently understood meaning for the word immigration can be the following: Immigration is the entrance to a country of people born or comes from elsewhere.

this factor is often decisive since those who migrate from rural to urban tend to be young adults. to the point that in the rural exodus. but often they might even lose their life when it comes to totalitarian regimes. at least. Culture (religion. looking for a better standard of living.2. Many people who fear political persecution and revenge are leaving a country to take up residence in another or. The situation of hunger and misery in many developing countries force’s many migrants to risking their life (and even lose it many times). between therefore.) has too much weight in the decision. customs. a direct relationship immigration and. 4 . socio-economic between development and underdevelopment and emigration. The main causes of the migratory movements can be summarized in the following:  Political causes Refer to the causes resulting from political crises that usually occur in certain countries. language. Most of those who migrate do so for economic reasons.  Socio-economic causes They are the fundamental causes in any migration process. try to leave it. especially due to irregular or disguised tourism activities or other migrations.2 Causes of the immigration Migrations constitute a highly complex demographic phenomenon that responds to various causes and very difficult to determine. quantitative data are difficult to obtain. The educational possibilities are very important in deciding migration from one place to another. etc. which are more likely to have small children. just to get out of their situation. In fact. traditions.  Cultural causes The cultural basis of a given population is a very important factor when deciding which country or place is going to migrate. We cannot understand the present migrations if we don't analyze the causes which push these people to immigrate.

parents want a better life for their children than what they had. They do everything possible to offer their best. which is much more common) have caused large displacements of human beings (we could also consider them as forced migration) during all periods. which have resulted in massive displacement of the population. but which have been worse in recent times by the growth of the population and occupation of areas of highest risk of occurrence of such disasters. where any emigrant from some underdeveloped country. there are no jobs or the jobs are poorly paid and are not allowed to maintain the lifestyle they want.  Financial and Better Future Prospects People migrate to gain financial stability and better prospects for the future. can be very destructive in underdeveloped areas with shantytowns and without a major social and economic organization. while others are culturally more advanced and more developed countries. In their country of origin. floods. but the “best” is not good enough. especially in more recent times. Family causes Family ties are also an important factor in the decision to migrate. given the circumstances. work and economic. A low intensity earthquake. fleeing from extermination or the persecution of the country or armies. tsunamis. prolonged drought.  Generalized disasters The effects of large earthquakes. for example. Very often.  War causes and other international conflicts They constitute a real source of forced migrations. 5 . also the economic causes as money. need a lot of help to settle in another country's greater economic development. epidemics and other disasters both natural and social (or a combination of both. cyclones. another earthquake of the same intensity may have almost no negative consequence in terms of the infrastructure of the country and the loss of life.

it is called immigrant. 6 . university. higher wages and a polished lifestyle. Either a first-class university. students can get themselves enrolled in any of them according to their levels of preference. 2. along with the people who already live there. Referring to the hypothesis of the work.  Education Other countries present a huge range of educational opportunities. but if we take two from the most radical positions we could say that integration means:  To assimilate totally the culture of the host country. Obey the laws established.3 The concept of Integration When a person makes a migratory movement from a country to another one. free from prejudice socioeconomic and political. any person could think of immigrating to that country. look for a job.If another country is offering better forecasts. professional institute or whatever. pay taxes. This immigrant arrives at his new host country and start to live in it. That is when immigration is the perfect answer to their concerns. as I have mentioned before. secondary school. making the immigrants to leave their own ancient customs and traditions and focus on learning and interested only in how to live and act in the population of the host country. when trying to discover in what degree the immigrants are integrated in the society of the host country raises a question: What is integration? We could understand integration in many ways and surely there would be probably thousands.  Just to adapt on unnoticed way and “not to disturb” the society where they are living. don’t look for problems and “not to invade” the society that already lives.

1 Internal and external migrations 7 . 3. TYPES OF MIGRATIONS We can classify migrations from two points of view. 3. Everyone who has immigrated. are making an effort to adapt to the new situation in which they are. from the perspective of the country of origin we can distinguish between internal and external migrations. interest and effort.Many times we blame immigrants for their lack of integration.

so I am going to talk about temporary and permanent migration. This happened in Spain in the 1960s and the immigration headed the industrialized areas of the periphery and Madrid. 3. The consequence of this type of immigration is the imbalance in population density . This type of external migration on a voluntary basis has the search for better conditions of life and work as a common feature. Immigration has been placed permanently and peoples have suffered much loss of population. The effects that have caused these migrations has been the concentration of population in urban centers since there has been a shift from the countryside to the city. The other point of view to classify migrations is based on the time in which the migrant is maintained in society of destination.  External migration We find external migrations when the displacement that occurs has as target another country of origin.2 Temporary and permanent migrations  Temporary migration 8 . staying in many cases abandoned or with very ageing population. Internal migration Internal migrations are those that occur in the country of origin. especially young.

An example of this type of the recipient country of immigration was Argentina in the early 20th century. harvest. a large number of Spaniards immigrated to France to perform tasks related to the production of rice and sugar beet..Temporary migrations are being organized in periods of different amplitude. and from 1960 onwards highlights Spanish immigration. These immigrations can occur inside the country or outside. also towards France for the harvest. but they have the characteristic that is returned to the place of origin. 9 . during the months of April and may.  Permanent migration Permanent migrations are characterized because the migrant is maintained permanently in the country of destination. So in 1954. The Spanish language and culture have been very supportive to migrate to Argentina.. Outside the country include seasonal migrations: mowing. These immigrations seasonal are called "golondrina" since it does not remain in the host country rather than the necessary time that lasts the work that immigrants perform and then return to their countries of origin. crops .

It was not until the beginning of the present decade that the foreign population residing in Spain surpassed the number of Spanish living abroad. Thus the foreign population in Spain has. from Latin America. the entrance of low-income country nationals. The change came about.4. especially in the last few years. the history of Spanish immigration is recent. but also population’s origins and distribution around the country.757 foreigners were either registered or had valid residence permits as of 30 th September 2009. especially Africa. in the first place. due to the return of the Spanish population from abroad. and thirdly. it is not only the numbers that are changing. but if 10 . into the Spanish labour market. grown considerably. Yet.710. 4. HISTORY OF THE IMMIGRATION IN SPAIN Considering that Spain has gone from a country of emigration to one of immigration only in the mid-eighties. According to data from the Ministry of Labour and Immigration. initially from Europe and more recently. In the second place comes the arrival of foreigners from Europe. These accounts for around 10% of the total population. Latin America and Eastern Europe. but intense.

580 people.455. All of this leads to another differentiating aspect. The arrival of the foreign population has also had direct consequences on the demographic structure. of which Ecuador is the most important with 441. With regard to sex. associations. For example. with 29% over 54 years of age compared to 5% of non-European Union foreigners.1The Need to Design Integration Policies The consolidation of immigration in Spain and its presence in different spheres. and 20% are from Africa. respectively). residential. Andalusia (13%) and Valencia (13%). followed by Colombia with 288. This demonstrates one of the main characteristics of immigration in Spain.598. with the most numerous group from this continent coming from Morocco with 758. makes it necessary to incorporate integration and design strategies that make it as least 11 . labour. Murcia (5%) and Baleares (4%). 54% compared to 46%. the figures increase to 5. of which Romania is the most important country with 728. population age pyramids also have different profiles. However.691. Insofar as destinations. such as the educational. 30% are from Latin America.we either consider municipal census data. 77% of non-European Union foreigners are. the Spanish female population is slightly larger than the male (51% and 49%. Madrid (20%). The rest of the regions have lower percentages. namely. 67% of immigrants are concentrated in four autonomous regions: Cataluña (21%). whilst the proportion of foreign males to females is larger. Whereas 63% of Spaniards are of work age. The Spanish are older. the proportion of the active population.174 residents. etc. both in the configuration of the family (mixed marriages) and birth rate. 38% of the immigrant population comes from the European Union.. these differences disappear in younger (under 20) groups.255. 4. especially non-European Union. which does not require valid legal documents. Spanish and foreign. its highly concentrated geographic density. with the most important in Canarias (6%). this immigration leads to a change in the composition of the age and sex of the population.

Colombia. and have developed a series of political and administrative instruments for its regulation. Further duties are repatriations agreements (with Nigeria). However. etc. which is in charge of legislating anything affecting the foreign population and immigration phenomenon (such as laws on foreigners and regulations for their application). The largest demand for labour in the construction sector has allowed the absorption of both native workers from other sectors of activity. designing national plans for integration (such as the GRECO Plan.2 Labour Incorporation and the Current Economic Crisis With respect to the relationship between migration data and the Spanish labour market.6%).6% of employment) and industry (10. regulating entries and exits. or the Strategic Plan for Citizenship and Immigration] drafted in 2006). and seeking governmental formulas for access to the Spanish labour market (with Ecuador. designing contingencies and setting labour quotas by sector and region.conflict as possible. according to data from the National Institute of Statistics Survey of the Active Population for the last quarter of 2008: construction (23. have conceived of immigration as a permanent phenomenon. in 2001. accepting or refusing applications for asylum and refugees. agriculture (21. the Dominican Republic. Morocco. and immigrants. signing bilateral agreements with other countries. visas. the dynamic activity that characterizes 12 . and putting the policies or directives designed by European Union into practice in the national territory (under the Schengen agreements. This task falls into the hands of the central government.. In any case.7%). Foreigners are found mainly in four sectors. the situation of foreign workers in the various labour sectors show their incorporation in the secondary market where manual labour is important. Their responsibilities include border control. especially agriculture.2%). the Amsterdam Treaty. and the administrations in power since the early 1990s. some of the most important actions carried out by the Spanish Government has been massive legalization processes. the creation of a Forum for Immigrant Integration. Poland and Romania). the Council of Tampere and others as they are adopted). services (13. The Spanish state. 4.

With regard to the service sector. they are beginning to gain access to this type of employment. 13 . In any case. again there is ethnic discrimination that leads African immigrants. etc. lack of safety and hygiene. etc. and childcare. On one hand. it is the sector in which most native workers are employed. as it leads to a strong division of production and atomization of businesses. it is menial labour requiring little or no qualifications. we need to speak of substitution in this sector. such as supervisors. instead of competition between native and immigrant labour. cleaning. weak contract regulation. Integration of Spanish women on the labour market is bringing about a need to employ immigrant women in the private sector to carry out housework. Are reserved for native laborers. here the immigrants occupy. dependence on investment has direct repercussions on the creation of jobs and on the characteristics required of labour employed such as flexibility. In the end. in spite of the growing importance of tourism and service in the Spanish economy. the most precarious positions. competition can only be related to the wages between legalized and illegal immigrants since these last ones are not generally well paid.. Thus. domestic help. intra and inter-sector mobility. agricultural engineers. and on the other hand. and to care for old people. The heavy specialization of jobs to be done must also be mentioned.. reliable statistics are difficult to find because of the high rates of irregular employment. the proportion of immigrant workers is not very high. the immigrant is a wage earner whereas the more qualified positions. In the hotel and restaurant sector. In fact. once again. in general. In agriculture. etc. which is determined by economic cycles.the construction sector does not translate into stability for the workers. to be employed in agriculture. Therefore. Although it is true that. Eastern Europeans and Latin Americans are acquiring access to this sector faster than Africans. One of the characteristics of the construction sector is its marked instability. and its highly precarious nature. the differences are found among immigrants relating to the individual’s nationality. seasonality and mobility. characterized by being heavily female. should be stressed.

the crisis has also meant a new outlook on the situation of immigrants in Spain. which has been operating since 2003 and was initiated by the Ministry of Labour and Immigration and the International Organization for Migration (IOM). which has caused the existence of two large labour segments. administration. Generally. on enforcement of the laws governing the foreign population.) to unqualified (cleaning. namely workers with stable employment. All of the sectors in Spain in which immigrants are integrated are characterized by a higher frequency to be an employee. or the peculiarities of the market makes them accept jobs that are refused by native workers. A second program was started up in 2008. Furthermore. Spain is going through more difficulties coming out of it than other developed countries. they are employed by an underground economy which. maintenance. the adaptation of the second generation and the success or failure of integration policies are yet to be seen. and the design of policies for their return. their need to work. The heterogeneity of the sector leads to a multiplicity of jobs that range from highly qualified (managers. human resources. It is obvious that immigrants occupy the most changeable. the most being the immigrant population (among whom it has lost around 85% of its membership). is the only way to earn an income either because they cannot find legal employment or because they are not legalized themselves. 14 . the hotel and restaurant subsector is characterized by strong seasonality. to help unemployed foreign workers with the right to collect unemployment payments to return home. etc. kitchen help. which was the main cause of the recession. The construction industry.). for many workers. Several different organizations take part in the first. has led to the loss of the payments of thousands of people into the social security system. The economic future of immigrants in Spain. In the current economic crisis.Moreover. and seasonal workers who depend on the requirements of tourism and are hired either on a contract basis or parttime. It is precisely the immigrants who become the ideal source of labour for an informal economy since their legal situation. etc. coinciding with the economic crisis. precarious and unstable jobs on the Spanish labour market. There are two programs for assisting immigrants to return to their homes with public funding.

They must adapt to their customs. and in any case they must take new customs and ways of life. both by the respective Governments by the inhabitants of the country and even other immigrants already established. The adaptation of 15 . family and country for an uncertain future is a psychologically difficult decision. first labor with a legality in permissions. especially because the vast majority of them tend to be young adults in age of work and contribute to the development of the country or to the objectives set by the Government itself. which is avoid the departure of emigrants. largely created by the respective Government. Those who come in the host country have to be integrated in the new country. the obstacles to the entry of immigrants are much clearer and have multiple facets. but also in the country of origin before the departure of the same.2 In the country of reception In each country. of origin of the immigrant usually exist certain legal problems to emigration. at the same time culturally.5. Only the socket to the impossibility of obtaining a future in their country of origin before the unemployment and lack of economic opportunities. especially if they come from different countries. not only in the country of entry.1 In the country of origin In the country. but on the contrary. the new language when it is different from yours. identification. For immigrants the option to abandon their culture. social security and education. 5. has always presented innumerable obstacles. THE OBSTACLES FOR THE IMMIGRANT Leave a country or place to establish themselves in another has never been an easy undertaking for groups or individuals. 5.

16 . 19‰ 10.68% of population in seven years. can sometimes be rewarding. On the other hand. so those who are determined to leave their countries falling into the hands of people who are dedicated to the mafia. the higher birth rate of the immigrant population is the main cause of the rise in fertility that has occurred in the country.the children. can also be creator of serious conflicts in other cases. growth is higher in this age group and therefore the Spanish population is rejuvenated.880 inhabitants.02% of births registered in Spain were the work of women of foreign nationality. between 1998 and 2005 Spain had grown in 4. Thus.255. CONSEQUENCES OF IMMIGRATION IN SPAIN Migrations affect both territories of origin that lost population and territories of destination. going from a crude birth rate of 9. 51.64% of women in childbearing age residents in Spain.66% of the total population of Spain found in this age group. languages and religions. although the only foreign it is 8. In 2005. This population transfer can be felt in different social and economic aspects of both territories. 15.1 Demographic consequences The most striking consequence of the immigration in Spain has been the increase in the population: thus. against 32. Cultural diversity.91% of foreigners living in Spain has between 20 and 39 years.46% of the Spanish population and 10. 6. In addition. The problems of many immigrants are due to that the State of origin does not give them always needed guidance. 73‰ between 1998 and 2005. as the greater part of the population that immigrates usually has between 25 and 35 years. which represents a growth of 10. The most important are the following: 6. which wins it. The greater part of this figure is due to the massive influx of immigrants during this period.

An important effect is the imbalance of gender since they tend to migrate more men than women. etc. Romans and Arabic in Mediterranean. cultural: The migrations provide the diffusion of different cultures across the world. Historically Migrations have served for the diffusion of technical advances. due to a very large cultural differences. Another consequence would be the disproportionate growth of cities hosting migrants from the rural environment to the population. joined to that the immigration is of varied origin. etc. so at the place of destination is no greater proportion of men and in the origin of women (also the otherwise occurs when women are those who migrate). In the host societies often arise feelings of rejection 17 . 6. religious and linguistic diversity. Social: Lack of integration of the emigrants in the destination. Religion. So therefore in destinations increases birth and decreases mortality. which already do not procreate. can stop guess an integration less problematic than the one produced in other countries of the European Union.02 % proceeds or of Latin America or of other countries of the European continent). Uprooting of the emigrants of the places of Origin. In the case of Spain the majority arrival of immigrants proceeding from cultural or linguistic nearby areas (75. crops. as they did Greeks. as opposed to in the origin. To other parts of the world. as the language. All the effects described in this section to be target of internal migrations are observed in cities.2 Socio-cultural consequences The arrival of immigrants in recent years has generated a greater cultural. due on one hand to the lack of habitual contact.Instead the country of origin age to stay get older population troop. and for other one to an attempt of Integration excessive that makes it loses his signs of identity.

limiting the appearance of inflationary tensions and making small Spanish companies continue their activity. which is 18. Since almost half of the work created in these years has been nourished by foreign workers. In addition.98% for the foreign group. to the point that nearly 45 % of the discharges registered between 2001 and 2005 were corresponded to foreign workers.1 Positive visions The important arrival of immigrant population in age of working has a positive impact in the total of affiliations to Social Security. the low percentage of the dependent population (less than 15 years and more than 65 years. Immigration has contributed to soften the rigidity of this offer. their contribution to the growth of GDP in the five years (3. agriculture. However.1% annual average. in real terms) would have been very significant. The fact that the immigrant population occupies less desirable labor positions for the Spanish population and the fact that it is a young population.3 Economic consequences 6.3. but 30. that is to say. the increase of the labour population has brought an increase in revenue associated with the imposition of work (mainly through social security contributions). etc. 6.83% for the general population) makes to contribute in a clear way to the box of the State more than the national population.).towards the emigrant. a study proceeding from the Ministry of labour and Immigration of Spain indicates that in the last years it has increased the general trend to the rejection of the population born abroad. the increase of the xenophobia. hospitality. household employees. given that the foreign employment has centered principally in sectors where the national labour supply turns out to be scanty (construction. On the other hand. it has 18 .

So. together with revenues from tourism helped balance the negative balance of payments.2 Negative visions Have been raised. in many occasions increase the population at a faster rate than the growth of housing and infrastructure. in which remittances from emigrants. A great advantage for the country of origin is that migrants send part of their salaries in foreign currency. Another effect is the excessive increase of the cities. and hospitality. The real wages of the Spanish population not only have not increased. Indicating that the arrival workers. at the same time the Spanish occupy higher positions in the labour pyramid that young people could have access to more formation that the women can access in greater number to the labor market and in general to that the Spanish welfare state continues stable. with which produces an important income for the economic development of these countries (example of this occurred in the Middle decades of the 20th century in Spain. allegedly not qualified has pulled to low the wages in various sectors of the Spanish economy such as construction. so that newcomers should stay where they can. opinions that argue that immigration has led to distortions in the Spanish labor market. On the other hand. due to the 19 . but they have decreased slightly. Thus.3. also. on the other hand in the source decreases unemployment to leave part of the active population to other places to work. 6. good parts of the works assumed by the immigrants have been created to the heat of the so-called housing bubble: About 30 % of the workers of the construction are foreigners. though the Spanish GDP has grown between 3 % and 4 % between the years 1997 and 2007. emerging areas of slums in urban peripheries (especially in those cities in underdeveloped countries that grow very quickly).allowed that. what immigration would have allowed could be the lowering of the production cycle in the Spanish traditional economy by making it unnecessary to undertake modernization projects and Research and development.

The main negative presumptions assume that:  The phenomenon might have harmed the worse paid workers.investment would not be necessary since it is able to maintain profits by reducing wages. From the perspective of today's meeting.1 Problems and needs of individuals and families The importance that has recently acquired in Spain. for this reason there is a special interest in knowing those raised in other European countries and at different scales. From an individual or household perspective the needs of foreign immigrants are similar to those of the other less privileged groups in the country. or the economic and political organization of the country. the phenomenon of immigration of foreign nationals raises problems hitherto unknown in our country. similar to the nationals living conditions. we can say that the problems encountered by foreign immigrants in Spain have to do with adaptation to the conditions of the labour market and the requirements to have decent. which in Spain has a strong informal sector. the needs of the State or of those related with the local environment where immigrants live and work. If we approach the topic of foreign immigration it implies that we question fundamental aspects of the way of life. 20 . regions and the whole of the State territory. due to an increased supply of workmanship socially undervalued by their labour qualification. Another question is to consider the needs of the economy in general. health and living together. THE POLITICS OF ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN IMMIGRANTS OF SCARCE RESOURCES The problems that foreign immigrants face are related to the adaptation to the conditions of the labor market. education and health care. and also to the access to housing. 7. housing. from rural areas to the metropolitan areas.  The increase of the economic benefits have not been invested in improving the productive cycle within traditional companies. 7. These problems can be easily listed: relate essentially to work. education.

in only four years. and the increase in the price of housing is rampant: has increased 35 percent since 1998. the existence of undocumented immigrants without papers.3 Housing The other big problem is that of access to housing for rent or property. immigrants have to find a job. Problems that may arise are derived of the legal situation and. The growing tendency to offer temporary work. Facilitate access to housing of the popular groups. Which requires the existence of a demand and transparent information on opportunities in the labour market. which they put at the mercy of unscrupulous employers and mafias.e.very little transparency. i. in the case of immigrants. as well as nationals of few resources. in particular. in fact. at least in Spain. The indigenous population has many difficulties in accessing housing. To this must be added. It is important.7. including immigrants who need it. qualify demonstrations that sometimes made about exclusion that are the subject of immigrants on the social policies of access to housing.2 The job First and foremost. 21 . therefore. and the consequences of this on their marginality.1. The market of housing is like the labour one . and the problems of coexistence that this raises. 7. of which I'll discuss later. which is not always given. These popular groups. their cultural practices or their ethnic traits may have other neighbors. have to deal with very often forms of substandard housing. a more general problem.1. the added difficulties arising from the rejection of their behavior. informal work and precarious contracts like domestic and foreign. only one of every 25 homes new construction in Catalonia has official protection. This is. There is currently a policy construction of public housing rent or access to housing for popular groups. which is very expensive. means a policy of construction of social housing or public housing by the State and strong support for social housing built by private initiative. According to a recent study.

establishing procedures for the granting of guarantees by public or private institutions.).. secular and religious education. 22 . 7. progress and bank guarantees by owners is a standard practice which affects all those who intend to rent a flat in major Spanish cities. and especially to young people. which usually means a public school resources and quality.. That is why requests from associations of immigrants to receive public aid to rent flats are legitimate. programs. It is joined by a large number of empty houses in various situations (ruinous in expectation for the children as an investment. we can imagine putting up programs well structured and equipped. friends and mafias in the information on access to housing. A right to such housing tax would certainly stimulate release to the market. This does not exist in Spain.1. for use of second homes or rental during the summer. It is also possible to imagine putting up utilities reception and orientation of the immigrants. beyond voluntarism of NGOs and social organizations. The problems faced by immigrants to rent flats are large. reports.4 Education With regard to the education of children. payrolls. In particular. both in the case of access to rental housing for the obtaining of mortgage loans for the purchase. with figures higher in all other European countries. the problems are also similar to those presented to the children of all classes. There is a school needed that is effective and educated for coexistence. and no doubt they aggravate when the candidate is an undocumented immigrant or non-regularized. for example. Contracts of employment. so arriving they depend not only relatives.The problem is especially large in Spain because the proportion of rental housing is the lowest in Europe: only 14 per cent is for rent and only 2 per cent may be considered social rental. Some accompaniment to facilitate access to housing is needed.

If high school drop-out figures that exist in the Spanish education system have been repeatedly denounced for years. Anyway. This 23 . The so-called street children have always existed in large cities. but with the corresponding pedagogical strengthening education. Immigrant women are more numerous and can come from cultural fields that are in a situation of inferiority or segregation. The question of prostitution and sexual exploitation or domestic violence is issues that can arise for all women without distinction. Specific problems may also exist with regard to immigrant women and children. unacceptable for our legal system and our customs. it is necessary to add that the immigrant’s children may require an additional educational effort for the problems of language or of the familiar cultural environment. There may be an additional problem. and don't need special treatment different from the general legal framework. which sometimes can arouse the envy and the rejection of dysfunctional Spanish families and children who fail in their studies.Said that. problems only arise when they arrive without family. which requires an additional strength and activities reinforcement. All the other problems you can imagine (content of the programs of study and text books) are similar to those raised for the general education system. we can imagine that the situation can be much more serious for children of foreign immigrants with adaptation and language problems. It comes to immigrant children. In this sense migration is often a possibility of liberalization of women since it gives it an important role in the strategies of family resources. are also referred to many cases of families of immigrants very structured and with desire to succeed that make a substantial and successful effort for the education of children. These issues must be resolved in the framework of general of adults. It is necessary to ensure equal opportunities. which refers to the adult education for a better adaptation to the new medium of reception (particularly the language).

are inevitably destined to live years and months in jail or prison. walking Street . living without occupation. without family.5 Health Foreign immigrants should have the right to health care under the same conditions as the Spaniards. sleeping in the open. to be arrested for similar offences.) is remarkable the number of boys completely abandoned by their families. 7. sometimes hours. in the Dungeon they spend a day or two.problem can now relate to the existence of dysfunctional families or who they shamelessly exploit children. They have to study carefully the measures to take. It may be significant to have a historical perspective text on this problem: In a populated city (. generally are conducted often to the Town Hall. their physical and moral misery. and all these creatures by his abandonment it’s kind of life. but those who do not can be processed because the facts of takes charge or have importance or have not been provided in the criminal and last code already the period of detention pure and essentially administrative (though in the illegal Fund) there is no other resource that put them at liberty to return a few days. or below the boats of the pier. Special problem raised certainly illegal immigrants. Another thing is the subject of children arriving alone. But it is similar to which has been able to in the past. 24 . foundlings in large part. in the porches seats. and I think that in this regard will be very interesting experience and solutions to other European countries.. as well as thinking about the necessary equipment for your attention. at the tables of the markets. and with the possibility to join mutual private sanitary.. Under them there policies of reception and repatriation.1. Equal footing means subject to the same general system of Social security contributions.

When i started the work i didn’t have any idea from where to start from. migration) presents new and serious health problems. The increasing mobility of the population (tourism. is a new situation to which the health system is not sufficiently prepared. but for the mass of influx of immigrants. business. which will require an in-depth reform of our health system. Although Immigration has been a problem for the Spanish host society. The dissemination of tropical infectious diseases and the "return of epidemics". because the subject of immigration attracted me from the very beginning and i intended to discover more details on this subject: how do immigrants feel in our society. 8.. etc. But finally when I started searching for information about immigration a lot of idea came in to my head. which or what are the difficulties do they have in the society. I know understand more about the situation of the immigrants in our society. and I think I have learned many things. are they welcome. CONCLUSION At the time of doing the job I learned a lot about Immigration. Immigration is a large topic. Most of the local workers are complaining about immigrants because they are removing them from their job. and the problem is that if we drove the immigrants out of our society. which has been given since the beginning of humanity. Not because it is problematic to receive immigrants in our country. are they integrated in our society. and that the causes and consequences have changed considerably with the passage of time. it refers to health care.One thing is clear however. how is the country economic going to grow? Because i 25 .

Universidad de Barcelona. I think what i have proposed to do from this work.htm Wikipedia.the free enciclopedia( on 8 january 2013).wikipedia. the only problem i had is to organize the information so that people will understand what i am talking about and also the introduction and conclusion and bibliography because i didn’t remembered all that i had search for. vol.org/wiki/Inmigración 26 .htm ScriptaNova.edu/geocrit/sn-81. Scripta Nova. Disponible en internet:http://www.ub. Universidad de Barcelona. H. BIBLIOGRAPHY WEB CAPEL. the free enciclopedia( on 8 january 2013).Disponible en internet: http://www.es/geocrit/sn/sn-117. in general i didn’t have any problem in doing the work. i have got it. The free encyclopedia [ consulted: 15 december of 2011]Available on the internet: http://es.learned that the immigrant do hard jobs that the local workers does not do. The free encyclopedia [ consulted: 15 december of 2011] Available on the internet:http://es. 9. [ISSN1138-9788] Nº 81. Revista Electrónica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales.org/wiki/Inmigraci %C3%B3n_irregular Wikipedia.wikipedia. but on the other hand they are not forced to do the job they voluntary do it.ub. 117. núm. VI. [Consultado: 1 de febrero de 2001].[Consultado: 1 de julio de 2002]. Las políticas de atención a las necesidades de los inmigrantes extranjeros de escasos recursos.[ISSN: 1138-9788]. Revista electrónica de geografía y ciencias sociales. in some cases they are forced to do the job. because they have to feed their family.

España: Editorial delLaberinto. Pag 24-26.pntic.num.es/ibus0001/poblacion/Movimientos_migratorios. Francisco (2009). Marta (2003). . http://www.migrationeducation. 27 .html This page compiles information related to the topic of migration movement. 1ª ed. ARTICLES CASAS.Col·leccióFinestraOberta. S.V.mec. BOOKS GARCÍACALABRÉS.org Is a powerful.L. També Catalans: Fills i filles de famíliesimmigrades. which provides free online access to learning resources on migration. Fundació Jaume Bofill. 38:Pag 16-18.http://ficus. minorities and human rights in European Citizenship Education on a european and national level.Inmigrantes en España: Claves para comprender un fenómeno mundial. user-friendly information platform developed by Network Migration in Europe e.

ANNEXES REPLIES OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES TO THE IMMIGRANTS OF THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF (CAMPOCLARO AND TORREFORTA) Question 1: Nationalities 5% 5% 5% 5% 35% Nigeria 5% 40% Morroco Ghana Russia Moldova Chile Equador 28 .10.

are Nigerians and Moroccans in largest number of people.Among those questioned. as the graphic shows. Question 2: Age 16 years 5% 10% 5%5% 5% 5% 20% 17 years 18 years 19 years 45% 20 years 34 years 42 years 52 years As you can see in this graph i tried to make the questions to people of all age groups and both sexes. so male as female and has come out the following. were a total of 7 different nationalities. among which the most representative. 29 .

The third is for a better job opportunities hence higher income more than it would have been in the country they are moving from. The second is Family reasons. Question 4: Would you like to go back to your country or you would like to stay here ? 30 . The first is Economical reasons which have always been among the main reasons for migration.Question 3: What is the reason that made you to migrate to Spain? 20% 5% Better job 35% 15% Economic Family 25% Estudies Other In this graph we can see that it is not just one single reason that make people migrate. other says for personal reasons. Lastly. they move to the new country to join their family already there. there are many reasons which makes people leave their homes and move to other places. they will be able to provide for their families. The fourth is for a better education for themselves and their children. with the increase of money being achieved.

and discrimination. In contrast. document. The second problem they face is racism from the people in the host country. Question 5: What was the main problem when you came to Spain? 10% Housing 15% 5% 5% 10% language 55% Racism Documentation Other None One of the obstacles that the majority of immigrants may face in the local population is the language on the part of 55% of the immigrants questioned. they would like to return to their country. though they miss home. Question 6: Did you have any problem of adaptation when arriving here? 31 . they have such a thick accent that it can make it difficult for locals to understand them. 15% of the immigrants have answered that they have no interest in returning.15% 5% yes No 80% Other In the graph it is clear that the totality of the immigrant questioned which is 80% says. some of them find it very difficult to speak the local language maybe because. Why other problems are housing. but just for a visit and not to stay and live here forever.

but not fully.20% 40% 40% Yes No Other In this result we find a great equality between immigrants adapted and not adapted to our country. 40% of the immigrants interviewed claim that they are fully adapted to the way of life of the local population. But the other 40% says they do not feel adapted and the remaining 20% says they feel a bit adapted. Question 7: Have you had any problems with the local people for being from another country? 32 .

Question 8: Do you feel integrated in our society? 5% 10% Yes 86% No Not at all As for the desire that the immigrants have to integrate we can say that most of the immigrants are well integrated to our society. sense of social rejection. 33 .40% Racismo Yes No Let me explain what I wanted to express in this question. With if they felt discriminated or not. 60% of the surveyed have felt that way in many cases. i want to refer if they have been treated differently because they are foreigners. for examples bad looking. etc.

The great majority of the immigrants questioned have sometime felt discriminated. In the first place i have realized that. although the foreign population has grown very much in the recent years. family. friends. The result of the questionnaires says that we are before a racist and discriminatory society. but also have also been insulted by the native population. one to come to a country where the language is unknown. I wonder if it really worth to leave a country. where they don’t know the type of job they may find. Secondly. 34 . although we must bear in mind that the studied sample is small. these neighborhoods are not a good host society. The most interesting thing is that the majority of immigrants are well integrated in the society. I found that the great majority did not regret of coming to Spain. although they would like to go back to their country for a visit.CONCLUTION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES In conclusion of the questionnaires that I have made to the immigrant people living in the neighborhoods of Campoclaro and Torreforta I had to write the questions in english and spanish for some people that doesn’t understand english.

this questionnaires as really makes me understand the situation and the obstacles most of the immigrants face when arriving in another country.Finally. 35 .