Chapter IV - All about Muscles

Joint, Muscle, Tendon & Ligament

Structural classification

Structurally, joints are classified as:


Synovial - there is a space (synovial cavity) between the articulating bones.

Cartilaginous - bones are connected by cartilage.

Bones are connected by fibrous connective tissue.
Fibrous joints
In fibrous joints bones are joined by tight and inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, consisting mainly of
collagen fibers. In adults, these are not designed to allow any movement; however, in children, fibrous joints have
not solidified and are movable. Examples of fibrous joints are:

Cranial sutures
Gomphoses, the joints between the roots of the teeth and their sockets (or alveoli) in maxilla and

Joining the bones of the cranium.
Cartilaginous joints
In cartilaginous joints (also known as synchondroses) bones are connected entirely by cartilage. In comparison to
synovial joints, cartilaginous joints allow only slight movement. Examples of cartilaginous joints are the pubic
symphysis, the joints between the ribs and the sternum, and the cartilage connecting the growth regions of
immature long bones. Another example is in the spinal column - the cartilaginous region between adjacent
Synovial joints
The term "Synovial joint" and "Diarthrosis joint" are often used interchangeably, although the first term refers to
the structure and the second one to the function. For more details, see "Diarthrosis joints" below.
Functional classification
Functionally, they can be classified as:

Synarthrosis - permit no movement.
Amphiarthrosis - permit little movement.

Hinge joints. Some classifications make a distinction between condyloid and ellipsoid joints. and generate heat. It cannot get tired and is "involuntary". A condyloid joint is where two bones fit together with an odd shape (e. such as in the carpals of the wrist. which nourishes and lubricates the articular cartilage. Flexion. Only synovial joints are diarthrosis. which controls the movement they allow:   Gliding joints. Diarthrosis . help in movement. Is a specialized kind of muscle found only within the heart. but not much distance. connective tissue and nervous tissue. These joints act like a door hinge. . an ellipse). as well as to move substances within the body. such as the elbow (between the radius and the ulna).g. smooth muscle has neither. throat and blood vessels. Cardiac and skeletal muscle are "striated" in that they contain sarcomeres and are packed into highly regular arrangements of bundles. Muscle contraction is used to move parts of the body. pronation). Muscles Muscles are needed to maintain the posture.  Saddle joints. Synovial Membrane The synovium is a membrane that covers all the non-cartilaginous surfaces within the articular capsule. The synovium is separated from the capsule by a layer of cellular tissue that contains blood vessels and nerves. which resemble a saddle. permit the same movements as the condyloid joints. such as the hip joint. These allow a wide arrange of movement. such as at the thumb (between the metacarpal and carpal).g. or "involuntary muscle" is found within structures such as the intestines. and one bone is concave. Muscle is a contractile form of tissue. Saddle joints.  Condyloid (ellipsoid) joints. When the knee is extended there is no rotation. such as the elbow (between the humerus and the ulna). Synovial joints can be further grouped by their shape.  Pivot joints. when it is flexed some rotation is possible. the other three being epithelium. It gets tired.permit a variety of movements (e. This is where one bone rotates about another. It secretes synovial fluid into the joint. such as the knee. These joints allow a wide variety of movement. There are three general types of muscle:   Cardiac muscle  Smooth muscle Skeletal muscle or "voluntary muscle" is anchored by tendons to bone and is used to affect skeletal movement such as locomotion. the other convex. adduction. It is one of the four major tissue types. allowing flexion and extension in just one plane. It does not fatigue.  Ball and socket joints.

It leads to progressive loss of strength. Disease Symptoms of muscle disease may include weakness or spasticity/rigidity.  Muscular dystrophy is a large group of diseases. which is lined by epimysium. Collagen fibers from within the muscle organ are continuous with those of the tendon. . Myasthenia gravis Inflammatory muscle disorders:   Polymyalgia rheumatica  Rhabdomyolysis is the breakdown of muscular tissue due to any cause. The origin of a tendon is where it joins to a muscle. Polymyositis. Individual muscle cells are lined with endomysium. Muscle cells are bound together by perimysium into bundles called fascicles. type-I collagen and cells called tenocytes. Tendon A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone. myoclonus (twitching) and myalgia (muscle pain). Some muscle diseases are:   Neuromuscular diseases are those that affect the muscles and/or their nervous control.  Tetanus and botulism are bacterial infections in which bacterial toxins cause increased or decreased muscle tone. They are similar to ligaments except that join one bone to another. Within the cells are myofibrils. which are composed of actin and myosin. A tendon inserts into bone at an enthesis where the collagen fibers are mineralized and integrated into bone tissue. Diagnostic procedures that may reveal muscular disorders include testing creatine kinase levels in the blood and electromyography (measuring electrical activity in muscles). There are approximately 650 skeletal muscles in the human body. Tendons are composed mainly of water. rather than its nervous control.Anatomy Muscle is composed of muscle cells (sometimes known as "muscle fibers"). the bundles are then grouped together to form muscle. where the muscle integrity is disrupted. While it may not lead to any muscular symptoms at all. myofibrils contain sarcomeres. the myoglobin thus released may cause acute renal failure. Muscle spindles are distributed throughout the muscles and provide feedback sensory information to the central nervous system. respectively. high dependence and decreased life span.  The myopathies are all diseases affecting the muscle itself. many of them hereditary. dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis are autoimmune conditions in which the muscle is affected.

) Some ligaments limit the mobility of articulations.Tendonitis The Achilles tendon is a particularly large tendon connecting the heel to the muscles of the calf. Ligaments connect bones to other bones to form a joint. Ligaments are slightly elastic. they gradually lengthen. Extra-capsular ligaments join bones together and provide joint stability. under tension.Ligament A ligament is a short band of tough fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long. Capsular ligaments are part of the articular capsule that surrounds synovial joints. (They do not connect muscles to bones. List of major ligaments Knee   Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)  Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)  Medial collateral ligament (MCL) Lateral collateral ligament (LCL) Wrist   Volar radiocarpal ligament  Ulnar collateral ligament  Radial collateral ligament Dorsal radiocarpal ligament Other   Periodontal ligament  Cricothyroid ligament Suspensory ligament . The study of ligaments is called desmology. refers to swelling of a tendon. They act as mechanical reinforcements. stringy collagen fibers. It is so named because the mythic hero Achilles was said to have been killed due to an injury at this spot. Sinew Was also widely used in the medieval times as a form of ancient elastic. or prevent certain movements altogether. that is the function of tendons.

.A joint (articulation) is the location at which two bones make contact (articulate). Joints are constructed to both allow movement and provide mechanical support.