# Transformer Protection Tutorial

Application 4
Calculate the CT requirements for the system shown below. The equivalent
sources 1 and 2 represent the system under maximum generation. Through faults
1 and 2 should considered to determine the highest knee point voltage. For
simplicity, only consider three phase and single phase faults. Consider that RL =
2Ω, RCT1 =0.4Ω, RCT2 = 0.8Ω and In = 1A. Assume that the CT dimensioning
factor is as given below:
System
conditions

K
(CT dimensioning factor)

Knee point voltage

In < IF ≤ 40In
5 ≤ X/R ≤ 20

K = 20

VK ≥ 20 × In × (RCT + 2RL + Rr)(1)
VK ≥ 20 × In × (RCT + RL + Rr)(2)

40In < IF ≤ 64In
5 ≤ X/R ≤ 20

K = 30

VK ≥ 30 × In × (RCT + 2RL + Rr)(1)
VK ≥ 30 × In × (RCT + RL + Rr)(2)

In < IF ≤ 40In
20 < X/R ≤ 120

K = 30

VK ≥ 30 × In × (RCT + 2RL + Rr)(1)
VK ≥ 30 × In × (RCT + RL + Rr)(2)

40In < IF ≤ 64In
20 < X/R ≤ 120

K = 40

VK ≥ 40 × In × (RCT + 2RL + Rr)(1)
VK ≥ 40 × In × (RCT + RL + Rr)(2)

Where:
K

= CT dimensioning factor

IF

= maximum external fault current

X/R = primary system X/R ratio
In

= Relay rated current

Rr = resistance of any other protective relays sharing the current transformer
(Ω)
(1)

= single phase fault or phase-phase-ground fault

(2)

= three phase fault or phase-phase fault

To ensure that through fault stability is achieved the following ratios:
Vk-HV / Rtot-HV : Vk-LV / Rtot-LV
Vk-HV / Rtot-HV : Vk-TV / Rtot-TV
Vk-LV / Rtot-LV : Vk-TV / Rtot-TV

should not exceed a maximum disparity of 4:1. This ensures that during a through fault condition the flux density in the current transformers is not greatly different. Where: Vk-HV = Knee point voltage of CT at HV side Rtot-HV = Total burden connected to CT at HV side = (RCT + 2Rl + Rr) or (RCT + Rl + Rr) Vk-LV = Knee point voltage of CT at LV side Rtot-LV = Total burden connected to CT at LV side = (RCT+ 2Rl + Rr) or (RCT + Rl + Rr) Vk-TV = Knee point voltage of CT at TV side Rtot-TV = Total burden connected to CT at TV side = (RCT+ 2Rl + Rr) or (RCT + Rl + Rr) .

Solution – Application 4 Through Fault 1 – Single Phase Fault: Through Fault 1 is an A phase to ground fault. . The current flowing through CT1 and CT2 has been calculated as well as X/R considering source 2 and the transformer impedance. The sequence network is shown below. For a detailed calculation of the currents refer to application 3.

The currents flowing through CT1 and CT2 are calculated as follows: .

89 × 240 × 10 6 3 × 132 × 10 3 = 1984 Aprim 1984 = 1.2∠ − 88.5 o = 7.1∠ − 88. The equivalent system X/R is determined as follows: V A = V0 + V1 + V 2 = 1∠0 o pu I A = I 0 + I 1 + I 2 = 5.5 o = 1.2∠ − 88.5 o = 1.5∠ − 88.8 o pu Ic = I 0 + a × I 1 + a 2 × I 2 Ib = 0.71∠92.7 o ⇒ = tan(88.89∠ − 89.8 o + 1∠240 o × 1.5∠88.1∠ − 88.2∠ − 88.2∠ − 88.2∠ − 88.5 o = 7.2∠ − 88.8 o + 1.65 A sec 1200 Ib = I 0 + a 2 × I 1 + a × I 2 ⇒ Ib = 0.7 o pu ⇒ 1.5∠ − 88.9∠ − 88.8 o + 1∠120 o × 1.2∠ − 88.2∠ − 88.5 o + 1∠240 o × 1.133∠88.2∠ − 88.51∠95.7 R .5 o + 1.9 o pu Ic = I 0 + a × I 1 + a 2 × I 2 Ib = 5.8 o + 1.5 o = 3.7 o pu ⇒ 7 .51∠95.5 o = 3.Ia  1    Ib =  1 Ic   1  1 2 a a 1  I0     a  ×  I1  a 2  I2   Current flowing through CT1: Ia = I 0 + I 1 + I 2 = 5.5 o = 1.5 o + 1.9∠ − 88.3 A sec 600 Ib = I 0 + a 2 × I 1 + a × I 2 ⇒ Ib = 5.2∠ − 88.71∠92.9 o + 1∠240 o × 1.5 o + 1∠120 o × 1.2∠ − 88.9 o pu Current flowing through CT2: Ia = I 0 + I 1 + I 2 = 0.5 o + 1∠120 o × 1.7 o VA 1∠0 o X Z= = = 0.2∠ − 88.5 × 240 × 10 6 3 × 275 × 10 3 = 3779 Aprim 3779 = 6.7) = 44 o I A 7.5 o + 1∠240 o × 1.1∠ − 88.8 o pu Equivalent X/R: The equivalent system responsible for the current flowing through CT1 and CT2 consists of source 2 and the autotransformer impedance.51∠95.2∠ − 88.5 o + 1.1∠ − 88.9 o + 1.2∠ − 88.9 o + 1∠120 o × 1.

Through Fault 2 – Single Phase Fault: Through Fault 2 sequence network is shown below. . The current flowing through CT1 and CT2 is calculated as well as X/R considering source 1 and the transformer impedance.

The currents flowing through CT1 and CT2 are calculated as follows:  Ia   1  Ib  =  1     Ic   1 1 2 a a 1  I 0   a  ×  I 1  a 2   I 2  Current flowing through CT1: .

9 o + 1.9 o = 2.88∠ − 89.98∠ − 91o pu ⇒ 2.88∠ − 89.4 o pu Current flowing through CT2: Ia = I 0 + I 1 + I 2 = 5.88∠ − 89.88∠ − 89.2 o + 1∠240 o × 1.16∠ − 87.8 A sec 1200 Ib = I 0 + a 2 × I 1 + a × I 2 ⇒ Ib = 5.3 R .7 o pu Ic = I 0 + a × I 1 + a 2 × I 2 Ib = 5.78∠94.9 o + 1.28∠85.6 o + 1∠120 o × 1.88∠ − 89.92∠ − 88.Ia = I 0 + I 1 + I 2 = 0.6 o + 1∠240 o × 1.9 o = 3.98 × 240 × 10 6 3 × 275 × 10 3 = 1502 Aprim 1502 = 2.9 o = 2.3 o pu ⇒ 8 .9 × 240 × 10 6 3 × 132 × 10 3 = 9343 Aprim 9343 = 7.9 o + 1∠240 o × 1.9 o + 1.9 o = 3.9∠ − 88.88∠ − 89.6 o + 1.16∠ − 87.16∠ − 87.9 o = 8.2 o + 1∠120 o × 1.2 o + 1.7 o pu Equivalent X/R: The equivalent system responsible for the current flowing through CT1 and CT2 consists of source 1 and the autotransformer impedance.78∠94.112∠88.88∠ − 89.88∠ − 89.9 o + 1∠120 o × 1.88∠ − 89.78∠94.4 o pu Ic = I 0 + a × I 1 + a 2 × I 2 Ib = 0.66∠91.88∠ − 89. The equivalent system X/R can be determined as follows: V A = V0 + V1 + V 2 = 1∠0 o pu I A = I 0 + I 1 + I 2 = 1.9 o + 1∠120 o × 1.88∠ − 89.2 o = 8.9 o + 5.88∠ − 89.3) = 34 o I A 8.92∠ − 88.88∠ − 89.5 A sec 600 Ib = I 0 + a 2 × I 1 + a × I 2 ⇒ Ib = 0.9 o + 1∠240 o × 1.28∠ − 85.9 o = 2.88∠ − 89.3 o ⇒ = tan(88.3 o Z= VA 1∠0 o X = = 0.66∠91.16∠ − 87.

9 A sec 1200 = 3443 Aprim . Current flowing through CT1: I = 3.28 × ⇒ 240 × 10 6 3 × 275 × 10 3 = 1653 Aprim 1653 = 2.1o pu ⇒ 3.28∠ − 88.Through Fault 1 – Three Phase Fault: The three-phase through fault 1 sequence network is shown below.28∠ − 88.75 A sec 600 Current flowing through CT2: I = 3.28 × ⇒ 240 × 10 6 3 × 132 × 10 3 3443 = 2. The current flowing through CT1 and CT2 is calculated as well as the X/R considering source 2 and the transformer impedance.1o pu ⇒ 3.

The current flowing through CT1 and CT2 must be calculated as well as the X/R considering source 1 and the transformer impedance.29 -j 0.024 TV HV CT1 LV j 0.42 4.Equivalent X/R: The system equivalent X/R is determined as follows: V = 1∠0 o pu I = 3.1) = 30 o I 3.29 × ⇒ 240 × 10 6 3 × 132 × 10 3 = 4503 Aprim 4503 = 3.134 j 0.30∠88.7 10.6 A sec 600 Current flowing through CT2: I = 4.75 A sec 1200 Equivalent X/R: The equivalent system X/R can be determined as follows: 0.29 × ⇒ 240 × 10 6 3 × 275 × 10 3 = 2162 Aprim 2162 = 3.29∠ − 89.4 o pu ⇒ 4.024 14.1o ⇒ = tan(88.1o Z= V 1∠0 o X = = 0.4 o pu ⇒ 4.1 R Through Fault 2 – Three Phase Fault: The three-phase through fault 2 sequence network is shown in Error! Reference source not found.096 ..28∠ − 88.28∠ − 88.075 CT2 Current flowing through CT1: I = 4.29∠ − 89. 1 1 0.

8Ω.4 R The results have been summarized as follows: Through Fault Through Fault Through Fault Through Fault Single Phase Single Phase Three Phase Three Phase X/R 44 34 30 95 CT1 6.4Ω and RCT2 = 0.29∠ − 89.29∠ − 89.5 A sec 2. The maximum disparity ratio allowed is 4:1. Consider that RL = 2Ω and RCT1 =0.4 o ⇒ = tan(89. CT1 requires a minimum knee point voltage of 132V and CT2 a minimum knee point voltage of 144V.V = 1∠0 o pu I = 4.6 A sec CT2 1.3 A sec 2.8 A sec 2. then Vk-HV / Rtot-HV : Vk-LV / Rtot-LV should not exceed 4:1.4) = 95 o I 4. If CT1 and CT2 have 132V and 144V knee point voltages respectively.23∠89.65 A sec 7.9 A sec 3. The operating conditions to be determined by the Utility.4 o V 1∠0 o X Z= = = 0. Only one system operating condition was studied.75 A sec According to these results the minimum K factor required is 30 and the CT knee point voltage must comply with VK ≥ 30 × In × (RCT + 2RL + Rr) for single phase faults and VK ≥ 30 × In × (RCT + RL + Rr) for three phase faults. then the knee point voltages are as follows: Through Fault Through Fault Through Fault Through Fault Single Phase Single Phase Three Phase Three Phase CT1 132V 132V 72V 72V CT2 144V 144V 84V 84V Therefore.75 A sec 3. then the disparity ratio is 1:1. . Note that the different system operating conditions must be analysed and the highest knee point voltage must be considered.